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REGIONAL SEMINAR- Workshop on Participatory Action Research

Central Bicol State University of Agriculture- Calabanga

Graduate School
November 25-29, 2016
Asst. Prof. II


 An INDEPENDENT variable is also called the experimental or predictor

 It is a variable that is being manipulated in an experiment in order to observe the
effect on a depended variable
 The DEPENDENT variable- the factor which is observed and measured to determine the
effect of the independent variable
The factor that appears, disappears as the experimenter introduces or removes the
independent variables
Extraneous variables are independent variables that have not been controlled.


 QUANTITATIVE VARIABLES are ones that exist along a continuum that runs from low to
 Among these ate the ordinal, interval and ratio
 Sometimes called continuous variable because they have a continuum characteristics(
i.e. height, test scores)
 QUALITATIVE variables do not express differences in amount, only differences
Referred to as categorical variables because they classify by categories
Nominal variables such as religion, gender, eye color
Dichotomous variable- special case of categorical variable

Identifying the sample or population

 Sampling refers to the process of selecting the individuals who will participate in the
study from the target population
 - narrow down
 - describe the population so that interested individuals can determine the applicability
of the findings in their own situation

 Research problem to be investigated: The effects of computer- assisted instruction on

the reading achievement of senior Highschool students of Calabanga.
 Target population: All Senior High school students in Calabanga
 Accessible Population: All Senior High school students in Private schools in Calabanga
 Sample:
Convenience sampling

 - refers to group of individuals who (conveniently are available for study.

 Examples:
 A high school counselor interview all the students who come to him for counseling
about their career plans
 A news reporter for a local television asking passerby about their opinion on something
 A teacher compares students reaction to two different textbook in her statistics class
Purposive sampling- the researcher use their judgement to select a sample that they believe,
based on prior information

Example: a social science teacher choosing two students with the highest grade, 2 with the
average grade and 2 with the lowest grade

Statistical Techniques

 T-test/ z test assess whether the means of two groups are statistically different from
each other. This analysis is appropriate whenever you want to compare the means of
two groups.


 This test is used to test for differences between 2 independent groups on a continuous
 Example: Do males and females differ in terms of their levels of self-esteem?
 This test requires two variables (male/female) and continuous variable (self-esteem)
This measure compares median

It converts the scores on the continuous variable to rank across the two groups and then
evaluates whether the medians for the two groups differ significantly.

Spearman rank correlation test

 This test is used to demonstrate the relationship between two ranked variables
 Frequently used to compare judgements by a group of judges on two objects, or the
scores of a group of subjects on two measures
Correlation- Statistics that involves in determining whether a relationship between two or more
numerical or quantitative variable exists

Regression- is used if a relationship does not exist

It is also used to describe the nature of relationship

 Examples:
 A manager wishes to find the relationship between the age of the employees and their
systolic blood pressure
 A medical researcher wants to determine how the dosage of a drug affects the heart
rate of the patient

 Could be used to compare the frequency count of what is expected in theory against
what is actually observed ( 1 type)
 The second type is known as chi square test with two variables or the chi-square test for
 Both of this involve categorical data

Example of the 1st type (test of Homogeneity)

An educator wishes to determine whether there is a difference in the favorite subjects selected
by male or female

A study of car accidents and drivers who uses cellphones while driving
 Example of Chi-square (test of Independence)
 A random sample of Makati residents are classified according to low, middle and high
income brackets and whether or not they favour the MMDA rerouting scheme in EDSA.
Can we conclude that the decision of the residents are dependent on the income
bracket of the residents?

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

 2. Each group is randomly selected and independent of all other groups.

 3. The variables from each group come from the distribution with approximately the
same standard deviation.
Examples: An introductory Calculus course is taken by students with varying high school
records. The results could be classified as Good, fair and Poor. The values given are the final
numerical averages in Calculus. Test the claim that the mean scores are equal in the 3 groups.

In selecting the appropriate statistical tool we should base the selection on the following
1) The level of data ( nominal, ordinal, ratio and interval)
2) The number of groups, samples in your research study
3) Were the data collected from independent groups or from related groups?
4) The characteristics/ distribution of the data.


Keep things simple

Statistics by themselves are meaningless, it is the analysis and discussion of statistics which
makes them meaningful and brings them to life.

Thank you!