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Dr.

Atif Shahzad
_____________________
BE, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, TAXILA, PAKISTAN, 2000

MCS, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING


SZABIST,, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN, 2003

MS, AUTOMATION & PRODUCTION SYSTEMS


ECOLE CENTRALE DE NANTES, NANTES, FRANCE, 2007

PhD, AUTOMATION & APPLIED INFORMATICS


UNIVERSITE DE NANTES, NANTES, FRANCE, 2011

EMAIL: atifshahzad@Gmail.com

TEL: +92-333-5219846, +92-51-5179755

LINKEDIN: pk.linkedin.com/in/dratifshahzad
PROJECT
MANAGEMENT
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OBJECTIVES
 Learn what project management is and the qualities of an effective
project manager.
 Understand the nine knowledge areas of project management and
how they can be applied to your project.
 Discover the phases of a project and what deliverables are expected
when.
 Identify a project’s key stakeholders.
 Understand the different types of business cases and how to create a
Statement of Work.
 Learn to be prepared for the unexpected by utilizing risk
management and change control.
 Learn how to organize project activities by creating a Work
Breakdown Structure.
Dr. Atif Shahzad

 Create a network diagram to track your project’s progress.


 Learn budgeting and estimating techniques.
PROJECT
MANAGEMENT
TODAY’S LECTURE
Focus
¤ Managing versus Leading a Project
¤ Managing Project Stakeholders
¤ Influence as Exchange
¤ Social Network Building
¤ Ethics and Project Management
¤ Building Trust: The Key to Exercising Influence
¤ Qualities of an Effective Project Manager
Dr. Atif Shahzad
Managing versus Leading a Project

COMPLEXITY
CHANGE
Dr. Atif Shahzad

10–8
Managing versus Leading a Project
 Managing—coping with  Leading—coping with
COMPLEXITY CHANGE
¤ Formulate plans and objectives ¤ Recognize the need to change to
¤ Monitor results keep the project on track

¤ Take corrective action ¤ Initiate change

¤ Expedite activities ¤ Provide direction and motivation

¤ Solve technical problems ¤ Innovate and adapt as necessary

¤ Serve as peacemaker ¤ Integrate assigned resources

¤ Make tradeoffs among time, costs,


and project scope
Dr. Atif Shahzad

10–9
Leader or Manager
¤ Strong leadership is NOT ALWAYS required
 When is it not required?

¤ thehigher the degree of uncertainty encountered on a


project—the more leadership is required.
 In scope, time, cost and even in strategy

¤ Dual role ?
 Visionary people generally lack the discipline or patience

¤ Strong Leader
 Can have assisted managers but not vice versa.
Dr. Atif Shahzad
New Project Managers
¤ Eager to implement their own ideas when is it not
required?
¤ they adopt a hands-on approach
 They become quickly frustrated by how slowly things operate
 quickly earn the reputation of “micro managing” and begin to lose sight of
the real role they play on guiding a project.
¤ Some new managers never break out of this vicious
cycle.
Dr. Atif Shahzad
Managing Project Stakeholders
10–12

 Project Management Maxims:


¤ You can’t do it all and get it all done
 Projects usually involve a vast web of relationships.

¤ Hands-on work is not the same as leading.


 More pressure and more involvement can reduce your effectiveness as a leader.

¤ What’s important to you likely isn’t as important


to someone else
 Different groups have different stakes (responsibilities, agendas, and priorities) in the
outcome of a project.

¤ Remember: project management is tough, exciting, and


rewarding—endeavor to persevere.
Dr. Atif Shahzad
Network of Stakeholders
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FIGURE 10.1
Influence as Exchange
10–14

 The Law of Reciprocity


¤ One good deed deserves another, and likewise, one
bad deed deserves another.
 Quid pro Quo
¤ Mutual exchanges of resources and services (“back-
scratching”) build relationships.
 Influence “Currencies” (Cohen and Bradford)
¤ Cooperative relationships are built on the exchange
of organizational “currencies” (favors).
Dr. Atif Shahzad
You scratch my back,
I’ll scratch yours.
Dr. Atif Shahzad
Commonly Traded Organizational
Currencies
10–16

Task-related currencies
Resources Lending or giving money, budget increases, personnel, etc.
Assistance Helping with existing projects or undertaking unwanted tasks.
Cooperation Giving task support, providing quicker response time, or
aiding implementation.
Information Providing organizational as well as technical knowledge.
Position-related currencies
Advancement Giving a task or assignment that can result in promotion.
Recognition Acknowledging effort, accomplishments, or abilities.
Visibility Providing a chance to be known by higher-ups or significant
others in the organization.
Network/ Providing opportunities for linking with others.
contacts
Dr. Atif Shahzad

Source: Adapted from A. R. Cohen and David L. Bradford, Influence without Authority
(New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1990). Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Organizational Currencies (cont’d)
10–17

Inspiration-related currencies
Vision Being involved in a task that has larger significance
for the unit, organization, customer, or society.
Excellence Having a chance to do important things really well.
Ethical correctness Doing what is “right” by a higher standard than efficiency.
Relationship-related currencies
Acceptance Providing closeness and friendship.
Personal support Giving personal and emotional backing.
Understanding Listening to others’ concerns and issues.
Personal-related currencies
Challenge/learning Sharing tasks that increase skills and abilities.
Ownership/involvement Letting others have ownership and influence.
Gratitude Expressing appreciation.
Dr. Atif Shahzad

Source: Adapted from A. R. Cohen and David L. Bradford, Influence without Authority TABLE 10.1 (cont’d)
(New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1990). Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
First
thank you
is likely to be more valued
than the twentieth
Management by Wandering Around
10–21

 Management by Wandering Around (MBWA)


¤ Involves managers spending the majority of their time in
face-to-face interactions with employees building
cooperative relationships.
 Characteristics of Effective Project Managers
¤ Initiate contact with key players.

¤ Anticipate potential problems.

¤ Provide encouragement.

¤ Reinforce the objectives and vision of the project.


Dr. Atif Shahzad

¤ Intervene to resolve conflicts and prevent stalemates.


Manage Expectations
10–22

 Recognize that it is only human nature to interpret a situation in one’s best interest.
For example, if you tell someone it will be done by January, you are inclined to
interpret it to your advantage and assume you have to the end of January, while
the other person believes it will be done January.
 Seize every opportunity to realign expectations with reality. Too often we
avoid opportunities to adjust expectations because we hold onto a false hope
that things will somehow work out.
 Do not ask for stakeholder suggestions for improvement if you do not
intend to do something with their input. Asking for their input raises expectations.
 State the obvious. What is obvious to you may be obscure to others.
 Don’t avoid delivering bad news. Communicate openly and in person.
Expect some anger and frustration. Do not get defensive in return. Be prepared
Dr. Atif Shahzad

to explain the impact of the problems.


Managing Upward Relations
10–23

 Project Success = Top Management Support


¤ Appropriate budgets
¤ Responsiveness to unexpected needs
¤A clear signal to the organization
of the importance of cooperation
 Motivating the Project Team
¤ Influence top management in favor of the team:
 Rescind unreasonable demands
Dr. Atif Shahzad

 Provide additional resources


 Recognize the accomplishments of team members
The Significance of a Project
Sponsor
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FIGURE 10.3
Leading by Example
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FIGURE 10.4
Ethics and Project Management
10–27

 Ethical Dilemmas
¤ Situations
where it is difficult to determine
whether conduct is right or wrong:
 Padding of cost and time estimations
 Exaggerating pay-offs of project proposals
 Falsely assuring customers that everything is on track
 Being pressured to alter status reports
 Falsifying cost accounts
 Compromising safety standards to accelerate progress
 Approving shoddy work

¤ Code of conduct
Dr. Atif Shahzad

 Professional standards and personal integrity


Contradictions of Project
Management
10–28

 Innovate and maintain stability.


 See the big picture while getting
your hands dirty.
 Encourage individuals but stress the
team.
 Hands-off/Hands-on.
 Flexible but firm.
Dr. Atif Shahzad

 Team versus organizational loyalties.


Qualities of an Effective Project
Manager
10–29

1. Systems thinker
2. Personal integrity
3. Proactive
4. High emotional intelligence (EQ).
5. General business perspective
6. Effective time management
7. Skillful politician
Dr. Atif Shahzad

8. Optimist
Emotional Intelligence (EQ)
10–30

 Self-awareness
 Mindful of own emotions/feelings and behaviors
 Self-regulation
 of controlling own disruptive impulses and moods
 Self-motivation
 of gathering up own feelings to pursue goals with energy, passion,
and persistence.
 Empathy
 of being able to recognize the feelings of others to sustain relations
and cross-cultural sensitivity
 Social skills
 of being able to build social networks and rapport with different
kinds of people.
Dr. Atif Shahzad
Suggestions for Project Managers
10–31

 Build relationships before you


need them.
 Trust is sustained through
frequent face-to-face contact.
 Realize that “what goes
around comes around.”
Dr. Atif Shahzad
Key Terms
10–32

Emotional intelligence (EQ) Proactive


Inspiration-related currencies Project sponsor
Law of reciprocity Relationship-related
Leading by example currencies
Management by wandering Social network building
around (MBWA) Stakeholder
Personal-related currencies Systems thinking
Position-related currencies Task-related currencies
Dr. Atif Shahzad
Where We Are Now
11–34
Dr. Atif Shahzad
Significance

The difference in productivity between an average team


and a turned-on, high-performing team is not 10 percent,
20 percent, or 30 percent, but 100 percent, 200 percent,
even 500 percent!
—Tom Peters, management consultant and writer
Dr. Atif Shahzad
Great teams
• Become champions,
• Create breakthrough products,
• Exceed customer expectations ,
• Get projects done ahead of schedule,
• and under budget.

• They are bonded together by mutual


interdependency and a common goal
or vision.
• They trust each other and exhibit a
high level of collaboration.
Dr. Atif Shahzad
High-Performing Teams
11–37

 Synergy
¤ 1 + 1 + 1 =10 (positive synergy)
¤ 1 + 1 + 1 =2 (negative synergy)
 Characteristics of High-performing Teams
1. Share a sense of common purpose
2. Make effective use of individual talents and expertise
3. Have balanced and shared roles
4. Maintain a problem solving focus
5. Accept differences of opinion and expression
6. Encourage risk taking and creativity
Dr. Atif Shahzad

7. Sets high personal performance standards


8. Identify with the team
The Five-Stage Team Development
Model
Storming
S

Forming F N Norming
Team
Development

A P
Dr. Atif Shahzad

Adjourning Performing
Transformation

Group of strangers
F
A S

P N
Group that creates something
Dr. Atif Shahzad

good together
The Five-Stage Team Development
Model
Dr. Atif Shahzad

FIGURE 11.1
Forming

People are still trying to figure out their roles in the group;
they tend to work independently, but are trying to get
along with each other
Dr. Atif Shahzad
Storming
.
As the team learns more about the project, members form
opinions about how the work should be done. This can lead
to temper flare-ups in the beginning, when people
disagree about how to approach the project.
Dr. Atif Shahzad
Norming
.
As the team learns more about the other people on the
team, they begin to adjust their own work habits to help
out each other and the team. Here’s where the individuals
on the team start learning to trust each other.
Dr. Atif Shahzad
Performing
.
Once everyone understands the problem and what each
other are capable of doing, they start acting as a
cohsesive unit and being efficient. Now the team is working
like a well-oiled machine.
Dr. Atif Shahzad
Adjourning
.
When the work is close to completion, the team starts
dealing with the fact that the project is going to be
closing soon.
Dr. Atif Shahzad
Remarks

 People have a tough


time creating team
bonds initially.
 Try to use your soft
skills to help the team
to progress through
the stages quickly.
Dr. Atif Shahzad
Conditions Favoring Development of
High Performance Project Teams
 Ten or fewer team  Members report only to
members the project manager
 Voluntary team  All relevant functional
membership areas are represented
 Continuous service on on the team
the team  The project has a
 Full-time assignment to compelling objective
the team  Members are in
 An organization culture speaking distance of
Dr. Atif Shahzad

of cooperation and trust each other


11–49
The Punctuated Equilibrium Model
of Group Development
Dr. Atif Shahzad

FIGURE 11.2
Creating a High-Performance
Project Team
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FIGURE 11.3
Building High-Performance Project
Teams
11–53

 Recruiting Project Members


¤ Factors affecting recruiting
 Importance of the project
 Management structure used to complete the project

¤ How to recruit?
 Ask for volunteers

¤ Who to recruit?
 Problem-solving ability
 Availability
 Technological expertise
 Credibility
Dr. Atif Shahzad

 Political connections
 Ambition, initiative, and energy
Project Team Meetings
11–54

Managing
Establishing
Subsequent
Ground Rules
Meetings

Conducting
Relationship Planning
Decisions Project Decisions
Meetings

Managing Change Tracking


Decisions Decisions
Dr. Atif Shahzad
Kick-off Meeting Agenda
11–55
Dr. Atif Shahzad
Establishing a Team Identity
11–56

Effective Use
of Meetings

Co-location of
team members

Creation of project
team name

Team rituals
Dr. Atif Shahzad
Requirements for an Effective
Shared Vision
Dr. Atif Shahzad

FIGURE 11.4
Managing Project Reward Systems
11–58

 Group Rewards

¤ Who gets what as an individual reward?


¤ How to make the reward have lasting significance?
¤ How to recognize individual performance?
 Letters of commendation
 Public recognition for outstanding work
 Desirable job assignments
Dr. Atif Shahzad

 Increased personal flexibility


Orchestrating the Decision-Making
Process
11–59

Problem Identification

Generating Alternatives

Reaching a Decision

Follow-up
Dr. Atif Shahzad
Nominal Group (Decision Making)
Technique
 NGT
• It is an orderly process for dealing with potentially inflammatory problems.
• It prevents groupthink from occurring and discourages pressures to form to the
wishes of a powerful group member.
 Steps:
1. Gather team members and/or stakeholders to identify the project problem at
hand
2. Each member writes down his/her own solutions
3. Each presents his/her solution to the group
4. (The leader) writes these solutions on a chart
5. Continue the process until all ideas have been expressed
6. Discuss and clarify each solution as a group
7. (All members) privately rank-order their preferred solutions
Dr. Atif Shahzad

8. Tally the ballot to create a rank-ordering of each solution


9. Repeat these steps to refine the list until the most preferred solution emerges
Managing Conflict within the
Project Team
11–61
Dr. Atif Shahzad
Conflict Sources
- Primary
11–62

are scarce—that’s why you have to


Resource negotiate for them.

mean one project or person is more


Priority important than another, so gets more
budget, resources, time, prestige & perks.

Schedules decide who gets what, when.


Schedule
Dr. Atif Shahzad
Conflict Sources
- Secondary
11–63

Clashing Contract Technical


Cost

Opinions
Personalities
Dr. Atif Shahzad
Resolving Conflicts
11–64

 Who will ??
¤ you depend on people to get the work done.
¤ when they have any sort of conflict, your project grinds to a halt

¤ you’re the one who has to face the music when it causes delays
and costs money!
¤ Since you’re on the hook when a conflict threatens your project,

 YOU ’re the one who has to resolve it.


Dr. Atif Shahzad
Resolving Conflicts
11–65

 Encouraging Functional Conflict


¤ Encourage dissent by asking tough questions.
¤ Bring in people with different points of view.

¤ Designate someone to be a devil’s advocate.

¤ Ask the team to consider an unthinkable alternative

 Managing Dysfunctional Conflict


¤ Mediate the conflict.
¤ Arbitrate the conflict.

¤ Control the conflict.


Dr. Atif Shahzad

¤ Accept the conflict.

¤ Eliminate the conflict.


• When you confront the source of the conflict
head-on and work with everyone to find a
solution that actually fixes the reason that
conflicts happen, then the problem is most
likely to go away and never come back!
• Do your research,
• Figure out what’s behind it
• Fix the root cause.
• But hold on a second
• when two people compromise, it means that
each person gives up something.
• That’s why a lot of people call a compromise
a “lose-lose” solution.
• working with other people to make sure that
their viewpoints and perspectives are taken
into account.
• It’s a great way to get a real commitment
from everyone.
• try to play down the problem
• make it seem like it’s not so bad.
• It’s a temporary solution, but sometimes you
need to do it to keep tempers from flaring
and give people some space to step back
and really figure out what’s going on.
• Putting your foot down and making a
decision.
• One person wins, one person loses,
• and that’s the end of that.
• It’s when people get so frustrated, angry, or
disgusted that they just walk away from the
argument.
• It’s almost always counterproductive.
• If someone withdraws from a problem before
it’s resolved, it won’t go away—and your
project will suffer.
Conflict Intensity Over the
Project Life Cycle
Dr. Atif Shahzad

FIGURE 11.5
Rejuvenating the Project Team
11–75

 Informal Techniques
¤ Institute new rituals.

¤ Take an off-site break as a team from the project.

¤ View an inspiration message or movie.

¤ Have the project sponsor give a pep talk.

 Formal Techniques
¤ Hold a team building session facilitated by an outsider to clarify
ownership issues affecting performance.
¤ Engage in an outside activity that provides an intense common
experience to promote social development of the team.
Dr. Atif Shahzad
Managing Virtual Project Teams
11–76

 Challenges:
¤ Developing trust
 Exchange of social information.
 Set clear roles for each team member.

¤ Developing effective patterns of


communication.
 Keep team members informed on how the overall project is going.
 Don’t let team members vanish.
 Establish a code of conduct to avoid delays.
Dr. Atif Shahzad

 Establish clear norms and protocols for surfacing assumptions and conflicts.
 Share the pain.
24-Hour
Global
Clock
Dr. Atif Shahzad

FIGURE 11.6
Project Team Pitfalls
11–78

Bureaucratic
Group think
Bypass Syndrome

Team Spirit Becomes


Going Native
Team Infatuation
Dr. Atif Shahzad
Key Terms
11–79

Brainstorming
Dysfunctional conflict
Functional conflict
Groupthink
Nominal group technique (NGT)
Positive synergy
Project kickoff meeting
Project vision
Team building
Dr. Atif Shahzad

Team rituals
Virtual project team
QUESTIONS
THANK YOU FOR YOUR INTEREST