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Matrix theorems of multiconductor transmission

a b
Yo‐Yu Sun
Department of Electrical Engineering , National Taiwan University , Taipei, Taiwan,
Department of Electrical Engineering , Chung Shan Institute of Science and
Published online: 04 May 2011.

To cite this article: Yo‐Yu Sun (1978) Matrix theorems of multiconductor transmission lines, Journal of the Chinese
Institute of Engineers, 1:2, 37-41, DOI: 10.1080/02533839.1978.9676612

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Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers, Vol. 1, No. 2, PP. 37—41, (1978)


Yo-Yu Sun*

Department of Electrical Engineering

National Taiwan University
Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.


The purpose of this article is to present three matrix theoremes

pertaining to the analysis of electrical multiconductor transmission lines.
In principle, the formulations are also applicable to coupled mechanical
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m m

For uniformly coupled lossless (n+1) — con:
ductor transmission lines (See Fig. 1), the voltages [C] = [2b]
and currents are described by the equation pair

- — X. (x,s) = s [ L ] I ( x , s ) '[la] -c nl
In case the structure is reciprocal as what is to be
- — 1 (x,s) = s[C] V ( x , s ) [lb] =
considered, then L¡: = L:J and Cįj CJĮ for i^j. In
other words, [L] and [C] are symmetric matrices.
where V and ]_ denote n x 1 voltage and current
matrices, respectively; x is the distance measured GROUNDs
along the line and s is the Laplace transform variable.
The per-unit-length inductance matrix [L] and ca- O
pacitance matrix [C] are defined as follows
« 2 0

Lu L 12 "In
21 L22.
[L] = [2a] « m

Fig 1.
*Department of Electrical Engineering, Chung Shan Institute
of Science and Technology.

- 37 -
J.C.I.E., Vol. I, No. 2, (1978)

Eqs. [la] and [Ib] are combined to yield the

I"1)1 = [D] [7a]
voltage and current wave equations
[N] [L][C]([N]-') = [D] [7b]
V (x, s)= -co 2 [L] [C] V(x,s) [3a]
dx A comparison of Eqs. [5a] and [7b] will lead
_d 2 one to conclude that between [M] ~ 1 and [N]
2 1 (x,s)= - c o 2 [C] [L] J, (x,s) [3b] there can differ at most by a factor which is a
diagonal matrix, i.e.
where s has been assigned jco to insure losslessness,
I"1 = [N]T
J=(-D 1/2
If the multiconductor system propagates exact or [N] T [M] = [d M ] [8a]
TEM-mode waves with a unique wave velocity V,
then where [dj^] is the diagonal matrix. Similarly, com-
= V-2[E] [4] paring Eqs. [5b] and [7a], another diagonal matrix
[dj^j] brings out the equality
[E] designates an n x n unit matrix. This case has
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[¿NUN]" 1 = [M] T
been fully studied and many microwave devices
were designed on the basis of this assumption(l). or [M] T [N] = [d N ] [8b]
So long as the dielectric surrounding the transmis-
Eqs. [8a] and [8b] together imply that a diagonal
sion lines is nonhomogeneous, quasi TEM-mode
matrix [d] exists such that
wave propagation i.e., wave propagation with more
than one velocity, will occur. Therefore, [L] [C] is [dMl = [<W = [d] = [M] T [N] = [N] T [M] Q.E.D. [9]
no longer equal to [C] [L]. This general case has
also been investigated extensively in recent years
(2) - (9). Nevertheless, to the author's knowledge, Theorem II
several matrix relations regarding the quasi TEM- The modal matrices [M] and [N] are related as
mode transmission lines seem to have escaped the
researchers' attention. This work intends to report [C] [M] = [N] [d n ]
them in the form of theorems. [L] [N] = [M] [d m ]

In the above, [L] and [C] have been assumed where [d m ] and [d n ] are diagonal matrices.
symmetric. Actually, they are not only symmetric Proof: Eqs. [5a] and [5b] can be rewritten as
but also positive definite (2). Employing a matrix
theorem on simultaneous reduction of two quadratic ^ C H L ] [C][M]=[D] [10a]
forms (10), it is readily shown that the modal ma- ^LJIC] [L][N] =[D] [10b]
trices [M] and [N] always exist such that
A comparison between Eqs. [5a] and [10b] as
[M] [L] [C] [M] = [D] [5a] well as [5b] and [10a] yields the equalities
[ N ] " 1 [C] [L] [N ] = [D] [L] [N] =. [M] [d m ] [lia]

where [D] is a diagonal matrix, viz. [C] [M] = [N] [d,,] [lib]

V;, 0 "
Now, in view of Eqs. [1] and [2] it is readily ob-
[D] = [6] tained that

1 0 '••v-
[d m ][d n ] = [d n ][d m ] = [D] Q.E.D. [12]
Vį is the i mode wave propagation velocity. In passing, it is noted that for quasi TEM-
mode transmission lines, [d m ] and [d n ] can never
Theorem I be scalar matrices simultaneously.
Between [M] and [N], there exists the relation
Theorem III
[M] T [N] = [N] T [M] = [d] Let f(cv) be an arbitrary function of a, then
where [d] is a diagnoal matrix, and T indicates
transpose. Proof: Taking transpose of Eqs. [5a] and
[C]f([L][C]) = Î([U [L]) [C]
[5b], one has

- 38
Y. Y. Sun: Multiconductor Transmission Lines

Proof: In matrix theory, it is well known that when sidered. The per-unit-length inductance and capaci-
two matrices commute, they share the same modal tance matrices are measured to have the values
matrix for similarity transformation (10). Then, from
[5a] and [5b], one has

= f([D]) [13a] 2 1
[L] = nH/cm
= f([D]) [13b)
1 3
since f([L] [C]) and f([C] [L]) commute with [L] [C]
and [C] [L] respectively, where f([D]) is a diagonal
matrix. Eqs. [13a] and [13b] can be rewritten as 5 -3~
[14a] [C] 12 pF/cm
-C l2 -3 6

From Eq. [ l i a ] . where the L-'s and C-'s are explained in Fig.2(b).
Downloaded by [Nanyang Technological University] at 21:30 03 March 2015

[L] = [M [15a]

Multiply [14a] by [15a] from the right side and L

[14b] from the left side and notice the fact that e-/.
f([D]) and [d m ] commute, thus,
C20^ ^

[16a] (b)

Similarly, from [lib] Fig. 2

[C] = [ N H D D Į N ] - 1 [15b]
And, The modal matrices [M] and [N] are found as
Q.E.D. [16b]
2 1 5 -3 * 7 O"
EXAMPLE x!0'21 = xlO' 21

1 3_ - 3 6 -4 15
To illustrate the validity of the theorems
developed in the last section, a particular structure
Then, the two eigenvalues of [L][C] are seen to be
consisting of two nonidentical coupled strip transmis-
Xj=7, X 2 =15. Corresponding to Xj and X2, we have
sion lines fabricated on a dielectric plate which sits
over a ground plane as shown in Fig. 2(a) is con- the eigenvectors , ° , respectively. Therefore,

the modal matrix

^2 0
[M] =
1 1

Similarly, the product

7 -4
x 10
0 15

possesses the same eigenvalues Xj=7xlO 2 1 , X 2 =

15xl0' 2 1 . However, the corresponding eigenvectors

are and * , respectively. Thus,

1 1
[N] =

- 39 -
J.C.I.E., Vol. 1, No. 2, (1978)

From Eqs. (lia) and (lib), it is obtained that 5.408 -2.449

x 10"
while -2.449 4.898

"7 0" "l O"

10' ,[c l n ]=
12 9
f mJ =
d X xlO" It is observed that these two matrices are the
_0 0 -5 characteristic impedance and admittance matrices
"x 1 "7 0"
of the coupled transmission line under considera-
tion (9). They are inverse to each other, so their
[D]= = x 10"
product is a unit matrix.
h 0 15
Furthermore, it is interesting to notice that
1/2 /2
([L][C])~ is the transpose of ([C] [L])-' just
as if there were no appearance of the negative half
With these matrices, Theorems I and II are checked power.
As to Theorem III, f(a) is arbitrarily taken CONCLUDING REMARKS
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as a~ \ It is henceforth to verify

The matrix theorems presented in this paper

= ([L][C])- [L]
are taken concerned with multiconductor transmis-
sion lines. However, they are also definitely as-
[C] ([L][C])-
= ([C][L])-' [C]
sociated with coupled lossless mechanical systems
which are well known for their parallelism in
mathematical formulations with electrical circuits.
From Eq. [13]. Moreover, there are possibly other coupled physical
" 2X7* 0 systems which are subject to these matrix relations.
These theorems are not only helpful in
analyzing coupled systems, they are also useful in
evaluating many matrix parameters for such systems
x~'/2 .- as illustrated in the given example.

1. Matsumoto, A., Microwave Filters and Circuits,
x 10 - 1 0
Advances in Microwaves, Supplement 1, Acade-
0.189 0.817 mic Press, New York, (1970).
2. Chang, F.Y., "Transient Analysis of Lossless
-Vi -'Ą -Vi
Coupled Transmission Lines in Nonhomo-
2X, X, - X 2 geneous Dielectric Medium", IEEE Transac-
tions on Microwave Theory and Techniques,
([L][C])-'/2= J Vol. MTT-18,No.9,pp.616-626, (1970).
0 2X 2 3. Amemiya, H., "Time Domain Analysis of Mul-
tiple Parallel Transmission Lines", RCA Re-
view, Vol.28, pp.241-276, (1967).
1.195 0.189
4. Ho, C.W., "Theory and Computer-aided An-
x 10 - 1 0 alysis of Lossless Transmission Lines", IBM
0.817 Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 17,
pp.249-255, (1973).
5. Marx, K.D., "Propagation Modes, Equivalent
Circuits, and Characteristic Terminations for
Multiconductor Transmission Lines with Inho-
'/2 = ([L][C]r 1 / 2 [L] mogeneous Dielectric", IEEE Transactions on
Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol.
23.90 11.95 MTT-21, No.7, pp.450-457, (1973).
6. Sun, Y.Y., "On the Properties of the Product
11.95 26.38 of the Impedance and Admittance Matrices of
Three-conductor Transmission Lines", Pro.
IEEE.,Vol. 63, No.1, pp.201-202, (1975).

- 40 -
Y. Y. Sun: Multiconductor Transmission Lines

7. Tripathi, V.K., "Asymmetric Coupled Trans- Transmission Line Directional Coupler", In-
mission Lines in an Inhomogeneous Medium", ternational Journal of Electronics, Vol. 41,
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and No.2,pp.125-136, (1976).
Techniques, Vol. MTT-23, No.9, pp.734-739, 10. Wilkinson, J.H., The Algebraic Eigenvalue
(1975). Problem, Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp.1-65,
8. Bhattacharyya, B.B., et al., "A General Theory (1965).
of Decoupling a System of Lossless Coupled
Lines Using Linear Transformations", Journal
of the Franklin Institute, Vol.32, No.1, pp.55- Manuscript Received : September 2,1977;
83, (1976). Revision Received: December 28, 1977;
9. Sun, Y.Y., "Analysis of a Generalized Coupled Accepted : December 31, 1977.
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