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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PagP
CHAPTER I. CHORDS 4
OUI Z... .......... t0
CHAPTER II. CHABT READI NG: ASTABTI NG GUTDE . .. ........ tl
CHAPTER III. STYLES ENCOUNTERED ........ 14
swtNc. .... ... .... 14
Leamingto Play í n theSwingstyle.. ' ....... t6
Blues... ..,... 1l
TheTuo Beat ... ....... 21
THEJAZZWALTZ..... .....24
ROCK .. .......... 25
LATI N.. ...........27
Bocsa Nova .,.. 2t
Samba . ....... 29
Beggre.. ...... 29
CHAPTER I V. SOLOS . ...... 3()
BASS LTNES ....... 32
CHAPTER V. GETTI NGA"NATURAL''SOUND. ........33
CHAPTER VI . MORE ON CHORDS ..... u
9ü, llth and t3th Chords . ........... 34
Divising Formulas for Determining Chord Memberc.......... 3g
Non€
h ordal Tones .. . ...... . 39
Scales and Chords. ..........,10
Diminished Scales ........... 42
CHAPTER VI I . MTSCELLANEOUS ..... ......... 43
SamplingoÍ a chan... ...'...43
CleÍ s. '. ........... 44
Give the Chart a Chance ...... 45
A Word on Major/ Minor ...... .[ 6
ln Addition ........46
CHAPTER VI I I . DTSCoGRAPHY ........ 48
RAY BRoWN '.. '.. 5í
CHAPTEB I X. REFERENCE ...,., , ,, , 52
CHAPTER X. BASS CHARTS (From the album "Hate To See You Go") ........ 53
ABOUT THE AUTHOR. . . .

JOHN CLAYTON, born August 20,1952, has made great musical strides in the past years.

A list of the professionals with whom he has worked would be too extensive to list here.

He has studied with Ray Siegel, Ray Brown, Carol Kaye, Abe Luboff, Murray Grodner
and Eugene Levinson. ln 1975, he received his Bachelorof Music in Double Bass from

lndiana University. At age 19, he was the bassist for Henry Mancini on the television series,

"The Mancini Generation." He worked for two years with the Monty Alexander Trio.

John has played in many professional big bands and now tours with the Count Basie

Orchestra.
3

PROSPECTUS

The things that one learns and retains come, mainly, from experience. The purpose of

this book is to present some of the more common situations with which a bassist will

-have to cope when reading Big Band music (of course, much will apply to other musical
styles and situations encountered). The purpose is to also persuade the bassist to do his

own research, especially in regards to stylistic influences and aural development (too

many bassists know only how to read and have underdeveloped ears). t wllt talk about

certain approaches to solving problems most often encounterd. These will be SOME
of the solutions at your disposal. I strongly advise you to learn from as many souroes

as are available to you.

DEDI CATI ON

This book is dedicated, first and foremost, to my firct musical inspiration. This

person was feeding music into my soul while I was nestling in the womb. .

Thanks, Mom.

secondly, this book is dedicated to those who have given me inspiration in my

post-womb days. To name a few: Jeffery, Janine, Joseph, Jerome, Jennifer, Joy,

John Sr., Ray & cil and rineke. And to those not mentioned (you know who you

are).

Many thanks to all of those who contributed the bits and pieces that make up thas

book. Your aid was immeasurable.

pnvrisht @.ts78 by STUDlo 224,- clo CPP/ BELWlN, tNC., Miamí , Florida
33014
lnternational Copyright Secured ú .a!-r" Ü.c.Á. All Rights Rererved
4

CHAPTER I

CHORDS

This is probably the most important section of the book. Many (and I mean MANY)

bassists don't have the understanding of the basic chords that they must know.

Learn this section. Listen to what each chord sounds like while playing it. The
purpose of learning this is to condition your Í ef| exes to play the notes of a chord when

you see and/ or hear the chord. For the sake oÍ creativity in bass I ine construction, later

you won't need to play ONLY the notes (chordal tones) of a given chord. However, by

that time, when you see a QJ, you'll "hear" what it should sound like.

l have vertically categorized the chord types' Please make special notice of the diÍ ferent

ways that these chords will appear (example: Q is also written as $!gf ). Also, I have

left it up to you to complete the section on diminished chords.

us hear the chordal tones


&009 rrteí oR ol* fl
(, Me,Í ^ R
c- cp
( (r,,nt 7b

eb , __ ebnwoe í tbb

eb Ub- ebb
MNú . ré ií ,NG neful áaE^ ffi

fuaj1
ruN2R 6tí fl ,í \ ] €
^ )fl c+ il?O

bbn^ tb
?mtilÉ lI é ? Atlarat"al(o 6et€
^ )il

ú r^ nl fik6)

óv'rha

?* afi Qarpe as ut) Eb1 eoe,

é o1 (ane e9 ctl
(01 Qana Aq oo1)

rh Qarae aq oI ü+ co1) Cb1


eÜEs

dq Parl Ag e,hl+ r.1) 01 +6

í lbPl kene Po ?01 + ?1)


* mra/ or(
í 1hJ0R rnAfuR 06] uJ41 oé lail\ | fuArGo ltftA
Cn,tMefl ffiL-

gbr,1tnaí 1)

Obr,r11na,1) ?br,16

rk-ot 8bM,N1?5)

í 1u1)
€ (,-1óá

G mw(m1)

* A| JDN; C"tÉ l-Kó rnAYí fuk(, * eL?p Ré í aReé ?ft A6 | 4Alt -


üatÚp,lao
ft c'?u uru* tl"+ lYt(, o ( uxí t
l^ k A1 l, No( Í ní ;AN( l# t(.
í0

CHORDS

outz

1. Fill in the notes belonging to each chord. The root should always be on the down beat.

flt+ á bbPl bb

2. Construct a bass line using only chordal tones. Use roots on the down beat only when it

helps in constructinq smooth bass lines.

e* ,Artpí -(,
c bbol

(ol fuű
20

MEMOBI ZE THE BLUES PROGRESSI ON. I T I S A MUST FOR THE BASSI ST.

Using the knowledge that we now have about blues progressions, we are able to put together

the pieces of our puzzle.

1. our key signature is 1 flat. We are in the key oÍ F majqr.(if We were in the key
of D minoi, "D minor" would be written above the staff).

2. Our time signature indicates that the piece is tn 414.

3. "Walk" tells us that the style is Swing.

4. "Blues" tells us what the chord changes will be Í or 1 chorus.

5. "2 choruses" indicates that we should play the blues progrcssion twice
(i.e., there are24 measures between Letter A and Letter B).
í9

wb1) yl Í .1!b1)

Many, many variations exist. These, in Í act, are variations on earlier blues progressions.

There may be times when the blues progressions you play may be extended (16 measures

instead of l2 measures, for example); or, it may contain only 3 chords----the 17, lV7 and

V7, as illustrated in the following example.

1 chorus of 12 bar blues in the k34j.1p..1pgig


t8

Perhaps illustrating the above this way helps you in memorizing it:

T1 tr7 T,I T1

E1

You may also be required to play a M!g! blues:

1 chq!'$ of 12 bar blues in the key of C minor:

oln
17

BLUES
There will be occasions when you get a chart that reads something like:

E hlÍ rlwau< '

Beí ore you can walk the blues, you must learn the most often used chord progressions.

They are being found more and more in bass books these days (not to mention other

instruments. . . . . .guitar, piano, et.al.).

| chorus oÍ 12 bar blues in the key oÍ C major:


r6

I t is generally god practice to "lay down" the time (play quarter notes) @@ adding

"drops," triplets, etc', so that the band has an understanding oÍ exactly wherc the time

Í eel is. You are preparing a foundation upon which the rest oÍ the band plays, After you

sense that the band is sure oÍ where the time feel is, it is generally o,K. to throw in other

rhythmic figures (with some bands, the bassist may have to play quarter notes Í or the

duration of the song. With other bands, it may take only one measure). Also, unless a

special efÍ ect is desired, play quarter notes more on the legato (long} side than on the

staccato (short) side.

LEARNI NG TO PLAY I N THE SWI NG STYLE

There are diÍ Í erent methods oÍ learninq how to play this style. Here is one that is taught:

Find a recording of a blues (or a song that you know the chords to) that is in the
swing feel. The tempo should range Í rom medium to slow. Ascertain the key.
Listen carefully to what the bassist is doing. lf you wish, write out the chords
being used. After MANY listenings (at least 10), play along with the recording.
You may be required to re-tune your instrument to the recording. The volume
oÍ the recording should be such that you can hear what you are doing AND
What the rhythm section on the recording is doing. lí they don't physically
get in the way oÍ your playing, headphones can be helpful. When playing,
listen for the choice oÍ notes that the original bassist is using; if you like them,
play them along with him whenever possible. lf you have some ideas that you
think go well with what is being done, try them. All oÍ this should be done
WlTH THE REcoRDlNG' lf done properly, you'll notice immediately ií you
are a Í raction of a beat ahead or behind what was done on the recording'
Double bassists and fretless electric bassists should make left hand adiustments
when needed to retain good intonation (play your instrument with your ear
as well as with your technique). Concentrate on lockino in to what has been
done. When you are in a similar environment, you will be able to play this
style with little or no problem. Perhaps you'll notice mistakes made by the
bassist on the recording. Ear-mark them and avoid making the same mistakes.

This method is suggested for learning the feel for any style oí music.

ln the chapter on SOLOS (Chapter lV), I have explained and outlined the above technique

for learning solos and transcribing bass lines.


t5

ftI a uÍ Í Lér)rr?pé as
by austin and s apaug h
6nss arr. by gary pot te r
taro / ur4,9a47/ o't/
I I l^ va- lr

as opposed to something not in the swing style:

a4ár
-r @^ ffi? By Jim Edison

-'-
14

CHAPTER III

STYLES ENCOUNTERED

SWI NG

ln order to capture the swing feel, you must familiarize yourself with it. This is done

by listening; absorbing this feel into your ear and conscience. Playing along with records

is the second important step to truly understanding this and other styles as well (and, of

course, it is important to eventually get some experience working with other musicians).

I won',t attempt to define swing. I will, instead, try to explain what is expected of a bassist

who must play in this style.

The quarter note ( J) is the important metric unit here. You create a bass line within

the chords by playing, basically, quarter notes.

TechnicallY,

it is simple. ln glancing at a piece of music, if you mainly see quarter notes, you can usually

assume that it is in the swing style.

?oo?Le hrb
Swing style:

FAST 4
Qun a.t 422. : ?03E2 ?eu EArotl
r3

S!
6
F"
s
\I
ouö
a< o
al H
$q,
;l
I
<":o* Ú
H* '
:t
\

sb
a'.

o:l'^
r

O,O5

s
:4.
r'3. g

:-a l
OOo
sgq
6'l
to L x
$
..,
J
S
$
ts
b

c-
s{
s
l..
t2

TRY USI NG THE PRECEDI NG GUI DE ON THESE TWO EX LES:


öl

ffi-ffi
Br
ffiffiffi ffi B
Fj
s
9
2?
z
6
;(] )

@, i

+
..-r

-
ol c
::9
;io

U,
-9-
ffi- o
ar!
"!'j *
z
o
:a
'!.
;j
j-

q
z
o
cr
ffi o
=

sg
D
11

CHAPTER II

CHART READI NG: A STARTI NG GUI DE

The situation: You're a beginner when it comes to reading big band charts (bass parts).

What do you do? How do you beginT

Basic Things to Check For

LEFT HAND CORNER (top)


Feast your eyes on the left hand corner. Make sure that you haven't accidentally

been given a guitar part, for instance. A quick glance at the clef will also help
determine this.

Look at the key signature.

Take note of the time signature.

Note the instructions given (style, tempo).

GLANCI NG THROUGH

Now, as you glance quickly over the music, make a mental note of repeats, lst and

2nd endings, fermatas (holds), cut-offs (pauses, railroad t and time


""krr/ / l,key
signature changes, instrument changes, D.C.'s and D.S.'s, arco and pizzicato indications.

RI GHT HAND CORNER (bottom)

Finally, take note of what's happening at the end of the music. D.C.'s, D.S.'s, Codas,

etc. Also, watch out for tricky or deceptive endings (perhaps you'll have to play a

2 bar ending in unison with the rest of the band, for instance).

Use this guide and you'll experience fewer surprises:

1. Left Hand Corner

2. Glance Through

3. Right Hand Corner


2l

The 2 Beat

ln the swing style, the bassist often has to play ,,in 2,.,with a,,2Í eel,,,or a,,2 beal,,

pattern. These terms all reÍ er to the same thing: the bassist plays, basically, on beats 1

and 3 (in the 4/ 4 meter). lnterpretation varies. Some bassists play half notes when playing

in 2:

Some play dotted quarters:

Mo6t often, you'll get a part written this way:

Or, this way:


22

Use your musical intuition to determine iÍ the above should be interpreted as is or as

half notes or dotted quarters.

ln many situations, you'll have to go from a 2 beat to a Swing feel.

'} . ft€
L

Here, the zbgg!sections have notated bass lines that you are to play. You walk an improvised

line starting in the sth rneasure and go back to thezbge! feel in the gth measure'

I t is not uncommon to see the term SWI NG used in place of WALK.

I t should be pointed out that the 2 beat style is not always a strict 2 beat; i.e., there are times

When the 2nd and 4th beats are played. This is done in a way that preserves the 2 beat Í eel

but allows the bass part to remain interesting, giving it a lift, keeping it unpredictable. Here

is an example of what may be encountered:


23

by Tillman Buggs
AAe!

fy-Í

' At-

!-,tzt co9yí jllí . l s72 !' sluolo 22,l'


rí 'Mí qdcoc'Í llrr s.o'€
d
16333 N'w
l/ b.b h
5/ { h
U's'A
A.nü' tlabin' Fb. &p14
Rcht! ll6.6Md
^!
21

Note that beats 2 and 4 arc generally left unplayed. When given a bass part that is in the

2 beat feel and containsgl' the rhythm ) ! ) t ,ro, unoften take musical liberties

to make the part more interesting by expanding upon what has been given you (as in the

example above). lt is the occasional additional rhythms (that include playing on beats other

than | ust beats 1 and 3) that he| p to make the 2 beat Í eel more interesting.

THE JAzz wALÍ z

Here are four basic rhythmic patteÍ ns often played for Jazz Waltzes:

t.

When there are two different chord changes per measure, Example No 3 is probably the

best to use. Here is a bass line to illustrate what you might play iÍ given only the chords:

brtleil
bb1 ba AN ?,r1 81

or play a SWlNG
Example No. 4 is usually p| ayed when a chan calls Í or a bassist to WALK

feel in 3/ 4.
25

ROCK

This has turned into a general term throughout the years. lt is hard to be specific about

what elements are oommon to all rock and roll because of its divercity. There is Acid rock,

Funk, Bossa rock, Boogaloo feels, Punk rock, Gospel rock, Reggae rock and who knows how

many other kinds that cropped up while you and I were sleeping last night.

Generally, when you see "Rock" indicated m a style in which you are to play, the eighth

notes are played even or "straight."

Rock:

as opposed to

Swing:

= 9-+

sometimes a performance instruction of sTRAI GHT EI GHTHS_will be indicated on your part:

TI hE NI EW
Bnss
OArS
By Russell Peck and Kurt Carpenter
,$\ tlErDW
Fagr Q= I I I
26

Quite often you'll be given an example oÍ a rock pattern and


will be instructed to improvise
your own rock pattern, similar to the example given
to you.

hv)Üí ű ) fuM)a1 uű ?)

The Í eel will not be swing when you see the perÍ ormance
instruction JAZZ ROCK.
The eighth not6 are sti[ prayed "straight" and shourd
not be prayed in the swing styre:

ú nr
F:a:."-El.r.ta
gb Abl b
€7 Ca7

Rock is so readily accessible today that l leeve it to you to do the Í inding


and listening
to of the rccordings available.
27

LATI N

A few styles encountered that take their roots from south America and the west lndies
(via Africa) are the Bossa Nova, the Samba and
Beggae.

Bosa Nova

The baic Bossa Nova beat is ), il, ) . ,n. eighth notes are ,,straight.,, you can
expect to occasionally see a chart like this:

Ouite often Bossa Nova lines consist of, basically, roots and fifths in this sort of rhythmic

pattern (this is also a probable bass line for the chord changes given above):

you can usualty assume that if you see the pattern


), )'r). )o. J, )J )that the

style will be bossa nova:

lla.hsn

_-
28

fleb.Sw
zsse kte

This rhythmic Í igure is also used for the,,Soft Rock,'style:

--
E

Samba

For those that are unfamiliar with the Samba, it is usually best to start off by thinking

of it as a fast Bossa Nova. This is a good starting concept. As your experience wí th Latin

music grows, your knowledge of bass parts and how they work in this style will grow also.

Here is an excerpt oÍ a typical Bossa chart that goes into a Samba feel toward the middle.

A suggested bass line has been included:

@;ffi (ril
el, d'J 22o A1 4AnbA-

Reggae

At this writing, there are few big band bass parts written in the Reggae style. With its

growing popularity, I imagine that there will be more and more written. Below you will

find a few examples of some Reggae bass lines. Note that the emphasis is on beat 2,

primarily, and that the lst beat is generally left unplayed.

ELat)C

rfré ae, n

Recorded examples of this style can be heard by such artists as Slinger Francisco ("The

Mighty Sparrow") and Lord Kitchener.


30

CHAPTER I V
soLos

I t takes a long time to be able to play mature-sounding bass solos. Let's not put it off

another day' one oÍ the main reasons that many bassists don't know what to do when

given the chance to solo is because they are not afforded the opportunity to do so as

often, say, as a trumpeter or saxophonist. ln order to build this weak point in our

playing, we have to consult those who are more adept at it than we are: back to the

record player. My suggestion for building a repertoire of solo ideas is to "Steal,"

"Borrow," whatever (solos, that is). First, you must í ind records of bassists playin9

solos that appeal to you and are not too far advanced for you, technically. Do not be

afraid of being a "carbon copy" of someone. Nine times out of ten, the musician that

you are admiring did the same thing' Besides, ií it works, Why not? Your future

alterations to their ideas will be the things that dlstinguish your voice from theirs.

Your rejection oÍ the things that do not excite you enough to borrow help in developing

your voice.

After finding a solo that you would like to learn, here is a guide that I recommend using

to help learn the solo:

1. Listen to the solo 'l0 to 20 times (you may Í ind that you need to listen to
ffi your eai is well devé loped, you may not
need listen even 10 times). This must be done with the utmost concentration.
You must absorb every slide, glis, gí ace note and other nuances used.

2. Sino the solo in unison to the recordinq 10 to 20 times. lt will probably be


Í rustratingatTi'st bé óáuse you'll think that after listening to it 20 times
that you have it memorized (incidently, don't be concerned about voice
quality, lack oÍ a good range, etc. Just strive to sing fairly in tune). Hang
in there after you Í ind that you aÍ en't able to sing it the way you thought
you would be able to. By singing along with the Í ecording, you are
physically exercising your conscious and aural reÍ lexes. Eventually,
anything that you sing you will be able to play. We are attempting to
make our instruments extensions oÍ our musical minds'

3. Plav the solo in unison to the recordino (while sinqinq). Again, this will be
a setback. Be prepared to do this 10 to 20 times.

4. Plav the solo in unison to the recordinq without sinqinq. This is so that you
áí bettei hear what you are doing. lt is possible to get wrapped up in your
singing and drown out any mistakes that you might be making, especially in
regards to intonation.
40

SCALES AND CHORDS

l have not taken a scalar approach in my presentation oÍ chords because l Í ind it to b€

an approach that often conÍ uses bassists' l will nor point out a thing or two about scales

and their reí ationship to chords, but will leave much of the discovery up to you.

Here is a way of deteÍ mining what the notes are that make up the scale to a given chord.

Consider the followinq 4 bars:

('ű bb,í 1 en

After taking the chord in question (Gmin7):

1. Write out the chord members, extending ittoa 13th chord (C ab oFACE).
2. Arrange the notes so that they form a major scale. (We can see that there is only
one flat among our chord members. lt is saÍ e to asqume that the scale will be
ihe scale contáining one flat, F Maior---F G A Bb c
D El.
3' You now know the scale to be used Í or that particular chord---Gmin7 =
F Malor scale.

I will use the above formula to determine the scales for the chords that remain in our 4 bar

progression.

c7 = C E G Bb D F A = (one ftat) F maior (F G A Bb C D E)

c7 = F maior scale

Bb min.7 = gb Db r nb C eb G = (4 Í lats) Ab maior (Ab ab c ob Eb F Gl


Bb min.7 = Ab major scale

pb7 = Eb C Ab Ob F nr C = (4ftats) Ab maior (Al Al C Ot Eb F G)

Eb 7 = ab major scale
39

NON.CHORDAL TONES

When a bassist plays bass lines, to help in constructing a linear or smooth bass line,

he/ she will play notes that don't necessarily belong to the chord (or scale of the chord).

They are acceptable passing tones and alterations that are usually played instinctively.

Consider the following example:

e, í1 (, u
fl

ln analyzing the notes that I have chosen to play here, we see that there are, in each

measure, notes that don't belong to the chord. , . but they sound good. I was not

thinking í rom a scalar approach When l constructed this line. Nor was l thinking about

chordal tones and non-chordal tones. I HEARD a bass line in my head that would fit

wellwith the chords l was confronted with. ln order to do this, you must Í ind records

with interesting bass lines on them. . .thingo that you really like. Play these same lines

yourselÍ (write them out or memorize them). DoN'T ANALYZE THE BAss LlNE
UNLESS YOU REALLY WANT TO. The important thing is to get a flow of good bass

lines surging through your veins. When you feel the need to analyze, go ahead. Analyze

your head off. lt's Í un. Holding precedence over qlyglg oÍ bass lines is construction

of bass lines.
38

DEVI SI NG FORMULAS FOR DETERMI NI NG CHORD MEMBERS

When finding it dií í icult to fill in chord members oÍ a given chord, dissect an example

and make a Í ormula.

'
Examole: C^ = e Cvvv\
E G gb
,/ D

A) M3 m3 m3 M3
or or or or
B) 4 3 3 4 (half-steps)

A) The distance from C to E is a maior 3rd.


The distance Í rom E to G is a minor 3rd.
The distance from G toBb is a minor 3rd.
The distance Í rom Bb to D is a maior 3rd.

OR

B) From C to E there are 4 halÍ -steps.


From E to G there are 3 halí -steps.
From G to Bb there are 3 half-steps.
From Bb to D there are 4 halÍ -steps.

Formula for a gth chord:

A) M3-m3-m3-M3

B} 4-3-34 (halÍ -stepe)

lf this section is too hard for you, you probably haven't gotten a Í ull understanding oÍ

Chapter l. lf this is the case, you should go back and review Chapter l.
37

Qblx^ nt9

(eb st1
36

6bt)
I

Gb-1

gt, bnwl

í0 (nt,l1

e,, fl-1

OI , D-1

-
-
35
34

CHAPTER VI
MORE ON CHORDS

9TH, 1lTH and 13TH CHORDS

Here is a reference guide that you can complete for determining the chord members of

gth, llthandl3thchords. All areoftheTthchordfamily. lleaveittoyoutodiscover

the thinp that you will when pursuing and analyzing this.

ln the beginning, three examples will be given to you. The remaining 9 should be filled

in by you. Starting in the Minor 9th section, only one example is given. You are to fill

in the remaining 1 1.

By the time you reach the example of a C Mai. 13, you should have grasped the pattern in

my examples. When comparing the chord types, we can see that the 9th is an extension

of the 7th, the 11th is an extension of the 9th, and so on. By the time you reach the

Major 13th column, you should not find it necessary to complete columns on the Maior

9th and Major 11th chords. They are both contained in the Maior 13th chords.
3it

CHAPTER V
GETTI NG A "NATURAL" SOUND
(Í or Double Bassists)

Your sound is soÍ nething personal' lt often helps the rest oÍ the band if you strive for a

"punch" or a bit oÍ "edge'' in your sound. Some people add a bit more treble on their

amplifier setting to help in getting the edge. Be careÍ ul, though, not to lose the ,,bottom,,

rcund when doing this.

Here is a system that you can use in setting your ampliÍ ier to help obtain and retain the

sound that you want:

1. Turn volume completely down.

2. Play a scale or line covering 2 octaves, ascending and descending.

3. Turn volume up to Yz.

4. Repeat step 2.

5. Make tÍ eble and/ or bass ad| ustments on the ampliÍ ier so that you are able to
retain the sound you were getting beí ore the ampliÍ ier volume w6 turned up.

6. When satisí ied, turn volume up to t.

7. Repear step 2.

8. Repeat step 5.

9. Continue process until you have reached the volume at which you normally play.

stuÍ Í ing towels in F_Holes helps cut down on feed-back (for those oÍ you that must play

Í airly loud).

A FEW CONTRI BUTI NG FACTOBS TO YOUR SOUND:

1, Your amplifier settings.

2. Your instrument.

3. How hard you pizzicato.

4, Where you pizzicato (how you adjust your hand regarding vertical height).

5. Where your strings are "set" (how far away from the fingerboard they arel.

6. Your pick-up.

At this wÍ iting, the tvr,o mo6t popular pick-ups Í or double bass are the Polvtone and

@@_b.and pick-ups. Others are available, but these seem to be the most popular.
32

This has proven to be a useful technique for aural development for students that l've

had. The good thing about this is that the solo becomes a part oÍ you. . . . . .not notes

on paper that are often easily Í orgotten and sometimes never really HEARD by us (that

is to say, we'll sometimes be a bit lazy and iust PLAY the notes instead oÍ really hearing

what we are doing).

Bass Lines

Learning bass lines Í rom records is recommended also. However, it is harder (but not

impoesible) to memorize a chorus oÍ bass lines, usually, than it is to memorize a solo.

I recommend writing out bass lines that you find interesting by using a condensed version

oÍ the Í ormula given Í or solos.

BASS LI NE TRANSCRI PTI ON :

(Note: lt is best to use a tape recorder at its fastest speed')

1. AÍ ter listening to the song in its entirety a few times, figure out how much of

the arrangement you are going to transcribe.

2. Listen to the Í irst 2 - 4 notes of the bass line.

3. Write down what you hear (if unsure of yourself at first, take time out to

play what you have written down. )

4. Rewind to beginning oÍ the notes that you'Ve transcribed.

5. Start playing the recording again. Check to see that the notes that You've

written down are correct and transcribe 2 - 4 additional notes

Continue this process until your goal has been reached. lf you have a hard time distinguishing

some notes, listen to the notes in question a Í ew times' sing them, if necessary. Play them

on your instrument, iÍ necessary' Doing this should enable you to write them.
31

5. Plav the solo without the recordino. Now you can really hear yourself.
Check yourselí to see iÍ you're pleased with the type of sound that you're
getting. Double check orr the inflections in the solo (perhaps, for instance,
your gliss is too Í ast)' Now, too, is the time to make changes that you might
want to make. Perhaps a note or two on the recording was out of tune oi
missed. Take the libertí eli to correct the intonation and play the note that
the other bassist did not.

Review:

1. Listen to the solo numtpr of times.

2. - With the recording


sing the solo in unison number oÍ times'

3. Play the solo in unison with the recording - number of times.

4. Play the solo in unison with the recording -without singing.


5. Play the solo without the recording.

Keep these things in mind:

-- Always keep the volume of the recording at a level that enables you to hear the

recording and yourself (whether you are singing or playing or both).

-- Use headphones oNLY if theY do not physically get in the way oÍ your playing.

-- Be prepared to retune your bass to the recording (recordings are usually about

a 1/ 4-tone sharp) unless you have a pitch control device on your recorder or

turntable.

-- Find solos that you like and work at your own pace. lt should be an enjoyable

experience and not a chore.

The more solos that you absorb, the better prepared you will be to deal with the musical

situation that requires you to play one. Don't be Í rustrated if, after five solos or so, you

still are Í reezing up when it comes time to solo or your solos don't sound as ,,good., or

"proÍ essional" as the ones on records. lt iust takes time' YoU'll notice quite a bit oÍ

selÍ _improvement With the increasing amounts oÍ solos that you learn.
4l

From the preceding analysis, lrv€ are able to see that there are 2 sca] es used for the progression:

When tryang to utilize the preceding Í ormula for a chord that has alterations, proceed as

usual. However, reverse the alteration so that there are no alterations in the chord and it

remains a seventh or minorseventh chord.

Example: cr{ bs) = c,


After the scale has been determined, add the alteration (to the note from which it wc
removed) to the scale. This will give you the @rrect scale for that particular chord.

Example:

1. c7(bs) = c E cb gb o FA
2. (with alteration removed) c7= cEGBbDFA
3. CT= CEGBbDFA = (one flat) F maior (F G A gb Co e)

4. C7 = F maior scale
5. c7(b5) = F Gb A Bb c D E (alteration added)
42

DI MI NI SHED SCALES

Here are the three Diminished Scales that should be committed to memory. The larger

note heads indicate the chordal tones of the diminished chords that they represent. The

scales can be played starting from any one oÍ the chordal tones (large note heads).

For co7, Ebo7, GboT and Ao7, the scale is:

For Dbo7, Eo7, Go7 and Bbo7, the scale is:

For Do7, Fo7 , * o7 and Bo7, the scale is:


43

CHAPTER VI I
MI SCELLANEOUS

SAMPLI NG OF A CHART
You will find an example of a chart below,......an honest-to-goodness chart. The

arrangement has been charted out Í or you. lt is not that difficult to figure out. however:

You have been given a key signature (Bb) and time sign ature (4/ 41. Notice, too,
that the key and clef appear only once. They apply the duration of the song
unless otherwise indicated.

You've been told what the style is ("WALK" = Swing style).

You've been given the chord changes (BLUES). Being told that it is a BLUES
also tells you that one chorus willequal 12 measures.

You have been told how many choruses to play.

At letter "A" you are cued in as to when to expect a trumpet solo.

At letteí "B" there is an ENSEMBLE which is played Í orte'

At letter "c" you are instructed to walk the first t0 oÍ the t2 bars of the blues.

Now comes the work: you play the written notes (such torture!) of the last 2
measu res.
44

-E[ E' The signs used to indicáte a certain amount oÍ measures or choruses vary.

The above illustrate a few that ar€


' used. They can also be used to indicate rests' This is not

the case at Letter "C," however. When presented with a numeral above it, it indicates measures.

so, at Letter "C,'' we have 10 meirsures oÍ walking the blues. lf WALKhad not been indicated,

tne wouto have represented 10 measures of rest. Use your good judgment in these
ff
ambiguous situations to determinrs what the copyist wants,

GI VE THE CHART A CHANCE


a chart oÍ know what the composer/ arranger wants
Until you become more familiar With

Í rom you, it is important to play what is written. on many charts


you'll play' you'll have

theopportunityto,,improve,'uponwhatiswritten.However,Í irstgivethechartachance'
your ideas
This is also a good way to show the band and band director how much better
(as Í ar as a bass part may be concerned)'
may be when compaÍ ed to thos€ oí the arranger's
you to reinforce, harmonize' etc"
Be careÍ ul, though. The arranger may have in mind for

another part. After reading through a chart as is, l'll often ask the conductor
if he/ she

Wants me to play exactly what i!; written. lÍ not, l've got a bit more Í reedom'

lt maY also help to keep charts Í nore interesting for all if, after you have thoroughly
learned

your better
the chart.and Í ind that you have a bit oÍ freedom, to try difÍ erent thingE' Use

iudgmenttodetermineiÍ thechartisthesortofthingthatyoucen,,stretchout,,with.
important to learn
Let the chart act as a quide; a vehicle for your creativity' Again, it is

to sens€ when to play what is written'


45

CLEFS
Here is a chart which may help you wlren you encounter the other cleÍ s that bassists

are often required to read; the Treble Clef and the Tenor CleÍ ' The notes have been

arranged so that when viewed vertically you can determine what a particular note is in

the various clefs.

Example: lf you read this note in the Tenor cleí

but are not sur€ of What

it is, by looking directly below it on the bass clef line, you can see that it is the same thing

astheBassCleÍ ',C,'.lÍ youreadthisnoteinTreblec| "f#


"= -a--
but are not suí e

oÍ what it is, by looking directly below it (2 staves} on the Bass cleÍ line, you can see that

it is the same thing 6 the Bais CleÍ "E", and so on'

(é ^ Jo? cÉ (
.lc

AWOBD ON MAI OR/ MI NOR

Thg indication oÍ Minor (min., mi., m, after tho len.r naÍ no oí t chord
-}
(Example: C min'l always reí erc to altering th€ third. making its distance í rom the

rmt a minor third (3 halÍ * tepe} . So, you can see a chord with more than one

alteration (Example: cr| !t uut ií u!!gl does not immediately í ollow tlre letter

name of the chord, the distance Í rom the root to the thiÍ d will be maior (4 halí -stepsl.

The indication oí Ma| or (Mai., M,A ) after the letteÍ name oí a chord (Example: C Mai.l

always reí erc to a Maior sarcnth (one halÍ -step away Í rom the rootl. lf you see C Maj.9,

it trÉ aÍ rsthat the seventh oÍ the chord is Major and there is alrc a ninth in the ciord

(CEGBD).

A combination oí the 2 is poBsible. Example: Cmin.Ma| .9 = c eb c a o

You will na'er see CMai.min.7. ln order for the !D!!.' in the preceding example to eÍ í ect

the thiÍ d, it must appaar !l!EElE!4y after the chord's letter name (C4!q.Ma| .7l. ln

traditional theory, the phrase "Major Minor Seventh'' is used to reí er to a Sanenth chord.

So, a C"Malor Minor Sanenth" = C7.

I N ADDI TI ON

Suspended, Srs. 4. Sus' or 4 (appearing after the letter name oÍ a chordl all mean that the

third oÍ the chord is replaced by a Í ourth. Example: C7 Sus. = c ! c al

!g!9! or-Pgl (appearing after the letter narn€ oÍ a chordl rneans that that panicular note

should be played a a pedal tone (either to be played entirely or receive much emph* is).

chords with speciÍ ic bass notes. There will b€ tim6 when a bassist runs acrocs rcmething

like this: FrlC. The F, above the slash (/ ) tells us what the chord is. The note below

the slash (Cl tells us the note that is to be played in the bass.
47

An example of items discussed in "lN ADDI TI ON:"

01('{ )
48

CHAPTER VI I I
DI SCOGRAPHY

The suggested recordings and discographies are Í or those who don't know where to start.
The Ray Brown recordings were picked for their clarity in order to make it easy for the
bassist to hear and analyze. lt is not mandatorv to acquire thes€ particular recordings,
especially if the studeni has other rec6TdTnnTTFat he/ she enioys more that illustrate what
is being discussed.

The following discography is from "THE EVoLVlNG BAsslsT" by RuÍ us Reid.


"ln each category I have listed significant bass players that you should know or at least
know their existence. These players represent only a small portion oÍ the many excellent
bassists on recordings and also those who have not been as fortunate to record, The sole
purpose oÍ this discography is to stimulate interest and broaden your total bass concept."
BuÍ us Beid, Author. "THE EVOLVlI vO BAsstsT"

Jimmy Blanton Duke Ellington - lN A MELLOTONE RCA LPM 1364


DUKE ELLI NGTON AND ORCHESTRA Columbia 35322

Slam Stewart LI ONEL HAMPTON ALL STARS Decca DL74194


Stewart - BOWI N' SI NGI N' SLAM Savoy MGl2067

Oscar Pettiford ESSEN JAZZ FESTI VAL ALL STARS Fantasy 8601 5
Pettiford - STARDUST Bethlehem BCP-33
PettiÍ ord _ MEMoRlAL ALBUM Prestige P87813
Pettiford - MY LI TTLE CE LLO Fantasy 86010

Charles Mingus Mingus - MY FAVORI TE OUI NTET Fantasy JWS5


Mingus - LET MY CHI LDREN HEAR MUSI C Columbia KC-31039
Mingus - OUARTET AND MAX ROACH Fantasy 86009
Minsus - TOWN HALL CONCERT Fantasy JWS9

Ray Brown RAY BROWN ALLSTAR BI G BAND Verve V&8444


RAY BROWN AND MI LTJACKSON Verve V6-861 5
Oscar Peterson - AF FI N I TY Verve 68516
Oscar Peterson - WEST SI DE STORY Verve 68454
Ouincy Jones - WALKI NG lN SPACE A&M SP3023
RAY BROWN AND LAURI NDO ALMEI DA Century City 80102

Percy Heath Modern Jazz Ouartet - LI VE AT THE LI GHT- Atlantic S-1486


HOUSE
Modern Jazz Ouartet - FONTESSA Atlantic S-1231

Andrew Simpkins The Three Sounds - MOODS Blue Note 84O44


STANLEY TURRENTI NE WI TH THE Blue Note 84057
THREE SOUNDS
OUARTESCENCE Van-Los Music V LM3608

Paul Chambers Chambers - BASS ON TOP Blue Note 81569


Chambers - WHI MS OF CHAMBERS Blue Note 81534
MI LES DAVI S AT CARNEGI E HALL Columbia CLl812
Miles Davis - KI ND OF BLUE Columbia CS816Í l

Scott La Faro Bill Evans - SUNOAY AT THE VI LLAGE Riverside 376


VANGUARD

Gary Peacock Bill Evans - TRI O '64 Verve V68578


49

Richard Davis MUSES FOR RI CHARD DAVI S BASF 20725


Eric Dolphy Memorial Album - ALONE Veelay 2503
TOGETHER
Richard Davis & Elvin Jones - HEAVY SOUNDS lmpulse A9160
Thad Jones & Mel Lewis - CENTRAL PARK Solid State 18058
NORTH
Joe Zawinul - RI SE AND FALL OF THE THI RD vortex s2002
STREAM

Eddie Gomez THE BI LL EVANS ALBUM Columbia 30855


BI LL EVANS AT THE MONTREUX JAZZ Verve V68762
FESTI VAL
Bill Evans - SI MPLE MATTER Verve 68675

Bob Cranshaw Lee Morgan - SI DEWI NDE R Blue Note 84157


Sonny Rollins- NEXT ALBUM Milestone 9(X2
Sonny Rollins & Co. - THE BRI DGE RCA LST2527
Ron Carter Eddie Harris - lN SOUN D Atlantic S1448
Carter - UPTOWN CONVE RSATI ONS Embryo SD521
CArtEr . B LUES FARM cTr 6027
Carter - ALL BLUES cTr 6037
Miles Davis - MY FUNNY VALENTI NE Columbia CS9106
Miles Davis - FOU R AND MORE Columbia CS9253
Herbie Hancock - MAI DEN VOYAGE Blue Note 4195
Jim Hall & Ron Carter - ALONE TOGETHER Milestone 9045

Dave Holland Hal Galper - I NNE R JOU RNEY Mainstream 398


Holland - MUSI C FOR TWO BASSES ECM 101 lST
Buster Williams Herbie Hancock - FAT ALBERT ROTUNDA Warner Bros. S1834
Herbie Hancock - PRI SONER Blue Note ST8432l
Jazz Crusaders - POWE RHOUSE World Pacific 20136

Miroslav Vitous Chick Corea - NOW HE SI NGS, NOW HE SOBS Solid State 18039
Vitous - I NFI NI TE SEARCH Embryo 524
Weather Report - I SI NG THE BODY ELECTRI C Columbia KC31352

Stan Clarke Clarke - CHI LDREN OF FOREVER Polydor PD553l


Chick Corea - RETURN TO FOBEVER ECM 1022
Joe Henderson- lN PURSUI T OF BLACKNESS Milestone 9034
Dexter Gordon - CA'PU RANGE Prestige 1005 1

Joe Farrell - MOON GE RMS cTr 6023

Wilbur Ware Sonny Rollins - NI GHT AT VI LLAGE Blue Note 81581


VANGUARD
Cecil McBee Pharoh Sanders - THEMBI lmpulse S-9206
Charles Tolliver & Stanley Cowell - MUSI C, lNC. Strata-East
463 West Street
New York, NY 10014

Charles Lloyd - FOREST F LOWE R

Sam Jones WES MONTGOMEBY AND FRI ENDS Milestone 47013


Cedar Walton Trio - A NI GHT AT BOOMERS, Muse 5010
VOL, I
50

ELECTR I C BASS DI SCOG RAPHY

Monk Montgomery (First rccorded jazz electric bassist.)


M. Montgpmery - BASS ODYSSEY Chisa CS806
M. Montgomery - lT'S NEVE R TOO LATE Chisa
M. Montgomery - REALI TY Philadelphia I nternational
distributed by Columbia

Chuck Rainey Roberta Flack - OUI ET FI RE Atlantic S1594


CHUCK RAI NEY COALI TI ON Cobblestone 9008
Ouincy Jones - WALKI NG lN SPACE A&M 3023

Jam6 Jameson Marvin Gaye - WHAT'S GOI N' ON? Tamila 5310

Richard Evans Evans - DEALI NG WI TH HARD TI MES Atlantic SO1604

Wilton Felder The Crusaders - 2ND CRUSADE Blue Thumb BTS7000

CLASSI CAL DI SCOGRAPHY

Gary Karr Serge Koussevitzky - CONCERTO FOR cRt s-248


DOUBLE BASS
Karr - BASS VI RTUROSO Golden Crest 8E7031
(Suite and Sonata for double bas and piano
and lor double bass and guitar)

Bertram Turetzky Turetzky - THE VI RTUOSO DOUBLE BASS Medea Records


THE NEWSOUND OF BERTRAM TURETZKY ARS-NOVA RECORDS
606 Raleigh Pl. S.E.
Washington, D.C. 20032

Barry Green NEW MUSI C FOR THE DOUBLE BASS These may be ordered :

ROMANTI C MUSI C FOR THE DOUBLE BASS Piper Records


BAROOUE MUSI C FOR THE DOUBLE BASS P. O. Box 1713
Cincinnati, OH 45201

ALBUMS ON WHI CH RUFUS REI D CAN BE HEARD

ls lt ln - Eddie Harris Atlantic SD 1659


Charlie Parker Memorial Concert cadet 60002
The Chase! Gene Ammons and Dexter Gordon Prestige I ff)l0
Kaleidoscope - Nancy Wilson Capitol ST852
lnstant Death - Eddie Harris Atlantic 161 1
Eddie Harris Sings the Blues Atlantic 1625
Excurcion - Eddie Harris Atlantic SD231 1

Mirage - The Awakening Black Jazz BJOD/ ! 5


lncantation - The ForeÍ ront ForeÍ ront Publications
1945 Wilmette Avenue
wilmette, lL 6(x)91
5t

RAY BROWN

There are so many bassists to listen to and learn from that l've found many bassists to
be conÍ used as to where to start lin regards to jazz solos). At first, l thought it unwise
to single out any one bassist for fear oí tampering With stylistic iniluences] However,
for the. sake of those who.just don't know where to start; l'll single oneout: Ray Brówn.
He is almost always recorded well and clearly, thereby making it iairly easy to di;ttngJish
what he is doing. His rhythmic time is good. His intónation is consisiently good. His
P-Lo:9!9 99!elen1{ d usually approactred from a melodic stand_point. TÉ lsls NoT
TO I MPLY THAT THERE ARE NOT OTHER GOOD BASSI STS THAT YOU OR i
CAN CHOOSE TO LEARN FROM. This is A start (not THE start) for those who need
a point of departure.

I have listed some albums upon which Ray Brown can be heard:

Milt Jackson - THAT'S THE WAY lT tS lmpulse 9189


Herb Ellis/ Ray Brown - HOT TRACKS Concord CJ-12
Oscar Peterson - NI GHT TRAI N, VOL. 2 Verve 68740
(Note: The above 3 contain solos of medium difficulty.)
Herb Ellis/ Freddie Green - RHYTHM WtLLtE Concord CJ-10
Oscar Peterson - WE GET REOUESTS Verve 68606
Oscar Peterson - THE SOUND OF THE TRI O Verve 8480
Oscar Peterson - NI GHT TRAI N Verve 68538
Oscar Peterson " SOMETHI NG WARM Verve 68631
Oscar Peterson - OSCAR PETERSON TBtO + 1 (Ctark Terry) Mercury 60975
Oscar Peterson - THE TRI O Verve 68420

Add to this the Ray Brown examples in Rufus Reid's discography.


52

CHAPTER I X
REFERENCE

l would like to mention a Í ew reÍ erence guides that may be helpful:

COMPREHENSI VE CATALOG OF AVAI LABLE LI TERATURE FOR THE DOUBLE BASS


by'This
Murray Grodner
calalog presents literature available Í or the Double Bass. lt includes all works under
the headinó METHoDs, ETUDEs & oRcHESTRAL sTUDlEs, soLo LI TERAT_URE'
cHAMBEá MUSlC and coNTEMPoRARY BooKs ABoUT THE DoUBLE BAss.
AI SO iNCI UdEd iS A I iSt Of AVAI LABLE RECORDI NGS OF SOLO WORKS FOR THE
DOUBLE BASS. lt lists publishers, prices, level of difficulty and other essential, useful
information.
Available through: LEMUR MUSI CAL RESEARCH
Box 71
Bloomington, lndiana 47401

THE EVoLVlNG BAsslsT by RuÍ us Reid


As the author puts it, this is "an aid in developing a total musical concept'" Arco and
pizzicato playing are discussed. Etudes, Chords, Blues, Rock Patterns and Scales are
just a FEW it'emi explored. One of the most complete method books available.
Available through:
MYRI AD LI MI TED or STUDI O P/ R, I NC.
P. O. Box 757 224 s. Lebanon Street
Teaneck, New Jersey 07666 Lebanon, lndiana 46052

UNDERSTANDI NG LATI N RHYTHMS, Volume 1 presented by Martin Cohen


Although geared toward percussionists, this record and instruction booklet affords the
bassist it-h an invaluable guide Í or learning to play AUTHENTlc Latin styles. lt features
Jme of the best Latin per-cussionists and should be considered one oÍ the best aides on the
market today. Musical examples for the bassist are included in the instruction booklet.
Available through: LATI N PERCUSSI ON, I NC'
P. O. Box 88
Palisades Park, New JerseY 07650

RAY BROWN BASS METHOD bY RaY Brown


lncludes scales, chords, arpeggios, interesting blues bass lines and jazz etudes. Perhaps
the fiÉ t substantial book geared toward lazz bass basics.
Available through: RAY BROWN MUSI C
P. O. Box 1254
Hollywood, CaliÍ ornia 90028

HOW TO PLAY THE ELECTRI C BASS ANd ELECTRI C BASS LI NES, NO. 1
(AI SO AVAI I AbI C:

No. 2, 3, 4, and 5) by Carol KaYe


An'eiceilent displáv of commonly used electric bass lines. HoW To PLAY THE ELE6TRlc
BASS is not a m'ettr'oa book but discusses and gives examples oÍ styles played by electric
bassists.
- Availablethrough: GWYNPUBLI SHI NG
P. O. Box 84043
Los Angeles, Calií ornia 90073

JAMEY AEBERSoLD has a large line oÍ PLAY ALoNG records. They include '| azz selections
played by some oÍ the top musicians in the business today.
lnÍ ormation/ Catalog Available through :
JAMEY AEBERSOLD STUDI O P/ R, I NC.
121 1 Aebersold Drive
or
224 S. Lebanon Street
New Albany, lndiana 47150
Lebanon, lndiana 46052
53

CHAPTER X
BASS CHARTS

ln order to allow you to use many of the techniques displayed in this book, I have

included this chapter. This will allow you to see bas charts as they will often appear.

This was the way the music appeared before me. My interpretation of the following

charts can be heard on the record, "HATE TO SEE YOU GO," by Al Cobine. lt can

be ordered through STUDI O P/ R, lNC., the publisher of this book.

This is a guide for those who don't have the funds to purchase some of the many

recordings mentioned in the discography. I hope that you'll enjoy playing these

charts along with the record and that learning these styles will be a pleasant challenge.

JOHN CLAYTON
54

9Úé t,(ka< L
55

L1 (1 L
É
lEl
rhilila -* Atttí
LuAilbrls

lF|
tfJtffi
?NwÍ lld.E
56

áoé l,&Acn 9

fRocl,ocl o
ffi 'Oo I .
58

áve t,ftrcr 4

T
59

(ffi
-----'-----

2
'.-
60

,l0é l,&acrí

qrjpt

7 Za',
2 É o?.6e./ 00Lo'
62
64

,l?í , | l&eü1b

rtib Sa| / / / ct
é 1Aelq
65

@Gnnr :1e6t

(< onru( áa,p

DW

K
oK, zNo / oa'ope noaé (lraá"

I EJ I tA
íí
66

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87

?l?é ?-
(me,^ ?.

boqte / ,b,JA
QO?( ROCA

Q11ost
' = .1 ^ = =

óa í rb'fi)

Qb to- -
69

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^ to€
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(r^ a, ai,ú a
70

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71

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u9 aa í1 bbrí l cm"l ffit G,"1

b11 0b1?r) a1 an efi L1


r

uí er,1 bbn{ 1
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lÍ dd aari,
72

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L1&t) í rfr í ^ fl+ fu il EI "n

oilq) ú qtll é b"il en

'il é b,

?W, í bq bbe[ 4) WE,


a * fl í ;1 áb nÍ 1 ?b1
(* ) (

Üre1 vl1 Üú )

A9, AL U?A
74

5l0€
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C,q1 ?11