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Portfolio Project

EDUC 765: Trends and Issues in Instructional Design

By: Abbie Weispfenning

February 2016

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PROJECT PROPOSAL – MODULE 2
Project Title
Exploring Leadership

Sponsoring Organization
ABC, Inc.

Project Description
ABC, Inc. is a fast growing company with many career advancement opportunities. With the
rapid growth, many employees have had the opportunity to move into a management role but
don’t fully understand what being a manager entails until they are in the new position. This is
causing high turnover because the employees moving into the management role don’t enjoy the
responsibilities or they do not have the essential skills needed to be a good leader. This not only
effects the manager but also impacts their direct reports. High turnover and unhappy employees
lead to the need for an Exploring Leadership training. This training will provide employees
interested in moving into management a clear guide to what they would be responsible for and
the key skills they would need to be an effective manager.

Aim
Help employees of ABC, Inc. interested in pursuing management to understand what the benefits
and challenges of being a manager, what skills are needed to be an effective manager, and what
would be expected of them if they choose to move into a leadership position at ABC, Inc.

Target Audience
The target audience for this training would be any employee at ABC, Inc. interested in pursuing a
career path in management. The employee must meet the following criteria before participating
in this training:
 One year of work experience at ABC, Inc.
 Bachelor’s degree
 Be in good standing for performance (Reference 9 box rating)

Delivery Options
The delivery options for this training will use a blended approach. It will use both online training
and live face-to-face training sessions with pre-work and post-work. This blended approach will
be used to help cater to the many different learning styles that the participants may have.

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FRONT-END ANALYSIS: INSTRUCTIONAL NEED – MODULE 3
Instructional Need
ABC, Inc.is a fast growing company with many career advancement opportunities. With the
rapid growth, many employees have had the opportunity to move into a management role but
don’t fully understand what being a manager entails until they are in the new position. This is
causing high turnover because the employees moving into the management role don’t enjoy the
responsibilities or they do not have the essential skills needed to be a good leader. This not only
effects the manager but also impacts their direct reports. High turnover and unhappy employees
lead to the need for an exploring leadership training. This training will provide employees
interested in moving into management a clear guide to what they would be responsible for and
the key skills they would need to be an effective manager. This will also give them the
opportunity to practice the skills that would be needed and they will be paired with a mentor that
will provide them further guidance and support.

This training will respond to the existing performance problems of our managers but it also helps
to recognize a need to further develop our employees. By doing this it will create an internal
pipeline for managers which will provide a wider pool for recruiting purposes and it will give our
internal employees greater opportunity for promotion instead of searching for outside talent.

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FRONT-END ANALYSIS: LEARNER CHARACTERISTICS – MODULE 3
Learner Analysis

Primary Audience (Training will be required for these employees)


 Full time employees applying for a management role internally

Secondary Audience (Training will be voluntary for these employees)


 Full time employees looking for a career path change within ABC, Inc.
 Full time employees interested in pursuing a management role at ABC, Inc.

General Learner Characteristics


 Gender: Male=63.7%, Female=36.3%
 Generation: Baby Boomers=4.0%, Gen X=19.6%, Millennials=76.4%
 Education: Bachelor’s degree through graduate degree
 Work Experience: At least one year in an individual contributor role at ABC, Inc.

Entry Characteristics
 Most are familiar with the organizational structure of ABC, Inc.
 All have a direct manager they report to ABC, Inc.
 All have experience working with a manager at ABC, Inc.
 Some may have management experience at a past company and may believe they
will learn nothing from this training
 Some may be motivated to take the training because they are applying for a
management role outside of ABC, Inc.
 All are in good standing (reference 9-box rating)

Contextual Analysis

Orienting Context
 The learners want to learn more about the roles, responsibilities, benefits, and
challenges of being a manager at ABC, Inc.
 The learners perceive high utility in this training as none of the learners
participating have been a manager at ABC, Inc.
 The learners may have a low perception of accountability as many are just exploring
what leadership is but will not necessarily move into a manager role.
 The learners may believe that completing this training will guarantee them a
management role at ABC, Inc.

Instructional Context
 Scheduling:
o Do not schedule on ABC, Inc. Holidays (Domestics and International)

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o Do not schedule early morning trainings during winter months (Dec-Feb)
o Schedule trainings for no more than one hour
o Schedule trainings in ABC, Inc. training center and also offer webinar
information to remote employees
 Lighting
o Close shades in room if sun is streaming through
o Turn off lights in front of the room to make screen easier to see
 Noise
o Post signs outside training center asking passers to keep down the noise level
o Book the room next door to avoid extra noise
 Temperature
o Get facilities contact information if the temperature needs to be adjusted
 Seating
o Make sure all tables and chairs are facing towards the projector screen
o Move anything that may block learners view of the screen
 Accommodations
o If training is conducted over lunch, provide lunch for the group
o Give the hotel information to remote employees that may be visiting for the
training
 Equipment
o Laptops are provided to all employees
o Projector is available in the training center
o HDMI cords are available in the training center
o Microphones are available in the training center
o White boards are available in the training center
o Phone is available in the training center
 Transportation
o Training will be held in the Minneapolis office, so transportation will be
unnecessary for Minneapolis employees
o For remote employees traveling to the office for training, provide driving
instructions and taxi/public transportation information. However, it will not
be required that they attend the training in person as webinar dial-in
information will be available.

Technology Inventory
 Learners all have access to laptops with internet access, Microsoft Office Suite and
phones.
 Instructors have access to laptops, phones, projectors, projector screen, microphone,
HDMI cords, Microsoft Office, internet

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Transfer Context
 Learners will be asked to watch videos and then will be attending monthly forums
that will involve discussions on the topics and role playing to practice what was
learned.
 Learners will be asked to create an individual development plan to show how they
will practice and improve the skills they will learn in the training
 Learners will be assigned a mentor that will provide them guidance and support
 Although learners will not be managers yet, they will still be tasked with taking the
leadership skills they learned and applying them to their current roles through
either co-workers or customers

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INSTRUCTIONAL IMPACT BASED UPON LEARNER CHARACTERISTICS
Application of Learning Theories
The target audience for this training will be adults so it will be important to consider adult
learning theories when designing this training. For this training I believe it would be
important to apply K.P. Cross’s Characteristics of Adults as Learners (CAL) model. This
model emphasizes that instruction for adults should capitalize on the experience of the
participants, adapt to the aging limitations of the participants, should be challenged to
move through advanced stages of personal development, and the learners should have as
much choice as possible in the organization of the instruction (Culatta, 2015). I believe it
will be very important to keep these principles in mind when creating this training program
to keep the learners engaged through the training.

Jerome Bruner’s Constructivist Theory would also be helpful for this training. The
constructivist theory emphasizes that instruction must be concerned with the experiences
and contexts that make the student willing and able to learn (Culatta, 2015). It will be
important that this training relates to the learners past experiences with their manager.
The instruction also needs to be presented in a way that is easy to grasp for the learners.

I will also consider Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory when creating this training.
This theory recognizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes,
and emotional reactions of others. The theory believes that involving other people in the
learning process can have a powerful influence on the learners’ motivation and
performance (Culatta, 2015). In the Exploring Leadership training, it will be important for
the learners to be paired up with a mentor whom they can model behaviors and attitudes
from.

Application of Motivational Theories


Keeping learners motivated throughout the exploring leadership training is going to be
critical. To ensure that this happens, I will follow John Keller’s ARCS Model of Motivational
Design. This model consists of 4 steps for promoting and sustaining motivation in learning.
These steps include: Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction (Clark, 2004). To
grab the learners’ attention, I will plan to use a variety of learning methods such as role
playing, small group discussions, panels, videos, stories, and games. To make sure the
training is relevant for the learners, I will make sure to present how the skills learned will
be useful to them in the future and how they can build on their current skills. I will also
make the learners reflect on their past experiences with their past or present managers to
better understand why there is a need for this training. To give the learners confidence, I
will provide clear learning objectives that will be expected of them to be successful in the
training, provide feedback, and give them some control over the learning. To give the
learners satisfaction from the learning, they will receive a certificate of completion once the
training program is completed which will be needed in order for them to move into a
management role.

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Impact of a Diverse Audience on Instruction
ABC, Inc. has offices in several different international locations which means the training
will have a diverse audience. The training can accommodate the diverse audience by:
 Continually emphasizing and assisting language through modeling, eliciting,
probing, restating, clarifying, questioning, and praising
 Create meaning by making connection to real-world contexts
 Teach through conversation with learners
 Define acronyms and abbreviations
 Avoid jargon and idioms
 Distinguish between nouns and verbs to aid in translation
 Watch for cultural bias and expectations
 Avoid humor and puns
 Avoid figurative language
 Be careful with numbers, measurements, dates, and times
 Schedule to accommodate all time differences
 Provide webinar information to keep other locations involved in training

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TASK/GOAL/PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS – MODULE 5
Task Analysis Method
The method I chose to use for my task analysis is topic analysis. Topic analysis helps to identify
the facts, concepts, and principles needed for the instruction. This will help to reveal the content
that is going to be the focus of the instruction and it will identify the structure of the components.
The outline developed will help to set a framework to refer to as a guide for the instruction. The
Exploring Leadership training will consist of several facts and concepts to help the learner better
understand the roles and responsibilities of being a manager. Therefore, the topic analysis will
better help to create structure around the information provided.

Task Analysis
Topic Analysis: To conduct the topic analysis, I met with a SME to learn more about the roles
and responsibilities of being a manager at ABC, Inc. as well as the benefits and challenges.

I. Role 1: People Developer


a. Define
i. Demonstrate accountability to develop team members
ii. “Grow your talent”
b. Tasks
i. Identifies and nurtures talent of the employees. Encourages employees
to build Individual Development Plan based on performance and
career goals.
ii. Coach employees through role playing
iii. Sets goals, provides feedback, reinforces positive performance
c. Benefits
i. See employees grow
ii. Helps employees to be successful
d. Challenges
i. May require tough conversations when constructive feedback is
needed
II. Role 2: Implementor
a. Define
i. Plan, organized, lead and coordinate employee’s work
ii. “Get stuff done”
b. Tasks
i. Sets clear expectations and communicates priorities
ii. Implements structures and systems that work effectively within the
team
iii. Delegates to create opportunity for team members to learn and develop
– maximizes the talent of the team to drive results
c. Benefits
i. Use employees’ strengths to complete work
ii. Create efficiencies
d. Challenges

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i. Must take responsibility for the work of the group
ii. Expected to go above and beyond to ensure the success of the group
III. Role 3: Environment Manager
a. Define
i. Attract and retain a diverse group of team members
ii. “Build a positive culture”
b. Tasks
i. Encourages new ideas and is open to diverse thought
ii. Is respectful and calm in actions with others
iii. Leads and manages change - reduces ambiguity and sets clear
direction
c. Benefits
i. Can shape the work environment for team
d. Challenges
i. Must understand employees work preferences to create a positive
environment
ii. Must have emotional intelligence
IV. Role 4: Strategist
a. Define
i. Focused on customer success
ii. “Chart the future”
b. Tasks
i. Challenges current and past practices, and redefines best practices
through continuous improvement
ii. Builds a business case by aligning the organizational goals to the team
goals
iii. Understands the industry and seeks to understand the competition
c. Benefits
i. Contributes to success of the team and organization
d. Challenges
i. Best practices need to be constantly redefined
ii. Requires research

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES – MODULE 5


Project (Instructional) Goal

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At the conclusion of this training, learners interested in becoming a manager will be able to
gain a realistic preview of a job as a manager which will help them to determine whether
management is the career path they wish to pursue.

Terminal Objectives and Enabling Objectives


By the end of the training, learners will be able to:

 Identify the four roles of the manager with 100% accuracy, as demonstrated verbally
or in writing. (Cognitive Domain)

 Explain at least three challenges and three benefits of being a manager, as


demonstrated verbally or in writing. (Cognitive Domain)

 Describe, in your own words, the daily tasks of being a manager. (Cognitive Domain)

 Evaluate why you want to be a manager or why you may not want to be a manager to
determine if a management career path is for you. (Cognitive Domain)
o Identify at least three of your personal strengths and three weaknesses
through self-reflection to determine if they align with management
requirements (understand – cognitive)
o Compare at least five of your personal skills to skills needed to be a successful
manager (evaluate – cognitive)
o Compare whether you believe the benefits outweigh the challenges of being a
manager (organization – affective)
o Explain what you value in your job and if you will still find those values in a
management role (valuing – affective)

ENABLING OBJECTIVES MATRIX & SUPPORTING CONTENT – MODULE 6


Title of the unit/module: Evaluating If Management Is Right for You

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List Terminal Objective Here: Evaluate why you want to be a manager or why you may not
want to be a manager to determine if a management career path is for you.

List Pre-instructional Strategy: Provide learners with a knowledge map that visually
displays the roles of the manager.

Enabling Level on Fact, concept, Learner Activity Delivery Method


Objective Bloom’s principle, (What would (Group
Taxonomy* rule, learners do to presentation/lecture,
procedure, master this self-paced, or small
interpersonal, objective?) group)
or attitude?
Identify at Understanding Concepts Create a Self-paced
least three of strengths venn
your personal diagram and a
strengths and weaknesses venn
three diagram
weaknesses
through self-
reflection to
determine if
they align
with
management
requirements
Compare at Evaluating Concepts Create a Self-paced
least five of comparison table
your personal listing personal
skills to skills skills on one side
needed to be a and manager
successful skills on the
manager other
Compare Evaluating Attitudes Create a list of Self-paced and small
whether you benefits vs. group
believe the challenges of
benefits being a manager,
outweigh the work in group to
challenges of share these ideas
being a
manager
Explain what Creating Attitudes Brainstorm a list Self-paced and small
you value in of current job groups
your job and if values and
you will still management role
find those values, work in

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values in a group to share
management these ideas
role

Supporting Content

Personal Skills Comparison Chart

Directions: Use this document to compare your personal skills to the skills required for
being a manager. A list of skills has been provided in column one but additional lines
have been provided for you to add in any further skills you may think of. Place a check
mark in column two and three if you believe the skill applies to you personally or the role
of a manager.

Skills List Personal Skills Manager Skills


Strategic
Decision Making
Managing Teams
Communication
Provide Clear Direction
Problem Solving
Coaching
Team Building
Conflict Resolution
Adaptability
Results Oriented
Organization
Critical Thinking
Influencing
Delegating
People Management
Collaboration
Interpersonal

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REFERENCES
Clark, D.R. (2004). John Keller's ARCS Model of Motivational Design. Retrieved February 24,

2016, from http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/learning/id/arcs_model.html

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Culatta, R. (2015). Adult Learning (K. P. Cross). Retrieved February 24, 2016, from

http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/adult-learning.html

Culatta, R. (2015). Constructivist Theory (Jerome Bruner). Retrieved February 23, 2016, from

http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/constructivist.html

Culatta, R. (2015). Social Learning Theory (Albert Bandura). Retrieved February 23, 2016, from

http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/social-learning.html

Morrison, G. R., Ross, S. M., Kalman, H. K., Kemp, J. E. (2012). Designing Effective

Instruction (7th Edition) [Texidium version]. Retrieved from http://texidium.com

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