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CENTRAL BICOL STATE UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE


Calabanga Campus

Research Proposal

A. BASIC INFORMATION

Title: Stress and Depression Coping Mechanisms of the Students and Teachers

I. Proponents & Institution

Name: NILDA P. OLORES,PhD


Designation: Guidance Coordinator
Agency & Address: CBSUA – Calabanga

Name: Niňa Francia B. Bergonio


Designation: Guidance Administrative Aide III
Agency & Address: CBSUA – Calabanga

II. Project Duration: One (1) Year

B. TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION

I. Rationale
Life is the battlefield of stress and depression,wherein one has to win against
himself.Every day, we always face challenges coupled with it stress’ and if we do
not beat it depression will follow.Regardless of our effort on how resourceful we
are in coping stress and depression circumstances of life unavoidable therein exist
all our stresses.There are obstacles in life that hinder us to move on and
overcome those trials but we just need courage and strength to fight it.We are
living in a societyfull of strife and trials, hence, we are not ease to continue living
without frustration, we are always being challenged to cope and savor success
after all the stop and starts.
Students in the field of schooling always facing challenges and hardships on how
they will achieve their goals. They should be sustained by their family, peers,
teachers in terms of their psychological and emotional needs as they will be
facing strenuous lifestyle, thus their stress and depression will occur. However,
facing stress and depression should be well managed by the students themselves,
hence, their coping skills must be developed in order to surpass the crucial stage
of their journey in schooling.
Some stress is necessary for normal functioning. The nervous system
apparently needs a certain amount of stimulation to function properly. But stress
that is too intense or prolonged can have destructive physiological and
psychological effects ( 2005,Evangelista). Stress is the fear of the known and
unknown. We feel it most when we are take out of our comfort zone. A little
stress is healthy, it gives us our drive and enhances our performance. When our
stress level is too high, we experience internal or external conflicts which affects
our mental,physical, and spiritual being. Everyone experiences stress but how
they behave in different situations depends on the individual, their environment
and their emotional and mental make up.
When children experience depression their denial changes the way they act and
react and their behavior may appear out of character. They may become
aggressive or belligerent and may take part in risky behavior like turning to drugs
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or alcohol, compounding their problems (2004, Lane-Smith).Depression can also


be genetic passed on by a biological relative or caused by a body chemical
embalance, it needs to be taken seriously by every parent needs early
intervention and treatment.
There should be coping mechanisms or strategies to be used in order to
overcome by the students their stress and depression and it is said that laughter
be utilized as a stress diffuser as laughter can be used to lessen tension and
stress according to Budilousky and Adamson. It is healing,relaxing and a great
way to put things into perspective. In fact there is even a form of meditation that
is based around laughter (2005, Evangelista ).
Having all the stress and depression in life we need to learn how to cope
with it, but it would depend on how you will deal with it because life is what we
make it and we have to look deeply at our lives and work out our priorities.

II. Research Questions

This study aims to find out the stress and depression coping mechanism of
the college students and teachers in CBSUA-Calabangacampus.Specifically it
seeks to answer the following research questions:
1. What are the sources of stress and depression along;
a.Personal
b.Social

2. What are the stress coping mechanisms of the students and teachers?
3. What are the depression coping mechanisms of the students and teachers ?
4. Are there significant differences in the stress and coping mechanisms of the
students and teachers?
5. Is there significant relationship between the coping mechanisms of the
students and teachers and their academic and job performance respectively?

IV. Hypotheses

a. There are no significant differences in the stress and depression coping mechanisms
of the students
b. There is no significant relationship between the coping mechanisms of the students
and teachers and their academic and job performance respectively.

V. Significance of the Study

The results of the research study will be of great help to the following:

Educational Institutions.This study will enable the institution to develop


programs and activities to support students on how they will deal with their
concerns toward achieving success in school.

Administrators. It encourages them to closely monitor the guidance and


counseling services in the pursuance of university mandates that students should
uphold to higher ethical standard of the institution.
Guidance Counselors. This research study will motivate them to be more
responsible in assisting and supporting the students in dealing with their stress
and depression hence,will lead them to improve the guidance program geared to
a more functional unit in the institution.
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Curriculum Makers. They will be guided to formulate programs on guidance and


counseling as part of the curriculum in every colleges in the university.

Teachers/Mentors. The result of the study will enlighten them that


instruction and mentoring are not the only task in the classroom but likewise to
secure the psychological and emotional condition of the students.

Guidance Staff. This may also encourage the guidance staff to be creative
in introducinginnovations of activities/programsthat will enhance
students/mentees’ personality.

Future Researchers. The findings of the study will serve as a reference


material and a guide for future researches who wish to conduct on coping
mechanisms of students in their stress and depression.

VI. Review of Literature

The study of Serrano ( 2005 ),she determined the coping behaviours to work
related stress among teachers and the vulnerability of the teachers to stress and the
sources of job related stress among teachers, likewise to what extent the mediating
factors influenced coping behaviours and significant relationship between coping
behaviours and self efficacy of the teachers.
The results indicated that more than half of the respondents are vulnerable to
stress. Consistent with past studies on sources of teacher stress, the respondents
consider work overload as extremely stressful. Important factors here include oversized
classes and excessive paperwork.Teachers in dealing with job related stress engage in
adaptive as well as to a lesser degree in maladaptive behaviours,therefore its
significance has to be taken into account in relation with the stress being experienced by
the teacher. Mediating variables like age, civil status,number of children and socio-
economic status do not have significant influence on behaviour.
However, gender,length of service and teacher roles have significant influence to
coping behaviour and there is a significant relationship between coping behaviour and
self efficacy. As recommendation in this study further studies on socio-environmental
factors related to teacher stress, as well as possible and effective measures or
interventions that that would help the teachers cope with job-related stress.

research on the depression and treatment outcomes among U.S. college students exists,
it is scarce and inconsistent, with varying inclusion and exclusion criteria and
measurement of depression severity and its treatment. Future work needs to focus on
the development of reasonable benchmarks of depression and treatment outcomes in
the college population and the integration of such outcome data into college mental
health practice. (Psychiatric Services 60:1257–1260, 2009)
Many college administrators have begun to appreciate the effect that a student's
depression can have on overall functioning in the college community. Depression has
been linked to academic difficulties as well as interpersonal problems at school, with
more severe depression correlated with higher levels of impairment (5). The treatment of
depression among college students has been associated with a protective effect on
these students' grade point averages (6). In an effort to diagnose and treat early and
effectively, and thus decrease the excess morbidity and risk of suicide associated with
depression, some U.S. colleges have even begun to screen students for depression in
the primary care setting (7).

There are unique challenges of providing treatment to college students. These


challenges include significant academic pressure in semester-based cycles, extensive
semester breaks that result in discontinuities of care, and heavy reliance on community
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supports that can be inconsistent. Given the prevalence and impact of depression on
college campuses and the varying services offered by university mental health centers
treatment and their related outcomes.
Olaso( 2005 ) revealed that the primary sources of stress by the employees were
stress, the employees have a moderate level of coping to stress. The physical exercise
program designed to provide mechanism for stress contained appropriate activities
which enables the employees to divert their attention. It is recommended that in order to
improve the educational qualification of the employees, the school administration may
intensify the implementation of the faculty development program. The
schooladministration may come up with contingency measures to release benefits and
increase due to employees as scheduled or planned. It may also review its salary scale
and policies regarding promotions to promote the morale of the employees. Employees
be provided with stress management seminar. Future students may use other indicators
to determine the coping mechanisms to stress.
According to Natividad (2012) stress is already part of everyday life. People
experiences it in varying forms and degrees everyday. Some degree of stress or
pressure maybe health.
The respondents believed a moderate stress level. Therefore, exposure to job
stressors will lead to a satisfactory job performance of the respondents. As the level of
anxiety increases, performance efficiency increases proportionately, only up to s point.
As anxiety further, performance efficiency decreases. It is recommended that
administration should include a stress management program for their employees to avoid
excessive stress level. It should include coping mechanism as it will help the employee
progress in his understanding of human development and emotional impulses that make
him act.
Averion (2004) showed that children aged 9-13 are not at high risk in developing
manifestations of childhood depression and children whether with absentee parents or
living with both parents, showed positive management of childhood depression family,
interpersonal, and school situations. Thus, it is recommended that parents must check
the emotional status of their children and the school must have a careful assessment
and observation of the needs of the pupils. This is necessary in preventing children to
experience childhood depression.
Study of Jusi (2001) revealed that children have their own coping strategies to
such problem. Most of the times the respondents pray to God and watch television
program to cope with the problems confronting them. When it comes to personal
problem, some of them could not express ideas and could not express themselves.
When it come to social problem, some of them were ashamed when with other people
and want to understand by others.
Ferrer (2000) found out that personal related stresses was the most stressful time
type of stress experienced by the patients, stressor affected the patients regardless of
age, civil status, and gender. Kidney transplant patient belong to low income level and
the spirituality of the patients is their strongest coping mechanism. In the study it was
highly recommended the implementation of a continuous counselling program on the
post-kidney transplant patient that may help them cope and manage their lives despite of
the stresses they experience.
Castro (2009) concluded that every teacher gets angry in varying degrees
regardless of age, civil status, religion, and number of year in teaching profession, male
teachers are angrier than female teachers, the more emotionally wounded the more
susceptible a teacher is to anger. Behaviour manifestation of the wounding effects during
infancy, school age and toddlerhood could serve as benchmark indicators for healing
treatment. Hence, trial testing of the inner healing program to a group of teachers,
include a series of healing seminar-workshop in the teacher’s training program that could
create an impact on the teachers themselves and on their way of relating to the students,
establish regular support group activities and stress debriefing exercises that would
enhance the teachers healing and growth.
The theory proposed by Lazaruz, Schater and Folkman ( 2011) emphasized on
how the individual appraise the stressful situation and subsequently activates as a
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coping process. In other words, the stress aspects of any situation are directly related to
what individual perceives to be stressful. Cognitive approaches to coping are based
on the following assumption, first assumption is how an individual copes with a problem
is largely dependent upon his/her appraisal of the situation, and second assumption
assumes that the individuals are flexible in their strategies and modify and their
strategies according to the demand of the particular situation/problem.

VII. Theoretical Framework

The trait-oriented theories focus on the early recognition of a person’s resources


and tendencies related to coping, while the state-oriented theories emphasizes
the actual coping of an individual and the outcome of his application of coping
methods or strategies.On the other hand, the microanalytic approach studies a
wide variety of specific and concrete coping strategies, while the macroanalytic
approach concentrates on fundamental and abstract coping methodologies.

Repression–sensitization.this theory states that there is a bipolar dimension in


which a person copes with the stress in only one of two opposite poles –
repression or sensitization. People who tend to be repressers cope with the stress
by means of denying or minimizing its existence. They use the avoidance coping
mechanism such that they are unable to realize the potential negative outcomes
of the stressful experience. In contrast to this, sensitizers tend to react to stress
with rumination, excessive worrying and obsessive search for information on
stress-related cues.

According to Miller, monitoring and blunting is a construct that is based on the


repression-sensitization theory due to the similarity in their nature as cognitive
informational styles. However, this construct, particularly blunting, tells us that
the impact of uncontrollable stressful cues can be reduced by the individual
through the use of cognitive avoidance (e.g. denial, reinterpretation,
distraction).Under controllable stress, monitoring is said to be a more effective
coping strategy, as it includes seeking information related to the stressor.

Depression is an illness that presents an individual with a desolate mood, a loss of


interest and pleasure, feelings of guilt or low self worth, disrupted sleep pattern
or appetite, a loss of energy and poor concentration. These problems become
ingrained in the individual and can cause serious problems in their ability to cope
with their day to day responsibilities. There are many psychological theories of
what causes depression and how we should treat them, but which theory is the
most appropriate?

Cognitive psychology can explain how individuals become depressed due to faulty
thinking patterns which affect their perceptions of themselves, the world and the
future. Beck (1967) uses his cognitive triad to explain and treat depression. He
believes that these faulty thinking patterns combined with negative schemas and
cognitive biases can cause depression by producing an inescapable cycle of
negative thoughts. Under this approach cognitive behavioural therapy is often
used to help depression, while this has be shown to be helpful, maybe it
overemphasises the importance of cognitive processes as it is possible that
people’s negative emotions are not maladaptive but are realistic interpretations of
their situations.
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Under the behaviourist perspective, Lewinsohn (1974) explains how negative


behaviour such as depression is learnt, which also means that they can be
unlearnt. People can become depressed due to a lack of positive reinforcement
for their behaviour and actions and this depression can be prolonged through
positive reinforcement such as sympathy and attention for depressive behaviour.
Psychologists will treat depression with behavioural therapy aiming to teach
patients new skills to avoid depression instead of looking at factors that causes it.
However due to recent research showing how internal events such as
perceptions, expectations, and attitudes do effect behaviour and are important to
take into account in therapy, these behavioural techniques have decreased in
popularity in recent years.

The biological approach would argue that people are born with a genetic
disposition towards depression. While this is a reductionist as genetics are
assumed to be the only explanation, depression can be found in more than one
member of some families. For example, Wender et al. (1967) found a genetic link
between family members and depression in their study into adopted individuals
with affective disorders. Biological treatments usually involve drug treatments,
which vary in their action, but all act upon the neurological system of the body.
The problem with this theory is that depression could be common in some
families due the social learning theory, meaning that there could be a tendency to
copy role models.

In conclusion, it is likely that depression is caused by a combination of factors.


For example, someone may be born predisposed to depression but may not
develop it due to positive life events. The same can be said for others who
experience life events that are enough to give them depression even though they
have no history of depression in their family. In this way, it cannot be said that
only one of these theories is appropriate to explain and treat depression.
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Trait
Oriented
Theories

Repression State
- Oriented
sensitizatio STUDENT Theories
S
n

Monitorin
g and
Blunting

Figure 1: Theoretical Framework of the study


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VIII. Conceptual Framework

STRESS AND DEVELOPED


SURVEY
DEPRESSION COPING
QUESTIONAIRE
COPING MECHANISMS AND
MECHANISMS OF STRATEGIES OF
THE STUDENTS THE STUDENTS
AND TEACHERS AND TEACHERS

Figure 2.Showing the relationship between stress and depression of studentsand


teachers andtheir coping mechanisms.

The conceptual framework shows the relationship of the stress and


depression coping mechanisms of the students and teachers. It is expected that
the students and teachers will develop effective coping mechanisms and
strategies. Using the survey questionnaire will enable to gather data wherein the
students and teachers coping mechanisms will be determined whereas it shall
conclude the academic and job performance of the students and teachers
respectively likewise if there is a relationship between coping mechanisms and
academic and job performance. Documentary analysis will also be considered in
the processof gathering data hence scrutinizing the performance rating of the
students and teachers will find out if the coping mechanisms have something to
do with their performances. As nowadays,noticeably students and teachers are
experiencing stress and depression maybe due to the demands of schooling and
work.

IX. Definition of Terms

The following terms will be defined operationally as they will be used in the
present research study:

Stress. This refers to as a nonspecific response to perceived environmental threats


(called stressors). But a particular environmental change (a demand or an event) may be
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perceived by one person as stressful and by another as benign. This is a feeling of


discomfort due to overwork in the school and work, and may tend the students and
teachers to be non productive as they tolerate it.

Depression.This an illness that presents an individual with a desolate mood, a loss of


interest and pleasure, feelings of guilt or low self worth, disrupted sleep pattern, a loss
of energy and poor concentration or appetite.

Achievement: Achievement encompasses student ability and performance; it is


multidimensional; it is intricately related to human growth and cognitive, emotional,
social, and physical development; it reflects the whole child; it is not related to a single
instance, but occurs across time and levels, through a student’s life in public school and
on into post secondary years and working life." (Steinberger, 1993) Merriam Webster
defines achievement as "the quality and quantity of a student's work." This second
definition is the one that more or less applies to this research, the former being too
exhaustive. What we need here is the quality of the students’ work; we need to calculate
the mean of their overall grades during the first semester of the current year.

Coping. This refers to constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage
the specific external or internal demand that are appraised as taxing or exceeding the
resources of the person.
Coping Mechanism. This is the adjustment mechanisms or style elicited by the persons
to achieve indirect satisfaction of a must tension pressure or conflict.
Avoidant Coping. This refers to coping strategy for people who lack confidence to
confront problem and keep away from and ignore them. Operationally, it is defined in
the study as avoiding situations that will make the children remind their unpleasant
experiences.
Emotional Stability. This refers to the ability of the character to remain stable in times of
stress and their ability to cope with its daily challenges.
Instrumental Coping. This refers to action that help individual remedy the effect of
traumatic event or to carry on life activities.
X. Scope and Limitations
Primarily, the study is concern to determine the Stress and Depression
Coping Mechanism of the College Students and Teachers in CBSUA-Calabanga
Campus School year 2014-2015. The study will consider the personal and social
as the sources of stress and depression of the respondents and will focus to the
college students and permanent teachers, the respondents will be selected
through the slovin’s formula at 5 percent error and will be selected using stratified
random sampling.

XII. Research Methodology


The descriptive, evaluative and correlational methods of research will be
used in this study hence a self made questionnaire will be conducted to the
respondents, documentary analysis and informal interview likewise will be utilized
to validate information from the respondents.

Gantt chart

Activities Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
I. Preparation of Research Proposal
II. Data Gathering and Data Treatment
III. Data Analysis & Interpretation
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IV. Implementation of Recommendations.

I. Budgetary Requirements
TOTAL
ITEMS/ PARTICULARS UM TARGET UNIT COST COST
Foods/ meals Day 5 200.00 1000.00
Bond paper Ream 3 120.00 360.00
Ink cartridge (black and colour) Piece 2 1500.00 3000.00
Book binding and photocopy 6 300.00 1800.00
Travel expenses 1 600.00 600.00
GRAND TOTAL 6,760.00

II.Bibliography and Literature Cited

(1) http://www.cliffsnotes.com/sciences/psychology/psychology/psychology-stress-and-
health/stress-response-theories

(2) http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?articleid=100780

(3)Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects.


New York, US: Harper & Row

(4)Wender, P. D. Kety, S. S. Rosenthal, D. Schulsinger, F. Ortmann, J. &Lunde, I.


(1986) Psychiatric Disorders in the Biological and Adoptive Families of Adopted
Individuals With Affective Disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 10, 923 – 929.