Adaptive Sliding Mode Control of Chaos in Permanent

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Adaptive Sliding Mode Control of Chaos in Permanent

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Volume 2014, Article ID 868415, 11 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/868415

Research Article

Adaptive Sliding Mode Control of Chaos in Permanent Magnet

Synchronous Motor via Fuzzy Neural Networks

1

Department of Engineering Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan

2

Department of Computer and Communication, Shu-Te University, Kaohsiung 824, Taiwan

Copyright © 2014 Tat-Bao-Thien Nguyen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution

License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly

cited.

In this paper, based on fuzzy neural networks, we develop an adaptive sliding mode controller for chaos suppression and tracking

control in a chaotic permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive system. The proposed controller consists of two parts.

The first is an adaptive sliding mode controller which employs a fuzzy neural network to estimate the unknown nonlinear models

for constructing the sliding mode controller. The second is a compensational controller which adaptively compensates estimation

errors. For stability analysis, the Lyapunov synthesis approach is used to ensure the stability of controlled systems. Finally, simulation

results are provided to verify the validity and superiority of the proposed method.

1. Introduction sliding mode control [13], quasisliding mode control [14, 15],

dynamic surface control [16], and adaptive control [17, 18].

Nowadays, permanent magnet synchronous motors are However, shortcomings still exist in these methods. An exact

extensively used in industrial applications because it pos- mathematical model of a PMSM is necessary for these meth-

sesses many advantageous merits. Due to high power to ods to calculate the control laws. This leads to difficulties in

weight ratio, high torque to current ratio, fast response, high applying these control methods to a real-time system where

power factor, simple structure, and low maintaining cost, the mathematical model might be dynamic and unknown

PMSMs were effectively applied to some fields of industry due to parameter perturbations and noise disturbances.

which require high performances [1–4]. Nevertheless, there Moreover, time delay feedback control faces some problems

are still numerous challenges in controlling a PMSM to get when the control target is not an equilibrium point or located

the superior performances, because it has highly nonlinear at unstable periodic orbit; determining the time delay is also

characteristics and chaotic motion. difficult. In conventional sliding mode control, chattering

The chaotic phenomenon in PMSM was comprehensively often appears and it causes the heat loss in electrical power

examined by Li et al. [5]. This study indicated that the circuits and undesirable vibrations in mechanical systems

chaotic oscillations occur when the system parameters lie in leading to degrade the whole systems. Adaptive control can

a certain region. Since the undesirable chaotic oscillations work well even when the parameters vary, but cannot solve

can break down the system stability or even cause the drive the control problems when the mathematical model is deeply

system to collapse, the chaos suppression and control in a changed due to external noises.

PMSM have received much attention in the field of nonlinear In recent years, fuzzy logic and neural networks have

control of electric motor. Until now, various control methods exhibited the superior abilities in modeling and controlling

have been developed for chaos suppression and control in the highly uncertain, ill-defined, and complex systems [19–

a PMSM, including nonlinear feedback control [6, 7], time 22], especially in chaotic PMSM [23–25]. A fuzzy logic

delay feedback control [8–10], backstepping control [11, 12], controller can incorporate the expert experience of a human

2 Mathematical Problems in Engineering

process whose input-output relationship is described by 10

collection of fuzzy rules involving linguistic variables rather

5

than a complicated dynamic model. On the other hand,

neural networks have the potential for very complicated 𝜔 0

behavior. The strong learning abilities allow a neural network −5

to generate input-output maps which can approximate any −10

continuous function with the required degree of accuracy. −15

These learning abilities equip neural networks to design 20

controllers which do not depend on exact mathematical 10

30

35

models. The combination of fuzzy logic system and neural 0 25

iq 20

−10 15

networks is known as fuzzy neural networks [26, 27] in which 10 id

−20 0 5

a fuzzy logic system is expressed by a neural network. A fuzzy

neural network can exploit the fuzzy inference of a fuzzy logic Figure 1: Chaotic motion in a PMSM with 𝜎 = 5.45 and 𝛾 = 20.

system and the learning abilities of a neural network. Then,

the fuzzy neural networks become powerful and confident

tools in controlling highly nonlinear and complex systems.

2. Problem Statement and Preliminaries

As the control methods mentioned above still have some

weaknesses, it is necessary to develop a improved controller 2.1. Mathematical Model of Chaotic PMSM. In dimensionless

which can suppress chaos and obtain satisfied performance; form, the mathematical model of a smooth-air-gap PMSM

even the mathematical model of PMSM is significantly can be modeled as follows [5]:

varied due to parameter perturbations and external noise

disturbances. In order to meet these requirements, based on 𝑑𝜔

= 𝜎 (𝑖𝑞 − 𝜔) + 𝑇,

a fuzzy neural network and incorporating the concept of 𝑑𝑡

sliding mode control, we successfully develop an adaptive 𝑑𝑖𝑞

sliding model control method. Since the developed controller = −𝑖𝑞 − 𝑖𝑑 𝜔 + 𝛾𝜔 + 𝑢𝑞 , (1)

is derived from sliding mode control, it can inherit the 𝑑𝑡

merits of sliding mode controller for controlling nonlinear 𝑑𝑖𝑑

systems. Moreover, the use of fuzzy neural networks gives = −𝑖𝑑 + 𝑖𝑞 𝜔 + 𝑢𝑑 ,

𝑑𝑡

the learning ability for the proposed controller to estimate

unknown models existing in the system. These abilities where 𝑖𝑑 , 𝑖𝑞 , and 𝜔 are state variables, which denote direct-

allow the controller to operate effectively and robustly quadrature currents and motor angular frequency, respec-

even with unknown system parameters of the PMSM. In tively. 𝑇𝐿 , 𝑢𝑑 , and 𝑢𝑞 represent the load torque and direct-

contrast, many previous articles for chaos control of the quadrature axis stator voltage components, respectively,

PMSM depend on the mathematical model of PMSM; that while 𝜎 and 𝛾 are system parameters.

is, an exact model of PMSM is necessary for designing In system (1), after an operating period, the external

controllers. This also implies that these controllers cannot inputs are set to zero, namely, 𝑇𝐿 = 𝑢𝑞 = 𝑢𝑑 = 0. Then, the

work or work imprecisely when the system parameters or system in (1) becomes an unforced system as

model of PMSM are not sufficiently known. Therefore, in

comparison with previous articles, the proposed control 𝑑𝜔

= 𝜎 (𝑖𝑞 − 𝜔) ,

shows the improvements in controlling chaotic PMSM. The 𝑑𝑡

developed controller cannot only suppress chaotic behaviors 𝑑𝑖𝑞

in a PMSM but also allow the motor speed to follow the = −𝑖𝑞 − 𝑖𝑑 𝜔 + 𝛾𝜔, (2)

𝑑𝑡

desired trajectory, while the tracking error is led to zero

despite of the existence of uncertainties. In addition, chatter- 𝑑𝑖𝑑

= −𝑖𝑑 + 𝑖𝑞 𝜔.

ing phenomenon can be removed by choosing the suitable 𝑑𝑡

parameters for the designed controller. The robustness of

The bifurcation and chaos phenomena of a PMSM drive

the developed controller can give us the feasibility to realize

system have been completely studied by Li et al. [5]. System

the method in real-time system. Simulations results are

(2) generates chaotic oscillations when the system parameters

provided to illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of

and initial condition are set as 𝜎 = 5.45, 𝛾 = 20, and

the proposed controller.

⌊𝜔(0), 𝑖𝑞 (0), 𝑖𝑑 (0)⌋ = [2, 1, 3]. Figure 1 shows the typical

The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, the chaotic motion of system (2). To make an overall inspection

dynamics of a PMSM and the formulation of the chaos of the dynamical behavior of the PMSM, the bifurcation

control problem are presented. The design of the adaptive diagrams of the motor angular frequency 𝜔 versus the

sliding mode controller as well as the stability analysis is parameters 𝜎 and 𝛾, respectively, are also plotted as shown

described in Section 3. In Section 4 the simulation results in Figure 2. Since the chaotic oscillations in a PMSM can

are displayed to verify the validity of the proposed method. destroy the stability of drive system or lead the system to

Finally, the conclusion is given in Section 5. collapse, suppressing chaos, controlling speed, and ensuring

Mathematical Problems in Engineering 3

15 15

10 10

5 5

𝜔 0 𝜔 0

−5 −5

−10 −10

−15 −15

2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

𝜎

𝛾

(a) (b)

Figure 2: Bifurcation diagrams of 𝜔 versus (a) 𝜎 with 𝛾 = 20, (b) 𝛾 with 𝜎 = 5.45.

the robustness against uncertainties in a PMSM drive system Taking the second order derivative of output 𝑦(𝑡) and the

are significantly necessary. In order to solve these problems, control signal 𝑢 appearing in this expression, we can conclude

we propose the adaptive sliding mode control technique that the SISO system in (4a) and (4b) has relative degree 𝑟 =

based on fuzzy neural networks. 2. Then using Lie derivative and letting 𝑎(𝑥) = 𝐿2𝑓 ℎ(𝑥) and

𝑏(𝑥) = 𝐿 𝑔 𝐿 𝑓 ℎ(𝑥), (4b) can be rewritten as

2.2. Conventional Sliding Mode Control and Problem State-

ment. Let us consider the PMSM drive system as shown in 𝑦̈ = 𝑎 (𝑥) + 𝑏 (𝑥) 𝑢, (6)

(2). In order to control this system, we add a control signal

𝑢 to the second differential equation as an adjustable variable where

which is desirable for real applications. And for simplicity, we 𝜕Δ 1

introduce new notations as 𝑥1 = 𝜔, 𝑥2 = 𝑖𝑞 , and 𝑥3 = 𝑖𝑑 . 𝑎 (𝑥) = 𝐿2𝑓 ℎ (𝑥) = (−𝜎 + ) (𝜎𝑥2 − 𝜎𝑥1 + Δ 1 )

In this manner, the system in (2) with uncertainties can be 𝜕𝑥1

rewritten as follows: 𝜕Δ 1

+ (𝜎 + ) (−𝑥2 − 𝑥1 𝑥3 + 𝛾𝑥1 + Δ 2 )

𝑥1̇ = 𝜎 (𝑥2 − 𝑥1 ) + Δ 1 , 𝜕𝑥2

(7)

𝑥2̇ = − 𝑥2 − 𝑥1 𝑥3 + 𝛾𝑥1 + Δ 2 + 𝑢, (3) 𝜕Δ 1

+ (−𝑥3 + 𝑥1 𝑥3 + Δ 3 ) ,

𝜕𝑥3

𝑥3̇ = − 𝑥3 + 𝑥1 𝑥2 + Δ 3 ,

𝜕Δ 1

where Δ 𝑖 ∈ 𝑅, 𝑖 = 1, 2, 3, are uncertainties applied to the 𝑏 (𝑥) = 𝐿 𝑔 𝐿 𝑓 ℎ (𝑥) = 𝜎 + .

𝜕𝑥2

PMSM due to parameter perturbation and external noise

disturbances. 𝜎 and 𝛾 are unknown system parameters and In order to guarantee that the system in (4a) and (4b) is

located within the chaotic region [5]. controllable for all 𝑥 ∈ 𝑅3 in our study, we need a following

assumption.

Assumption 1. Δ 𝑖 ∈ 𝑅, 𝑖 = 1, 2, 3, are bounded functions;

further Δ 3 is zero when 𝑥1 = 𝑥2 = 0. Assumption 2. 𝑏(𝑥) is bounded from below by a positive

constant 𝑏; that is, 0 < 𝑏 ≤ 𝑏(𝑥), for all 𝑥 ∈ 𝑅3 .

For suppressing chaos and controlling speed in the

PMSM, the system in (3) with output 𝑦(𝑡) = 𝑥1 can be The aim is to design a controller that can suppress chaos

expressed in the standard form of single-input-single-output and allow the output 𝑦(𝑡) ∈ 𝑅 to follow a given desired

(SISO) system as follows: trajectory 𝑦𝑑 (𝑡) ∈ 𝑅.

𝑥̇ = 𝑓 (𝑥) + 𝑔 (𝑥) 𝑢, (4a) Assumption 3. Desired trajectory 𝑦𝑑 (𝑡) is smooth and

bounded up to the 2nd order; 𝑦𝑑̇ (𝑡) and 𝑦𝑑̈ (𝑡) are available

𝑦 = ℎ (𝑥) , (4b)

for measurement.

where

Let 𝑒(𝑡) = 𝑦(𝑡) − 𝑦𝑑 (𝑡) be tracking error; we define a

𝑥1 𝜎 (𝑥2 − 𝑥1 ) + Δ 1 switching surface 𝑆(𝑡) in the state space 𝑅3 as

𝑥 = [𝑥2 ] , 𝑓 (𝑥) = [−𝑥2 − 𝑥1 𝑥3 + 𝛾𝑥1 + Δ 2 ] ,

𝑑

[𝑥3 ] [ −𝑥3 + 𝑥1 𝑥2 + Δ 3 ] 𝑆 (𝑡) = ( + 𝜆) 𝑒 (𝑡) = 𝑒 ̇ (𝑡) + 𝜆𝑒 (𝑡) , (8)

(5) 𝑑𝑡

0

𝑔 (𝑥) = [1] , ℎ (𝑥) = 𝑥1 . where 𝜆 is a positive constant. The equation 𝑆(𝑡) = 0 rep-

[0] resents a linear differential equation whose solution implies

4 Mathematical Problems in Engineering

that the tracking error 𝑒(𝑡) converges to zero with the time Table 1: Parameters of Gaussian functions.

constant 1/𝜆 [28]. Differentiating 𝑆(𝑡) with respect to time Parameter Value

and using (6), we obtain

𝑚𝑗1 −1

𝑆 ̇ (𝑡) = 𝑒 ̈ (𝑡) + 𝜆𝑒 ̇ (𝑡) 𝑚𝑗2 −0.75

𝑚𝑗3 −0.5

= 𝑦̈ (𝑡) − 𝑦𝑑̈ (𝑡) + 𝜆𝑒 ̇ (𝑡) (9) 𝑚𝑗4 −0.25

= 𝑎 (𝑥) + 𝑏 (𝑥) 𝑢 − 𝑦𝑑̈ (𝑡) + 𝜆𝑒 ̇ (𝑡) . 𝑚𝑗5 0

𝑚𝑗6 0.25

Let V(𝑡) be a new input variable and it is defined by 𝑚𝑗7 0.5

𝑚𝑗8 0.75

V (𝑡) = −𝑦𝑑̈ (𝑡) + 𝜆𝑒 ̇ (𝑡) . (10)

𝑚𝑗9 1

Then (9) with V(𝑡) defined in (10) can be rewritten as 𝑛 0.2

where 𝐴𝑖1 , 𝐴𝑖2 , 𝐴𝑖3 , 𝐵𝑎𝑖 , and 𝐵𝑏𝑖 are fuzzy sets which are

In order to meet the control objective, the conventional represented by the membership functions 𝜇𝐴𝑖1 , 𝜇𝐴𝑖2 , 𝜇𝐴𝑖3 , 𝜇𝐵𝑎𝑖 ,

sliding mode control law can be used as

and 𝜇 𝑖 , respectively. 𝑎̂(𝑥) ∈ 𝑅 and ̂𝑏(𝑥) ∈ 𝑅 are outputs

𝐵𝑏

1 of the fuzzy logic system, which stand for the estimations of

𝑢= (−𝑎 (𝑥) − V (𝑡) − 𝑘𝑆 (𝑡)) , (12)

𝑏 (𝑥) 𝑎(𝑥) and 𝑏(𝑥), respectively. 𝜇𝐵𝑎𝑖 and 𝜇𝐵𝑏𝑖 are fuzzy singletons,

while 𝜇𝐴𝑖1 , 𝜇𝐴𝑖2 , and 𝜇𝐴𝑖3 use Gaussian functions to calculate

where 𝑘 is a positive constant. its values as the following form:

Substituting (12) into (11), one can get

2

𝑆 ̇ (𝑡) = −𝑘𝑆 (𝑡) . (13) (𝑥𝑗 − 𝑚𝑗𝑖 )

𝜇𝐴𝑖𝑗 = exp [− ], (15)

2𝑛2

Equation (13) implies that both 𝑆(𝑡) and therefore 𝑒(𝑡) [ ]

converge to zero exponentially fast.

Moreover, by setting 𝑥1 = 𝑥2 = 0 and using Assumption 1, where 𝑖 = 1, 2, . . . , 9 correspond with nine rules and 𝑗 =

the zero dynamics of the SISO system in (4a) and (4b) can be 1, 2, 3 correspond with three state variables. As the state

described as 𝑥3̇ = −𝑥3 +Δ 3 = −𝑥3 . Because the zero dynamics variables are normalized in a range of [−1, 1], the parameters

is stable, we can conclude that the system in (4a) and (4b) is of the chosen Gaussian functions are given in the Table 1.

a minimum phase system. Thus the state variable 𝑥3 is also The fuzzy inference engine performs as a process of mapping

stable when both state variables, 𝑥1 and 𝑥2 , are stable. membership values from the input windows, through the

Since the uncertainties Δ 𝑖 ∈ 𝑅, 𝑖 = 1, 2, 3, and system fuzzy rule base, to the output window. The fuzzy inference

parameters 𝜎 and 𝛾 are unknown, the function 𝑎(𝑥) and engine employs product inference for mapping. The output

𝑏(𝑥) cannot be known exactly. The control law in (12) can defuzzification is the procedure of mapping from a set of

no longer be used to control the system. In order to solve inferred fuzzy signals contained within a fuzzy output win-

this problem, we develop an adaptive sliding mode control dow to a crisp signal. Based on center-average defuzzification

method in which a neural network is employed to estimate techniques, the outputs of the fuzzy logic system can be

𝑎(𝑥) and 𝑏(𝑥) online. expressed as follows:

describe the structure of a fuzzy neural network which is used ∑9𝑖=1 𝜃𝑎𝑖 (∏3𝑗=1 𝜇𝐴𝑖𝑗 (𝑥))

to estimate the unknown nonlinear functions 𝑎(𝑥) and 𝑏(𝑥). 𝑎̂ (𝑥) = = 𝜃𝑎𝑇 𝜑 (𝑥) ,

Let us start with the fuzzy logic system. The basic ∑9𝑖=1 (∏3𝑗=1 𝜇𝐴𝑖𝑗 (𝑥))

structure of a fuzzy logic system consists of input fuzzifi- (16)

cation, fuzzy rule base, fuzzy inference engine, and output ∑9𝑖=1 𝜃𝑏𝑖 (∏3𝑗=1 𝜇𝐴𝑖𝑗 (𝑥))

defuzzification. In our study, the input fuzzification is the ̂𝑏 (𝑥) = = 𝜃𝑏𝑇 𝜑 (𝑥) ,

process of mapping inputs, state variable 𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , and 𝑥3 , to ∑9𝑖=1 (∏3𝑗=1 𝜇𝐴𝑖𝑗 (𝑥))

membership values in the input universes of discourse. The

fuzzy rule base is made of nine IF-THEN rules in which the

where 𝜃𝑎𝑇 = [𝜃𝑎1 𝜃𝑎2 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 𝜃𝑎9 ] and 𝜃𝑏𝑇 = [𝜃𝑏1 𝜃𝑏2 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 𝜃𝑏9 ]

𝑖th rule is described in the form of

are weighting vectors adjusted according to the adaptive laws

FR𝑖 : IF (𝑥1 is 𝐴𝑖1 AND 𝑥2 is 𝐴𝑖2 AND 𝑥3 is 𝐴𝑖3 ) described in the next section. The fuzzy singletons 𝜇𝐵𝑎𝑖 and

(14) 𝜇𝐵𝑏𝑖 , respectively, achieve maximum values at the points 𝜃𝑎𝑖

𝑎 is 𝐵𝑎𝑖 AND ̂𝑏 is 𝐵𝑏𝑖 ) ,

THEN (̂ and 𝜃𝑏𝑖 with 𝑖 = 1, 2, . . . , 9; that is, 𝜇𝐵𝑎𝑖 (𝜃𝑎𝑖 ) = 𝜇𝐵𝑏𝑖 (𝜃𝑏𝑖 ) = 1.

Mathematical Problems in Engineering 5

∩

𝜑1

x1 A21

Π

When 𝑎(𝑥) and 𝑏(𝑥) in (7) cannot be determined exactly

∩

.. 𝜃a1 due to unknown parameters 𝜎, 𝛾 and uncertainties Δ 𝑖 , 𝑖 =

.

A91 â (x)

1, 2, 3, the conventional sliding mode controller in (12) cannot

∩

𝜃a2 ∑ be used. In order to overcome this obstacle, we used a

A12 fuzzy neural network, as shown in Figure 3, to estimate 𝑎(𝑥)

∩

𝜑2 𝜃a9 and 𝑏(𝑥) online. Then following the certainty equivalent

x2 A2 approach, the adaptive sliding mode controller 𝑢asd , which

∩ 2 Π

.. is modified from the conventional controller in (12), can be

. 9

A 𝜃b1 obtained as

∩ 2 ..

A13

. 𝜃b2 ̂b(x) 1

∑ 𝑢asd = 𝑎 (𝑥, 𝑡) − V (𝑡) − 𝑘𝑆 (𝑡)) ,

(−̂ (18)

∩ ̂𝑏 (𝑥, 𝑡)

x3 𝜑9

∩ A23 𝜃b9

..

.

Π where 𝑎̂(𝑥, 𝑡) and ̂𝑏(𝑥, 𝑡) are the online estimations of 𝑎(𝑥) and

∩ 9 𝑏(𝑥), respectively, and calculated by a fuzzy neural network as

A3 follows:

Input layer Membership layer Rule layer Output layer

𝑎̂ (𝑥, 𝑡) = 𝜃𝑎𝑇 (𝑡) 𝜑 (𝑥) ,

Figure 3: Structure of a fuzzy neural network. (19)

̂𝑏 (𝑥, 𝑡) = 𝜃𝑇 (𝑡) 𝜑 (𝑥) ,

𝑏

𝜑𝑇 (𝑥) = [𝜑1 (𝑥) 𝜑2 (𝑥) ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 𝜑9 (𝑥)] is a fuzzy basic vector where 𝜃𝑎𝑇 (𝑡) = [𝜃𝑎1 (𝑡) 𝜃𝑎2 (𝑡) ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 𝜃𝑎9 (𝑡)] and 𝜃𝑏𝑇 (𝑡) =

where each element 𝜑𝑖 (𝑥), 𝑖 = 1, 2, . . . , 9 is defined as [𝜃𝑏1 (𝑡) 𝜃𝑏2 (𝑡) ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 𝜃𝑏9 (𝑡)] are weighting vectors as depicted

in the output layer of the neural network, while 𝜑𝑇 (𝑥) =

∏3𝑗=1 𝜇𝐴𝑖𝑗 (𝑥) [𝜑1 (𝑥) 𝜑2 (𝑥) ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 𝜑9 (𝑥)] is the fuzzy basic vector of which

𝜑𝑖 (𝑥) = . (17) each element 𝜑𝑖 (𝑥), 𝑖 = 1, 2, . . . , 9 is mentioned in (17). When

∑9𝑖=1 (∏3𝑗=1 𝜇𝐴𝑖𝑗 (𝑥)) the controller operates, the values of weighting vectors 𝜃𝑎𝑇 (𝑡)

and 𝜃𝑏𝑇 (𝑡) are adjusted, so that 𝑎̂(𝑥, 𝑡) and ̂𝑏(𝑥, 𝑡) reach 𝑎(𝑥)

In order to exploit the fuzzy inference of a fuzzy logic

and 𝑏(𝑥), respectively. The adaptive laws for 𝜃𝑎𝑇 (𝑡) and 𝜃𝑏𝑇 (𝑡)

system and the learning abilities of a neural network, a

are chosen as follows:

fuzzy logic system is expressed by a neural network which

is known as a fuzzy neural network [26, 27]. By this way, 𝜃𝑎̇ (𝑡) = 𝑊𝑎−1 𝜑 (𝑥) 𝑆 (𝑡) ,

the parameters in a fuzzy logic system can be found by a (20)

neural network through learning processes. As shown in 𝜃𝑏̇ (𝑡) = 𝑊𝑏−1 𝜑 (𝑥) 𝑆 (𝑡) 𝑢asd ,

Figure 3, the fuzzy neural network has four layers, including

input layer, membership layer, rule layer, and output layer. where 𝑊𝑎 and 𝑊𝑏 are positive-definite weighting matrices.

There are three nodes in the input layer and each node

In the adaptive mechanism, once 𝑎̂(𝑥, 𝑡) and ̂𝑏(𝑥, 𝑡),

is an input representing a state variable. The membership

respectively, converge to 𝑎(𝑥) and 𝑏(𝑥), 𝜃𝑎 (𝑡) and 𝜃𝑏 (𝑡) reach

layer comprises twenty-seven nodes, each of which acts as

their optimal values 𝜃𝑎∗ and 𝜃𝑏∗ , respectively. The achieved

a membership function and employs a Gaussian function

optimal weighting vectors 𝜃𝑎∗ and 𝜃𝑏∗ are defined by

to calculate the membership value. The rule layer has nine

nodes, each node stands for an element 𝜑𝑖 (𝑥) of the fuzzy

basis vector 𝜑(𝑥) and performs a fuzzy rule. The links between 𝜃𝑎∗ = arg min {sup𝑥∈Ω 𝜃𝑎𝑇 (𝑡) 𝜑 (𝑥) − 𝑎 (𝑥)} ,

𝜃𝑎 ∈Θ𝑎

the rule layer and the output layer are fully connected by (21)

weighting factors 𝜃𝑎1 , 𝜃𝑎2 , . . . , 𝜃𝑎9 and 𝜃𝑏1 , 𝜃𝑏2 , . . . , 𝜃𝑏9 , which 𝜃𝑏∗ = arg min {sup𝑥∈Ω 𝜃𝑏𝑇 (𝑡) 𝜑 (𝑥) − 𝑏 (𝑥)} ,

are the elements of weighting vector 𝜃𝑎 and 𝜃𝑏 , respectively. 𝜃𝑏 ∈Θ𝑏

These factors are considered as parameters and adjusted in

accordance with adaptive laws explained in the next section. where Θ𝑎 and Θ𝑏 are sets of acceptable values of vector 𝜃𝑎 (𝑡)

In the output layer, two outputs represent the values of 𝑎̂(𝑥) and 𝜃𝑏 (𝑡), respectively, and Ω is a compact set of state variable

and ̂𝑏(𝑥). 𝑥.

Therefore, the given fuzzy neural network has a fixed In the ideal case, 𝑎̂(𝑥, 𝑡) and ̂𝑏(𝑥, 𝑡), respectively, approach

structure with four layers and nine fuzzy rules, while the to 𝑎(𝑥) and 𝑏(𝑥) when 𝜃𝑎 (𝑡) and 𝜃𝑏 (𝑡) approach to 𝜃𝑎∗ and

parameter learning is governed by adaptive laws. This simple 𝜃𝑏∗ , respectively. However, the estimations are carried out

structure, as shown in Figure 3, allows the network to expe- by a neural network which has a finite number of units in

rience the low computational burden. For this reason, the the hidden layer; the estimation errors are unable to avoid,

cost of the system can be reduced and the controller can be namely, 𝑎̂(𝑥, 𝑡) and ̂𝑏(𝑥, 𝑡) cannot completely converge to

implemented in real-time systems feasibly. 𝑎(𝑥) and 𝑏(𝑥) when 𝜃𝑎 (𝑡) and 𝜃𝑏 (𝑡) converge to 𝜃𝑎∗ and 𝜃𝑏∗ ,

6 Mathematical Problems in Engineering

respectively. Let 𝛿𝑎 (𝑥) and 𝛿𝑏 (𝑥) be the estimation errors; Proof. Using (11) and (26), then taking some basic algebraic

then the exact models of 𝑎(𝑥) and 𝑏(𝑥) can be expressed by: manipulations, one can obtain

(22) 𝑆 ̇ (𝑡) = 𝑎 (𝑥) + 𝑏 (𝑥) 𝑢 + V (𝑡)

𝑏 (𝑥) = 𝜃𝑏∗ 𝜑 (𝑥) + 𝛿𝑏 (𝑥) .

= 𝑎 (𝑥) + V (𝑡) + 𝑏 (𝑥) (𝑢asd + 𝑢cc )

We suppose that the estimation errors are bounded (27)

according to a following assumption. = 𝑎 (𝑥) + V (𝑡) + ̂𝑏 (𝑥, 𝑡) 𝑢asd

Assumption 4. The estimation errors are bounded above by + (𝑏 (𝑥) − ̂𝑏 (𝑥, 𝑡)) 𝑢asd + 𝑏 (𝑥) 𝑢cc .

some known constants 𝛿𝑎 > 0 and 𝛿𝑏 > 0 over the compact

set Ω ⊂ 𝑅3 ; that is,

Replacing 𝑢asd in (27) by its expression in (18), (27) can be

sup 𝛿𝑎 (𝑥) ≤ 𝛿𝑎 , rewritten as

𝑥∈Ω

(23)

sup 𝛿𝑏 (𝑥) ≤ 𝛿𝑏 . 𝑆 ̇ (𝑡) = 𝑎 (𝑥) + V (𝑡) + ̂𝑏 (𝑥, 𝑡) 𝑢asd

𝑥∈Ω

The differences between the estimation models and exact + (𝑏 (𝑥) − ̂𝑏 (𝑥, 𝑡)) 𝑢asd + 𝑏 (𝑥) 𝑢cc

models can be computed as follows:

= 𝑎 (𝑥) + V (𝑡) + (−̂

𝑎 (𝑥, 𝑡) − V (𝑡) − 𝑘𝑆 (𝑡))

𝑇 (28)

𝑎̂ (𝑥, 𝑡) − 𝑎 (𝑥) = (𝜃𝑎 (𝑡) − 𝜃𝑎∗ ) 𝜑 (𝑥) − 𝛿𝑎 (𝑥)

+ (𝑏 (𝑥) − ̂𝑏 (𝑥, 𝑡)) 𝑢asd + 𝑏 (𝑥) 𝑢cc

= 𝜃̃𝑎𝑇 (𝑡) 𝜑 (𝑥) − 𝛿𝑎 (𝑥) ,

= − 𝑘𝑆 (𝑡) + (𝑎 (𝑥) − 𝑎̂ (𝑥, 𝑡))

(24)

̂𝑏 (𝑥, 𝑡) − 𝑏 (𝑥) = (𝜃 (𝑡) − 𝜃∗ )𝑇 𝜑 (𝑥) − 𝛿 (𝑥)

𝑏 𝑏 𝑏 + (𝑏 (𝑥) − ̂𝑏 (𝑥, 𝑡)) 𝑢asd + 𝑏 (𝑥) 𝑢cc .

= 𝜃̃𝑏𝑇 (𝑡) 𝜑 (𝑥) − 𝛿𝑏 (𝑥) ,

Substituting (24) into (28) yields

where 𝜃̃𝑎 (𝑡) = 𝜃𝑎 (𝑡) − 𝜃𝑎∗ and 𝜃̃𝑏 (𝑡) = 𝜃𝑏 (𝑡) − 𝜃𝑏∗ are parameter

errors.

Since the estimation errors exist, the stability of closed- 𝑆 ̇ (𝑡) = − 𝑘𝑆 (𝑡) + (𝑎 (𝑥) − 𝑎̂ (𝑥, 𝑡))

loop system may be lost under only action of the adaptive

sliding mode controller 𝑢asd . In order to repress the undesir- + (𝑏 (𝑥) − ̂𝑏 (𝑥, 𝑡)) 𝑢asd + 𝑏 (𝑥) 𝑢cc

able effect of estimation errors and keep the system robust, (29)

a compensational controller 𝑢cc is used as an additional con- = − 𝑘𝑆 (𝑡) − (𝜃̃𝑎𝑇 (𝑡) 𝜑 (𝑥) − 𝛿𝑎 (𝑥))

troller. This controller is able to compensate the estimation

errors and its formula is given as − (𝜃̃𝑏𝑇 (𝑡) 𝜑 (𝑥) − 𝛿𝑏 (𝑥)) 𝑢asd + 𝑏 (𝑥) 𝑢cc .

1

𝑢cc = − (𝛿𝑎 + 𝛿𝑏 𝑢asd ) sgn (𝑆 (𝑡)) . (25)

𝑏 Now we consider a Lyapunov function to study the

stability of the system as follows:

Therefore, the whole controller 𝑢 has two components;

the first one is the adaptive sliding mode controller 𝑢asd and

the second one is compensational controller 𝑢cc . The overall 1 1 1

𝑉 (𝑡) = 𝑆2 (𝑡) + 𝜃̃𝑎𝑇 (𝑡) 𝑊𝑎 𝜃̃𝑎 (𝑡) + 𝜃̃𝑏𝑇 (𝑡) 𝑊𝑏 𝜃̃𝑏 (𝑡) .

scheme of the controlled system is illustrated in Figure 4 and 2 2 2

the total control signal is given as (30)

1

𝑢 = 𝑢asd + 𝑢cc = 𝑎 (𝑥, 𝑡) − V (𝑡) − 𝑘𝑆 (𝑡))

(−̂ ̇

̂𝑏 (𝑥, 𝑡) Taking the time derivative of 𝑉(𝑡) and noticing that 𝜃̃𝑎 =

(26) ̇

1 𝜃𝑎̇ , 𝜃̃𝑏 = 𝜃𝑏̇ , one can get

− (𝛿𝑎 + 𝛿𝑏 𝑢asd ) sgn (𝑆 (𝑡)) .

𝑏

1 ̇𝑇 1 ̇

Theorem 5. Consider the system in (3) and the control law 𝑉̇ (𝑡) = 𝑆 (𝑡) 𝑆 ̇ (𝑡) + 𝜃̃𝑎 (𝑡) 𝑊𝑎 𝜃̃𝑎 (𝑡) + 𝜃̃𝑎𝑇 (𝑡) 𝑊𝑎 𝜃̃𝑎 (𝑡)

(26) with the adaptive laws (20). Assume that Assumptions 2 2

1–4 hold; then under the effect of the controller, chaos in the 1 ̇𝑇 1 ̇

PMSM can be suppressed and its speed can track the desired + 𝜃̃𝑏 (𝑡) 𝑊𝑏 𝜃̃𝑏 (𝑡) + 𝜃̃𝑏𝑇 (𝑡) 𝑊𝑏 𝜃̃𝑏 (𝑡) (31)

2 2

trajectory successfully and the tracking error converges to zero

asymptotically fast. = 𝑆 (𝑡) 𝑆 ̇ (𝑡) + 𝜃̃𝑎𝑇 (𝑡) 𝑊𝑎 𝜃𝑎̇ (𝑡) + 𝜃̃𝑏𝑇 (𝑡) 𝑊𝑏 𝜃𝑏̇ (𝑡) .

Mathematical Problems in Engineering 7

̇ can be rewritten as

Substituting (29) into (31), 𝑉(𝑡) ≤ − 𝑘𝑆2 (𝑡) + 𝑏 (𝑥) 𝑆 (𝑡) 𝑢cc

+ |𝑆 (𝑡)| (𝛿𝑎 (𝑥) + 𝛿𝑏 (𝑥) 𝑢asd )

𝑉̇ (𝑡) = 𝑆 (𝑡) 𝑆 ̇ (𝑡) + 𝜃̃𝑎𝑇 (𝑡) 𝑊𝑎 𝜃𝑎̇ (𝑡) + 𝜃̃𝑏𝑇 (𝑡) 𝑊𝑏 𝜃𝑏̇ (𝑡)

≤ − 𝑘𝑆2 (𝑡) + 𝑏 (𝑥) 𝑆 (𝑡) 𝑢cc + |𝑆 (𝑡)| (𝛿𝑎 + 𝛿𝑏 𝑢asd ) .

= − 𝑘𝑆 (𝑡) − (𝜃̃𝑎𝑇 (𝑡) 𝜑 (𝑥) − 𝛿𝑎 (𝑥)) 𝑆 (𝑡)

2

(33)

Substituting the compensational controller in (25) into

(33) and noticing that sgn(𝑆(𝑡))𝑆(𝑡) = |𝑆(𝑡)|, one can obtain

+ 𝑏 (𝑥) 𝑆 (𝑡) 𝑢cc + 𝜃̃𝑎𝑇 (𝑡) 𝑊𝑎 𝜃𝑎̇ (𝑡) + 𝜃̃𝑏𝑇 (𝑡) 𝑊𝑏 𝜃𝑏̇ (𝑡)

𝑏 (𝑥)

= − 𝑘𝑆2 (𝑡) + 𝜃̃𝑎𝑇 (𝑡) (𝑊𝑎 𝜃𝑎̇ (𝑡) − 𝜑 (𝑥) 𝑆 (𝑡)) 𝑉̇ (𝑡) ≤ − 𝑘𝑆2 (𝑡) − (𝛿𝑎 + 𝛿𝑏 𝑢asd ) sgn (𝑆 (𝑡)) 𝑆 (𝑡)

𝑏

+ 𝜃̃𝑏𝑇 (𝑡) (𝑊𝑏 𝜃𝑏̇ (𝑡) − 𝜑 (𝑥) 𝑆 (𝑡) 𝑢asd )

+ |𝑆 (𝑡)| (𝛿𝑎 + 𝛿𝑏 𝑢asd )

+ 𝑏 (𝑥) 𝑆 (𝑡) 𝑢cc + 𝑆 (𝑡) 𝛿𝑎 (𝑥) + 𝑆 (𝑡) 𝛿𝑏 (𝑥) 𝑢asd . 𝑏 (𝑥)

≤ − 𝑘𝑆2 (𝑡) − ( − 1) (𝛿𝑎 + 𝛿𝑏 𝑢asd ) |𝑆 (𝑡)| ≤ 0.

(32) 𝑏

(34)

Replacing 𝜃𝑎̇ (𝑡) and 𝜃𝑏̇ (𝑡) in (32) by their expression in

adaptive laws (20) and (32) can be rewritten as

From (30) and (34), we can find that 𝑉(𝑡) > 0 and

̇ ≤ 0. For these reasons, the close-loop controlled system

𝑉(𝑡)

𝑉̇ (𝑡) = − 𝑘𝑆2 (𝑡) + 𝑏 (𝑥) 𝑆 (𝑡) 𝑢cc + 𝑆 (𝑡) 𝛿𝑎 (𝑥)

is stable. Also, 𝑆(𝑡) ∈ 𝐿 ∞ , ‖𝜃̃𝑎 (𝑡)‖ ∈ 𝐿 ∞ , and ‖𝜃̃𝑏 (𝑡)‖ ∈ 𝐿 ∞

+ 𝑆 (𝑡) 𝛿𝑏 (𝑥) 𝑢asd can be determined.

8 Mathematical Problems in Engineering

20 40

10 30

0 20

x2

x1

−10 10

−20 0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

t (s) t (s)

(a) (b)

20

10

0

x3

−10

−20

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

t (s)

(c)

2 2

1

1.5

0

x1

x2

1

−1

0.5 −2

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

t (s) t (s)

(a) (b)

3

2.5

x3

1.5

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

t (s)

(c)

Further, from the inequality in (34), we have the following and initial conditions are kept the same as above; namely,

result: 𝜎 = 5.45, 𝛾 = 20, and [𝑥1 (0), 𝑥2 (0), 𝑥3 (0)] = [2, 1, 3] are

∞ ∞ maintained.

∫ 𝑘𝑆2 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡 ≤ − ∫ 𝑉̇ (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡 = 𝑉 (0) − 𝑉 (∞) < ∞. First, the uncontrolled system is considered. The behavior

0 0

(35) of the system without the action of the controller is simulated

over 100 seconds. As a result shown in Figure 5, all state

The inequality in (35) implies that 𝑆(𝑡) ∈ 𝐿 2 , leading variables experience chaotic oscillations separately. Then, for

to 𝑆(𝑡) ∈ 𝐿 2 ∩ 𝐿 ∞ . On the other hand, because of (8), we examining the ability of chaos suppression, we set the desired

̇

can obtain 𝑒(𝑡) ∈ 𝐿 ∞ , 𝑒(𝑡) ̇

∈ 𝐿 ∞ , and 𝑆(𝑡) ∈ 𝐿 ∞ . Then, value 𝑦𝑑 (𝑡) = 1 and let the controller be operated since the

incorporating Barbalat’s lemma [28] yields lim𝑡 → ∞ 𝑆(𝑡) = 0, beginning time. As displayed in Figure 6, the incipient chaos

so lim𝑡 → ∞ 𝑒(𝑡) = 0. Therefore, the system stability is ensured is quickly suppressed when the controller is active at the first

and the perfect tracking performance is achieved. This proof of period time, and all state variables converge to constant

is finished. values asymptotically fast.

Second, the proposed controller is employed to repress

4. Simulation Study chaos and track the desired speed in a PMSM. The simulation

is implemented with the presence of uncertainties and per-

Here numerical simulations are carried out to verify the turbation of system parameters. The simulation time is 40 s

validity of the proposed method. The system parameters and the controller is turned on at time 𝑡 = 10 s. The system

Mathematical Problems in Engineering 9

15 15

10 10

5 5

y e

0 0

−5 −5

−10 −10

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

t (s) t (s)

Response (y)

(a) (b)

Figure 7: Speed tracking of the chaotic PMSM when the controller is turned on at time 𝑡 = 10 s.

6000 200

4000 150

2000 100

u(t) 50

S(t)

0

0

−2000 −50

−4000 −100

−6000 −150

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

t (s) t (s)

(a) (b)

Figure 8: Sliding surface and control signal when the controller is active.

parameters are chosen in such a way that they can vary within asymptotically fast when the controller is turned on at time

the chaotic region [5]. One can choose 𝜎 = 5.45 + 0.1 sin(𝑥1 ) 𝑡 = 10 s. In Figure 8, the sliding surface 𝑆(𝑡) and controller

and 𝛾 = 20 + cos(𝑥3 ) to meet the requirement for chaotic force 𝑢(𝑡) are shown in the period of the 10th second to the

region. On the other hand, for satisfying Assumptions 1 and 20th second. After the controller starts, the value of switching

2, the uncertainties can be chosen as Δ 1 = 1 + cos(𝑥1 + 𝑥3 ), surface converges to zero speedily. It is also noticeable that

Δ 2 = 1, and Δ 3 = sin(𝑥2 ). The desired trajectory 𝑦𝑑 (𝑡) = the chattering phenomenon, which is usually considered as

2 sin((𝜋/5)𝑡), which satisfies Assumption 3, is assigned for a drawback of conventional sliding model control, does not

this simulation, while the control parameters are specified as appear in our design. On the other hand, the responses of all

follows: state variables are expressed in Figure 9 and they demonstrate

that the chaotic motion in PMSM is suppressed quickly when

𝜆 = 587.9, 𝑘 = 7048.6, 𝑏 = 1, 𝛿𝑎 = 𝛿𝑏 = 0.01, the controller runs.

𝑊𝑎 = 3368 ∗ eye (9) , 𝑊𝑏 = 9569.7 ∗ eye (9) .

(36)

5. Conclusion

The results, as depicted in Figures 7–9, demonstrate that

the chaotic oscillations are completely suppressed and the Based on fuzzy neural networks, the adaptive sliding mode

speed of PMSM perfectly follows the desired trajectory, while control scheme cannot only completely suppress chaos but

the tracking error asymptotically converges to zero when also successfully track the desired speed in an uncertain

the controller is turned on at time 𝑡 = 10 s. As displayed chaotic permanent magnet synchronous motor. By choos-

in Figure 7(a), the tracking performance is illustrated over ing the appropriate controller parameters, chattering phe-

the simulation time. The response 𝑦(𝑡), which is denoted by nomenon can be avoided instead of compromise in con-

a solid line, nearly overlaps the desired trajectory 𝑦𝑑 (𝑡) = ventional sliding mode control. In addition, because the

2 sin((𝜋/5)𝑡), which is represented by a dotted line, after adaptive laws are derived from Lyapunov function, the system

the 10th second. Also, the tracking error is described in stability is guaranteed and perfect tracking performance is

Figure 7(b), where the tracking error converges to zero ensured even if the uncertainties affect the system. Numerical

10 Mathematical Problems in Engineering

20

10 10

x2

0 0

x1

−10

−10

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

t (s) t (s)

(a) (b)

30

20

x3

10

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

t (s)

(c)

Figure 9: State responses of the chaotic PMSM when the controller is turned on at time 𝑡 = 10 s.

simulations were realized to demonstrate the effectiveness [7] D. Liu, H. Ren, and X. Liu, “Chaos control in permanent magnet

and robustness of the proposed method. synchronous motor,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International

Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS ’04), vol. 4, pp. IV-

732–IV-735, Vancouver, Canada, May 2004.

Conflict of Interests [8] Y. Gao and K. T. Chau, “Chaotification of permanent-magnet

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests synchronous motor drives using time-delay feedback,” in Pro-

ceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial

regarding the publication of this paper.

Electronics Society (IECON ’02), vol. 1, pp. 762–766, Sevilla,

Spain, November 2002.

Acknowledgment [9] H. P. Ren and C. Z. Han, “Chaotifying control of permanent

magnet synchronous motor,” in Proceedings of the CES/IEEE 5th

This paper was supported by the National Science Council of International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference

Taiwan under Contracts NSC101-2221-E-006-190-MY2 and (IPEMC ’06), vol. 1, pp. 1–5, Shanghai, China, August 2006.

NSC102-2221-E-366-003. [10] Z. Meng, C. Sun, Y. An, J. Cao, and P. Gao, “Chaos anti-

control of permanent magnet synchronous motor based on

References model matching,” in Proceedings of the International Conference

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[1] P. Pillay and R. Krishnan, “Control characteristics and speed Seoul, Republic of Korea, October 2007.

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