This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Lexicon conspiracy theories
Conspiracy theory is a term that originally was a neutral descriptor for any claim of civil, criminal, or political conspiracy. However, it has become largely pejorative and used almost exclusively to refer to any fringe theory which explains a historical or current event as the result of a secret plot by conspirators of almost superhuman power and cunning. Conspiracy theories are viewed with skepticism by scholars because they are rarely supported by any conclusive evidence and contrast with institutional analysis, which focuses on people's collective behavior in publicly known institutions, as recorded in scholarly material and mainstream media reports, to explain historical or current events, rather than speculate on the motives and actions of secretive coalitions of individuals. The term is therefore often used dismissively in an attempt to characterize a belief as outlandishly false and held by a person judged to be a crank or a group confined to the lunatic fringe. Such characterization is often the subject of dispute due to its possible unfairness and inaccuracy. According to political scientist Michael Barkun, conspiracy theories once limited to fringe audiences have become commonplace in mass media. He argues that this has contributed to conspiracism emerging as a cultural phenomenon in the United States of the late 20th and early 21st centuries, and the possible replacement of democracy by conspiracy as the dominant paradigm of political action in the public mind. According to anthropologists Todd Sanders and Harry G. West, "evidence suggests that a broad cross section of Americans today…gives credence to at least some conspiracy theories." Belief in conspiracy theories has therefore become a topic of interest for sociologists, psychologists and experts in folklore.
• • • • • •
1 Terminology 2 Types 3 Conspiracism 4 Criticism 5 Controversy 6 Study of conspiracism
6.1 Psychological origins
6.1.1 Projection 6.1.2 Epistemic bias
6.1.3 Clinical psychology 6.2.1 Media tropes 6.2.2 Fusion paranoia
6.2 Socio-political origins
7 Political use 8 Fiction
The term "conspiracy theory" may be a neutral descriptor for any legitimate or illegitimate claim of civil, criminal or political conspiracy. To conspire means "to join in a secret agreement to do an unlawful or wrongful act or to use such means to accomplish a lawful end." However, conspiracy theory is also used to indicate a narrative genre that includes a broad selection of (not necessarily related) arguments for the existence of grand conspiracies. The word "theory" is, in this usage, sometimes considered to be more informal as in "speculation" or "hypothesis" rather than mainstream scientific theory. Also, the term conspiracy is typically used to indicate powerful figures, often of the Establishment, who are believed to be deceiving the population at large, as in political corruption. Although some conspiracies are not actually theories, they are often labeled as such by the general populace.The first recorded use of the phrase "conspiracy theory" dates from 1909. Originally it was a neutral term but during the political upheaval of the 1960s it acquired its current derogatory sense. It entered the supplement to the Oxford English Dictionary as late as 1997. The term "conspiracy theory" is frequently used by scholars and in popular culture to identify secret military, banking, or political actions aimed at "stealing" power, money, or freedom, from "the people". Less illustrious uses refer to folklore and urban legend and a variety of explanatory narratives which are constructed with methodological flaws.The term is also used in a pejorative sense to automatically dismiss claims that are deemed ridiculous, misconceived, paranoid, unfounded, outlandish or irrational. For example, the term "Watergate conspiracy theory" does not refer to the generally accepted version in which several participants actually were convicted of conspiracy, and others pardoned before any charges were filed, but to alternative and additional theories such as claims that that the source(s) of information called "Deep Throat" was a fabrication. Daniel Pipes, in an early essay "adapted from a study prepared for the CIA", attempted to define which beliefs distinguish 'the conspiracy mentality' from 'more conventional patterns of thought'. He defined them as: appearances deceive; conspiracies drive history; nothing is haphazard; the enemy always gains power, fame, money, and sex.
4 According to West and Sanders, when talking about conspiracies in the Vietnam era, Pipes includes within the fringe element anyone who entertains the thought that conspiracies played a role in the major political scandals and assassinations that rocked American politics in the Vietnam era. "He sees the paranoid style in almost any critical historical or social-scientific analysis of oppression."
Political scientist Michael Barkun has categorized, in ascending order of breadth, the types of conspiracy theories as follows: •
Event conspiracy theories. The conspiracy is held a limited, discrete event or set of events. The are alleged to have focused their energies on a objective. The best-known example in the recent assassination conspiracy literature. to be responsible for conspiratorial forces limited, well-defined past is the Kennedy
Systemic conspiracy theories. The conspiracy is believed to have broad goals, usually conceived as securing control of a country, a region, or even the entire world. While the goals are sweeping, the conspiratorial machinery is generally simple: a single, evil organization implements a plan to infiltrate and subvert existing institutions. This is a common scenario in conspiracy theories that focus on the alleged machinations of Jews, Freemasons, and the Catholic Church, as well as theories centered on international communism or international capitalists. Superconspiracy theories. Conspiratorial constructs in which multiple conspiracies are believed to be linked together hierarchically. Event and systemic are joined in complex ways, so that conspiracies come to be nested together. At the summit of the conspiratorial hierarchy is a distant but all-powerful evil force manipulating lesser conspiratorial actors. Superconspiracy theories have enjoyed particular growth since the 1980s, in the work of authors such as David Icke, and Milton William Cooper.
A world view that centrally places conspiracy theories in the unfolding of history is sometimes termed "conspiracism". The historian Richard Hofstadter addressed the role of paranoia and conspiracism throughout American history in his essay The Paranoid Style in American Politics, published in 1964. Bernard Bailyn's classic The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution (1967) notes that a similar phenomenon could be found in America during the time preceding the American Revolution. Conspiracism then labels people's attitudes as well as the type of conspiracy theories that are more global and historical in proportion. The term conspiracism was popularized by academic Frank P. Mintz in the 1980s. Academic work in conspiracy theories and conspiracism presents a range of hypotheses as a basis of studying the genre. Among the leading scholars of conspiracism are: Hofstadter, Karl Popper, Michael Barkun, Robert Alan Goldberg, Daniel Pipes, Mark Fenster, Mintz, Carl Sagan, George Johnson, and Gerald Posner. According to Mintz, conspiracism denotes: "belief in the primacy of conspiracies in the unfolding of history":
5 "Conspiracism serves the needs of diverse political and social groups in America and elsewhere. and assumes that things will be better once popular action can remove them from positions of power..' History is moved by the broad forces and large structures of human collectivities. conspiracy theories do not typify a particular epoch or ideology". i. "Conspiracism is a particular narrative form of scapegoating that frames demonized enemies as part of a vast insidious plot against the common good." The term conspiracism is used in the work of Michael Kelly. while it valorizes the scapegoater as a hero for sounding the alarm".are the proofs offered for the argument well constructed. Criticism Conspiracy theories are the subject of broad critique by academics.According to Berlet and Lyons. Throughout human history. but some common standards for assessing their likely truth value may be applied in each case: • • • • Occam's razor . they make a difference at the margins from time to time. blames them for economic and social catastrophes. there have been numerous others.would it be possible to determine whether specific claims of the theory are false. It identifies elites. or are they "unfalsifiable"? • . political and economic leaders genuinely have been the cause of enormous amounts of death and misery. and the media. using sound methodology? Is there any clear standard to determine what evidence would prove or disprove the theory? Whistleblowers .is it credible that nobody involved has brought the affair to light? Falsifiability . Perhaps the most contentious aspect of a conspiracy theory is the problem of settling a particular theory's truth to the satisfaction of both its proponents and its opponents. or is it just a more complicated and therefore less useful explanation of the same evidence? Logic . In some cases there have been claims dismissed as conspiracy theories that later proved to be true. and Matthew N. Chip Berlet. Lyons. the greater the number of people would have to be involved in perpetrating it . Particular accusations of conspiracy vary widely in their plausibility.how many people – and what kind – have to be loyal conspirators? The more wide-ranging and pervasive the conspiracy is alleged to be. As such. and they sometimes have engaged in conspiracies while at the same time promoting conspiracy theories about their targets.do the proofs offered follow the rules of logic. they rarely move history. or do they employ fallacies of logic? Methodology .e. Hitler and Stalin would be merely the most prominent examples.does the alternative story explain more of the evidence than the mainstream story. The idea that history itself is controlled by large long-standing conspiracies is rejected by historian Bruce Cumings: "But if conspiracies exist. but with the unforeseen consequences of a logic outside the control of their authors: and this is what is wrong with 'conspiracy theory. 4. politicians.
"The JFK Assassination II: Conspiracy Phobia On The Left". The term may be used by some for arguments they might not wholly believe but consider radical and exciting. Controversy Aside from controversies over the merits of particular conspiratorial claims. and a term that can be positively embraced by proponents of such a claim. Conspiracy theorists on the internet are often dismissed as a "fringe" group. e." .6 Noam Chomsky. using covert actions and secret plans. education. contrasts conspiracy theory as more or less the opposite of institutional analysis. the CIA is by definition a conspiracy. Michael Parenti gives an example of the use of the term which underscores the conflict in its use. when a group of corporations engage in pricefixing to increase profits. the general discussion of conspiracy theory is itself a matter of some public contention. The legitimacy of each such usage will therefore be a matter of some controversy. as a means to dismiss what are in fact substantial and well-evidenced accusations. Complications occurs for terms such as UFO. rather than secretive coalitions of individuals. thereby causing us to lose sight of the larger systemic forces. many of which are of the most unsavory kind. the agency is an institutionalized conspiracy. He states. Given this popular understanding of the term. a pejorative term used to dismiss such a claim without examination. states. but evidence suggests that a broad cross section of Americans today—traversing ethnic. long-term behaviour of publicly known institutions. occupation. The most widely accepted sense of the term is that which popular culture and academic usage share. 5. an academic critical of the United States establishment. gender. certainly having negative implications for a narrative's probable truth value.g.g. What are covert operations if not conspiracies? At the same time. and thus possessing a certain social stigma. in his 1996 essay which examines the role of progressive media in the use of the term." Structuralist or institutional analysis shows that the term is misused when it is applied to institutions acting in pursuit of their acknowledged goals. "In most of its operations. the CIA is an institution. Michael Parenti. which focuses mostly on the public. a structural part of the national security state. a concept also associated with some conspiracy theories. it can also be used illegitimately and inappropriately. scholarly documents or mainstream media reports. e. The term "conspiracy theory" is considered by different observers to be a neutral description for a conspiracy claim. "It is an either-or world for those on the Left who harbor an aversion for any kind of conspiracy investigation: either you are a structuralist in your approach to politics or a 'conspiracist' who reduces historical developments to the machinations of secret cabals. which literally means "unidentified flying object" but connotes alien spacecraft. as recorded in. In sum. and other divides—gives credence to at least some conspiracy theories.
but significantly underestimated how much their own attitudes had changed to become more in favor of the conspiracy theories. a person who believes in one conspiracy theory tends to believe in others. In a context where a conspiracy theory has become popular within a social group. communal reinforcement may equally play a part. a person who does not believe in one conspiracy theory tends not to believe another. When conspiracy theories are offered as official claims (e. Psychologists believe that the search for meaning is common in conspiracism and the development of conspiracy theories. Belief in conspiracy theories has become a topic of interest for sociologists. Princess of Wales. Further difficulties arise from ambiguity regarding the term theory. 6. this term is often used to refer to unfounded or weakly-based speculation. either in a deliberate attempt to conceal the truth. originating from a governmental authority. Kennedy eventually provoked an unprecedented public response directed against the official version of the case as expounded in the Report of the Warren Commission. or as dupes of more deliberate conspirators. psychologists and experts in folklore since at least the 1960s. leading to the idea that "It's not a conspiracy theory if it's actually true". and may be powerful enough alone to lead to the first formulating of the idea. Psychological origins According to some psychologists. which argues that those using the term are manipulating their audience to disregard the topic under discussion. Some research carried out at the University of Kent. or some other such den of infamy. In popular usage. all of his congenital incapacity and damfoolishness. For example. such as an intelligence agency) they are not usually considered as conspiracy theories. After reading popular conspiracy theories about the death of Diana. Once cognized. UK suggests people may be influenced by conspiracy theories without being aware that their attitudes have changed.g.1. participants in this study correctly estimated how much their peers' attitudes had changed. He ascribes all his failure to get on in the world. confirmation bias and avoidance of cognitive dissonance may reinforce the belief. Study of conspiracism In 1936 American commentator H.7 The term "conspiracy theory" is itself the object of a type of conspiracy theory. 6. certain activities of the House UnAmerican Activities Committee may be considered to have been an official attempt to promote a conspiracy theory. when the assassination of US President John F. The . yet its claims are seldom referred to as such. to the machinations of werewolves assembled in Wall Street. Mencken wrote: The central belief of every moron is that he is the victim of a mysterious conspiracy against his common rights and true deserts. This may be caused by differences in the information upon which parties rely in formulating their conclusions. L.
belief in the power of such a cabal is an implicit assertion of human dignity . are created by human beings rather than factors beyond human control. The enemy may be the cosmopolitan intellectual.. This renders such occurrences comprehensible and potentially controllable. of being able to break the cabal's power or joining it and exercising some of that power oneself.. but ordered by a human intelligence. vividly expressed.2 Epistemic bias “ Conspiracy theories are popular because no matter what they posit.an often unconscious but necessary affirmation that man is not totally helpless. for example. Richard Hofstadter.1." 6. but the paranoid will outdo him in the apparatus of scholarship. Finally. however tenuous. noting that "very often the fantasies of true believers reveal strong sadomasochistic outlets.8 authors conclude that conspiracy theories may therefore have a 'hidden power' to influence people's beliefs. the Ku Klux Klan imitated Catholicism to the point of donning priestly vestments. both the ideal and the unacceptable aspects of the self are attributed to him. Hofstadter also noted that "sexual freedom" is a vice frequently attributed to the conspiracist's target group. and preaches a ruthless prosecution of the ideological war along lines very similar to those it finds in the Communist enemy.1 Projection Some historians have argued that there is an element of psychological projection in conspiracism. there is always the hope. developing an elaborate ritual and an equally elaborate hierarchy. 6. If a cabal can be implicated in a sequence of events. Belief in such a cabal is a device for reassuring oneself that certain occurrences are not random. This projection. at least in some measure. stated that: . The John Birch Society emulates Communist cells and quasi-secret operation through "front" groups. but is responsible. they are all actually ” . at least. Spokesmen of the various fundamentalist anti-Communist "crusades" openly express their admiration for the dedication and discipline the Communist cause calls forth. in his essay The Paranoid Style in American Politics. for conspiracy theorists.1. in part because it is more consoling to think that complications and upheavals in human affairs. is manifested in the form of attribution of undesirable characteristics of the self to the conspirators. Humanistic psychologists argue that even if the cabal behind the conspiracy is almost always perceived as hostile there is.. in the delight of anti-Masons with the cruelty of Masonic punishments.. still an element of reassurance in it. for his own destiny. often.it is hard to resist the conclusion that this enemy is on many counts the projection of the self. according to the argument.
1. Crucially. —Novelist William October 2007. the unavoidable result of a large amount of information circulating among a large number of people. in which a foreign president was (a) successfully assassinated. this is also a valid rule of thumb for detectives to use when generating a list of suspects to investigate. Connected with pareidolia. schizophrenia. because they all are models of radical simplicity. Gibson. denial. prove or retell a conspiracy theory may indicate one or more of several wellunderstood psychological conditions. despite all other evidence available to them being equal. and (d) was unharmed. an obsessive compulsion to believe. According to one study humans apply a 'rule of thumb' by which we expect a significant event to have a significant cause. (c) survived with wounds but died of a heart attack at a later date.9 comforting. The believer may then feel excused of any moral . this allows the "discovery" of conspiracy in any significant event. 6. means and opportunity?" is a perfectly valid use of this rule of thumb. Used in this way "Who had the motive. This sensitivity to the hidden motives of other people may be an evolved and universal feature of human consciousness. Another epistemic 'rule of thumb' that can be misapplied to a mystery involving other humans is cui bono? (who stands to gain?). Other social commentators and sociologists argue that conspiracy theories are produced according to variables that may change within a democratic (or other type of) society. that group does not include the believer. It is possible that certain basic human epistemic biases are projected onto the material under scrutiny. mean world syndrome. However. The study offered subjects four versions of events. the genetic tendency of human beings to find patterns in coincidence.3 Clinical psychology For some individuals. moral context. (b) wounded but survived. Conspiratorial accounts can be emotionally satisfying when they place events in a readily-understandable. 6. The subscriber to the theory is able to assign moral responsibility for an emotionally troubling event or situation to a clearly-conceived group of individuals. Subjects were significantly more likely to suspect conspiracy in the case of the 'major events' — in which the president died — than in the other cases. and other hypothetical ones: paranoia.2 Socio-political origins Christopher Hitchens represents conspiracy theories as the 'exhaust fumes of democracy'.
Alternatively. . Again. A second. dramatic accounts of social phenomena. 1999). If this is a true observation. historic factors may make the process of assigning satisfactory meanings more or less problematic. as opposed to more complex structural or institutional accounts. Feature films such as Enemy of the State and Shooter. because they attract the greatest attention from myth makers and charlatans. Mark Fenster argues that "just because overarching conspiracy theories are wrong does not mean they are not on to something. or is simply beyond the ability of an individual. Sociological historian Holger Herwig found explanations for the origins of World War I: in studying German Those events that are most important are hardest to understand. perhaps related.2. This normal process could be diverted by a number of influences. Of this trend. pressing psychological needs may influence the process. media trope is the effort to allocate individual responsibility for negative events. Specifically. it has been said that the concept of a pure accident is no longer permitted in a news item. if this is a true observation. it may reflect a real change in how the media consumer perceives negative events. 6. At the group or sociological level.10 or political responsibility for remedying whatever institutional or societal flaw might be the actual source of the dissonance. and constitute a response to a withering civil society and the concentration of the ownership of the means of production. and certain of our universal mental tools may impose epistemic 'blind spots'. In this regard. Like moral panics. Hollywood motion pictures and television shows perpetuate and enlarge belief in conspiracy as a standard functioning of corporations and governments. conspiracy theories may arise when evidence available in the public record does not correspond with the common or official version of events. The media have a tendency to start to seek culprits if an event occurs that is of such significance that it does not drop off the news agenda within a few days. it may be expected that the audience which both demands and consumes this emphasis itself is more receptive to personalized. conspiracy theories may sometimes serve to highlight 'blind spots' in the common or official interpretations of events (Fenster. which together leave the political subject without the ability to be recognized or to signify in the public realm" (1999: 67). they ideologically address real structural inequities. Where responsible behavior is prevented by social conditions. At the level of the individual.1 Media tropes Media commentators regularly note a tendency in news media and wider culture to understand events through the prism of individual agents. the conspiracy theory facilitates the emotional discharge or closure that such emotional challenges (after Erving Goffman require. conspiracy theories thus occur more frequently within communities that are experiencing social isolation or political dis-empowerment.
at least. Too. Coming Home converts the huge problem of the returning injured Vietnam War soldier into the chance that the injured soldier will fall in love. coined the term "fusion paranoia" to refer to a political convergence of left-wing and rightwing activists around anti-war issues and civil liberties. This factor is a natural outcome of Hollywood script development which wishes to highlight one or two major characters which can be played by major stars. such as the rise of a revolutionary right-wing populist movement capable of subverting the established political powers. Interestingly. and thus a good way of marketing the movie is established but that rings false upon examination. has given them mass appeal and enabled them to become commonplace in mass media. the strong implication is that the larger problem is also solved.11 among scores of others. Daniel Pipes wrote in a 2004 Jerusalem Post article titled Fusion Paranoia: . by obvious dramatizing. political conspiracies theories. the media reinforces the idea that all things are contrived for someone's gain which could be another definition of. "News" today is virtually always dramatized. Further. although expected by audiences. 6. thereby inaugurating an unrivaled period of people actively preparing for apocalyptic millenarian scenarios in the United States of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. That is. which he claimed were motivated by a shared belief in conspiracism or antigovernment views. actually has another effect of heightening the sense of falseness and contrived stories. Shooter even contains the line. having dropped the idea of questioning conspiracies typical of movies of eras prior to about 1970.2. Social critics have adopted this term to refer to how the synthesis of paranoid conspiracy theories. Into the vacuum of that loss of belief falls explanation by conspiracy theory. at least by pitting "one side" against another in the fictional journalistic concept that all stories must contain "both sides" (as though reality could be reduced to two sides) or by using more intensive dramatic developments similar to feature movies. --Dr. the act of dramatizing real or fictional events injects a degree of falseness or contrived efforts which media savvy people today can identify easily. and when he does. propound conspiracies as a normal state of affairs. Charles Harpole in "History of American Cinema" Scribner/U.2 Fusion paranoia Michael Kelly. movies and television shows do the same as the news media in regard to personalizing and dramatizing issues which are easy to involve in conspiracy theories. "that is how conspiracies work" in reference to the JFK murder. They warn that this development may not only fuel lone wolf terrorism but have devastating effects on American political life. Calif Press. which were once limited to American fringe audiences. a Washington Post journalist and critic of anti-war movements on both the left and right. underpinning the public's loss of belief in virtually anything any mass media says. the necessity to serve up a dubiously justified happy ending.
professor of political science in the Maxwell School at Syracuse University. The major new development. faced off against each other. the scandalous. but carry no political agenda. where imaginations run wild. persons bored by rationalism. or racism. and other alienated elements (Ross Perot. This hideous spectacle sobered Americans. Their theories imply a political agenda. chauvinism. Popper argued that totalitarianism was founded on "conspiracy theories" which drew on imaginary plots driven by paranoid scenarios predicated on tribalism." and those who believe a reptilian race runs the earth and alien installations exist under the earth's surface. Political use Conspiracy theories exist in the realm of myth. where mainly two groups promoted such ideas. Hitler and Stalin. fears trump facts. alternative medicine. Popper even uses the term "conspiracy" to describe ordinary political . 7. Cynthia McKinney). Occultists are drawn to what Barkun calls the "cultural dumping ground of the heretical. The culturally suspicious: These include "Kennedy assassinologists. nazism. The politically disaffected: Blacks (Louis Farrakhan. but their joining forces with occultists. Conspiracy theories grew in importance from then until World War II. Lyndon LaRouche). the hard Right (John Birch Society. the one who worries about a "joint Reptilian-Bavarian Illuminati" takeover is at the cutting edge of the new synthesis. when two arch-conspiracy theorists. Popper did not argue against the existence of everyday conspiracies (as incorrectly suggested in much of the later literature). the United States is often cast as a villain in these dramas. and the dangerous" – such as spiritualism. the author who worries about the Secret Service taking orders from the Bavarian Illuminati is old school. is not just an erosion in the divisions between these two groups. who in subsequent decades relegated conspiracy theories to the fringe. and evidence is ignored. These bizarre notions constitute what Michael Kelly termed "fusion paranoia. Thus. and communism. and astrology. America. But fears of a grand conspiracy – that the Illuminati or Jews plan to take over the world – go back only 900 years and have been operational for just two centuries. the unfashionable. Theosophy. Pat Buchanan). alchemy. since the French Revolution. As a superpower.12 Fears of a petty conspiracy – a political rival or business competitor plotting to do you harm – are as old as the human psyche.gov In his two volume work The Open Society and Its Enemies Popper used the term "conspiracy theory" to criticize the ideologies driving fascism." "ufologists. Such themes enjoy enormous popularity (a year 2000 poll found 43 percent of Americans believing in UFOs). but lack much of a following." a promiscuous absorption of fears from any source whatsoever. reports Barkun. causing the greatest blood-letting in human history.
13 activity in the classical Athens of Plato (who was the target of his attack in The Open Society & Its Enemies). principal
In his critique of the twentieth century totalitarians, Popper wrote, "I do not wish to imply that conspiracies never happen. On the contrary, they are typical social phenomena." He reiterated his point, "Conspiracies occur, it must be admitted. But the striking fact which, in spite of their occurrence, disproved the conspiracy theory is that few of these conspiracies are ultimately successful. Conspirators rarely consummate their conspiracy."
Because of their dramatic potential, conspiracies are a popular theme in thrillers and science fiction. Complex history is recast as a morality play in which bad people cause bad events, and good people identify and defeat them. Fictional conspiracy theories offer neat, intuitive narratives, in which the conspirators' plot fits closely the dramatic needs of the story's plot. As mentioned above, the cui bono? aspect of conspiracy theories resembles one element of mystery stories: the search for a possibly hidden motive. Dr. Strangelove was a 1964 comedy about modern nuclear warfare. The end of the world is precipitated by the delusions of General Jack D. Ripper who happens to be in control of a SAC nuclear air wing. General Ripper believes there is a Communist conspiracy which threatens to "sap and impurify" the "precious bodily fluids" of the American people with fluoridated water. Conspiracy Theory is a 1997 thriller about a taxi driver (played by Mel Gibson) who publishes a newsletter in which he discusses what he suspects are government conspiracies, and it turns out that one or more of them are true. The X-Files was a popular television show during the 1990s and early 2000s, which primarily followed the investigations of two FBI agents, Fox Mulder and Dana Scully, who were sometimes helped by a group of conspiracy theorists known as The Lone Gunmen. Many of the episodes dealt with a plot for alien invasion overseen by elements of the U.S. government, led by an individual known only as the Cigarette Smoking Man and an even more mysterious international "Syndicate". The famous tag line of the series, "The Truth Is Out There", can be interpreted as reference to the meaning-seeking nature of the genre discussed above. Umberto Eco's novel Foucault's Pendulum is a broad satire on conspiracism in which the characters attempt to construct an all-embracing conspiracy theory starting with the Templars and including the Bavarian Illuminati, the Rosicrucians, hollow Earth enthusiasts, the Cathars, and the Jesuits. The three-part novel Illuminatus! by Robert Shea and Robert Anton Wilson (published in 1975) is a highly satirical, psychedelic novel dealing with complex, Byzantine conspiracies nested within other larger conspiracies—with the scale of the plots and the audacity of their plotters expanding to enfold more and more minds as the story progresses, evolving to wrap itself around many extant conspiracy theories such as the ones revolving around the Bavarian Illuminati, the Masons, the Vatican, the Mafia, governments large and small, and
14 fringe groups of both left and right-wing persuasions. Their plottings merge with the overarching plans of several fictitious organizations— and also an actual "religion" which conceives of itself as a joke (the Discordians.) In an ironic twist of fate, Illuminatus! may have even caused the development of a real-world Discordian society (which manifests in loose clusters of affiliation, rather than as any formalized group) when the novel's cult success as a countercultural mainstay brought the "holy writ" of the Discordians, the Principia Discordia, out of obscurity over the final three decades of the twentieth century. Shea and Wilson used witty quotes drawn from this comedic pamphlet glorifying Eris, the Greek goddess of chaos and discord, as opening lines for chapters of the Illuminatus! books. Conspiracy theories have even influenced video games. The critically acclaimed RPG/shooter Deus Ex, and its sequel (albeit to a lesser degree), Deus Ex: Invisible War, draw upon current-day conspiracy theories such as Majestic 12, Area 51, and the Illuminati. Other novels, such as Dan Brown's 2000 controversial book "Angels and Demons" have also popularized the idea of conspiracy theories. The book surrounds the quest of Robert Langdon, a fictional Harvard University symbologist who is bent on uncovering the mysteries of a secret society known as the Illuminati. Brown's novel, and others alike, harp on the ideas of the unknown, a life source for conspiracy theorists. Michael Barkun, a political scientist specializing in the study of conspiracism in American culture, notes that a vast popular audience has been introduced by the 1997 film Conspiracy Theory to the notion that the U.S. government is controlled by a secret team in black helicopters - a view once confined to right-wing extremists. The Da Vinci Code is a 2003 mystery-detective fiction novel written by an American author, Dan Brown. It follows symbologist Robert Langdon and Sophie Neveu as they investigate a murder in Paris's Louvre Museum and discover a Conspiracy surrounding the possibility of Jesus Christ of Nazareth having been married to Mary Magdalene.
List of conspiracy theories
The list of conspiracy theories is a collection of the most popular theories related but not limited to clandestine government plans, elaborate murder plots, suppression of secret technology and knowledge, and other supposed schemes behind certain political, cultural, and historical events. While a
conspiracy is defined by law as an agreement between two or more people to commit a crime, fraud, or other wrongful act, a conspiracy theory attempts to attribute the ultimate cause of an event (usually major political, social, historical, or cultural events), chain of events, or the concealment of causes from public knowledge, to a secret and often deceptive plan by a group of people or organizations. Such theories usually go against a general consensus or cannot be proven using the historical method. Purposely excluded from this list are proven historical conspiracies, e.g. the conspiracy to assassinate U.S. President Abraham Lincoln and members of his cabinet in 1865.
• • • • • • •
1 New World Order
1.1 Federal Reserve System
2 False flag operations 3 Wars 4 Coups d'état 5 Official Conspiracy Theories 6 Assassinations
○ ○ ○ ○ ○
6.1 Clinton Body Count 7.1 Suppression of technologies 7.2 Development of weapons technology 7.3 Weapons testing 7.4 Surveillance, espionage and intelligence agencies 8.1 DTV Transition 9.1 Drug legalization 9.2 Chemtrails 9.3 Diet 9.4 Creation of diseases 9.5 Water fluoridation 9.6 Traditional, Natural and Alternative medicines
7 Technology and weapons
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
10 Peak Oil
11 Secret societies 12 Ethnicity and race
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
12.1 Armenian International Conspiracy 12.2 Jewish world domination 12.3 Arab-Israeli relations 12.4 "Babylon" and racist oppression 12.5 Eurabia 12.6 Arab-fascist axis 12.7 La Reconquista (Mexico) 12.8 Baha'i 12.9 The Plan 13.1 Evil aliens 13.2 Extraterrestrials 14.1 Apocalyptic prophecies 14.2 Bible conspiracy theory 14.3 Catholicism a veiled continuation of Babylonian paganism 14.4 Jerusalem Temple Candelabrum in the Vatican cellars
13 Paranormal activity
○ ○ ○ ○
1.New World Order
This conspiracy theory states that a small group of international elites controls and manipulates governments, industry, and media organizations worldwide. The primary tool they use to dominate nations is the system of central banking. They are said to have funded and in some cases caused most of the major wars of the last 200 years, carry out false flag attacks to manipulate populations into supporting them, and they have a grip on the world economy, deliberately causing inflation and depressions at will. Operatives working for the New World Order are said to be placed in high positions in government and industry. The people behind the New World Order are thought to be international bankers, in particular the owners of the private banks in the Federal Reserve System and other central banks, and members of the Council on Foreign Relations, Trilateral Commission and
and a massive underground base and city is believed to exist underneath the airport. World Bank. though not a part of the government. Bush when he referred to his "dream of a New World Order" in his speech to the United States Congress on September 11. 1990. all for their own agenda. The New World Order is also said to control supranational and global organizations such as the European Union. sometimes cited as evidence that the New World Order had a motive for carrying out the September 11. All we need is the right major crisis and the nations will accept the New World Order. headquarters of the New World Order. it is accused of being the same group of people who. False flag operations False flag operations are covert operations conducted by governments. 1. which are designed to appear as if they are being carried out by other . gas-mask wearing soldiers. Many conspiracy theorists believe that Denver International Airport is the western U." The concept of this shadow government predates 1990. International Monetary Fund and the proposed North American Union. It is believed that secret fleets of black helicopters are ready to take control when the New World Order is set up. There is a theory that the Federal Reserve System is designed to transfer wealth from the poor and middle classes of the United States to the international bankers of the New World Order. supported the Bolshevik Revolution (1917). distance from the Denver.S. The World Bank and national central banks are said to be the tools of the New World Order. girls in coffins. The Federal Reserve System is the central bank of the United States. Colorado city center. created in 1913. W. United Nations. Masonic symbols and strange writing. corporations. and second by David Rockefeller in a statement to the United Nations Business Council in September 1994. 2. 2001 attacks:"We are on the verge of a global transformation. and supported the rise of the Nazi Party in Germany. created the Federal Reserve Act (1913). first by President George H.1 Federal Reserve System The New World Order is said to control the wealth of nations through central banks. war generates massive profits for central banks because government spending (hence borrowing at interest from the central banks) increases dramatically in times of war. The term gained popularity following its use in the early 1990s. Reasons for this include the airport's unusually large size (larger than some major cities). and the set of bizarre murals depicting burning cities. via the issuance of currency. among other things.17 Bilderberg Group. or other organizations.
wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. and other intrusive foreign and domestic policies by which they would • • • • • • • • • . is said to have been framed. Pearl Harbor advance-knowledge debate Pan Am Flight 103 conspiracy theories. was subject to an arson attack. The following are some attacks that are believed by some to be examples of false flag attacks: • • The sinking of the RMS Lusitania was provoked in order to put the United States into World War I. 2001 attacks. many of them claiming that individuals in the United States government knew about the attacks beforehand and purposefully allowed them to occur. the German parliament. and that the massacre was engineered by the Australian government in order to facilitate gun control. Former GRU officer Aleksey Galkin. expansion of the police state. and Soviet military and political figures in order to capture Larry McDonald. Numerous conspiracy theories have developed suggesting that false flag operations have been carried out throughout the 20th century. Several leading German historians concluded that the fire was a secret Nazi operation for which the Nazis then blamed a communist. and the secrecy of the true nature of the events have been maintained by successful cover-ups. were false flag operations perpetrated by the FSB. this is seen as the pivotal event for the appropriation of authoritarian power by the government of Nazi Germany. 1933. a political thriller novel suggests that the 1983 shoot-down of a 747 was plotted by U. which precipitated the Second Chechen War.S. On February 27. Columbine conspiracy theories. former FSB officer Alexander Litvinenko and other defectors from the Russian government and security services have asserted that the 1999 Russian apartment bombings. the perpetrator of the 1996 Port Arthur massacre. the Reichstag building.18 entities. increased militarization. Gulf of Tonkin incident was a hoax to start the Vietnam War. Korean Air Lines Flight 007. as a pretext for the "War on Terror". or orchestrated the attacks themselves. Many 9/11 conspiracy theories have been presented to explain the September 11. the successor organization to the KGB. Martin Bryant. The 1993 World Trade Center bombing was allegedly orchestrated by the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
A war planned for economic gain can be seen as a conspiracy in the conventional sense of a secret plot — particularly when the public is presented with false pretexts for war. The 9/11 Truth Movement is the self-bestowed name of those who seek the purported "truth" about 9/11. President Dwight Eisenhower referred to this source of potential conflict of interest as the military-industrial complex. and Guam. A 2000 report from the group stated that "some catastrophic and catalyzing event — like a new Pearl Harbor" would be needed as a pretext for carrying out their plans for "United States global hegemony" in the 21st century. the hijackers would in reality be agents of the U. there is always a party within a nation that benefits from war. a conservative think tank that argues for increased American global leadership. 3. from difficulties facing the current government. If they did orchestrate the attacks themselves. Opponents of the war. Wars The motivations for nations starting. or for humanitarian purposes. either in part or in toto. former Vice President Dick Cheney and several other key Bush administration figures. • Rumours and conspiracy theories about the July 2005 London bombings allege that intelligence services were behind the attacks. According to this view. are in fact motivated by the conquest and control of natural resources for commercial interest. such as Mark Twain and Andrew Carnegie. It has also been suggested that war is a perfect way of distracting citizens. whose former members include exSecretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld. as an electoral tactic. entering. and the George Orwell novel 1984. This premise is the basis of the film Wag the Dog. coordinating and precipitating the events that lead nations into war. Related is the allegation that certain wars which are claimed by politicians to be in the national interest. or ending wars are often brought into question by conspiracy theorists. the Philippines. In the SpanishAmerican War. the explosion of the USS Maine prompted the United States annexation of Puerto Rico. Munitions suppliers are often blamed for devising. Proponents point to the Project for the New American Century. government carrying out the operation for political purposes. on whatever pretext: the suppliers of weapons and other military material. Some have claimed[who?] that this .S.19 benefit. President Abraham Lincoln is known to have made a similar observation near the close of the American Civil War. claimed that it was being fought for imperialist motives.
have been accused of carrying out false flag coups d'état. Kennedy assassination (presidential candidate Robert F. 2000 The overthrow of Yugoslavia (Serbian) president Slobodan Milošević. in order to install friendly governments in foreign countries. 1998 Indonesian Revolution. 1975 Gough Whitlam – theory that the dismissal of Australian Prime Minister Gough Whitlam by Governor-General John Kerr was brought about by U. . Some of these have since been acknowledged . In recent times. • • • • • • • • 1977 Pakistani coup d'état.20 was the motivation behind the Falklands War.S.  intervention. see Overthrow of Slobodan Milošević.such as Operation Ajax (1953). 1975 Bangladeshi coup d'état.S. 1980 Turkish coup d'état. a covert coup to topple the democratically elected leaders of Iran. Coups d'état Governments. 4. 1992 Venezuelan coup d'état attempts. At that time the National Reorganization Process. 1973 Chilean coup d'état The Augusto Pinochet regime takeover in Chile and the death of president Salvador Allende in the coup bombing of the La Moneda presidential palace.S. intelligence operatives unhappy with Whitlam's economic. 1963 The Kennedy assassination (President John F. Some other coups that some believe may have been actively supported by the United States government include the following: • • • • • 1958 Pakistani coup d'état. critics have accused the U. of engaging in realpolitik in the cynical sense of political action without regard for principle or morals. wars in the Middle East such as the Gulf War and the invasion of Iraq have been described as wars for oil. 1991 Haiti coup d'état. 1968 Robert F. the right-wing dictatorship that ruled Argentina between 1976 and 1983. Kennedy). social and foreign policies. Declassified documents confirmed the U. In many cases. particularly the United States government. was facing increasing discontent among the population and this may have contributed to the decision to invade the Falkland Islands. Kennedy) 1965 30 September Movement.
Jr.The assassinations of Robert F. Benigno Aquino. • • • theories have been advanced by governmental 1947 International Communist Conspiracy 1968 Chicago Conspiracy Trial 1998 Vast Right Wing Conspiracy 6. 5. Princess of Wales and Dodi Fayed in 1997. Often evidence for such theories includes the reactions by individuals and government agencies following the events. Assassinations Conspiracy theories sometimes emerge following assassinations of prominent people. Jr. Official Conspiracy Theories Some conspiracy organizations.21 • 2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt. Olof Palme. The question of "Who benefits?" is also often asked. More recent examples include those of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. In many cases.S. This theory was popularised by the Oliver Stone movie. The assassinations of historical figures. Earlier examples of assassinations about which there are conspiracy theories include those of Abraham Lincoln and Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. Three polls conducted in 2003 suggest that there is widespread disbelief among the U. with conspiracy theorists asserting that insiders often have far more powerful motives than those to whom the assassination is attributed by mainstream society. Examples include the car crash that killed Diana. Kennedy. such as Eric V of Denmark and Tsarevich Dmitry Ivanovich of Russia remain subject to conspiracy theories. Kennedy (1963). Carrero Blanco. Kennedy Jr. the death of John F. Alexander Litvinenko and Benazir Bhutto. and Malcolm X are also the subject of conspiracy theories. Yitzhak Rabin. Some deaths that are officially recorded as accident. which has caused a number of conspiracy theories to develop. Central to this theory is the claim that the injuries received by Kennedy and Governor John Connally could not have been caused by a lone gunman behind the motorcade and to the right. Other examples include: the suicide of Deputy White House Counsel Vincent Foster. in a plane crash in 1999. it is asserted that a "Manchurian candidate" may have been used. such as the creation of biased commissions to conduct official investigations.. the plane crash that . Martin Luther King. public about the official story of a lone gunman between 68% and 83%. suicide or natural causes are also the subject of some conspiracy theories. The best known is the assassination of John F. and the death of Senator Paul Wellstone in a plane crash in 2002. JFK.
Bush have aroused suspicion from conspiracy theorists that the events might have been staged. or that he is still alive and hidden somewhere. The list grew out of a 1993 list of about 24 names prepared by the pro-gun lobby group American Justice Federation which was led by Linda Thompson. The list began circulating over the Internet starting in the mid-1990s. such as Vince Foster).22 killed United States Secretary of Commerce Ron Brown. but much later. James P.S. as officially claimed. Presidents Zachary Taylor and Lyndon B.1 Clinton Body Count The Clinton Body Count. while he was president and before. The motive for staging an unsuccessful assassination attempt can be to augment the popularity of the person involved. the number one example arguably being the death of Marilyn Monroe. Jimmy Hoffa and David Kelly. in some cases failures but in other cases entirely staged events. public opinion polls tend to be boosted by unsuccessful attempts on the life of a prominent politician. Brady. British political leader Hugh Gaitskell. as it is popularly known. but also Sam Cooke. but was assassinated. was quietly assassinating his associates (ostensibly anyone who got in the way of his career. Elvis Presley. W. John Lennon. Kurt Cobain. The Clinton Body Count is a list of about 50-60 associates of Clinton who have died "under mysterious circumstance". Jeff Buckley. Australian prime minister Harold Holt. There have been numerous unsuccessful attempts to assassinate U. Władysław Sikorski. Brian Jones. the Mayerling Incident. Bob Marley. Presidents. It was started as a retaliation to the Bush Body Count (which ostensibly had various members of the Bush family responsible for events like JFK assassination and the October surprise merrily killing lesser co-conspirators on their way). Some of them. and more recently Michael Jackson. Tupac Shakur. such as the attempted assassinations of Gerald Ford. New Zealand prime minister Norman Kirk. Jim Morrison. James Forrestal. 6. Ronald Reagan and George H.that he did not die in an accident. In India there are several conspiracy theories circulating about the 1945 death of pro-Axis Indian nationalist leader Subhas Chandra Bose . Johnson. Janis Joplin. There are also theories about untimely deaths of celebrities. and the deaths of U. There are also theories that some assassination attempts have been carried out by secret conspiracies. that he did not die at that time. . is a conspiracy theory that Bill Clinton.S. Christopher Wallace. Jimi Hendrix.
by Edwin Black. the second time was in 1913-1914 when the same interests sabotaged Henry Ford's and Thomas Edison's attempt to produce an 'inexpensive' electric car. The first suppression of such occurred shortly after the turn of the 20th century (in 1899 the world's land speed record was set by an electric car at 65 mph). This activity. While the technology Tesla • • • . noting 1) many of those claimed to be assassinated actually died from very well documented accidents that leave no possibility of assassination 2) a political figure who becomes President of the United States will have a loosely defined circle of "associates". Technology and weapons 7. soldiers) or older men in high stress jobs (therefore at greater risk of dying of stress related disease or suicide). an American militaryfunded research program. called "Vril". is used and controlled by a secret subterranean society of matriarchal socialist utopian superior beings.S. 7. Nikola Tesla has been the object of several conspiracy theories. are documented in the book Internal Combustion. Termination of rocket experiments at Cuxhaven. The documentary Who Killed the Electric Car? alleged that electric car technology has been largely suppressed by big oil and gas firms. and many of these associates are in dangerous positions (police officers. It has been claimed that the Elsbett diesel engine running on plant oil had to put up against unfair competition practices. and further industry conspiracies to rid the U. Snopes. Vril Society Conspiracy which suggests that a secret form of energy.com has debunked this list. A typical suppressed invention story is that of the incredibly efficient automobile carburetor. whose inventor was supposedly killed or hounded into obscurity by petroleum companies desirous to protect their business from an engine that would make their product obsolete.1 Suppression of technology • • • Avro Arrow—Cancellation of this system. of the electric trolley system and electric trains. pilots.23 The list was posted to the group's Bulletin board system. The theory also claims that Nazi Germany used this technology to create advanced aircraft (flying saucers). with claims relating to revolutionary energy generation and distribution technologies which may or may not have been utilised by "HAARP".
However. his discoveries have often been linked to such pseudoscience as Wilhelm Reich's "orgone" generator which was supposedly suppressed by the establishment. Navy warship invisible that allegedly caused severe harm to on-board crew members. It has been speculated that the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami may have been caused intentionally by a "tsunami bomb" . a few (Preston Nichols.A supposed attempt to turn a U. • The Phoebus cartel set up in 1924 certainly seems to have stopped competition in the light bulb industry for some years.S.S. The U.24 discovered was real and exists today. through degaussing technology and other methods. According to declassified files. and has been accused of preventing technological advances that would have produced longer-lasting light bulbs. the Montauk Project would put government trained psychics (Duncan Cameron) into a program with the intent of mind control. the experiment's actual goal was only to make the ship invisible to torpedoes. the Phoebus cartel also features in Thomas Pynchon's fictional Gravity's Rainbow. Although denied by the government. Some reason that the technology is at least feasible since research into such technology has been conducted by the military as far back as World War II. which has led some to blur fact and fiction. earthquake induction device and/or for mind control.A continuation of the Philadelphia Experiment. High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program theory claims that HAARP could be used as directed-energy weapon. Al Bielek) have given lectures and written books on the subject. Cohen stated. Montauk Project . weather control. and even mental manifestation. "Others are engaging even in an eco-type of • • • . Defense Department had even expressed concern about earthquake-inducing technology in warfare well before the 2004 disaster. In 1997 Defense Secretary William S. time travel. top-secret "tsunami bomb" experiments utilising explosions to trigger "mini-tidal waves" were conducted off the coast of New Zealand in 1944 and 1945. Free energy suppression • • 7.2 Development of weapons technology Philadelphia Experiment .a nuclear weapon detonated in a strategic position under the ocean. According to official sources.
The various services provided by Google . South Australia during the 1950s. sailors. having the general appearance of contrails.25 terrorism whereby they can alter the climate. The Venezuelan state-run TV station ViVe has claimed that the 2010 Haiti earthquake was caused by US government weapons testing. control their minds." • Chemtrail theory: Clouds behind aircraft. should perhaps be viewed in the context of events in former Eastern bloc countries. Contention lingers over the continuing after-effects of secret British nuclear testing at Maralinga. Conspiracy theories of this sort cast government agencies as pursuing vast technical powers in order to spy on people.S. or otherwise suppress an alienated populace. A ubiquitous and persistent rumour in Cameroon has it that the Lake Nyos carbon dioxide disaster of 1986 was caused by the U.3 Weapons testing • Peter Vogel's book The Last Wave from Port Chicago argues that the Port Chicago disaster was an accidental detonation or intentional test of a nuclear weapon on ships manned by (mostly African American) U. volcanoes remotely through the use of electromagnetic waves. particularly dissenters. and a government cover-up took place. conspiracy theory. and that's the reason why we have to intensify our efforts. and that's why this is so important. The plausibility of establishing such surveillance capabilities. So there are plenty of ingenious minds out there that are at work finding ways in which they can wreak terror upon other nations. or crossed over into. particularly the activities of the East German Stasi before the fall of the Berlin Wall.S. 7. set off earthquakes.4 Surveillance. or French (depending on the version) military testing a secret bomb in the lake. According to some theories the crashes of Arrow DC8 and TWA800 were caused by a secret electromagnetic directedenergy weapon. • • • • 7. These are technologies being developed by governments which are intended to intrude into the privacy or harm the persons of citizens. espionage and intelligence agencies Particular technologies of surveillance and control arouse concern that has bordered upon. by technical means or by a widespread network of informants. It's real. but alleged to be chemical spraying performed for some secretive purpose.
Another claim describes use of mind control technology that would be hidden in the digital signal and used to subvert the mind and feelings of the people and for subliminal advertising. deception. carrying 269 people including anti-communist Cong. Larry McDonald. 8. suppression of evidence and political events. Indeed. which is believed by some to be a global database used to track individuals Big Brother style.26 have also been considered to invade people's privacy. a Boeing 747. BND. Numerous theories have been put forward surrounding Korean Air Lines Flight 007. and the Government Warehouse. and assassination. such as the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). thus enabling intelligence agencies to monitor their activities. Some examples include the Pine Gap satellite tracking system in Australia. which is a conspiracy that alleges that the government has secret warehouses which contain articles that they do not want people to know about. Intelligence agencies. 9. These theories started in a Cold War era of heightened tensions and mutual distrust. Media 8. are a common element of political conspiracy theories precisely because they are known to participate in some activities similar to those described in conspiracy theories. KGB. Inter-Services Intelligence. Many governments use intelligence agencies to promote national policies in secretive ways — in several cases including the use of sabotage. with allegations the English spymaster Robert Cecil was responsible for the Gunpowder plot of 1605. Internal Security Act (ISA) and Mossad. propaganda. MI6. conspiracy theories about espionage agencies go back at least as far as the 17th century. KAL 007 was shot down near Moneron Island by the Soviet military after it strayed into prohibited airspace in 1983. Medicine The subject of suppressed-invention conspiracy also touches on the realm of medical quackery: proponents of more unlikely forms .1 DTV Transition Some theorists claim that forced transition to digital television broadcasting is practical realization of "Big Brother" concept. and have been fanned by subsequent misinformation. They claim that miniature cameras and microphones are built into Set-top boxes and newer TV sets to spy on people.
27 of alternative medicine are known to allege conspiracy by mainstream doctors to suppress their cures. An extensive study on the subject has been done by Jack Herer in his book The Emperor Wears No Clothes. It is claimed that as long as the medical industry's dietary research studies are accepted and enforced as the measure. HSV and HPV. 9. 9.3 Diet This type of theory posits that. Some medical conspiracy theorists argue that the medical community could actually cure supposedly "incurable" diseases such as cancer (like the noted Luigi di Bella's medicines) and AIDS if it really wanted to.1 Drug legalization Some activists and spokespersons for legalization of drugs (especially marijuana) have long espoused a theory that government and private industry conspired during the first half of the 20th century to outlaw hemp. the medical industry is generating billions in drug and treatment revenue from consumers who have become unhealthy as a result of poor or incomplete diet guidelines from the FDA. ADHD. Other medical conspiracies charge that pharmaceutical companies are in league with some medical practitioners to 'invent' new diseases. to the extent that a legal decision may be relevant. the incidence of obesity will . The costs for long-term treatment are generally higher than for a one-time cure. with the help of the food industry and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA).2 Chemtrails Some people believe that chemtrails contain chemicals or biological agents purposely sprayed on the population by governments or other authorities. and will also continue to suppress any findings of the greater benefits of fasting and other calorie restriction type diets. Not to be confused with contrails which dissipate within minutes. they will continue to suggest a minimum calorie intake above the actual healthy level. 9. such as ADD. chemtrails linger and slowly spread. Such conspiracies are often said to include government regulators. but instead prefers to suppress the cures as a way of maintaining the multitrillion dollar "cancer industry". allegedly so that it would no longer provide inexpensive competition to pulp paper and synthetic materials. and as long as the consumer continues to eat at the level suggested by the FDA. William Randolph Hearst is often pointed to as one of the businessmen responsible due to his involvement in the printing industry and his eminence in the public eye.
and include the following: • Fluoridation is part of a Communist or New World Order or Illuminati plot to take over the world. or have found no association with adverse effects. Conspiracy theories involving fluoridation are common. 9. Since fluoridation's inception in the 1950s.5 Water fluoridation Water fluoridation is the controlled addition of fluoride to a public water supply to reduce tooth decay. It has been claimed that the CIA deliberately administered HIV to African Americans and homosexuals in the 1970s. efforts to introduce water fluoridation meet considerable opposition whenever it is proposed.e. Other theories suggest that the virus was created as an experiment in biological and/or psychological warfare. created by scientists in a laboratory). This notion is mentioned. It is thought to have been created as a tool of genocide and/or population control. Although almost all major health and dental organizations support water fluoridation. in Stanley Kubrick's Dr. because Muslim clerics have urged parents not to have their children vaccinated. via tainted hepatitis vaccinations. it would be self-defeating for the medical industry to produce a cure for the many services that they depend on to generate revenue from unhealthy dietary practices of their customers. Groups such as the New Black Panther Party and Louis Farrakhan's Nation of Islam assert that this was part of a plan to destroy the black race. with comical effect. Some who believe that HIV was a government creation see a precedent for it in the Tuskegee syphilis study.4 Creation of diseases There are claims that AIDS is a man-made disease (i. Thus. Some of these theories allege that HIV was created by a conspiratorial group or by a secretive agency such as the CIA. in which government-funded researchers deceptively denied treatment to black patients infected with a sexually transmitted disease. . Others claim that it was administered in Africa as a way of crippling the development of the continent. there has been a marked increase in the number of polio cases in the country. and then escaped into the population at large by accident.28 continue to rise and the medical industry will continue to profit. Strangelove. Since these claims have been in existence. 9. opponents have drawn on distrust of experts and unease about medicine and science. There have been suggestions that either the HIV virus or a sterilizing agent has been added to polio vaccines being distributed by the World Health Organization in Nigeria.
(See Federal Food. for medicines.6 Traditional. and Cosmetic Act. He claims that in the USA. Fluoridation was used in Russian prison camps and produces schizophrenia. etc. Drug. Peak Oil There are theories that the "Peak Oil" concept is a fraud concocted by the oil industries to increase prices amid concerns about future supplies. The oil industry is aware of vast reserves of untapped oil. Proponents of traditional. atomic weapons program from litigation. they are not drugs and that such laws fallaciously define them as drugs in order to control and ultimately limit or prevent their distribution thus ensuring profits for the pharmaceutical industry.S. Fluoridation was pioneered by a German chemical company to make people submissive to those in power. in perpetuity. 9. but it deliberately . Natural and Alternative medicines Many proponents of traditional. Any substance for which medicinal claims are made are deemed "drugs". For example. etc. A variation on this conspiracy is claimed by Kevin Trudeau. author of Natural Cures "They" Don't Want You to Know About. natural and alternative medicines often claim that since herbs. the FDA and FTC) conspire to withhold natural cures because "they" can make more profit selling long-term treatments. according to these theories. advertisements. Fluoridation is backed by the aluminum or industries as a means of disposing of some industrial waste. phosphate of their • Fluoridation is a smokescreen to cover failure to provide dental care to the poor. 10. "they" (pharmaceutical companies. Fluoridation researchers are accused to be in the pay of corporate or political interests as part of the plot. natural and alternative medicines claim that pharmaceutical companies and various governments and government agencies conspire to maintain profits by ensuring that the general public uses only modern medicines. many countries have laws that prevent unproven medicinal claims from being printed on packaging. that do not cure. Specific anti-fluoridation arguments change to match the spirit of the time. are of natural origin.) Many of these laws originated in part to due to when snake oil and other such remedies were sold without any government regulation.29 • • • • Fluoridation was designed by the military–industrial complex to protect the U.
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Ashmedai's 2069 1001 Club Bilderberg Group Bohemian Grove Committee of 300 Council on Foreign Relations Freemasonry (see Masonic conspiracy theories) The Illuminati—Thought of as a secret group attempting to control the world. Secret societies Though the past or present existence of these secret societies is not disputed. 11.30 refuses to utilize them in order to maintain the illusion of scarcity. Trilateral Commission • 12. Parallels have been drawn between this and the diamond industry. where it is recognized that a monopoly cabal maintains an illusion of scarcity of diamonds in order to increase their value. Such an idea was featured prominently in the novel Shock Wave by Clive Cussler.1 Armenian International Conspiracy . a variety of theories regarding hidden plots and/or agendas actively guarded from the general public have been proposed. The alleged presence of large quantities of oil has led to increased interest in the Western world in a theory of the origin of oil that was popular in the 1950s and 1960s in the Soviet Union—the Abiogenic petroleum origin theory. Ethnicity and race 12. Le Cercle Majestic 12 Men In Black Nine Unknown Men Pilgrims Society Royal Institute of International Affairs Skull and Bones—This Yale University fraternity is often thought of as being a secret society producing many financial and political leaders who have control or seek to gain control.
as there exists incontrovertible historical evidence that shows the existence of Ancient Armenia before the arrival of Turks from Central Asia into Anatolia over three thousand . officially part of Azerbaijan. It has also been translated in Turkish and distributed in Turkey. countries which have histories of conflict with Armenians. have been criticized as racist and Anti-Armenian by the Armenian Assembly of America. He has been quoted.31 Samuel A. However. Belief in an "Armenian International Conspiracy". 1936— January 25. Actual proponents of the "Armenian International Conspiracy" are scarce. lying that "The religion of the Armenians is fake" and that his research shows "that there is clearly an Armenian Master Plan that generates Armenian hate around the world. which has clashed with Armenia over Nagorno Karabakh. In his book. United States. he was preparing to write a second book claiming the international Armenian community collaborated with and supported Nazi Germany. who was paid by the Turkish lobby in the United States. He also "claimed" that the Armenian Church was a "state owned" entity that organizes and funds terrorist (including ASALA) attacks and that Armenians had "infiltrated" the United States. can also be encountered in Azerbaijan. he argued in favor of the myth that the Armenian Genocide was a gigantic fraud designed to "fleece" Christian nations out of billions of dollars. The books also purport that Armenia is founded on land stolen from Muslims and that Armenians have perpetrated enormous massacres against Turks and Azeris. that ethnic Armenians are attempting to change history and hide certain facts for political gain. a de facto independent republic. The book. along with essays and homemade videos by Weems. and said theories are rarely found outside Turkey and Azerbaijan. as 25% of the male population of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic perished while fighting for the Allies in World War II. However. The conspiracy also garners little if any support from scholars. there is no need to denounce the book as "racist" when it is clearly pure pabulum. Weems (December 12." Prior to his death in 2003. this is false. That book purports that Armenian Diaspora communities in the United States and throughout the world are actually "colonies" political bases intended to gain money and support for Armenian Republic. 2003) was a writer and a disbarred lawyer in Arkansas. where ethnic Azeris massacred Armenians during the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Many Azeris believe that the Sumgait pogrom. was in fact intentionally provoked by Armenians for propaganda purposes. The book is available in several online bookstores in United States and Europe. Armenia: The Secrets of a Christian Terrorist State (2002). who is in turn sponsored by the Turkish government. both recently (in the Nagorno-Karabakh war) and in the past.
Dr. the history of the concepts found in the Protocols was traced back to the works of Goedsche and Joly by Lucien Wolf (an English Jewish journalist). describing how they will run the world through control of the media and finance. 12. and obscene literature. U. the secret police of the Russian Empire. Alfred Zander. 1964). Philip Graves. Protocols of the Elders of Zion: a fabricated "historic" document. United States Congress. 1934-1935 The Berne Trial . a Swiss Nazi. Senate.In 1934. • • The text takes the form of an instruction manual to a new member of the "elders". This series revealed that much of the .32 thousand years after the origination of the proto-Armenian language in Anatolia and the Trans Caucasian Mountains. and replace the traditional social order with one based on mass manipulation. he requested: "The Protocols should be confiscated. Among the most notable early refutations of the Protocols as a forgery was a series of articles printed in The Times of London in 1921. Scholars generally agree that the Okhrana.2 Jewish world domination 1905 Stolypin's investigation . numerous reprints proliferated.in 1920. a good cause cannot be defended by dirty means.A secret investigation ordered by the newly appointed chairman of the Council of Ministers Pyotr Stolypin came to conclusion that the Protocols first appeared in Paris in antisemitic circles around 1897–1898. declared the Protocols to be forgeries. 1935." Despite the order. He was sued in what has come to be known as the Berne Trial. was published in London in August 1921. • 1921 Exposure in The Times . fabricated the text in the late 1890s or early 20th century.S. The trial began in the Cantonal Court of Bern on October 29. after full investigation. Printing Office. the court. Govt. Committee on the Judiciary. and was similarly exposed in the series of articles in The Times by its Constantinople reporter. plagiarisms. On May 19. A report prepared by the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws (Washington. when Nicholas II learned of the results of this investigation. 1934. who took his information from Wolf's work. Even though he himself was antiSemitic. published a series of articles accepting the Protocols as fact. or because of the "good cause".
believe in peace and unity. . However." Continued usage of the Protocols as an anti-Semitic propaganda tool substantially diminished with the defeat of the Nazis in World War II. its earliest publishers have offered vague and often contradictory testimony detailing how they obtained their copy of the rumored original manuscript. white media (again. however. 12. 12. especially in the Middle East. largely blame Israelis or Jews for many problems facing the world.3 Arab-Israeli relations Daniel Pipes. The text was popularized by those opposed to Russian revolutionary movement and was disseminated further after the revolution of 1905. becoming known worldwide after the 1917 October Revolution. It is still frequently quoted and reprinted. and is sometimes used as evidence of an alleged Jewish cabal.4 "Babylon" and racist oppression Some Rastafarians maintain that a white racist patriarchy ("Babylon") controls the world in order to oppress the African race. and the hoax continued to be published and circulated despite its debunking. It was widely circulated in the West in 1920 and thereafter. it is still believed in by the neo-Nazis. when the Protocols appeared in print. The Great Depression and the rise of Nazism were important developments in the history of the Protocols. believe that Israelis engineered the crash of EgyptAir Flight 990 in 1999. Others insist that the US is covering up for Boeing. a 12-year-old Palestinian boy reported to have been killed in the Gaza Strip by Israeli forces in September 2000. and that the racist. he claims. Some of these include the following: • Some Arabs. the airplane's manufacturer.33 material in the Protocols was plagiarized from earlier political satire that did not have an anti-Semitic theme. Since 1903. becoming "a lie that would not die. Other Rastafarians. mostly Egyptians. They believe that Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia did not die when it was reported in 1975. It influenced the publication of Henry Ford's book The International Jew. Richard Landes and some other pro-Israel advocates maintain that Muhammad al-Durrah. was not in fact killed and the entire incident was staged by Palestinian cameramen. a former Bush cabinet member. Conspiracy theories in the Arab and Muslim worlds. "Babylon") propagated that rumour in order to squash the Rastafari Movement and its message of overthrowing Babylon. has written a book and many essays in which he asserts that there is a prevalence of conspiracy theories throughout the Arab and Muslim world.
are massively immigrating (often through illegal immigration). especially Mexicans. .34 and interpret Babylon as a metaphor for the established "system" that oppresses (or "downpresses". Meyer Lansky. California.6 Arab-fascist axis Radio talk show host David Emory claims that Nazi leader Martin Bormann never died and has built a global empire involving. are particular centers of "The Plan". 12.. 12. and Michael Chertoff. D.7 La Reconquista (Mexico) In Spanish. New Mexico and Texas are lost territories after the Mexican-American War of 1848. Cities that are experiencing an urban renaissance.C.S. La Reconquista means "The Reconquest". Hassan al Banna. and to turn Europe into an appendage of the Islamic world. It is a popular conspiracy myth that Hispanics.5 Eurabia Italian journalist Oriana Fallaci and British-Egyptian writer Bat Ye'or. a persistent conspiracy theory holds that Caucasians are plotting to regain control and take over those cities. Nevada. proposed a conspiracy they said was hatched between a cadre of French elites within the European Economic Community and the Arab League in the mid-1970s to form a strategic alliance against the United States and Israel. such as Washington.S. author of Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis. among many others. More recently they have been accused of being allied with Zionism or of being agents of the Shah. the Bush family. because the land being the US states of Arizona. Colorado. In the 19th and 20th century they accused the Baha'is of being agents of the Russian or British imperialism. 12. Grover Norquist. and Mexican governments to promote and support the Reconquista for selfish reasons. becoming a new ethnic majority and repopulating the Southwestern United States. 12. The myth is thought to come from political and economic interests by both the U. in Rasta terminology) groups such as Africans and the world's poor.9The Plan In U. 12.8 Baha'i Iran's Baha'i minority has been the target of persecution since its inception and has been the subject of various conspiracy theories entailing involvement with foreign or hostile powers. cities that are controlled by African-American majorities.
both of which involved the use of the Unified field theory to cloak vessels. as well as the popular television show The X-Files and the movies Men in Black and Men in Black II. Reportedly the Bush family and the British Royal Family are actually such creatures. presumably relating to her death. including Montauk Project: Experiments in time. and mind control are frequently alleged to have been conducted in the camp.1 Evil aliens A somewhat different version of this theory maintains that humanity is actually under the control of shape-shifting alien reptiles. with evidence ranging from Sumerian tablets describing the "Anunnaki" (which he translates as "those who from heaven to earth came"). who require periodic ingestion of human blood to maintain their human appearance. is that humanity is actually under the reptilians. Princess of Wales was aware of this. David Icke's theory. to the serpent in the Biblical Garden of Eden. the project was developing a powerful psychological war weapon. Experiments involving teleportation. There are claims about secret experiments known as the Montauk Project conducted at Camp Hero. It is alleged that the United States government conspires with extraterrestrials involved in the abduction and manipulation of citizens. and allegations surrounding the Dulce Base. The X-Files based the plots of many of its episodes around urban legends and conspiracy theories. Paranormal activity 13. the Area 51/Grey Aliens conspiracy. This theory has been the subject of several books. notably the transistor — were given to American industry in exchange for alien dominance. Allegedly. The project is often connected to other alleged government projects such as the Philadelphia Experiment and Project Rainbow. contact with extraterrestrials.2 Extraterrestrials A sector of conspiracy theory with a particularly detailed mythology is the extraterrestrial phenomenon.35 13. 13. who silence those who speak out on UFO sightings. to child abuse and water fluoridation. and had a framing plot which postulated a set of interlocking conspiracies controlling all recent human history. Preston B. Montauk. and Diana. A variant tells that particular technologies. This conspiracy theory has been the basis of numerous books. The enforcers of the clandestine association of human leaders and aliens are the Men in Black. which encompasses many other conspiracy theories. . New York. Nichols has authored five books on the subject. David Icke has been a devoted proponent of this theory. time travel. which has become the basis for numerous pieces of popular entertainment.
These theories variously claim that Jesus really had a wife. At times. some suggested that Saddam Hussein had ordered the excavation and re-population of the city of Babylon. which also figures in the Book of Revelation. the Last Judgment. that Jesus did not die on the cross and that the carbon dating of the Shroud of Turin was part of a conspiracy by the Vatican to suppress this . Other interpretations have held that "Babylon" in the Book of Revelation refers to another mighty nation. such as the Roman Empire. from the Roman emperor Nero to Adolf Hitler to Ronald Reagan to Javier Solana. Countless historical figures have been called "Antichrist" in their times.36 14. who will create a one world government (aka New World Order) and establish a single monetary system. The latter is the ancient location of Babylon. and the end of the world have inspired a range of conspiracy theories. A more recent conspiratorial interpretation sees the Antichrist as a world leader involved with the United Nations. places seen as important in prophecy.2 Bible conspiracy theory Bible conspiracy theories posit that much of what is known about the Bible. is supposed to be a leader who will create a world empire and oppress Christians (and.1 Apocalyptic prophecies Apocalyptic prophecies. During the Gulf War. In apocalyptic conspiracy theory. and some supranatural organization is alleged to be the Antichrist's world organization of evil. Two nations often involved in apocalyptic conspiracy theories are Israel and Iraq. also known as the ح Beast 666. some person from current events is alleged to be the Antichrist. which the Bible states that people in the end times will need in order to conduct trade. in particular the New Testament. This Antichrist. and children. or more recently the Soviet Union or the United States of America. Many of these deal with the Antichrist(Arabic: حححححح /حح ححححMasih ad-Dajjal). Jews as well). in some readings. apocalyptic speculation has mixed with anti-Catholicism to yield the interpretation that the reigning Pope is the Biblical Antichrist. Mary Magdalene. that a group such as the Priory of Sion has secret information about the bloodline of Jesus. 14. particularly Christian apocalyptic and eschatalogical claims about the end times. the Vatican (in Rome) and the Catholic Church. The latter is identified with the Mark of the Beast. is a deception. Religion 14. thus casting Saddam as an Antichrist figure. The former is the location of both the Temple Mount and Armageddon (Megiddo).
the veiled paganism being the product of a millennia old conspiracy. and that this book follows the line of thought of works like: Martin Luther .3 Catholicism paganism a veiled continuation of Babylonian The Two Babylons was an anti-Catholic religious pamphlet produced initially by the Scottish theologian and Presbyterian Alexander Hislop in 1853 then published as a book in 1919. commentators (in particular Ralph Woodrow) have stated that there are numerous misconceptions. This is portrayed in the book The Da Vinci Code. Although extensively footnoted. 14. Conyers Middleton Letter from Rome (1729). or the Christ myth theory. Although scholarship has shown the picture presented by Hislop to be absurd and based on an exceedingly poor understanding of historical Babylon and its religion. Its central theme is its allegation that the Catholic Church is a veiled continuation of the pagan religion of Babylon. Most recently. It has been recognized by scholars as discredited and has been called a "tribute to historical inaccuracy and know-nothing religious bigotry" with "shoddy scholarship.37 knowledge. The Sword. fabrications and grave factual errors in the document. after Pope John XXIII. that there was a secret movement to censor books that belonged in the Bible. 14. pillaged by Titus's soldiers from the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem . proposed for example in Zeitgeist. The book's thesis has also featured prominently in the conspiracy theories of racist groups such as The Covenant. Mormons before the reign of Pope John XXIII routinely referred to the Roman Catholic Church as the "Church of the Devil". Titus Oates .still exists and is secretly kept by the Catholic Church in the cellars of the Vatican.On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church (1520). during the visit of Pope Benedict XVI to Israel in May 2009. This rumor surfaces again and again. and the Arm of the Lord and other conspiracy theorists. a small group of extreme right militants demonstrated against the Pope with signs reading . the Movie as a means of social control by the Roman Empire.An Exact Discovery of the Mystery of Iniquity as it is now in Practice amongst the Jesuits (1679).4 Jerusalem Temple Candelabrum in the Vatican cellars Among some Jewish religious and extreme right groups is circulating the assertion that the Menorah (golden candelabrum) which was in 70 C. they discontinued support for this conspiracy theory. blatant dishonesty" and a "nonsensical thesis". giving the impression of reliability. his book remains popular among some fundamentalist Christians.E.
The judges refused to grant any such injunction.38 "Thief. particularly. Two followers of the late Rabbi Meir Kahane . US president Franklin D. An alternative theory states China had bought the remains of that F-117 from Yugoslavia and stored them temporarily inside its embassy's basement. Historians in general assume that the Menorah . as a focus for antiCatholic (and generally anti-Christian) agitation. but failed to explode. Miscellaneous War • That the Pearl Harbor attack was not a surprise event. Nevertheless. give back our Menorah!".Itamar Ben Gvir and Baruch Marzel – at the time actually tried to get a judicial injunction to prevent the Pope from leaving the country "pending the return of the stolen Jewish treasures". Roosevelt knew about the risk of a military attack by the Japanese.had been looted by the Vandals during the Sack of Rome in 455 CE. as the appellants could bring no concrete evidence of the Menorah truly being in the Vatican. the above theory persists in certain Jewish circles. 15. China was secretly helping Yugoslavia in resisting NATO forces.like many other treasures stored in Ancient Rome . by providing advanced radar technology which enabled the Army of Yugoslavia to shoot down an F-117 stealth fighter . as well as the laserguided bomb. Several theories are advanced aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. It was stated that one hardened penetrator bomb was amongst the bombs dropped.the first US stealth aircraft lost in action. Most of the F-117 remains were eventually transported to China. There is no shred of historical evidence of its having ever been in the hands of the Catholic Church. so he ordered the US Department of State kept it quiet through late 1941 because he knew that the attack would galvanize public opinion in favor of the United States entering World War II. US force discovered this and attempted to destory these remains before they were to be shipped to China. (See Pearl Harbor advance-knowledge debate) The 1999 US bombing of the People's Republic of China embassy in Belgrade had been a deliberate retaliation. that bomb reached the basement after penetrating several floors. regarding the cause and • Nature • .
later reintroducing it for their financial gain. This theory is argued by the documentary Game Over: Kasparov and the Machine.involved cheating by IBM. Theorists claim that some or all of the Apollo moon landings were "staged" in a Hollywood movie or other studio either because they never happened or to conceal some aspect of the truth of the circumstances of the actual landing. 1989. Alternatively.(Even though the fact that there is no way for anything to decompose on the moon because of its lack of atmosphere strictly contradicts this. the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) is often jokingly referred to as "International Conspiracy to Catch all Tuna". people believe the switch was made to allow Coca-Cola to reintroduce "classic" Coke with a new formulation using less expensive corn syrup. Also some theorists claim that China secretly tried a manned spaceflight in the winter of 1978/1979 but it was a failure. and then again on Jul 15. Żydokomuna is a theory that Advertising • • Space • • • • Communism • . to Wilson being the victim of plots by right-wing members of the civil service. Another conspiracy theory related to advertising is that The Coca-Cola Company intentionally changed to an inferior formula with New Coke with the intent of driving up demand for their classic product. There is a theory that the famous "computer vs. These range from Wilson having been a Soviet agent. to ensure they would achieve a victory that would be widely publicized.between Russian grandmaster Garry Kasparov and IBM's Deep Blue computer . first on Nov 28. 1997.) The theory received more widespread attention when the Weekly World News twice published stories about a human skeleton on the moon. Soviet space program conspiracy accusations suppose that some failed human spaceflights in the USSR occurred but were concealed by the government. Since the mid-1970s. Another theory regarding the moon landings is that the Apollo astronauts found a human skeleton and footprints on the moon.39 • Because of its ineffectiveness. a variety of conspiracy theories have emerged centering around British Labour Party Prime Minister Harold Wilson. human" chess game .
John Lennon also of The Beatles is supposed by some to have been assassinated by the CIA using mind manipulation upon Mark Chapman.000 if Hendrix was to die. claim that the conventional dating of historical • • • • • • Global Warming • History • . Some people believe that Bob Marley was assassinated by the CIA. which is commonly referred to as the Paul is dead hoax.000. Some people believe that comedian Andy Kaufman faked his own death. cite "clues" in the form of peculiar album covers. possible symbolism in strange lyrics. The Global warming conspiracy theory asserts that the global community of climate scientists have colluded to fabricate a vast body of scientific evidence and literature in order to deceive the world into believing there is a significant anthropogenic component to increases in global temperatures. Celebrities • In October 1969. Some people believe Jimi Hendrix was killed by his manager. with the objective of misdirecting research funding. such as the Phantom time hypothesis of Heribert Illig and the Fomenko-Nosovsky chronology. died in a car crash in late 1966 and was replaced by a lookalike. having faked his death. a rumour began circling that Paul McCartney. and backmasking. Allegedly someone gave him a pair of boots. communist secret police in Poland. political power. but was in fact murdered. Some claim that Michael Jackson is still alive. There have been many purported sightings of Elvis Presley over the years since his death in 1977.40 Communism in Poland during the Cold War was controlled by Jews. and when he put them on a small copper wire inside jabbed him in the toe-the toe that gave him the cancer (acral lentiginous melanoma) that would eventually kill him. Some New Chronology theories. Some believe Tupac Shakur also faked his death. Kurt Cobain. or simply money. because Lennon had too much influence. Several conspiracy theories have developed suggesting that he is still alive. singer and guitarist of Nirvana was suggested to not to have committed suicide. Proponents of the theory. who would gain $2. one of The Beatles. There is a theory that Lech Wałęsa was an informer of the SB.
The substitution of precious metal-based coin currency by . The death of Phar Lap. he would be able to identify the Knicks’ envelope by its being colder than the others. The Theory of Electronic Conspiracy is said to be a variant of modern New World Order conspiracy theories. even if the result by design would be world destruction. Another revisionist history event was the Trail of Tears. Shergar. • Revisionist history in regards to the Irish Potato Famine was more of a result by the British naval blockade around Ireland when the international community began to send naval ship food shipments and the British reroute those naval ships to England. This process began in the Renaissance. that US president Andrew Jackson made an arrangement with Cherokee chief John Ross to voluntarily relocate the tribe and the forced marches was not out of hatred by the US government. Conspiracy theorists argue that the New York Knicks' envelope was placed in the freezer so that when NBA commissioner David Stern reached into a bowl containing the envelopes of all the teams participating in the draft lottery. There are also several theories concerning the disappearance of the champion racehorse. but comfortable. who had the first pick in that year's draft. the worldwide dominion has been planned from antiquity and follows the following phases: paper currency. the champion New Zealand and Australian racehorse. According to this theory. was purported to be a deliberate poisoning. • Sports • • Electronic banking conspiracy • 1. with the beginning of the use of tickets which allowed for people to have a tangible good (such as silver or gold pieces) by paper—a more virtual. The theory consists of the belief that a secret group has attempted for centuries to reach world domination. and that the historical timeline has been purposely distorted by powerful interests. medium which the state was committed to provide the equivalent amount of precious metal if such was required. The "Frozen Envelope Theory" suggests that the NBA rigged the 1985 NBA Draft Lottery so Georgetown University standout Patrick Ewing would land with the New York Knicks.41 events is incorrect.
the term New World Order or NWO refers to the emergence of a bureaucratic collectivist one-world . The concentration of the worldwide bank into few hands. chaos and poverty will immediately ensue throughout the planet. 2001. at the beginning of the 21st century. Money is no longer a tangible paper. The great worldwide blackout. New World theory) Order (conspiracy In conspiracy theory. 4. Canada. with credit cards: money approaches wholly virtual status. The appearance of virtual money. An example of these partial blackouts would be those that have been produced almost simultaneously in different parts around the world. attacks: the blackouts in the United States. The proliferation of Internet and Electronic commerce: credit cards are no longer required in order to purchase or sell goods and services from an Internet-connected computer. The worldwide implementation of an electronic identity card. 3. the data of all electronic accounts erase simultaneously. A tremendous disaster will take place when. and. by 5. shortly after the September 11. After this event. 6. The worldwide blackout will be preceded by partial blackouts that would only be tests and "signals" to communicate that different phases of the process are being fulfilled. means of continuous international banking fusions. and the United Kingdom. This is the last aim of the "secret organization" which has spent centuries guiding this process. after a great electrical blackout on a planetary scale.or metal-based object but rather a series of numbers recorded in magnetic stripes. Australia. and civilization will revert to its primitive forms of slavery to survive.42 2.
Significant occurrences in politics and finance are speculated to be orchestrated by an extremely influential cabal operating through many front organizations. These political scientists warn that this mass hysteria may not only fuel lone-wolf terrorism but have devastating effects on American political life. have expressed concern that right-wing populist conspiracy theories about a New World Order have now not only been embraced by many left-wing conspiracy theorists but have seeped into popular culture. such as Michael Barkun and Chip Berlet. New World Order conspiracism was limited to two American countercultures.4 Protocols of the Elders of Zion 2.43 government.3 Illuminati 2. Numerous historical and current events are seen as steps in an on-going plot to achieve world domination through secret political gatherings and decision-making processes.6 Open Conspiracy 2.5 Round Table 2. primarily the militantly anti-government right.8 Fourth Reich . thereby inaugurating an unrivaled period of people actively preparing for apocalyptic millenarian scenarios in the United States of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The common theme in conspiracy theories about a New World Order is that a secretive power elite with a globalist agenda is conspiring to eventually rule the world through an authoritarian world government — which replaces sovereign nationstates — and an all-embracing ideology that indoctrinates cosmopolitanism.7 New Age 2.1 End Time 2.2 Freemasonry 2. Prior to the early 1990s. and secondarily fundamentalist Christians concerned with end-time emergence of the Antichrist. Contents • • 1 History of the term 2 Conspiracy theories ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 2. such as the far right wooing the far left into joining a revolutionary Third Position movement capable of subverting the established political powers. Skeptics.
They all saw these periods as opportunities to implement idealistic proposals for global governance only in the sense of new collective efforts to identify.2 Coup d'état 3.44 ○ ○ • 2.9 Alien Invasion 2. in order to achieve a peaceful phase of capitalism. progressives welcomed these new international organizations and regimes but argued they suffered from a democratic deficit and therefore were inadequate to not only prevent another global war but also foster global justice.5 Population control 3.History of the term During the 20th century.10 Brave New World 3. which were calculated both to maintain a balance of power as well as regularize cooperation between nations. These proposals led to the creation of international organizations. such as the United Nations and NATO. such as Woodrow Wilson and Winston Churchill.1 Gradualism 3. In the aftermath of the two World Wars. many statesmen.4 Occultism 3. and international regimes. . while respecting their sovereignty. or address worldwide problems that go beyond the capacity of individual nation-states to solve. used the term "new world order" to refer to a new period of history evidencing a dramatic change in world political thought and the balance of power after World War I and World War II. understand. however. such as the Bretton Woods system and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.3 Mass surveillance 3. These creations in particular and liberal internationalism in general. would always be criticized and opposed by the American Old Right on isolationist grounds and by the New Right on benevolent imperalist grounds.6 Mind control 3 Postulated implementations ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ • • 4 Alleged conspirators 5 Criticism 1.
and Jews being the driving force behind an "international communist conspiracy". The Red Scare would shape one of the core ideas of the political right in the U. demonized as a "Red Menace". G. which is that liberals and progressives with their welfare-state policies and international cooperation programs such as foreign aid unwittingly contribute to a gradual process of collectivism that will inevitably lead to nations being replaced with a communist one-world government. In the 1940s. The threat of world communism in the form of a state atheistic and bureaucratic collectivist world government. British writer and futurist H.45 Thus.S. In the 1960s. Wells would go further than progressives by appropriating and redefining the term "new world order" as a synonym for the establishment of a scientifically-coordinated world state and socialist economy. activists around the globe formed a world federalist movement hoping in vain to create a "real" new world order. The signing of the UN Charter in San Francisco 1945 During the Red Scare of 1947–1957. therefore became the main focus of apocalyptic millenarian conspiracism. Illuminati. right-wing populist individuals and groups with a producerist worldview. such as . conspiracy theorists of the American secular and Christian right increasingly embraced and mongered unfounded fears of Freemasons.
These unfounded fears would fuel the Bircher campaign for U.S. traced the alleged New World Order conspiracy to the creation of the U. disseminated a great deal of conspiracy theories claiming that the governments of both the United States and the Soviet Union were controlled by a cabal of corporate internationalists. President George H. Federal Reserve System in 1913 by international bankers. American writer Mary M.." A world where the United Nations.. Davison. At the time the booklet was published. American producers writer Gary Allen.N. protect the weak against the strong .S. greedy bankers and corrupt politicians intent on using the United Nations as the vehicle to create the "One World Government". articulated the anti-globalist theme of much current right-wing populist conspiracism in the U. The relatively painless nature of the shift was due to growing right-wing populist opposition to the negative effects of capitalist globalization but also in part to the basic underlying apocalyptic millenarian paradigm. In his 11 September 1990 Toward a New World Order speech to a joint session of the U.. we can see a new world coming into view.. freed from cold war stalemate. a "world order" in which "the principles of justice and fair play . the main demonized scapegoat of the American far right shifted seamlessly from crypto-communists who plotted on behalf of the Red Menace to globalists who plot on behalf of the New World Order.. who she claimed later formed the Council on Foreign Relations in 1921 as the shadow government. Thus. after the fall of communism in the early 1990s. Congress. in her 1966 booklet The Profound Revolution. Claiming that the term "New World Order" is used by a secretive elite dedicated to the destruction of all national sovereignties. "international bankers" would have been interpreted by many readers as a reference to a postulated "international Jewish banking conspiracy" masterminded by the Rothschilds.S. The New York Times observed that progressives were denouncing this new world order as a rationalization for American imperial . in his 1971 book None Dare Call It Conspiracy.S. W. is poised to fulfill the historic vision of its founders.. Now. In the words of Winston Churchill. Bush described his objectives for post-Cold-War global governance in cooperation with postSoviet states: Until now.46 members of the John Birch Society. withdrawal from the U. A world in which there is the very real prospect of a new world order. which fed the Cold War and the witch-hunts of the McCarthy period. 1974 book Rockefeller: Campaigning for the New World Order and 1987 book Say "No!" to the New World Order. A world in which freedom and respect for human rights find a home among all nations. the world we’ve known has been a world divided—a world of barbed wire and concrete block. conflict and cold war.
nudging us constantly and covertly in the direction of world government for the Antichrist. National-anarchists see a convergence in the near-future between the decentralist left and decentralist right rising to combat the political and economic centralization of the New World Order.47 ambitions in the Middle East. many politicians and pundits. while conservatives rejected new security arrangements altogether and fulminated about any possibility of U. Observers note that the galvanization of right-wing populist conspiracy theorists. the Federal Reserve System. The worldwide appeal of these subcultures then transmitted New World Order conspiracism like a "mind virus" to a large new audience of seekers of counterknowledge from the mid-1990s on. such as Linda Thompson. Capitalist New World Order". writes: When President Bush announced his new foreign policy would help build a New World Order. Bilderberg Group. since the phrase had been used to represent the dreaded collectivist One World Government for decades. British national-anarchist ideologue Troy Southgate called for a pan-European nationalist front to wage a full-fledged war of liberation against the "Zionist. through books and videotapes sold at gun shows. and through fax networks and computer bulletin boards. After the turn of the century. viral propaganda on the Internet is what most effectively contributed to their extremist political ideas about the New World Order finding their way into the politically left-wing literature of the anti-globalization movement. Council on Foreign Relations. Some Christians saw Bush as signaling the End Times betrayal by a world leader. his phrasing surged through the Christian and secular hard right like an electric shock. occultists. into militancy led to the rise of the militia movement. ufologists. used the term "new world order" in . revival.S. specifically during the financial crisis of 2007–2010. an American investigative reporter specializing in the study of right-wing movements in the U. but also the previously apolitical literature of many Kennedy assassinologists. and Henry Kissinger. Mark Koernke and Robert K. and Trilateral Commission control the flow of events from behind the scenes. American televangelist Pat Robertson with his 1991 bestselling book The New World Order became the most prominent Christian popularizer of conspiracy theories about recent American history as a theater in which Wall Street. Secular anticommunists saw a bold attempt to smash US sovereignty and impose a tyrannical collectivist system run by the United Nations. most recently. In the United Kingdom. Spear.N. such as Gordon Brown. through shortwave and satellite radio. However. Chip Berlet. and. which spread its anti-government ideology through speeches at rallies and meetings.. lost land theorists. However.
the Book of Daniel.000 years. which takes into account emerging markets such as China and India. specifically in the Book of Ezekiel. which rests on the spiritual foundations of a syncretic-messianic world religion. American film directors Luke Meyer and Andrew Neel released New World Order. The following is a list of the major ones in relatively chronological order: 2. which imposes the imperial cult of the Unholy Trinity — Satan. and the Book of Revelation.48 their advocacy for a Keynesian reform of the global financial system and their calls for a "New Bretton Woods". while the Antichrist will either be the president of the European Union or the secretary-general of the United Nations or even a Colossus-like supercomputer. In 2009. In many contemporary Christian conspiracy theories. Some of the most vocal critics of end-time conspiracy theories come from within . apocalyptic millenarian Christian eschatologists have feared a globalist conspiracy as the fulfillment of prophecies about the "end time" in the Bible. and culminated in former Clinton administration adviser Dick Morris and conservative talk show host Sean Hannity arguing on his Fox News Channel program Hannity that "conspiracy theorists were right". a critically-acclaimed documentary film which explores the world of conspiracy theorists. These declarations had the unintended consequence of providing fresh fodder for New World Order conspiracism. Fox News in general. the False Prophet will either be the last pope of the Catholic Church (groomed and installed by an Alta Vendita or Jesuit conspiracy) or a guru from the New Age movement or even the leader of an elite fundamentalist Christian organization like The Fellowship. and its opinion show Glenn Beck in particular. the Olivet discourse found in the Synoptic Gospels. Conspiracy theories There are numerous systemic conspiracy theories through which the concept of a New World Order is viewed. such as American radio host Alex Jones. that will later reveal itself to be a dystopian world empire. the Antichrist and the False Prophet. who are committed to exposing and vigorously opposing what they perceive to be an emerging New World Order. They assert that people who have made a deal with the Devil to gain wealth and power have become pawns in a supernatural chess game to deceive humanity into accepting an utopian world government. have been repeatedly criticized by progressive media watchdog groups for not only mainstreaming the New World Order conspiracy theories of the radical right but possibly agitating its lone wolves into action. 2.1 End Time For over 2.
1 Cor. 24:34. and the end time predicted in the Bible were to take place within the lifetimes of Jesus' disciples rather than millennia later: Matt. Matt. demonization. racism. They argue that prophecies about the Rapture. the Antichrist. when reviewing American televangelist Robertson's 1991 book The New World Order. many passages in the New Testament indicate with apparent certainty that the second coming of Christ. the defiling of the Temple. the Last Judgment. Camp warns of the "very real danger that Christians could pick up some extra spiritual baggage" by credulously embracing conspiracy theories. preterist Christians argue that some or all of the biblical prophecies concerning the end time refer literally or metaphorically to events which already happened in the first century after Jesus' birth. 2:18. In their view. 1 Jn. In 1993. James 5:8-9. homophobia. 1 Pet. They therefore call on Christians who indulge in conspiracism to repent. Rom. American historian Bruce Barron wrote a stern rebuke of apocalyptic Christian conspiracism in the Christian Research Journal. and the resurrection of the dead were fulfilled at or about the year 70 when the Roman general (and future Emperor) Titus sacked Jerusalem and destroyed the Second Temple of Jerusalem. 4:5. According to Preterists. such as sexism. 2. classism. Progressive Christians. 4:7. 10:11. They caution conservative Christians that a "spirit of fear" can distort scripture and history by dangerously combining biblical literalism. 1 Cor. apocalyptic timetables. Matt. 7:29-31. or the end of planet Earth. 13:11-12. the Second Coming. Gomes.2 Freemasonry Anti-Masonic conspiracy theorists believe that "high-ranking" Freemasons are involved in conspiracies to create an occult New World Order. the destruction of Jerusalem.49 Christianity. putting a permanent stop to the daily animal sacrifices. 16:28. argue that the Bible must be read carefully to avoid misusing the text to legitimize ideological prejudices in the dominant culture. Phil. 26:64. such as American preacher-theologian Peter J. More broadly. Matt. Camp's 1997 book Selling Fear: Conspiracy Theories and End-Times Paranoia. which has been described as "impressive both as a historical and theological work". 10:23. xenophobia. and oppressive prejudices. the Tribulation. rather than the end of time. the Number of the Beast. They claim that some of the Founding Fathers of the . Ultimately. the "end time" concept refers to the end of the covenant between God and Israel. full Preterists argue that all Christians should reject apocalyptic eschatology and embrace realized eschatology. Another critique can be found in American historian Gregory S. and antisemitism.
appearing on the reverse side of the Great Seal since 1782 and on the back of the one-dollar bill since 1935. Conspiracy theorists speculate that American Freemasons used the power of the occult to bind their planning of a government in conformity with the plan of the Great Architect of the Universe because of their belief that the "Masonic God" has tasked the United States with the eventual establishment of the "Kingdom of God on Earth" — a Masonic world theodemocracy with New Jerusalem as its capital city and the Third Temple as its holiest site.C. It is not a part of Freemasonry to view the drawing of symbols. The accusation that Freemasonry has a hidden agenda to establish a Masonic government ignores several facts. Freemasonry has no politics.C. D. Furthermore. had Masonic symbolism interwoven into American society.50 United States. places no power in occult symbols themselves. While agreeing on certain Masonic Landmarks. there is no published information establishing the Masonic membership of the men responsible for the design of the Great Seal or the street plan of Washington. but is often mistranslated by conspiracy theorists as "New Secular Order" or "New World Order". they have no interest in rebuilding it. the United States one-dollar bill. means "New Order of the Ages" and only alludes to the beginning of an era where the United States is an independent nation-state. Lastly. Freemasons rebut these claims of Masonic conspiracy. especially since "it is obvious that any attempt to interfere with the present condition of things [on the Temple Mount] would in all probability bring about the greatest religious war the world has ever known". the architecture of National Mall landmarks. More broadly. such as George Washington and Benjamin Franklin. and do not agree on many other points of belief and practice. despite the symbolic importance of the Temple of Solomon in their mythology.. Also. no matter how large. the many independent and sovereign Grand Lodges act as such. and the streets and highways of Washington. They assert that Freemasonry. as an act of consolidating or controlling power. as . particularly in the Great Seal of the United States. D. Freemasons argue that. Freemasons assert that a long-standing rule within regular Freemasonry is a prohibition on the discussion of politics in a Masonic Lodge and the participation of lodges or Masonic bodies in political pursuits. The Latin phrase "novus ordo seclorum". which promotes a balance between rationalism and mysticism through a system of degrees of initiation and the use of sacred geometry in art and architecture. but it teaches its members to be of high moral character and active citizens.
Roman Catholicism. secularism. reactionary conspiracy theorists. fear of an Illuminati conspiracy was a real concern of European ruling classes. and antipatriarchalism — and create a world noocracy. American evangelist Gerald Burton Winrod and other conspiracy theorists within the fundamentalist Christian movement in the .3 Illuminati The Order of the Illuminati was an Enlightenment-age secret society founded on 1 May 1776. such as was the case with the illegal Italian Lodge Propaganda Due. The term "Masonic government" has no meaning since individual Freemasons hold many different opinions on what constitutes a good government. who was the first lay professor of canon law at the University of Ingolstadt. such as Scottish physicist John Robison and French Jesuit priest Augustin Barruel. During the interwar period of the 20th century. broken up and suppressed by the government agents of Charles Theodore. fascist propagandists. In the late 18th century. liberalism.51 can be seen from a survey of famous Freemasons. 2. The movement consisted of advocates of freethought. this would represent a cooptation of Freemasonry rather than evidence of its hidden agenda. Freemasons argue that even if it were proven that influential individuals have used and are using Masonic Lodges to engage in crypto-politics. recruited in the Masonic Lodges of Germany. the order was infiltrated. anti-monarchism. not only popularized the myth of an Illuminati conspiracy but claimed that it was a subversive secret society which serves the Jewish elites that supposedly propped up both finance capitalism and Soviet communism in order to divide and rule the world. in Ingolstadt (Upper Bavaria). During the 19th century. The Illuminati were accused of being subversives who were attempting to secretly orchestrate a revolutionary wave in order to globalize the most radical ideals of the Enlightenment — anti-clericalism. such as British revisionist historian Nesta Helen Webster and American socialite Edith Starr Miller. by Adam Weishaupt. Elector of Bavaria. In 1785. began speculating that the Illuminati survived their suppression and became the masterminds behind the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror. who sought to teach rationalism through mystery schools. individual Freemasons hold beliefs that span the spectrum of politics. in his preemptive campaign to neutralize the threat of secret societies ever becoming hotbeds of conspiracies to overthrow the Bavarian monarchy and its state religion. Ultimately. and their oppressive reactions to this unfounded fear provoked in 1848 the very revolutions they sought to prevent. and Freemasonry as a body has no opinion on the topic. republicanism and gender equality.
The text purports to be the minutes of the secret meetings of a cabal of Jewish masterminds. past the Illuminati. became the main channel of dissemination of Illuminati conspiracy theories in America. The Protocols has been proven by polemicists. 2. originally published in Russian in 1903. as a work of counter-revolutionary propaganda prior to the 1905 Russian Revolution. almost word for word in some passages. modernism. the secret police of the Russian Empire. The Protocols is widely considered to be influential in the development of conspiracy theories in general. and overlay them with antisemitic allegations about anti-Tsarist movements in Russia. and liberalism. which emerged in the 1910s as a backlash against the principles of Enlightenment secular humanism. such as Irish journalist Philip Graves in a 1921 The Times article.52 United States. gentlemen's clubs (Bohemian Club) and think tanks (Council on Foreign Relations. and British academic Norman Cohn in his 1967 book Warrant for Genocide. The Protocols incorporate many of the core conspiracist themes outlined in the Robison and Barruel attacks on the Freemasons. The interpretation intended by the publication of The Protocols is that if one peels away the layers of the Masonic conspiracy. alleging a Judeo-Masonic conspiracy to achieve world domination. one finds the rotten Jewish core. which has coopted Freemasonry and is plotting to rule the world on behalf of all Jews because they believe themselves to be the chosen people of God. a 19th century satire against Napoleon III of France written by French political satirist and Legitimist militant Maurice Joly. The Protocols reflect themes similar to more general critiques of Enlightenment liberalism by conservative aristocrats who support monarchies and state religions. There is general agreement that Russian-French writer and political activist Matvei Golovinski fabricated the text for Okhrana. which they accuse of plotting to create a New World Order through a one-world government. Skeptics argue that evidence would suggest that the Bavarian Illuminati was nothing more than a curious historical footnote since there is no evidence that the Illuminati survived its suppression in 1785. from The Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu. Right-wing populists subsequently began speculating that some collegiate fraternities (Skull and Bones). . Responsible for feeding many antisemitic and anti-Masonic mass hysterias of the 20th century. Trilateral Commission) of the American upper class are front organizations of the Illuminati.4 Protocols of the Elders of Zion The Protocols of the Elders of Zion is an antisemitic canard. by plagiarizing it. to be both a hoax and a clear case of plagiarism.
fringe Christian eschatologists concerned with the emergence of a New World Order became convinced that the Priory of Sion was a fulfillment of prophecies found in the Book of Revelation and further proof of an anti-Christian conspiracy of epic proportions. and politician Cecil Rhodes advocated the British Empire reannexing the United States of America and reforming itself into an "Imperial Federation" to bring about a hyperpower and lasting world peace. the authors of the 1982 controversial book The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail concluded that The Protocols was the most persuasive piece of evidence for the existence and activities of the Priory of Sion. labour and enterprise. Although it is hard to determine whether the conspiracy-minded actually believe this or are simply trying to sanitize a discredited text. antisemitic text unchanged. promotion and development of a Secret Society.5 Round Table English-born South African businessman. of 1877. since they leave the actual. mining magnate. Politically and religiously unified through the imperial cult of a Merovingian sacred king — supposedly descended from a Jesus bloodline — who occupies both the throne of Europe and the Holy See. the perfecting of a system of emigration from the United Kingdom. The result is to give The Protocols credibility and circulation when it deserves neither. They speculated that this secret society was working behind the scenes to establish a theocratic "United States of Europe". Skeptics argue that the current gambit of contemporary conspiracy theorists who use The Protocols is to claim that they "really" come from some group other than the Jews such as alien invaders or fallen angels. the Islands of Cyprus and Candia. the whole of South America. Although the Priory of Sion. the Valley of the Euphrates. has been exhaustively debunked by journalists and scholars as a hoax. For example. 2.53 and reappears repeatedly in contemporary conspiracy literature about a Zionist Occupied Government and a New World Order. the true aim and object whereof shall be for the extension of British rule throughout the world. itself. this "Holy European Empire" would become the hyperpower of the 21st century. he expressed his wish to fund a secret society (known as the Society of the Elect) that would advance this goal: To and for the establishment. and of colonisation by British subjects of all lands where the means of livelihood are attainable by energy. written at the age of 23. the . skeptics argue that it doesn't make much difference. In his first will. and especially the occupation by British settlers of the entire Continent of Africa. the Holy Land.
Milner and British official Lionel George Curtis were the architects of the Round Table movement. The Trilateral Commission was founded in July 1973. the whole of the Malay Archipelago. who was chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations at that time. In his later wills. Established in 1902. it was a subsequent group of 108 New York financiers. It is a private organization established to foster closer cooperation among the United States. which had British statesman Alfred Milner as one of its trustees. the seaboard of China and Japan. The Commonwealth of Nations was created in 1949 but it would only be a free association of independent states rather than the powerful imperial federation imagined by Rhodes. Milner and Curtis. a more mature Rhodes abandoned the idea and instead concentrated on what became the Rhodes Scholarship. secretary of state. the original goal of the trust fund was to foster peace among the great powers by creating a sense of fraternity and a shared world view among future British. Curtis founded the Royal Institute of International Affairs in June 1919 and. some of whom belonging to the Round Table movement.. American. the ultimate recovery of the United States of America as an integral part of the British Empire. finally. at the initiative of American banker David Rockefeller. manufacturers and international lawyers organized in June 1918 by Nobel Peace Prize recipient and U. that became the Council on Foreign Relations on 29 July 1921. the foundation of so great a Power as to render wars impossible. called Foreign Affairs. which would be presented to Protestant churches as being the work of the Christian God to elicit their support. Europe and Japan. The first of the council’s projects was a quarterly journal launched in September 1922. The Trilateral Commission is widely seen as a counterpart to the Council on Foreign Relations. Conspiracy theorists believe that the Council on Foreign .S. a network of organizations promoting closer union between Britain and its self-governing colonies. began advocating for the creation of an imperial federation that eventually reannexes the U. the inauguration of a system of Colonial representation in the Imperial Parliament which may tend to weld together the disjointed members of the Empire and. with his 1938 book The Commonwealth of God. and German leaders by having enabled them to study for free at the University of Oxford.54 Islands of the Pacific not heretofore possessed by Great Britain. and promote the best interests of humanity. To this end.S. Elihu Root. The Council on Foreign Relations began in 1917 with a group of New York academics who were asked by President Woodrow Wilson to offer options for the foreign policy of the United States in the interwar period. Originally envisioned as a group of American and British scholars and diplomats.
The research findings of historian Carroll Quigley. although the Round Table still exists today.S. are taken by both conspiracy theorists of the American Old Right (Cleon Skousen) and New Left (Carl Oglesby) to substantiate this view. Quigley also argued that. even though he argued that the Establishment is not involved in a plot to implement a one-world government but rather British and American benevolent imperialism driven by the mutual interests of economic elites in the United Kingdom and the United States. and incredibly evil in intent. Today the Round Table is largely a ginger group. by subordinating national sovereignty to a strengthened Bank for International Settlements. was that no elite was in charge and acting responsibly. wrote a forward for Allen's 1976 book The Rockefeller File. Conspiracists therefore fear that the international bankers of financial capitalism are planning to eventually subvert the independence of the U. according to Quigley. but faces strong opposition.. I am convinced there is such a plot.. generations old in planning. combining super-capitalism and Communism under the same tent. which they believe is an "international banking cabal" that has been plotting from 1900 on to rule the world. in American society after 1965. wherein he stated: The drive of the Rockefellers and their allies is to create a one-world government. Furthermore. the problem. author of the 1966 book Tragedy and Hope. Rockefeller wrote: For more than a century ideological extremists at either end of the political spectrum have seized upon well-publicized incidents . the 2nd president of the John Birch Society and a conservative Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives who represented the 7th congressional district of Georgia. its position in influencing the policies of world leaders has been much reduced from its heyday during World War I and slowly waned after the end of World War II and the Suez Crisis. Larry McDonald. designed to consider and gradually influence the policies of the Commonwealth of Nations.. Do I mean conspiracy? Yes I do. Some even believe we are part of a secret cabal working against the best interests of the United States.55 Relations and the Trilateral Commission are "globalist" think tanks that serve as front organizations for the Round Table of the "Anglo-American Establishment".. to attack the Rockefeller family for the inordinate influence they claim we wield over American political and economic institutions. In his 2002 autobiography Memoirs. characterizing my family and me as 'internationalists' and of conspiring with others around the world to build a more . international in scope. all under their control .
however. by determining what options show up on the agenda and what options do not even make it to the table. all these critics agree that historical studies of the council show that it has a very different role in the overall power structure than what is claimed by conspiracy theorists. such as G. who have accused me of being ruler of the world. If that's the charge. and won't be true.S. ever since I've had any kind of position in the world.S. foreign policy choices for the postWWII international order and the Cold War. In a 13 November 2007 interview with Canadian journalist Benjamin Fulford. .. debates and speakers. argue that the Council on Foreign Relations is an "imperial brain trust". and isn't true. foreign policy planning. and to raise it as a serious issue seems to me to be irresponsible. such as Laurence H. Some American social critics. which provides the business input to U. all the council does is sponsor discussion groups. it issues annual reports and allows access to its historical archives. Barkun argues that this statement is partly facetious (the claim of "conspiracy" and "treason") and partly serious — the desire to encourage trilateral cooperation among the U.56 integrated global political and economic structure—one world. The latter argue that it has nearly 3. Shoup. I would have to decide to describe them as crackpots.S. But. argue that it is in fact a mere policy discussion forum. It makes no sense whatsoever. played a central behind-thescenes role in shaping U. while others. and as far as being secretive. Rockefeller countered: I don't think that I really feel that we need a world government. William Domhoff. far too many for secret plans to be kept within the group. and Japan.. I have to say that I think for the large part. for example — an ideal that used to be a hallmark of the internationalist wing of the Republican Party — known as "Rockefeller Republicans" in honor of Nelson Rockefeller — when there was an internationalist wing. which has. is taken at face value and widely cited by conspiracy theorists as proof that the Council on Foreign Relations uses its role as the brain trust of American presidents. if you will.000 members. However. I can't imagine that there would be any likelihood or even that it would be desirable to have a single government elected by the people of the world . The statement. There have been people.. I stand guilty. Europe. We need governments of the world that work together and collaborate. for decades. and I am proud of it. senators and representatives to manipulate them into supporting a New World Order in the form of a one-world government.
however. when the struggle seems to be drifting definitely towards a world social democracy. intent on preparing humanity for the mystical second coming of Christ. one of the founders of the so-called New Age movement. Wells' book was extremely influential in giving a second meaning to the term "new world order". and the dawning of the Age of Aquarius. however. in his 1940 book The New World Order that: .. a group of ascended masters called the Great White Brotherhood works on the "inner planes" to oversee the transition to the New World Order but.6 Open Conspiracy In his 1928 book The Open Conspiracy British writer and futurist H. But the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 led to a period of triumphalism by capitalists world wide. Countless people . the elimination of the only obstacle to the spread of a neoliberal form of globalization. 2. there may still be very great delays and disappointments before it becomes an efficient and beneficent world system. be rendered unhappy by the frustration of their passions and ambitions through its advent and will die protesting against it. which would only be used by both democratic socialist supporters and anti-communist opponents for generations to come. we have to bear in mind the distress of a generation or so of malcontents. She saw a federal world government as the culmination of Wells' Open Conspiracy but argued that it would be synarchist because it was guided by the Masters of the Ancient Wisdom. for now.57 2. many of them quite gallant and graceful-looking people. and a shattering of the confidence of those who hoped that Perestroika and Glasnost reforms of the late 1980s would return the Soviet Union (which had become a degenerated workers' state) to democratic socialism and transform it into one of the building blocks of the new world order envisioned by Wells. Right-wing populist conspiracy theorists. Wells promoted cosmopolitanism and offered blueprints for a world revolution to establish a scientifically-coordinated world state and socialist economy.. simply changed their focus from the Soviet Union to the United Nations as the bureaucratic collectivist menace. the members of this Spiritual Hierarchy are only .7 New Age British neo-Theosophical occultist Alice Bailey. When we attempt to evaluate its promise.. will hate the new world order. According to Bailey. Wells warned. prophesied in 1940 the eventual victory of the Allies of World War II over the Axis powers (which occurred in 1945) and the establishment by the Allies of a political and religious New World Order. G..
counterknowledge — what the Establishment spurns — must be true. The implication is that these independent and sometimes contradictory schools of thought are all part of a monolithic whole. and the dangerous" — such as alternative medicine. symbol and practice that is not fundamentalist Christian. Paradoxically. Terence McKenna. Skeptics argue that the connection of conspiracy theorists and occultists follows from their common fallacious premises. quantum mysticism. First. and rationally simplistic. anything that is not Christian is by definition actively and willfully anti-Christian. claim that globalists who plot on behalf of the New World Order are simply misusing occultism for Machiavellian ends. Thus. such as adopting 21 December 2012 as the exact date for the establishment of the New World Order in order to take advantage of the growing 2012 phenomenon. Second. some conspiracy theorists use the research findings of American journalist Edwin Black. UFO religionists promote anti-Jewish phobias while antisemites claim direct reception of prophetic material: the voice of the Mesoamerican god Quetzalcoatl. Skeptics argue that the term "New Age movement" is a misnomer. the unfashionable. 2. and Daniel Pinchbeck. there will be an "Externalization of the Hierarchy" and everyone will know of their presence on Earth. New World Order conspiracism is increasingly being embraced and propagandized by New Age occultists. generally used by conspiracy theorists as a catchall rubric for any new religious. which has its origins in the fringe Mayanist theories of New Age writers José Argüelles. However.8 Fourth Reich Conspiracy theorists often use the term "Fourth Reich" simply as a pejorative synonym for the "New World Order" to imply that its state ideology and government will be similar to Germany's Third Reich. with whom they communicate telepathically. astrology. contributed to conspiracy theorists of the Christian right viewing the New Age movement as the "false religion" that would supersede Christianity in a New World Order. since the 2000s. self-referential network in which. By their lights. for example. and Theosophy. New Age conspiracy theorists. The result is a large. but as the need for their personal involvement in the plan increases. along with American writer Marilyn Ferguson's 1980 book The Aquarian Conspiracy. any widely accepted belief must necessarily be false.58 known to a few occult scientists. the scandalous. author of the 2009 . spiritualism. who are people bored by rationalism and drawn to what Barkun calls the "cultural dumping ground of the heretical. This is logically and empirically false. such as the makers of documentary films like Esoteric Agenda. Bailey's writings. spiritual or philosophical belief.
having overthrown its Zionist Occupation Government. who survived the fall of the Greater German Reich. have been working behind the scenes since the end of World War II to enact at least some of the principles of Nazism (e. Motivated by speciesism and imperialism.S. government. given safe haven by organizations like ODESSA and Die Spinne. with technological principles from Nazi UFOs.9 Alien Invasion Since the late 1970s. widespread spying on citizens..S. This neo-Nazi conspiracy is said to be animated by an "Iron Dream" in which the American Empire. and British writer David Icke. as in the theories put forward by American writers Stan Deyo and Milton William Cooper. Some political scientists. in both Europe and the U. Nazi eugenics and the Holocaust — are now conspiring to build a Fourth Reich.g. such as Sheldon Wolin. and business worldwide.59 book Nazi Nexus. claim that some ex-Nazis. but primarily in the U. in more or less dominant roles. to claim that some American corporations and philanthropic foundations — whose complicity was pivotal to the Third Reich's war effort. for the emergence of an inverted totalitarianism which contradicts many principles of Nazism.S. militarism. but a government cover-up has protected the public from knowledge of an alien invasion. big business and political repression have a long history that predates World War II. have expressed concern that the twin forces of democratic deficit and superpower status have paved the way in the U. The common theme in such conspiracy theories is that aliens have been among us for decades. 2. Skeptics argue that conspiracy theorists grossly overestimate the influence of ex-Nazis and neoNazis on American society..S. and the acquisition and creation of conglomerates by ex-Nazis and their sympathizers after the war. extraterrestrials from other habitable planets or parallel dimensions (such as "Greys") and intraterrestrials from Hollow Earth (such as "Reptilians") have been included in the New World Order conspiracy. such as American writer Jim Marrs. these aliens have been and are secretly manipulating developments . imperialism. along with sympathizers in the United States and elsewhere. centuries or millennia. the use of propaganda to manufacture a national consensus) into culture. Conspiracy theorists. gradually establishes a Fourth Reich formally known as the "Western Imperium" — a pan-Aryan world empire modeled after Adolf Hitler's New Order — as the best hope for the survival of Western civilization under the threat of the Judeo-Masonic conspiracy. They cite the influence of ex-Nazi scientists brought in under Operation Paperclip to help advance aerospace manufacturing in the U. and point out that American imperialism. corporatism.
while change accelerates toward a technological singularity — a theorized future point of discontinuity when events will accelerate at such a pace that normal unenhanced humans will be unable to predict or even understand the rapid changes occurring in the world around them. in order for U. traditional human scapegoats (Freemasons. counter that many influential members of the American Establishment are bioconservatives strongly opposed to human enhancement. in exchange for assistance in the development and testing of military "flying saucers" at Area 51. as demonstrated by President Bush's Council on Bioethics's proposed international treaty prohibiting human cloning and germline engineering. Conspiracy theorists fear the outcome will either be the emergence of a Brave New World-like dystopia — a "Brave New World Order" — or the extinction of the human species. A mythical covert government agency of the United States codenamed Majestic 12 is often cited by conspiracy theorists as being the shadow government which collaborates with the alien occupation. Regardless. Barkun notes that the only positive side to this development is that. and singularitarians.10 Brave New World Antiscience and neo-Luddite conspiracy theorists emphasize technology forecasting in their New World Order conspiracy theories. They speculate that the global power elite are reactionary modernists pursuing a transhumanist agenda to develop and use human enhancement technologies in order to become a "posthuman ruling caste". In some theories. even to the point of taking control of command positions in governmental. Skeptics.) are downgraded or exonerated. if conspirators plotting to rule the world are believed to be aliens. and religious institutions. Jews. such as American sociologist James Hughes. corporate. and are now in the final stages of their plan to take over the world. etc. such as American inventor Raymond Kurzweil. Democratic transhumanists. 2. transhumanists and singularitarians claim to only support developing and making publicly available technologies to eliminate aging and to greatly . Illuminati. armed forces to achieve full-spectrum dominance. alien infiltrators have shapeshifted into human form and move freely throughout human society.S.60 and changes in human society in order to more efficiently control and exploit it. who adhere to the psychosocial hypothesis for unidentified flying objects. argue that the convergence of New World Order conspiracy theory and UFO conspiracy theory is a product of not only the era's widespread mistrust of governments and the popularity of the extraterrestrial hypothesis for UFOs but of the far right and ufologists actually joining forces.
so are there several beliefs about how its architects and planners will implement it: Gradualism Conspiracy theorists generally speculate that the New World Order is being implemented gradually. the European Union and the euro currency in 1993. covertly. as a result of the financial crisis of 2007–2010.C. Most of these get passed around in their own circles and eventually filed away and forgotten by junior staffers in congressional offices. the World Health Organization in 1948. Canada and the United States are in the process of being erased. For example. Skeptics argue that the North American Union exists only as a proposal contained in one of a thousand academic and/or policy papers published each year that advocate all manner of idealistic but ultimately unrealistic approaches to social.61 enhance human intellectual. the People's . 3.S. the World Bank in 1945. by a group of globalists whose ultimate goal is to replace national governments in Washington. as well as taking deliberate action to ensure that the Singularity — the moment when technological progress starts being driven by superintelligence — occurs in a way that is beneficial to humankind. Therefore. The theory holds that a group of shadowy and mostly nameless international elites are planning to replace the federal government of the United States with a transnational government. An increasingly popular conspiracy theory among American rightwing populists is that the hypothetical North American Union and the amero currency. the World Trade Organization in 1998. Ottawa and Mexico City with a European-style political union and a bloated E. the International Monetary Fund in 1944. Federal Reserve System in 1913. will be the next implementation of the New World Order. proposed by the Council on Foreign Relations and its counterparts in Mexico and Canada. the United Nations in 1945. Postulated implementations Just as there are several overlapping or conflicting theories among conspiracists about the nature of the New World Order. conspiracy theorists believe the borders between Mexico. citing the formation of the U.-style bureaucracy. the League of Nations in 1919. physical. become touchstones for the conspiracy-minded and form the basis of all kinds of unfounded xenophobic fears especially during times of economic anxiety. Some of these papers. and the African Union in 2002 as major milestones. economic and political problems. D.. however. and psychological capacities for the common good. in March 2009.U.
F. East Asia around Beijing. using black helicopters. D.U. will be used for the internment of suspected subversives. and Eastern Europe around Moscow. the Western Hemisphere around Washington. the imposition of martial law. this military coup would involve the suspension of the Constitution.N. Coup d'état American right-wing populist conspiracy theorists. Following the Rex 84 and Operation Garden Plot plans.E. argue that regionalism will be the major force in the coming decades.62 Republic of China and the Russian Federation pressed for urgent consideration of a new international reserve currency and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development proposed greatly expanding the I. making little effort to distinguish true threats to the New World Order from pacifist dissidents. Judging that both national governments and global institutions have proven ineffective in addressing worldwide problems that go beyond the capacity of individual nation-states to solve.A. Before year 2000 some survivalists wrongly believed this process would be set in motion by the predicted Y2K problem causing societal collapse. and that the refugee camps of emergency management agencies such as F. and the appointment of military commanders to head state and local governments and to detain dissidents. The question then is not whether global governance is gradually emerging.. the E. the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. but rather how will these regional powers interact with one another. Partridge. some political scientists.'s Special Drawing Rights.S. especially those who joined the militia movement in the United States. pockets of power around regional centers: Western Europe around Brussels. to adopt a single global currency for a New World Order. and the G-20 will likely become more influential as time progresses. As such.M. peacekeepers.S. These conspiracy theorists. who are all strong believers in a right to keep and bear arms. Since many left-wing and right-wing conspiracy theorists believe that the September 11 attacks were a false flag operation carried out by the United States intelligence community.C. speculate that the New World Order will be implemented through a dramatic coup d'état by a "secret team". are extremely fearful that the passing of any gun control legislation will be later followed by the abolishment of personal gun ownership and a campaign of gun confiscation. and other nation-states to bring about a totalitarian world government controlled by the United Nations and enforced by troops of foreign U. in the U. they have become .. Conspiracy theorists fear these proposals are a call for the U. such as Mark C.M. as part of a strategy of tension to justify political repression at home and preemptive war abroad.
They fear that the ability to implement such a system closely resembles the Number of the Beast prophesied in the Book of Revelation. such as Katherine Albrecht and Liz McIntyre. who claim that corporations and government are planning to track every move of consumers and citizens with RFID as the latest step toward a 1984-like surveillance state. Mass surveillance Conspiracy theorists concerned with surveillance abuse believe that the New World Order is being implemented by the cult of intelligence at the core of the surveillance-industrial complex through mass surveillance and the use of Social Security numbers. claiming that the idealized society (i. internment. Skeptics warn that some consumer privacy advocates.N. which depicted the "all-seeing" Eye of Providence atop of a pyramid looking down over the globe. now make it possible to require a biometrically associated number or mark to make purchases. the IAO was defunded by the United States Congress in 2003. Although DARPA eventually removed the logo from its website. Following public criticism that the development and deployment of these technologies could potentially lead to a mass surveillance system. In January 2002. coupled with point of sale data-capture equipment and sophisticated ID and authentication systems. and. accompanied by the Latin phrase scientia est potentia (knowledge is power). military coup. Skeptics argue that unfounded fears about an imminent or eventual gun ban.e. constitutional republic of "sovereign citizens") is thwarted by subversive conspiracies of liberal secular humanists who want "Big Government" and globalists who plot on behalf of the New World Order. "Christian nation". have become Christian conspiracy theorists who believe spychips must be resisted because they argue that modern database and communications technologies. RFID tagging via microchip implants. it left a lasting impression on . the bar-coding of retail goods with Universal Product Code markings. the Information Awareness Office (IAO) was established by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to bring together several DARPA projects focused on applying information technology to counter asymmetric threats to national security. or U. most recently.63 convinced that a more catastrophic terrorist incident will be responsible for triggering Executive Directive 51 in order to complete the transition to a police state. invasion and occupation are rooted in an extremist form of constitutionalism but also an apocalyptic millenarianism which provides a basic narrative within the American political right. The second source of controversy involved IAO’s original logo.
Knights Templar. Christian" had a huge granite megalith built in the U. bar codes and Social Security numbers all triggered endtime warnings which either proved to be false or simply were no longer taken seriously once the public became accustomed to these technological changes. Rosicrucians. spiritual hierarchies. who misinterpret the "eye and pyramid" as the Masonic symbol of the Illuminati. The . state of Georgia. fallen angels or Lucifer. monuments (National Mall landmarks). which acts like a compass. argues that new and emerging technologies often trigger alarmism among millenarians and even the introduction of Gutenberg's printing press in 1436 caused waves of apocalyptic thinking. an unknown benefactor under the pseudonym "R. ultimately.64 privacy advocates. demons. They believe that. an 18th-century secret society they speculate continues to exist and is plotting on behalf of a New World Order. A message comprising ten guides is inscribed on the occult structure in many languages to serve as instructions for survivors of a doomsday event to establish a more enlightened and sustainable civilization than the one which was destroyed. like Nazi occultists. such as the Kabbalists. skeptics of mass surveillance conspiracism caution that such concerns should be disentangled from secular paranoia about Big Brother or religious hysteria about the Antichrist. For example. and. who specializes in the history of apocalypticism and was co-founder and director of the Center for Millennial Studies at Boston University. buildings (Manitoba Legislative Building) and facilities (Denver International Airport) to advance their plot to rule the world. the Illuminati — which seeks to subvert the Judeo-Christian foundations of the Western world and implement the New World Order through a New Age oneworld religion that prepares the masses to embrace the imperial cult of the Antichrist. Occultism Conspiracy theorists of the Christian right believe there is an ancient occult conspiracy — started by the first mystagogues of Gnosticism and perpetuated by their alleged esoteric successors. calendar. Freemasons. Cathars. rituals (Masonic degrees). However. American historian Richard Landes. It also inflamed conspiracy theorists. More broadly. Civil libertarians argue that the privatization of surveillance and the rise of the surveillanceindustrial complex in the United States does raise legitimate concerns about the erosion of privacy. and clock. they speculate that globalists who plot on behalf of a New World Order are directed by occult agencies of some sort: unknown superiors. these conspirators use the power of occult sciences (numerology). Hermetics.S. The Year 2000 problem. symbols (Eye of Providence). in June 1979. C.
Skeptics argue that fears of coercive population control can be traced back to the traumatic legacy of the eugenics movement's "war against the weak" in the United States during the first decades of the 20th century but also the Second Red Scare in the U. which promote abstinence. and satanic ritual abuse allegations in the United States.S. when activists on the far right of American politics routinely opposed public health programs. the introduction of social welfare provisions. by asserting they were all part of a far-reaching plot to impose a socialist or communist regime.65 "Georgia Guidestones" have subsequently become a spiritual and political Rorschach test onto which any number of ideas can be imposed. and government . notably water fluoridation. mass vaccination and mental health services. Population control Conspiracy theorists believe that the New World Order will also be implemented through the use of population control in order to more easily monitor and control the movement of individuals. etc. and through environmental disasters by controlling the weather (HAARP. guidelines and other recommendations relating to foods. The Codex Alimentarius. equally unrelated to the designer’s original intention. chemtrails). food production and food safety. The means range from stopping the growth of human societies through reproductive health and family planning programs. particularly the United Nations and its programs. Skeptics argue that the demonization of Western esotericism by conspiracy theorists is rooted in religious intolerance but also in the same moral panics that have fueled witch trials in the Early Modern period. has also become the subject of conspiracy theories about population control through famines and foodborne diseases. or intentionally reducing the bulk of the world population through genocides by mongering unnecessary wars. during the late 1940s and 1950s. codes of practice. and to a lesser extent in the 1960s. many more meanings could arise. Their views were influenced by opposition to a number of major social and political changes that had happened in recent years: the growth of internationalism. Should the Guidestones survive for centuries as their creators intended. through plagues by engineering emergent viruses and tainting vaccines. contraception and abortion. a collection of internationally recognized standards. Some New Agers and neo-pagans revere it as a ley-line power nexus while a few conspiracy theorists are convinced that they are engraved with the New World Order's anti-Christian "Ten Commandments". particularly the various programs established by the New Deal.
corporations. emotions. "Project Monarch") to engineering psychological operations (water fluoridation. occultism. intense anxiety about an apparent loss of autonomy to outside forces or regulators. Alleged conspirators According to Domhoff.. The concept of wearing a tin foil hat for protection from such threats has become a popular stereotype and term of derision. surveillance abuse. however. subliminal advertising. 4. When fervent individualists feel that they cannot exercise their independence.e. Big Government. The worst fear of some conspiracy theorists. Skeptics argue that the paranoia behind a conspiracy theorist's obsession with mind control. they experience a crisis and assume that larger forces are to blame for usurping this freedom. In the past the conspirators were usually said to be crypto-communists who were intent upon bringing the United States under a common world government with . is that the New World Order will be implemented through the use of mind control—a broad range of tactics able to subvert an individual's control of his or her own thinking. by a small secretive group that wants to change the government system or put the country under the control of a world government. when he or she: 1) holds strong individualist values and 2) lacks power. MEDUSA) and parapsychological operations (Stargate Project) to influence the masses. population control. behavior. and one gets what some psychologists call "agency panic".66 efforts to reduce inequalities in the social structure of the U. "Silent Sound Spread Spectrum". a culture of fear due to the potential for increased social control that a mistrustful and mutually fearing population might offer to those in power. The first attribute refers to people who care deeply about an individual's right to make their own choices and direct their own lives without interference or obligations to a larger system (like the government). but combine this with a sense of powerlessness in one's own life. the phrase serves as a byword for paranoia and is associated with conspiracy theorists. and the mass media of being involved in the manufacturing of a national consensus and. Mind control Social critics accuse governments. paradoxically. or decisions. many people seem to believe that the United States is ruled from behind the scenes by a conspiratorial elite with secret desires. These tactics are said to include everything from Manchurian candidatestyle brainwashing of sleeper agents (Project MKULTRA.S. i. and globalization arises from a combination of two factors. Big Business.
they move freely into high positions in their nations' governments and back to private life largely beyond the notice of elected legislatures (including the U. by claiming that members of the Bilderberg Group. Viewing the history of the world as the history of warfare between secret societies. an idea which is undermined by the powerlessness of the U. He asserts that the superclass' disproportionate influence over national policy is constructive but always selfinterested. political scientist David Rothkopf argues that the world population of 6 billion people is governed by an elite of 6. Trilateral Commission. not the Council on Foreign Relations.000 individuals. Domhoff notes that most conspiracy theorists changed their focus to the United Nations as the likely controlling force in a New World Order. travel and communication — rules. and Bohemians. but the dissolution of the U.. According to Rothkopf... Bilderbergers. Rockefellers). Council on Foreign Relations. Bohemian Club. in the early 21st century. which remain abysmally ignorant of affairs beyond their borders. the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church) and entrepreneurs (Rothschilds.S. Domhoff counters: The opponents are the corporate conservatives and the Republican Party. Until the late 20th century. Congress). Skull and Bones. and the unwillingness of even moderates within the American Establishment to give it anything but a limited role. and similar think tanks and private clubs. If thought of this way. governments of the great powers provided most of the superclass. few object to corruption and oppressive governments provided they can do business in these countries. accompanied by a few heads of international movements (i. conspiracy theorists go further than Rothkopf. In the 2008 book Superclass: The Global Power Elite and the World They Are Making. but it puts them in their most important roles. and other scholars who have studied the global power elite.S. then the role of a CFR as a place to try to hear new ideas . which are visible and legitimate. leaders in international business.67 the Soviet Union. and that across the world.S.N. Club of Rome. Rhodes Trust. as capitalists and political leaders. the nation-state's power has diminished shrinking politicians to minority power broker status. It is the same people more or less.e. are synarchists conspiring to create a totalitarian New World Order — the implementation of a bureaucratic collectivist world government through a strengthened United Nations and a global central bank to force humanity into permanent slavery.R. finance and the defense industry not only dominate the superclass. in 1991 undercut that theory. economic clout — fueled by the explosive expansion of international trade.
Criticism Skeptics of New World Order conspiracy theories accuse its proponents of indulging in the furtive fallacy. a belief that significant facts of history are necessarily sinister. and fusion paranoia. American intellectual Noam Chomsky. rather than social and economic forces.68 and reach consensus is more readily understood. those understandings of the CFR and the clubs fit with the perceptions of the members of the elite. who believe the world is in the middle of a transition from the American Empire to the rule of a global ruling class that has emerged from within the American Empire. The "New World Order" is precisely this: an international regime of unrelenting pressure and intimidation by the most powerful capitalist states against the weakest. the United States--as the unchallengeable arbiters of world affairs. but they argue that the superclass are plutocrats only interested in brazenly imposing a neoliberal or neoconservative new world order — the implementation of global capitalism through economic and military coercion to protect the interests of transnational  corporations — which systematically undermines the possibility of a socialist one-world government. a promiscuous absorption of fears from any source whatsoever. author of the 1994 book World Orders Old and New. point out that right-wing populist conspiracy theorists. 5. Marxists and anarchists. he writes: The aim of these assaults is to establish the role of the major imperialist powers--above all. as is the function of a social club as a place that creates social cohesion. conspiracism. Commenting on the 1999 US-NATO bombing of Serbia. writes in a March 2005 essay entitled There Are No Conspiracies: There are several problems with a conspiratorial view that don't fit with what we know about power structures. Domhoff. a world view that centrally places conspiracy theories in the unfolding of history. First. a research professor in psychology and sociology who studies theories of power. it assumes that a small handful of wealthy and highly educated people somehow develop an extreme psychological desire for power that . blinded by their anti-communism. fail to see is that what they demonize as the "New World Order" is. and many intergovernmental organizations of suffering from a democratic deficit. also accuse the global power elite of not having the best interests of all at heart. the highest stage of the very capitalist economic system they defend. Moreover. ironically. On the other hand. Progressives. who are skeptical of right-wing populist conspiracy theories. often describes the New World Order as a post-Cold-War era of super-imperialism in which "the New World gives the orders".
and there is a race to the bottom in terms of corporate taxes—rather than an existing global framework.] Another point is that attempts at global government and global agreements have been categorical failures. but economic uncertainty usually has the opposite effect. while Hugo Chavez and his ilk have stoked the national flames with their antiAmerican rhetoric.69 leads them to do things that don't fit with the roles they seem to have. That is not to belittle the structure. Since these claims have proved wrong dozens of times by now. And. Although some cultural critics see superconspiracy theories about a New World Order as "postmodern metanarratives" that may be politically empowering. Russia has been re-establishing itself as a “great power”. Kyoto excluded many of the leading polluters and a conference to establish a deal was a failure. nationalism—the natural counterpoint to global government—is rising. Or that elected officials are trying to get the constitution suspended so they can assume dictatorial powers. as I deem it essential. a way of giving ordinary people a narrative structure with which to question what they see around . genocide in Darfur. the slow collapse of Zimbabwe. it makes more sense to assume that leaders act for their usual reasons. that rich capitalists are no longer out to make a profit. and be elected by huge margins every time. and that can lead them to do many unsavory things. [. Of course they want to make as much money as they can. and it is always said that it is really going to happen this time. The WTO’s Doha Round is dead in the water. such as profitseeking motives and institutionalized roles as elected officials. These kinds of claims go back many decades now. Partridge. or Iran’s continued uranium enrichment. The departing of the Bush Administration could cause this nationalism to abate. a contributing editor to the global affairs magazine Diplomatic Courier.” as Gideon posits... For example. but to create a one-world government. writes in a December 2008 news article entitled One World Government: Conspiracy Theory or Inevitable Future?: I am skeptical that “global governance” could “come much sooner than that [200 years]. For one thing. where supranational governance structures exist. but nothing in the ballpark of creating a one-world government or suspending the constitution. few could miss the national pride on display when China hosted the Beijing Olympics this summer. Some leaders and peoples around the world have resented Washington’s chiding and hubris over the past two decade of American unipolarity. they are noted for their bureaucracy and inefficiency: The UN has been unable to stop an American-led invasion of Iraq. but it never does. but the system’s flaws are there for all to see.
They do not point to imperialism and capitalism as the main problems. reject New World Order conspiracism because it produces false consciousness and cultism. The activities of conspiracy theorists (talk radio shows. instead ascribing society's ills to a few leaders from imperialist countries that are somehow above the class systems under which we live. Barkun writes: The danger lies less in such beliefs themselves . etc.70 them. convoluted thinking. Marxists conclude that the real solution is something right-wing poplulist conspiracy theorists would never advocate or contemplate: democratic socialism. Concerned that the apocalyptic millenarian theme in all conspiracy theories about a New World Order might motivate lone wolves to engage in leaderless resistance. skeptics argue that conspiracism leads people into cynicism. . and conspiracism. This can lure mainstream politicians to adopt these themes to attract voters. which can encompass anything from patriot hacking to United States presidential assassination plots. websites. than in the behavior they might stimulate or justify. scapegoating.. UFO. That is why conspiracy-focused movements (JFK. Such “theories” are not only false. Berlet writes: Right-wing populist movements can cause serious damage to a society because they often popularize xenophobia. and their institutional background. They argue: Conspiracy “theories” lack any true analysis of the systemic class forces at work that oppress billions of people each day. On the other hand. devotees of conspiracy theories could be expected to confine their activities to propagandizing. Party for Socialism and Liberation. Marxists. As long as the New World Order appeared to be almost but not quite a reality. Warning of the threat to American democracy posed by right-wing populist movements led by producerist demagogues who mobilize support for mob rule or even a fascist revolution by exploiting the fear of conspiracies. should they believe that the prophesied evil day had in fact arrived. such as members of the U.S. documentary videos. and a tendency to feel it is hopeless even as they denounce the alleged conspirators. authoritarianism. anti-Marxist and truly reductive of history—they are dangerous diversions that keep people from aiming their anger and hatred toward the system that actually causes oppression throughout the world. 9/11 Truth) are treated far more tolerantly by centers of power than is the norm for serious critical and activist work of left-wing progressives who are marginalized from mainstream public discourse. books. their behavior would become far more difficult to predict. conferences.) unwittingly draw enormous amounts of energy and effort away from serious criticism and activism directed to real and ongoing crimes of state..
UFO conspiracy theory . who argues that Christian Patriots are the only Americans who understand the truth about the New World Order (which he believes is controlled by a race of reptilians known as the "Babylonian Brotherhood"). Criticisms of New World Order conspiracy theorists also come from within their own community. the world controlled by the Brotherhood. many right-wing populist conspiracy theorists hold views that are incompatible with their professed libertarianism. Despite believing themselves to be "freedom fighters".71 legitimize acts of discrimination (or even violence). dominionism. to reportedly tell a Christian Patriot group: I don't know which I dislike more. and open the door for revolutionary right-wing populist movements. and white supremacism. such as fascism. or the one you want to replace it with. such as eliminationism. to recruit from the reformist populist movements. This paradox has led Icke.
1 1930s 2.72 A UFO conspiracy theory is any one of many often overlapping conspiracy theories which argue that evidence of the reality of unidentified flying objects is being suppressed by the governments.4 1960s 2. Such theories are often intentionally hoaxed. and therefore.4 Mantell Incident 2. especially the Government of the United States are in communication or cooperation with extraterrestrials.5. They commonly argue that Earth governments. and absolutely no reliable evidence despite significant research on the subject by non governmental scientific agencies.2. is likely because it is an American cultural phenomenon.6. The theory's tendency to target the United States government over others.2 Paul Bennewitz 2.2. despite public claims to the contrary.2.5 Project Sign ○ ○ ○ 2.  Some of these theories claim that the government is explicitly allowing alien abduction. are considered pseudoscience. and are backed by little or no evidence. Contents • • 1 Popular culture and opinions 2 Chronology ○ ○ 2.2 Linda Moulton Howe 2.4 Bob Lazar ○ 2.6.3 1950s 22.214.171.124 Holloman Air Force Base 2.5 1970s 2.1 The Great Los Angeles Air Raid 2.2.2 1940s 2.6 1980s .3 Milton William Cooper 2.2.2 Ghost rockets 2.5.1 MJ-12 2.3 Roswell Incident 2.
The contention that there is a widespread cover-up of UFO information is not limited to the general public or UFO research community. Various conspiratorial UFO ideas have flourished on the internet and are frequently featured on Art Bell's program. New Mexico. Notable persons to have publicly stated that UFO evidence is being suppressed include Senator Barry Goldwater. films (Men in Black and Independence Day) and any number of novels have featured elements of UFO conspiracy theories.7 Rendlesham Forest Incident 2. should not be attacked or provoked. It has also been suggested that UFO conspiracy theories were deliberately played into by the U. 54% thought UFOs definitely or probably existed. Admiral Lord Hill-Norton (former NATO head and chief . Some UFO conspiracy theories have been studied as emergent folklore or urban legends. Coast to Coast AM.5 "UFO Cover-Up?: Live!" 2.6.S. Air Force during the Cold War in order to create fear in the minds of Soviet leaders that the United States had access to superior alien technology and. thus.73 ○ ○ ○ • 2. the Rendlesham Forest Incident.6.8 2000s 2. there is one well-documented instance of this occurring. For example.6 July 1989 MUFON Convention 2.7 1990s 2.Popular culture and opinions It has been suggested that UFO conspiracy theories have been presented to UFO enthusiasts as disinformation designed to distract from prosaic but secretive government effort.6. Some civilians suggest that they have been abducted and/or body parts have been taken from them. and 32% thought they came from outer space. a 1971 survey of Industrial Research/Development magazine found that 76% felt the government was not revealing all it knew about UFOs. a supposed crash site in Roswell. Elements may include the government's sinister operative from Men in Black. RAF Rudloe Manor or Porton Down. television programs (The X-Files and Stargate). In fiction. the military bases known as Area 51. see Paul Bennewitz. a political committee dubbed the "Majestic 12" or successor of the UK Ministry of Defence's Flying Saucer Working Party (FSWP).9 MoD secret files 3 Allegations of evidence suppression 1.
Some later studies have argued that the extent of the panic was exaggerated by the contemporary press. 2. former Canadian Defence Minister Paul Hellyer. 2. By mimicking a news broadcast. Wells's classic novel. the target of the aerial barrage was thought to be an attacking force from Japan. According to U. followed by outrage and controversy. There was widespread confusion. Orson Welles directed the Mercury Theatre in their live radio adaptation of H.1 The Great Los Angeles Air Raid "The Great Los Angeles Air Raid" also known as "The Battle of Los Angeles" is the name given by contemporary sources to the imaginary enemy attack and subsequent anti-aircraft artillery barrage which took place from late 24 February to early 25 February 1942 over Los Angeles. but Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox speaking at a press conference shortly afterward called the incident a "false alarm. Hillenkoetter (first CIA director). 2." A small number of modern-day UFOlogists have suggested the targets were extraterrestrial spacecraft. Air Force Captain Edward J.S. G.2 Ghost rockets . the U. and some listeners were fooled into thinking that a Martian invasion was underway in the United States. but it remains clear that many people were caught up. When documenting the incident in 1983.1 1930s On the night before Halloween in 1938.2.S.2 1940s 2. astronauts Gordon Cooper and Edgar Mitchell. The War of the Worlds. Chronology This is a list of events. the show was quite realistic sounding for its time. in the confusion. to one degree or another. and the 1999 French COMETA report by various French generals and aerospace experts. the Air Force's files often mentioned the panicked aftermath of the 1938 War of the Worlds broadcast as a possible reaction of the public to confirmed evidence of UFOs. Initially.74 of the British Defence Staff). Ruppelt. Vice-Admiral Roscoe H. Office of Air Force History attributed the event to a case of "war nerves" likely triggered by a lost weather balloon and exacerbated by stray flares and shell bursts from adjoining batteries. Brigadier-General Arthur Exon (former commanding officer of Wright-Patterson AFB). statements and personalities which are related to UFO conspiracy theories. California. 2.2.
This press release was quickly withdrawn. alien bodies were recovered. scientists and high military officials who had already concluded the objects were extraterrestrial in origin and feared public panic because there was no defense. There has been continued speculation that an alien spacecraft did indeed crash near Roswell despite the official denial.S. One USAF top secret document from 1948 stated that In 1946 and 1947. Santorini claimed their investigation was killed by U. New Mexico." (Clark. Again. and officials stated that a weather balloon had been misidentified. they quickly concluded the objects were real and not of conventional origin. Similarly. an explanation which continues to be debated to this day.of tremendous size. Mantell's airplane crashed and he was killed following the pursuit of an aerial artifact he described as "a metallic object. primarily Sweden.2.75 Scandinavian countries.5 Project Sign . retired Brigadier General Arthur E. and the event was covered up by the U. numerous so-called ghost rockets appeared over Swedish air intelligence informed them that some of their investigators felt that the objects were not only real but could not be explained as having earthly origins.3 Roswell Incident In 1947. a conclusion which met with incredulity. Exon further claimed he was aware of a very secretive UFO controlling committee made up primarily of very high-ranking military officers and intelligence people.2. Paul Santorini publicly stated that in 1947 he was put in charge of a Greek military investigation into the ghost rockets sighted over Greece.. His nickname for this group was "The Unholy Thirteen" (see also Majestic 12) 2. Later this theory was changed to include a Skyhook balloon instead of Venus. former commanding officer of Wright-Patterson AFB. Greek physicist Dr. For example. 2. told researchers Kevin Randle and Donald Schmitt that a spacecraft had crashed. 352) Project Sign personnel investigated the case and determined that Mantell had been chasing the planet Venus. Exon.4 Mantell Incident The 1948 death of Air Force pilot Thomas Mantell (the so-called Mantell Incident) may have contributed to a distrust of governmental UFO studies. and then spread into other European countries.2. 2. the United States Air Force issued a press release stating that a "flying disk" had been recovered near Roswell.. 20 years later. government. The Roswell case quickly faded even from the attention of most UFOlogists until the 1970s.S.
arguing that UFOs were indeed real and the U. the Estimate was ordered destroyed by Air Force Chief of Staff Hoyt Vandenberg. Keyhoe became its director and continued his attacks on the Air Force. Edward J.S. and was a bestseller. 2. Keyhoe's first article on the subject came out in True Magazine. Ruppelt also revealed that in mid-1948. government was suppressing UFO evidence. the first director of Blue Book. in 1948. Other contemporary critics also charged that the United States Air Force was perpetrating a cover-up with its Project Blue Book. The incident sparks nation-wide media attention. In August 1950.S. It was later revealed that Scully had been the victim of a prank by "two veteran confidence artists". the Department set up the Flying Saucer Working Party (or FSWP). a powerful civilian UFO investigating group with many inside sources. Donald Keyhoe was a retired U. Keyhoe helped establish NICAP.3 1950s • The UK Ministry of Defence’s UFO Project has its roots in a study commissioned in 1950 by the MOD’s then Chief Scientific Adviser. According to Ruppelt. characterized the Air Force's public behavior regarding UFOs as "schizophrenic": alternately open and transparent. Ruppelt. Montanan baseball manager Nicholas Mariana films several UFOs with his color 16mm camera. then secretive and dismissive. In 1956. after inspecting the film.S. Project Sign issued a top secret Estimate of the Situation concluding that the flying saucers were not only real but probably extraterrestrial in origin. government had recovered a crashed flying saucer and its dead occupants near Aztec. Frank Scully's 1950 Behind the Flying Saucers suggested that the U. January 1950. New Mexico. at about the same time as Frank Scully's book. and was a national sensation. Mariana claimed they returned it to him with critical footage removed. clearly showing the objects as disc-shaped. Marine who wrote a series of popular books and magazine articles that were very influential in shaping public opinion. Air Force may have planted the seeds of UFO conspiracy theories with Project Sign (established 1947) (which became Project Grudge and Project Blue Book). Flying Saucers Are Real also came out in 1950. • • • . Project Blue Book is called in and. As a result of his insistence that UFO sightings should not be dismissed without some form of proper scientific study.76 The U. the great radar scientist Sir Henry Tizard. His first book.S.
C.77 • Canadian radio engineer Wilbert B. In part. and among other things stated that he had been lent crashed UFO material for analysis by a highly secret U. it recommended a public relations campaign to reduce public interest in UFOs. Canadian documents and Smith's private papers were uncovered in the late 1970s. having to do with Keyhoe needing to get clearance to publish another article on Smith's theories of UFO propulsion. who had participated in the discussions. Throughout the 1950s and early 1960s. Smith then briefed superiors in the Canadian government. Immediately after the Panel. and to spy on civilian UFO groups. Other correspondence. other alleged documents emerged claiming the existence of a highly secret UFO oversight committee of scientists and military people called Majestic 12. arrange contact with U. Edward Ruppelt. In September 1950. Sarbacher was also interviewed in the 1980s and corroborated the information in Smith's memos and correspondence. again naming Vannevar Bush. Smith. Blue Book public relations officer Al Chop told Ruppelt that. a physicist and consultant to the Defense Department's Research and Development Board. indicated that Bush and his group were operating out of the Research and Development Board. Smith was briefed by Dr. CIA-assembled scientific UFO review committee that met in January 1953. A few weeks after the Robertson Panel. 193-202) This protocol is still in effect. who worked for the Canadian Department of Transport. "We've been ordered to work up a national debunking campaign.  • The Robertson Panel was a secret. and to classify all the unsolved cases Force issued to publicly to have been to keep them • . he had the Canadian embassy in Washington D. leading to the establishment of Project Magnet. including ridiculing and discrediting those who claim UFO encounters.S. Smith granted public interviews. a small Canadian government UFO research effort. and by 1984." (Dolan. was interested in flying saucer propulsion technology and wondered if the assertions in the just-published Scully and Keyhoe books were factual. government group which he wouldn't name. the Air Regulation 200-2. The Robertson Panel's existence was first disclosed in 1956 by former Blue Book director. officials to try to discover the truth of the matter. ordering air base officers discuss UFO incidents only if they were judged solved. Robert Sarbacher. planting articles in magazines and arranging broadcasts to make UFO reports sound like poppycock.S.
In addition. After this station detected the first suspicious event. his statements on UFOs were precensored by the Air Force. tested their own flying saucer outside the Long Island town of Ridge Landing. UFO investigative duties started to be taken on by the newly formed 4602nd Air Intelligence Squadron (AISS) of the Air Defense Command. There has been continued speculation that the men in black are government agents who harass and threaten UFO witnesses. led by film producer Tzadi Sophit. • • • • . Cooper said he viewed developed negatives of the object. • In 1954 an automatic working station for UFO monitoring was installed at Shirley's Bay near Ottawa in Canada. 1956 saw the publication of Gray Barker's They Knew Too Much About Flying Saucers. Also in 1956. 286287. What Keyhoe was about to reveal were four publicly unknown military studies concluding UFOs were interplanetary (including the 1948 Project Sign Estimate of the Situation and a 1952 Project Blue Book engineering analysis of UFO motion presented at the Robertson Panel. The photographers and another witness.78 out of the public eye. when Donald Keyhoe appeared on CBS television. all data gained by this station was classified as secret. 1958. 1957. later stating Keyhoe was about to violate "predetermined security standards" and about to say something he wasn't "authorized to release". the book which publicized the idea of sinister Men in Black who appear to UFO witnesses and warn them to keep quiet. These were deliberately siphoned away from Blue Book. (citation?) On January 22. although the cameras of the monitoring station could not make any pictures because of fog. Richard Dolan 293-295] Astronaut Gordon Cooper reported suppression of a flying saucer movie filmed in high clarity by two Edwards AFB range photographers on May 3.602nd AISS was tasked with investigating only the most important UFO cases with intelligence or national security implications. It is speculated in Robertson's "The Long Island Saucer" that an FBI cover-up silenced witnesses. During the show when Keyhoe tried to depart from the censored script to "reveal something that has never been disclosed before". clearly showing a dishlike object with a dome on top and something like holes or ports in the dome. CBS cut the sound. [Timothy Good. the group Foundation for Earth-Space Relations. leaving Blue Book to deal with the more trivial reports. The 4.
however." (Clark. as Emenegger reported that his U. government was involved with ETs. Present and Future (narrated by Rod Serling)." (Clark 1998. This was supposedly not the first time the U. fed by the tabloids. Government was mishandling evidence which would support the extraterrestrial hypothesis. military sources had "been monitoring signals from an alien group with which they were unfamiliar. Alternative 3. 2.S.4 1960s • Throughout much of the 1960s. he was given a tour of Holloman AFB and was shown where officials conferred with EBEs. 213–4) 2. and subsequently turned into a paperback book. and did their ET guests know anything about them? The ETs said no. Clark also notes that many UFO conspiracy theory tales "can be traced to a mock documentary. atmospheric physicist James E. Kennedy a cottage industry of JFK conspiracy theorists seemed to spring up out of the woodwork. Emenegger and Sandler report that Air Force Officials (including Paul Shartle) suggested incorporating UFO information in the documentary. The .S. and the documentary was released in 1974 as UFO's: Past. including as its centerpiece genuine footage of a 1971 UFO landing at Holloman Air Force Base in New Mexico. 144) No film was ever presented. Furthermore.S. such as the Los Angeles Times. broadcast on British television on June 20.5 1970s Although strictly unrelated to a UFO conspiracy theory. Cooper said military authorities then picked up the film and neither he nor the photographers ever heard what happened to it. had met these aliens. the Watergate affair brought the curtain down on the era when authorities were generally trusted by the public. Robert Emenegger and Allan Sandler of Los Angeles.5. The incident was also reported in a few newspapers. That year. 2. The official explanation was that the photographers had filmed a weather balloon distorted by hot desert air. articles and letters—that the U. McDonald suggested—via lectures. California. says Emenegger.1 Holloman Air Force Base Clark cites a 1973 encounter as perhaps the earliest suggestion that the U.79 when later interviewed by James McDonald. UFO conspiracy theories found fertile ground in this paranoid zeitgeist. confirmed the story.S. 1977. A decade after the assassination of John F. were in contact with officials at Norton Air Force Base in order to make a documentary film.
80 alleged Holloman UFO landing was discussed in the documentary and was depicted with illustrations. and that he had seen it several times. directed. Doty. On March 21. 2. edited and reported a documentary film for TV entitled A Strange Harvest about the Colorado and worldwide phenomenon of bloodless. suggesting that there was secret. high-level U. Majestic #1 12Majestic #2 12Majestic #3 12 2. 1980. Director of Special Projects at KMGH-TV. and Howe was awarded a 1981 Regional Emmy. Linda Moulton Howe. Mr. Shartle said that the film in question was genuine.5. Doty's .S. Linda was contacted by Jean Abounader.6 1980s 2. Some time after the broadcast.2 Paul Bennewitz The late 1970s also saw the beginning of an affair centered around Paul Bennewitz of Albuquerque. 1983. Director of the Documentary Division at Home Box Office. government interest in UFOs dating to the 1940s. trackless animal deaths called "animal mutilations. 2. Peter Gersten. In 1988.1 MJ-12 The so-called Majestic 12 documents surfaced in 1982. New York attorney who had filed Freedom of Information Act inquiries on behalf of Citizens Against UFO Secrecy (CAUS) for UFO information from the CIA. Gersten showed Howe correspondence he had from an AFOSI (Air Force Office of Special Investigations) Agent named Richard C. about producing an hour for HBO that would go beyond A Strange Harvest. wrote. NSA and other intelligence and military organizations. Howe was in New York City to sign a contract in the HBO offices to produce an hour with the working title. New Mexico. met with Howe in New York City. Channel 7 (then a CBS affiliate) produced. UFO's: The ET Factor." The documentary was first broadcast as a two hour special on May 126.96.36.199 Linda Moulton Howe In September 1979 to May 1980.
1983. The ray allegedly melted the gun and burned the guard's hand. Air Force was necessary to back up the promise of film. Doty stopped communicating with the Howe/Gersten effort in June 1983 and nothing of an official nature was provided. photographs and documents for use in Howe's HBO documentary. a news website . including documents. HBO and Howe reached the October deadline and the documentary project ended. Mysterious Lights and Crop Circles (2002). Howe met with Potter. Doty showed her a "Briefing Paper for the President of the United States On the Subject of Unidentified Aerial Vehicles (UAVs).81 correspondence with attorney Gersten was about an alleged military exchange at Ellsworth AFB in South Dakota with a landed UFO and humanoid entity that fired a ray of light at a security guard's gun. Vol. including An Alien Harvest: Further Evidence Linking Animal Mutilations and Human Abductions to Alien Life Forms (1989). on May 18. 1952." Howe reported that Doty promised considerable confirmation. an hour documentary film about an upsurge in animal mutilations and human interactions with aerial lights in Alabama and surrounding region from 1993 to 1994. By 1999. 1983. Howe thought she was to receive names and phone numbers for eyewitnesses to the Ellsworth AFB event." (Clark 1998. to discuss the government's potential contribution to the HBO TV production. but no official letter was ever forthcoming. A meeting was set for April 9. Howe reported. 2: High Strangeness (1998). at the Kirtland AFB office of AFOSI. New Mexico. Linda Moulton Howe created Earthfiles.S. Vol. She called Jean Abounader at HBO and the two agreed that an official letter from the U. detailed a series of events: several UFO crashes and recoveries. Strange Harvests 1993. and was required to read it in Doty's presence. 1: Facts & Eyewitnesses © 1994. film and photographs. Instead. Glimpses of Other Realities. government at Los Alamos Laboratory "until it died of unknown causes on June 18. including one where an alien occupant was alive and remained in the care of the U.com. Abounader asked Howe to meet with the number two executive at HBO. Gersten said that he and CAUS would like to investigate the Ellsworth AFB case and that he would arrange contact for Howe with Richard Doty. S. Bridgett Potter. Abounader and others at the New York HBO offices. 154) Howe says she was not allowed to copy the paper or take notes. Glimpses of Other Realities. Potter gave Howe until October 1983 to come up with official administration and military confirmation to her at HBO about the details of the briefing paper. in Albuquerque. The document. Howe continued to develop her own military and intelligence sources independent from the HBO/Doty/Gersten period of March to June 1983 and produced four books and other documentaries.
For the propulsion of the studied vehicles. 2. Milton William Cooper achieved prominence due to his conspiratorial writings. Bob Lazar claims that the atomic element 115 served as a nuclear fuel.6.000 years. documents. writes and edits about science.5 "UFO Cover-Up?: Live!" On October 14. UFO CoverUp: Live!" a two-hour prime-time syndicated television special that was broadcast in North America (and elsewhere). Lazar also claims that he was given introductory briefings describing the historical involvement by extraterrestrial beings with this planet for 10. The beings originate from the Zeta Reticuli 1 & 2 star system and are therefore referred to as Zeta Reticulians.82 Howe reports. Element 115 (provisionally named 'Ununpentium' (Uup)) reportedly provided an energy source which would produce anti-gravity effects under proton bombardment along with the production of antimatter used for energy production.6. allowing the vehicle to immediately shorten the distance to a charted destination.3 Milton William Cooper In the 1980s. illustrations and photographs related to a non-human presence on Earth and its interactions with civilians and military. the resulting effect would be a distortion of the surrounding gravitational field. Lazar explains how this impression first hit him after he boarded the craft under study and examined their interior. The Real X-Files section contains interviews. 1988.6. whose test flights must have been responsible for many UFO reports. actor Mike Farrell hosted "U. a degree of 2. In his interview with Knapp. on closer examination and from having been shown multiple briefing documents. the Los Angeles Times looked into his background and found there was no evidence to support his claims. Lazar came to the conclusion that the discs must have been of extraterrestrial origin. Lazar says he has degrees from the California Institute of Technology and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Lazar said he first thought the saucers were secret. Earthfiles has received several journalism awards for excellence. terrestrial aircraft.4 Bob Lazar In November 1989. In 1993. environment and Real X-Files issues and breaking news. William . Lazar's website says. Bob Lazar appeared in a special interview with investigative reporter George Knapp on Las Vegas TV station KLAS to discuss his alleged employment at S-4. as the intense strong nuclear force field of element 115's nucleus would be properly amplified.S. Gradually. In his filmed testimony. 2. popularly called 'Greys.
allegedly highlevel government intelligence officials."(ibid.S.. [the disinformation] definitely had something to do with national security. was to disseminate information and watch as it was passed from person to person in order to study information channels..) One of their goals. and introduced their sources "Falcon" and "Condor". government’s involvement in UFOs and alien interaction. Moore said that he and others had been part of an elaborate. on July 1. and he refused to submit his paper for review prior to the convention. as was I. which remains divided as to the reliability of his assertions. though Moore thought Doty was "simply a pawn in a much larger game. This broadcast also included the first known mention of Area 51 on television.7 Rendlesham Forest Incident .6 July 1989 MUFON Convention The Mutual UFO Network held their 1989 annual convention in Las Vegas. Falcon and Condor disclosed information about the U. 164)Once he finished the speech.6. When he spoke. UFO crashes and occupant retrievals. Moore's claims sent shock waves through the small." (Clark. get my hands dirty just often enough to lead those directing the process into believing I was doing what they wanted me to do. and alien biology.. was primarily that of a freelancer providing information on Paul's (Bennewitz) current thinking and activities. 2. I would play the disinformation game. Moore did not stay at the same hotel that was hosting the convention. Bill Moore (ufologist) was scheduled as the main speaker. There was no way I was going to allow the opportunity to pass me by . Also known as the "strawberry ice cream show" in reference to the informants' remark that a captured EBE enjoyed strawberry ice cream and Tibetan music.. tight-knit UFO community." (ibid. Unlike most of the convention's attendees. Moore immediately left the hotel. Interviewed in shadow and with masked voices.. Nevada. Moore said that he "was in a rather unique position" in the disinformation campaign: "judging by the positions of the people I knew to be directly involved in it. He left Las Vegas that same night. said Moore.6. long-term disinformation campaign begun primarily to discredit Paul Bennewitz: "My role in the affair . Doty was also involved. 1989.83 Moore and Jamie Shandera appeared (among many other guests) and discussed the acquisition of the Majestic 12 documents. 163) Air Force Sergeant Richard C. 2. 1998. and also announced that he would not answer any follow-up questions as was common practice. and all the while continuing to burrow my way into the matrix so as to learn as much as possible about who was directing it and why. Moore said.
This site was examined by the deputy base commander. Shirley. 1996.84 Britain's most celebrated UFO incident. . On June 12. • • • 2. They essentially recirculate the information presented above. 2003 saw the publication of Alien Encounters (ISBN 1-57821-205-7). who took readings with a Geiger counter and was also witness to a flashing light in the direction of Orford Ness as well as star-like objects in the sky. Critics say the charges are a frame-up. the document's editor. Charles I. investigates the crash. and one of the bestdocumented in the world. NY. to the National Archives' website by the British Ministry of Defence. 200 files are set to be made public by 2012. by Chuck Missler and Mark Eastman. which primarily re-states the notions presented above (especially Cooper's) and presents them as fact. England. John Ford. shortly after Christmas 1980. a Long Island MUFON researcher. On advice of counsel Ford pleads insanity and is committed to the Mid Hudson Psychiatric Center. Ministry of Defense were routinely released by the American base public affairs staff until the base closed. with many asides from "Branton". Ford is arrested and charged with plotting to poison several local politicians by sneaking radium in their toothpaste. 2008. 2.9 MoD secret files 1978 to 1987 eight files on UFO sightings were first released on May 14. "UFOs and Defense: What Must We Be Prepared For?" Among other topics. 1992. 2. Various lights were seen in neighbouring Rendlesham Forest by numerous servicemen.8 2000s UFO conspiracy theories show no signs of abating. espousing essentially a new version of the theories mentioned above.K. a UFO crashes in Southaven Park. the study concludes that the United States government has withheld valuable evidence. He claimed to have survived the Dulce Base catastrophe and decided to tell his tale. Copies of Halt's letter to the U. In 1999 the French government published a study. occurred outside the US Air Force base at Woodbridge in Suffolk.7 1990s • On November 24. Halt. Philip Schneider made a few appearances at UFO conventions in the 1990s. The Branton Files have circulated on the internet at least since the mid-1990s. who investigated and found an apparent landing site.
one of the Air Force scientists might have to negotiate directly with the newspaper. 1950. but refused to say what happened to the film after that." but if that wasn't feasible. The MoD released the files due to requests under the Freedom of Information Act. The photos were analyzed and subsequently appeared in some classified Air Force UFO intelligence reports. 3. One memo suggested the FBI be used. William Rhodes photographed an unusual object over Phoenix. Air Force. the photographer confirmed meeting with military intelligence and still having the film in his possession until then. (Randle. but later unsuccessfully tried to retrieve them. He was informed he wouldn't be getting them back. such as the MoD and Margaret Thatcher. full account) A June 27. In a recent interview. The information can be downloaded. There are also conspiracy theories which claim that physical evidence might have been removed and/or destroyed/suppressed by some governments. Col. which he did the next day. Arizona. Ministry of Defense were routinely released (without addition comment) by the American base public affairs staff throughout the 1980s until the base closed. Kentucky.K. 34–45. 1947.85 The files are correspondence from the public sent to government officials. alien craft flying over Liverpool and Waterloo Bridge in London. In another 1950 movie incident from Montana. inter alia. but insisted • • . movie of a "flying disk" over Louisville. Copies of Lt. (See also Men in Black) Some examples are: • On July 7. taken by a Louisville Courier-Journal photographer. Allegations of evidence suppression There have been allegations of suppression of UFO related evidence for many decades. An Army Air Force intelligence officer and an FBI agent interviewed Rhodes on August 29 and convinced him to surrender the negatives. Another memo said "it would be nice if OSI could arrange to secure a copy of the film in some covert manner. Halt's letter regarding the sighting at RAF Woodbridge (see above) to the U. The files included. Nicholas Mariana filmed some unusual aerial objects and eventually turned the film over to the U. had the USAF Directors of counterintelligence (AFOSI) and intelligence discussing in memos how to best obtain the movie and interview the photographer without revealing Air Force interest. The photos appeared in a Phoenix newspaper and a few other papers. then precluded the FBI getting involved.S.
the FBI. Washington D. 236) John Callahan." CBS cut the sound. also a Disclosure Project witness. Bruce Maccabee indicate that triangulation was accomplished. Dolan 293–295) A March 1. warning them not to talk. (Good. 1949. Assistant Vice Chief of Staff. stated that unverified information indicated that unknown individuals. The conspiracy theorists also claim that the data reduction and photographs showed four objects about 30 feet in diameter flying in formation at high speed at an altitude of about 30 miles. During the show when Keyhoe tried to depart from the censored script to "reveal something that has never been disclosed before. referring specifically to the Heflin incident. from USAF Lt. and • • • . 1967 memo directed to all USAF divisions. 286–287. Maccabee says this result was apparently suppressed from the final report.86 that the first part of the film." Conspiracy theorists claim that what Keyhoe was about to reveal were four publicly unknown military studies concluding UFOs were interplanetary (including the 1948 Project Sign Estimate of the Situation and Blue Book's 1952 engineering analysis of UFO motion). impersonating USAF officers and other military personnel. said that following a 1986 encounter of a Japanese airlines 747 with a giant UFO over Alaska. later stating Keyhoe was about to violate "predetermined security standards" and about to say something he wasn't "authorized to release. UFOs were photographed by a tracking camera over White Sands Proving Grounds on April 27. Conspiracy theorists claim that documents later uncovered by Dr. On January 22. They claim that the final report in 1951 on the green fireball investigation claimed there was insufficient data to determine anything. 398) • According to some conspiracy theorists. (Document in Fawcett & Greenwood. 1958. and also confiscating film. had been removed when it was returned to him. when NICAP director Donald Keyhoe appeared on CBS television. the FAA conducted an investigation. his statements on UFOs were precensored by the Air Force. Callahan held a briefing a few days later for President Reagan's Scientific Study Group. clearly showing the objects as spinning discs. According to conspiracy theorists. had been harassing civilian UFO witnesses.C. AFOSI was to be notified if any personnel were to become aware of any other incidents.. (Clark. General Hewitt Wheless. recorded by air and ground radar. former Division Chief of the Accidents and Investigations Branch of the FAA. during the military investigation of green fireballs in New Mexico.
1. John F .1. Contents • 1 Background ○ 1. 1963.1.Kennedy conspiracy theories assassination There has long been suspicion of a government cover-up of information about the assassination of John F.1 More than one gunman • 2 Possible evidence of a cover-up ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ • 3 Conspiracy theories ○ 3. Israeli government.5 Autopsy 3. Kennedy on November 22. one of the CIA agents told everybody they "were never there and this never happened. or some combination of those entities and individuals. the KGB. Edgar Hoover. There are also many conspiracy theories regarding the assassination that arose soon after his death and continue to be promoted today.1 Public opinion 2.2 Witness intimidation allegations 2.1 Witnesses 3.3 Analysis ○ 3. the Federal Reserve. anti-Castro Cuban exile groups. After the briefing. the American Mafia.87 CIA. Most put forth a criminal conspiracy involving parties as varied as the CIA. Johnson.1 Alleged murder weapon 2. Cuban president Fidel Castro.3 Suspicious or unexplained witness deaths 2.2 New Orleans conspiracy . sitting Vice President Lyndon B.4 Withheld documents 2." adding they were fearful of public panic. FBI director J.2 Suspects in Dealey Plaza other than Oswald 3.
Texas at 12:30 PM. Howard Hunt 3. 1963. Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested for the murder of Dallas policeman J. November 24.Background President John F. Oswald was arraigned for murdering the President.D. by 1966 the tide had turned as authors such as Mark Lane with his bestselling book Rush to Judgment. The HSCA also concluded . Within two hours.12 Soviet Bloc conspiracy 3. Texas Governor John Connally was also injured. Sunday.14 Israeli conspiracy 3.13 Cuban conspiracy 3.10 Lyndon Johnson conspiracy 3. Critics. nightclub owner Jack Ruby shot and killed Oswald as he was being transferred to the county jail. 1963.9 Organized crime conspiracy 3. and prominent publications such as the New York Review of Books and Life openly disputed the findings of the commission. Tippit and arraigned that evening. At 1:35 AM Saturday.8 E.3 Federal Reserve conspiracy 3.5 CIA conspiracy 3. even before the publication of the official government conclusions. At 11:21 AM. November 22.4 Three tramps 3. Kennedy was assassinated as he traveled in an open top car in a motorcade in Dallas.6 Secret Service conspiracy 3. Though the public initially accepted the Warren Commission's conclusions.11 American Fact-Finding Committee 3. In 1964.7 Cuban exiles 3. In 1979. and stated their belief that he acted alone.88 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ • 3. suggested a conspiracy was behind the assassination. the House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) agreed with the Warren Commission that Oswald assassinated Kennedy but found its report and the original FBI investigation to be seriously flawed.15 Decoy hearse and wound alteration 4 Other published theories 1. the Warren Commission concluded that there was no persuasive evidence that Oswald was involved in a conspiracy to assassinate the President.
Gerald D. and this was reported by the news media.65 Mauser bolt action equipped with a 4/18 scope. 2. A 2003." The Ramsey Clark Panel and the Rockefeller Commission both supported the Warren Commission's conclusions. that with "high probability" two gunmen fired at the President. and a conspiracy was probable. Weitzman signed an affidavit the following day describing the weapon as a "7. which could suggest a cover-up. McKnight and others have pointed out inconsistencies. Dallas District Attorney Henry Wade told the press that the weapon found in the School Book Depository was a 7. exclusions of evidence. 2. These same polls also show that there is no agreement on who else may have been involved.5 Italian Mannlicher Carcano. Michael L. Kurtz. Deputy Sheriff Eugene Boone and Deputy Constable Seymour Weitzman both initially identified the rifle found in the Dallas School Book Depository as a 7. without putting forward a theory as to who actually committed the murder. But investigators later identified the rifle as a 6. According to Mark Lane: "The strongest element in the case against Lee Harvey Oswald was the Warren Commission's conclusion that his rifle had been found on the 6th floor of the . Gallup poll reported that 75% of Americans do not believe that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone.1 Alleged murder weapon One example of a changing story involves the alleged murder weapon.89 that at least four shots were fired. oversights. 1.1 Public opinion Polls show many Americans believe there was a conspiracy to kill President Kennedy.65 Mauser. The HSCA also stated that "the Warren Commission failed to investigate adequately the possibility of a conspiracy to assassinate the President. a thick leather brownish-black sling on it". changing stories. Henry Hurt. That same year an ABC News poll found that 70% of respondents suspected that the assassination involved more than one person. errors. or changes made to witness testimony in the official Warren Commission investigation.65 Mauser" stamped on the barrel of the weapon. A 2004 Fox News poll found that 66% of Americans thought there had been a conspiracy while 74% thought there had been a cover-up. including Mark Lane. Deputy Sheriff Roger Craig claimed that he saw "7. while New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison unsuccessfully prosecuted Clay Shaw of conspiring to assassinate Kennedy.65 Mauser. Possible evidence of a cover-up Numerous researchers.
Millican. The existence of large numbers of secret documents related to the assassination.D. has not been released. These include Jean Hill.65 Mauser. They also point out that there seems to be a pattern of deaths around the times of various government investigations. while the Senate Intelligence Committee was looking into assassinations by U.S. not a 7. One historian noted. and the long period of secrecy. such as during and just after the Warren Commission investigation. Marrs points out that "these deaths certainly would have been convenient for anyone not wishing the truth of the JFK assassination to become public. When the FBI later reported that Oswald had purchased only a 6. Some of the material released contains redacted sections. Yet Oswald never owned a 7. and when the House Select Committee on Assassinations was gearing up its investigations." 2. The Warren Commission concluded that a 6. also claimed she was told to keep quiet about what she saw by a man with a gun who came to her home. suggests to some the possibility of a coverup. its make and its nationality. the weapon at police headquarters in Dallas miraculously changed its (caliber).3 Suspicious or unexplained witness deaths Jim Marrs and Ralph Schuster have pointed out what they have characterized as a suspiciously large number of deaths of people connected with the investigation of the assassination. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act of 1992. who claimed she saw two men at the scene of Officer J.4 Withheld documents Many government records relating to the assassination.5 Mannlicher-Carcano. as New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison was launching his own investigation. "There exists widespread suspicion about . which would identify employers and sources of income. or to events connected to the assassination.5 Italian MannlicherCarcano. Tax return information. These secret documents included the president's autopsy records. Richard Carr. the House Special Committee on Assassinations investigation and the Church Committee investigation. including some from the Warren Commission investigation." 2. J. and A. were intimidated or threatened.2 Witness intimidation allegations Some witnesses to the assassination.90 Book Depository building.65 German Mauser. were kept secret from the public. Acquilla Clemmons. Some were not scheduled to be released until 2029. Tippit's murder. intelligence agencies in the 1970s. however many of these documents were released during the mid to late 1990s by the Assassination Records Review Board due to the President John F. Roy Truly. 2. Sandy Speaker. had been discovered by the Dallas deputies.
testimony by those who took and processed the autopsy photos that the photos were altered. the change in the motorcade route that by an incredible coincidence brought the President right to the place where the ambush was set. indications that the Zapruder film has been tampered with. said he was "90 to 95% certain" that the photographs in the National Archives are not of President Kennedy's brain. Fetzer has noted 16 problems with the Warren Commission's version of events. Dr. inconsistencies between the Warren Commission's account and the autopsy findings. Douglas Horne. Church Committee. are (now) available to the public with only minor redactions. the alleged ammunition used. wrote in a 1999 piece for The Consortium News. indications that the diagrams and photos of the President's brain in the National Archives are not the President's. and therefore is likely a cover-up. allegations that the Warren Commission's version of events conflicts with news reports from the scene of the murder.91 the government's disposition of the Kennedy assassination records stemming from the beliefs that Federal officials (1) have not made available all Government assassination records (even to the Warren Commission. consistent with an exit wound and thus evidence of a shot from the front.5 Autopsy There is conflicting testimony about the autopsy performed on President Kennedy's body. the Assassination Record Review Board's chief analyst for military records. the second brain -. inconsistencies between the autopsy findings and what was observed by witnesses at the scene of the murder. inexplicably lax Secret Service and . Cyril Wecht. the alleged murder weapon. assisted by pathologist Dr. particularly as to when the examination of the president's brain took place. created or destroyed. which he claims prove decisively that its narrative is impossible. These include problems with bullet trajectories. "According to Horne’s findings.which revealed much greater damage to the rear. who was present. "All Warren Commission records." James H. eye-witness accounts that conflict with x-rays supposedly taken of the President's body. and whether or not the photos submitted as evidence are the same as those taken during the examination. He claims that evidence released by the Assassination Records Review Board substantiates these concerns.which showed an exit wound in the front -allegedly replaced Kennedy's real brain -. except those records that contain tax return information." 2." According to the Assassination Records Review Board. Gary Aguilar. House Assassination Committee) and (2) have heavily redacted the records released under FOIA in order to cover up sinister conspiracies.
1. determined that only three bullets were fired as well: one of the three bullets missed the vehicle entirely. with minimal tissue damage surrounding it on the skin". although somewhat irregular margins of less than a quarter inch in diameter. In the Zapruder film Kennedy appears to move backwards in the last.92 local law enforcement security. and confessions by people who claim that they had knowledge of. fatal shot. supposedly would have had to change course to pass through Connally's rib cage and wrist. showing a bullet hole in the windshield of the vehicle above the rear-view mirror. Conspiracy theories 3. Physician Malcolm Perry described the original throat wound as "a very small injury. thought that shots were fired from somewhere in front of the President — from the area of the Grassy Knoll or Triple Underpass — while 56 eyewitnesses thought the shots came from the Depository. However. or at least in that direction. Oswald's rifle. through eyewitnesses. the trajectory of the bullet. Claims have been made that suggest his head jerks forward and then backwards. The Warren Commission. were left in Connally. In addition. could only be fired three times within five to eight seconds. with clear cut. Other evidence for the claim of more than three shots fired was the FBI photographs of the limousines. behind the President. 3. of less total mass than was missing from the bullet. The Warren Commission ignored the evidence. which hit Kennedy above the right shoulder blade and passed through his neck (according to the autopsy). a conspiracy to kill the President. The weight of the bullet fragments taken from Connally and those remaining in his body supposedly totaled more than could have been missing from the bullet found on Connally's stretcher. or participated in. known as the "magic bullet".1 More than one gunman The Warren Commission findings and the single bullet theory are implausible according to some researchers.1 Witnesses Thirty-five witnesses. Nellie Connally was sitting in the presidential car . and the third bullet was fatal to the President. through testing performed by the FBI. and 5 witnesses thought that the shots came from two directions. one hit Kennedy and passed through Governor John Connally. 3. The Government's response was that it "occurred prior to Dallas". some 32% of those who were eye-witnesses to the shooting. witness testimony seems to indicate that only tiny fragments.
according to his description. he described the large defect in the skull as "gaping hole above his right ear. leading him to believe "something out of the ordinary" had occurred there. the last two in quick succession. 1963—two days before the Kennedy assassination—by Lt. he came around. Kennedy would shortly be killed." Robert McClelland. Clint Hill. or the president had his head turned. that she knew both Ruby and Oswald. Cherami supposedly spoke of the impending assassination. Bowers was of the opinion that they could not have come from the same rifle. either a flash of light. a flurry of shells come into the car. After Jack Ruby shot Lee Harvey Oswald. Louisiana. Bowers noted that he saw something that attracted his attention. Fruge did not believe her at first. Cherami reportedly claimed that she had worked for Ruby as a stripper. The size of the back head wound. He reported that he saw two men behind the picket fence at the top of the grassy knoll before the shooting. Secret Service Agent. to a National Geographic documentary film crew. overlooking the parking lot just north of the grassy knoll and west of the Texas School Book Depository.S. about the size of my palm. and that the two men were "bed partners" ." Kellerman said that he saw a 5-inch-diameter (130 mm) hole in the back right-hand side of the President's head. Rose Cherami (sometimes spelled "Cheramie") was depicted in Oliver Stone's 1991 movie JFK as a "witness. Francis Frugé of the Louisiana State Police. from the knoll. testified that. testified that the back right part of the head was blown out with posterior cerebral tissue and some of the cerebellar tissue was missing. Bowers told Lane he heard three shots. Roy Kellerman. Cherami told Frugé that John F. Lee Bowers was operating a railroad interlocking tower." Rose Cherami was a 41-year-old drug addict and prostitute who was picked up on Highway 190 near Eunice. on November 20. Governor John Connally. In her book From Love Field: Our Final Hours. a physician in the emergency room who observed the head wound. in the seconds that I talked just now. indicated it was an exit wound. When interviewed by Mark Lane. or maybe smoke. Connally was adamant that her husband was hit by a bullet that was separate from the two that hit Kennedy. During her confinement. and that a second shooter from the front delivered the fatal head shot. "Now. a U. Bowers was cut off while giving testimony to the Warren Commission. but after some time of adamant speaking by Cherami." Later. described "The right rear portion of his head was missing. and prior to the time JFK was shot in Dallas. the Secret Service Agent who was sheltering the President with his body on the way to the hospital. It was lying in the rear seat of the car.93 next to her husband.
Cherami declined to repeat her story to the FBI. the obstacles. Marine Corps Sniper Instructor School at Marine Corps Base Quantico in Quantico. Several conspiracy theories posit that at least one shooter was located in the Dal-Tex Building due to witness accounts and other coincidences including the apprehension of suspicious individuals like the "man in black leather" and ex-con Jim Braden inside the building. The hole in back of Kennedy's shirt and jacket are also claimed to support a wound too low to be consistent with the Single Bullet Theory.1. "We reconstructed the whole thing: the angle." According to Lt. I don’t know how many times we tried it. which is located across the street from the Texas School Book Depository and in alignment with Elm Street in Dealey Plaza. The autopsy cover sheet had a diagram of a body showing this same low placement at the third thoracic vertebra. 3. Marine sniper Craig Roberts and Gunnery Sergeant Carlos Hathcock. a doctor at the Jackson hospital. Among conspiracy theorists. . Frugé. everything.3 Analysis Former U. the range. 1965. "Let me tell you what we did at Quantico. 3. Moreover. since the shooter was by a sixth floor window. as well as the trajectory of the bullet which hit the curb on the south end of Dealey Plaza injuring bystander James Tague.S. but we couldn’t duplicate what the Warren Commission said Oswald did. how in the world could a guy who was a non-qual on the rifle range and later only qualified 'marksman' do it?" Kennedy's death certificate located the bullet at the third thoracic vertebra — which some claim is too low to have exited his throat.1. the time limit. when an account by investigator Patricia Orr was published by the House Select Committee reviewing the JFK assassination (HSCA). Also of note is the scientific acoustic evidence presented to the House Select Committee on Assassinations in 1978 which pinpointed the Dal-Tex building as a possible source of gunfire. the story has been considered quite credible since 1979." Hathcock said. apparently while hitchhiking. both said it could not be done as described by the FBI investigators. who was the senior instructor for the U.2 Suspects in Dealey Plaza other than Oswald Numerous witnesses reported hearing gunfire coming from the DalTex Building. near Gladewater.94 who "had been shacking up for years. Texas. She was killed when struck by a car on September 4. Now if I can’t do it. the moving target. Virginia. This account was based primarily on the HSCA depositions of Francis Frugé and Victor Weiss.S. the bullet was traveling downward.
On March 1. On January 29.A. 1967. she and Oswald had been hired by Reily in the spring of 1963 as a "cover" for a clandestine CIA project designed to develop biological weapons that could be used to assassinate Fidel Castro. According to Baker. and the jury found him not guilty. According to witnesses. appeared in an episode of Nigel Turner's ongoing documentary television series. 3. and that they had planned to run away to Mexico together after the assassination. Baker further claimed that she and Oswald began an affair. Jr. with the help of Lee Harvey Oswald. In 2003. 1969. Garrison arrested and charged Shaw with conspiring to assassinate President Kennedy." Garrison further came to believe "Clay Bertrand" was a pseudonym for New Orleans businessman Clay Shaw. New Orleans D. Louisiana. In 1966. and others. Also in late November 1963 an employee of New Orleans private investigator Guy Banister named Jack Martin began making accusations of possible involvement in the assassination by fellow Banister employee David Ferrie. a New Orleans attorney who had occasionally provided legal advice to Oswald.2 New Orleans conspiracy Immediately following the assassination. and the research community has widely concluded that her claims are a hoax. The Men Who Killed Kennedy. Jim Garrison began an investigation into the assassination of President Kennedy. Garrison's investigation led him to conclude that Kennedy had been assassinated as the result of a conspiracy involving Oswald.95 3. Ferrie had also attended Civil Air Patrol meetings in New Orleans in the 1950s that were also attended by a teenage Lee Harvey Oswald. On November 25. received a telephone call from a man named Clay Bertrand who inquired if he would be willing to defend Oswald in the murder and assassination case. allegations began to surface of a conspiracy between Oswald and persons with whom he was or may have been acquainted while he lived in New Orleans.. she has failed to produce any evidence that she was acquainted with Oswald. In the years since Baker first made her allegations public. in 1963 Ferrie and Banister were working for lawyer G. Wray Gill. David Ferrie. on behalf of Gill's client. Clay Shaw was brought to trial on these charges. Judyth Vary Baker. Andrews later repeated these claims in testimony to the Warren Commission. informed the FBI that two days earlier he had. a former employee of the Reily Coffee Company in New Orleans who had been employed there at the same time as Lee Harvey Oswald. 1963 (the day after Oswald's murder by Jack Ruby) Dean Andrews.3 Federal Reserve conspiracy . New Orleans Mafia boss Carlos Marcello. while in a local hospital under sedation. David Ferrie and "Clay Bertrand.
3. seemingly unlikely for hobos riding the rails. no records of the identities of those detained were kept. They have no jobs. and Gus W. Some researchers also thought it suspicious that the Dallas police had quickly released the tramps from custody apparently without investigating whether they might have witnessed anything significant related to the assassination. also with no listed home address. and did not actually endanger the careers of anyone working at the Federal Reserve. whose names were Harold Doyle of Red Jacket. Roberts theorized that the Executive Order was the beginning of a plan by Kennedy whose ultimate goal was to permanently do away with the United States Federal Reserve. Gedney. Marine sniper and veteran police officer Craig Roberts in the 1994 book. etc. and that Dallas police claimed to have lost the records of their arrests as well as their mugshots and fingerprints. Official explanations claim that the executive order was simply an attempt to drain the silver reserves. John F.96 Jim Marrs. Actor and author Richard Belzer has also discussed this theory. speculated that the assassination of Kennedy might have been motivated by the issuance of Executive Order 11110. with no listed home address. bypassing the Federal Reserve System. This theory was further explored by U. Kill Zone. in his book Crossfire: The Plot That Killed Kennedy. In 1989. According to Belzer the plot to kill Kennedy was set in motion as a response to the President's attempt to shift power away from the Federal Reserve and to the U. Photographs of the three at their time of arrest fueled this speculation. The brief report described the men as "all passing through [Dallas]. This executive order enabled the Treasury to print silver certificates. In most of these instances. Executive Order 11110 was not officially repealed until the Ronald Reagan Administration. Abrams.4 Three tramps Nearly a dozen people were taken into custody in and around Dealey Plaza in the minutes following the assassination. West Virginia. Speculation regarding the identities of the three and their possible involvement in the assassination became widespread in the ensuing years. as the three "tramps" appeared to be welldressed and clean-shaven. and that Kennedy was murdered by a cabal of international bankers determined to foil this plan. The most famous of those taken into custody have come to be known as the "tramps": three men discovered in a boxcar in the rail yard west of the grassy knoll.S. the Dallas police department released a large collection of files that contained the arrest records of the three men.S Treasury Department." and were known .
Hunt testified to the United States President's Commission on CIA activities within the United States that he was in Washington. defense attorney Mark Lane introduced doubt as to Hunt's location on the day of the Kennedy assassination through depositions from David Atlee Phillips. "I am a plain guy. In 1985 however. the CIA station chief who was instrumental in the Bay of Pigs Invasion. but his sister also corroborated the events of that day and noted that Abrams "was always on the go. was alleged by some to be the oldest of the tramps. the father of actor Woody Harrelson. Frank Sturgis is thought by some to be the tall tramp in the photographs. Harrelson at various times before his death boasted about his role as one of the tramps. Sturgis became involved with Marita Lorenz. In 1959." Gedney independently affirmed Doyle's sentiment. E. he denied being in Dallas on the day of the assassination. in Hunt's libel suit against Liberty Lobby. and who later worked as one of President Richard Nixon's White House Plumbers. D. I wouldn't be a celebrity for $10 million. When asked in a 1992 interview. Sturgis was involved both in the Bay of Pigs invasion and the Watergate burglary. plus a crossexamination of Hunt. also alleged by some to be the oldest of the tramps. however. Howard Hunt. who later identified Sturgis as a gunman in the assassination. Abrams had since died (in Ohio in 1987). Doyle said that he had deliberately avoided revealing himself to the public limelight. The three were released from custody four days after the assassination on the morning of November 26. The previous evening they had slept in a homeless shelter where they showered and shaved. explaining their clean appearance on the day of the assassination. Richard Helms. Hunt's son released tapes of Hunt implicating LBJ in Kennedy's assassination. has been alleged to be the tallest of the three tramps in the photographs. claims to have been a double agent for the CIA and the Mafia. and that's the way I want to stay.C. hopping trains and drinking wine. Gordon Liddy. saying. on the day of the assassination. and has claimed that his assignment in Dallas was to provide fake Secret Service credentials to people in the vicinity. in a 1988 interview. Chauncey Holt. In 1975. Hunt's confessions before his death similarly implicates Sturgis. G. This testimony was confirmed by Hunt's family and a home employee of the Hunts. Like Hunt. Stansfield Turner. A list of the better known "identifications" of the three tramps alleged by conspiracy theorists includes: Charles Harrelson. Witness reports state that there were one or more .97 to be rail-riders in the area. At the time of his death. a simple country boy. and Marita Lorenz." The three were evidently not involved in the assassination in any way.
the HSCA noted that President Kennedy had not received adequate protection in Dallas. According to Newman. Fred Lee Chapman.5 CIA conspiracy Some researchers have claimed that CIA officer David Atlee Phillips used the alias "Maurice Bishop. They were able to rule out E. former U. that the Secret Service possessed information that was not properly analyzed. Newman published evidence that both the CIA and FBI had deliberately tampered with their files on Lee Harvey Oswald both before and after the assassination. Army Intelligence officer and National Security Agency executive assistance John M." He used the pseudonym while working with Alpha 66. Subsequently. Dan Carswell. "had the access. he found that both had withheld information that might have alerted authorities in Dallas that Oswald posed a potential threat to the President. Newman has expressed a belief that James Angleton was probably the key figure in the assassination. Antonio Veciana. In 1995.98 unidentified men in the area claiming to be Secret Service agents. investigated or used by the Secret Service in connection with the President's trip to Dallas." 3. Lee Harvey Oswald was also in attendance. the authority. this lack of protection may have occurred because Kennedy himself had specifically asked that the Secret Service make itself discreet during the Dallas visit. an organization of anti-Castro Cubans. and other suspects in 1978.6 Secret Service conspiracy The House Select Committee on Assassinations concluded that although Oswald assassinated Kennedy. claimed that during one of his meetings with "Bishop". HSCA investigator Gaeton Fonzi believed Phillips was Bishop. and finally that the Secret Service agents in the motorcade were inadequately prepared to protect the President from a sniper. Among its findings. 3. Despite these positive identifications of the tramps and the lack of any connection between them and the assassination. a conspiracy was probable. Although widely disputed but possible. some have maintained their identifications of the three as persons other than Doyle. Howard Hunt. The House Select Committee on Assassinations had forensic anthropologists study the photographic evidence. Furthermore. 3. The Rockefeller Commission concluded that neither Hunt nor Frank Sturgis was in Dallas on the day of the assassination. and the diabolically ingenious mind to manage this sophisticated plot. only Angleton.S. Frank Sturgis. Gedney and Abrams and have continued to theorize that they may have been connected to the crime. Alpha 66's founder.7 Cuban exiles .
We're going to give him the works when he gets in Dallas. were never substantiated by a conclusive investigation. He stinks." In "Miami.." she emphasizes the questions that investigators raised to Marita Lorenz regarding Guillermo Novo.8 E. Mr. Some researchers have identified Hunt as a figure crossing Dealey . Novo was affiliated with Lee Harvey Oswald and Frank Sturgis and carried weapons with them to a hotel in Dallas just prior to the assassination.. good ol' Kennedy.N. Howard Hunt has been named as a possible participant in several Kennedy assassination conspiracy theories.000 operators involved in attacks on Cuban economic targets. Thus. We're going to see him in one way or the other. Helms was immediately put under pressure from President Kennedy and his brother Robert (the Attorney General) to increase American efforts to get rid of the Castro regime." Author Joan Didion explored the Miami anti-Castro Cuban theory in her 1987 non-fiction book "Miami. though put forth to the House Assassinations Committee by Lorenz. These claims. the Cuban exile vented his hostility: "CASTELLANOS. Separately. In 1979. Allegedly. These exiles worked closely with CIA operatives in violent activities against Castro's Cuba. we're waiting for Kennedy the 22d. Holding a copy of the September 26 edition of The Dallas Morning News. Kennedy supported invading Cuba and then only later changed his mind about how to approach the matter.99 Richard Helms. [the date Kennedy was murdered] buddy. 1963. Howard Hunt Former CIA agent and Watergate figure E. Their bitterness is illustrated in a tape recording of a meeting of anti-Castro Cubans and right-wing Americans in the Dallas suburb of Farmer's Branch on October 1. Kennedy changed his mind about an invasion. a director of the CIA's Office of Special Operations. he denied complicity in the murder of JFK while accusing others of being involved. After the disastrous Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba sponsored by the CIA. a Cuban exile who was involved in shooting a bazooka at the U. building from the East River during a speech by Che Guevara. the committee reported this: President Kennedy's popularity among the Cuban exiles had plunged deeply by 1963. I wouldn't even call him President Kennedy. earning the hatred of the Cuban exile community. had reason to be hostile to Kennedy since when first elected. featuring a front-page account of the President's planned trip to Texas in November. Operation Mongoose had nearly 4. 3. The House Select Committee on Assassinations believed evidence existed implicating certain violent Cuban exiles may have participated in Kennedy's murder.
the young and idealistic Robert Kennedy conducted an unprecedented legal assault on organized crime. In 1976. 1963. Hunt suggested that Johnson had orchestrated the killing with the help of CIA agents who had been angered by Kennedy's actions as President. Teamsters Union president Jimmy Hoffa. Documents never seen by the Warren Commission have revealed that some Mafiosi were working very closely with the CIA on several assassination attempts of Fidel Castro. Sam Giancana. respectively. Marcello. (all of whom say Hoffa worked with the CIA on the Castro assassination plots) top the list of House Select Committee on Assassinations Mafia suspects. and mobsters Carlos Marcello. New Orleans. The Cubans hated Kennedy because he failed to fully support them in the Bay of Pigs Invasion.9 Organized crime conspiracy Mafia criminals may have wished to retaliate for increasing pressure put upon them by Robert Kennedy (who had increased by 12 times the number of prosecutions under President Dwight Eisenhower). Johnny Roselli. 3. Others have suggested that Hunt was one of the men known as the three tramps who were arrested and then quickly released shortly after the assassination. This was especially provocative . who was serving as attorney general and leading the administration's anti-Mafia crusade.100 Plaza in a raincoat and fedora immediately after the assassination. Hunt authored an autobiography which implicated Lyndon B. but this was thrown out on appeal. the Mafia hated the Kennedys because. as well as a "French gunman" who purportedly shot at Kennedy from the grassy knoll. Johnson in the assassination. CIA agents Cord Meyer. In his memoir. and Trafficante were the leading figures of the organized crime families in Chicago. and Tampa. and the magazine was found not guilty when the case was retried in 1985. a magazine called The Spotlight ran an article accusing Hunt of being in Dallas on November 22. Shortly before his death in 2007. and of having a role in the assassination. Carlos Marcello apparently threatened to assassinate the President to short-circuit his younger brother Bobby. Bound by Honor: A Mafioso's Story. Hunt won a libel judgment against the magazine in 1981. Charles Nicoletti and Santo Trafficante Jr. son of New York Mafia boss Joseph Bonanno explains that several Mafia families had long-standing ties with the antiCastro Cubans through the Havana casinos operated by the Mafia before the Cuban Revolution. Bill Harvey and David Sánchez Morales. Giancana. A 2007 article published in Rolling Stone magazine revealed deathbed confessions by Hunt to his son which suggested a conspiracy to kill JFK orchestrated by Lyndon Johnson. Bill Bonanno. as Attorney General.
she was interviewed (apparently live) by Maria Shriver (daughter of Eunice Kennedy and Sargent Shriver) on ABC's Good Morning America. This version of events is also supported by the findings of a 1979 Congressional Committee investigation that Marcello was likely part of a Mafia conspiracy behind the assassination. The woman was asked if she ever carried messages between JFK and Giancana because she knew them both. James Files claims to be a former assassin working for both the Mafia and the CIA who participated in the assassination along with Johnny Roselli and Charles Nicoletti at the behest of Sam Giancana.. Judith Campbell Exner.J. The FBI then covered up this information which it had in its possession. "Sam would never write anything down. Anderson said that whatever role Oswald played in the assassination. he was convinced that there was more than one gunman. McClellan claims that . Information released only around 2006 by the FBI indicates that Carlos Marcello confessed in detail to having organized Kennedy's assassination. Anderson said he was never able to independently confirm Roselli's entire story. to get JFK elected. related to the Missile Crisis and Bay of Pigs Invasion. but he wrote that many of Roselli's details checked out and he never found one detail that he could refute. concluded that Cuba and Fidel Castro worked with Organized Crime figures to arrange the assassination. the Cubans having been trained by the CIA. Killed J.F. researcher Barr McClellan published the book. and there was speculation about voting irregularities during the 1960 election." Famed investigative reporter Jack Anderson.K. The assassination came less than a fortnight prior to a coup against Castro in Cuba by the Kennedy brothers. He is currently serving a 30-year jail sentence for the attempted murder of a policeman.10 Lyndon Johnson conspiracy In 2003. and had the means and the opportunity required. Money & Power: How L. Both the Mafia and the anti-Castro Cubans were expert in assassination. Bonanno reports that he realized the degree of the involvement of other Mafia families when he witnessed Jack Ruby killing Oswald on television: the Bonannos recognized Jack Ruby as an associate of Chicago mobster Sam Giancana.101 because several of the Mafia "families" had worked with JFK's father. 3." Anderson said Johnny Roselli gave him extensive details on the plot. The woman confirmed that and said no to the question by saying. who knew Kennedy well and had many sources within Organized Crime.B. Joseph Kennedy. In his book "Peace War and Politics. an alleged girlfriend of President Kennedy was also Sam Giancana's mistress. Blood.
L. L. Brown claimed in the documentary that Johnson told her after the party that the Kennedys "will never embarrass me again. Weissman was a supporter of the John Birch Society. The book further claims that the killing of Kennedy was paid for by oil magnates including Clint Murchison and H. chairman. These people are many of the same discussed in the Lyndon Johnson theories and the allegations of Madeleine Brown (see above). The book suggests that a smudged partial fingerprint from the sniper's nest likely belonged to Johnson's associate Malcolm "Mac" Wallace. Brown and a former employee of Clint Murchison both placed J. and interviewed many people involved. Hunt. drew widespread condemnation from both the Johnson family and President Johnson's former aides following its airing on The History Channel. who was an alleged mistress of Johnson. 3. Brown claimed that by its fruition in 1963 the conspiracy involved dozens of persons including the leadership of FBI and the Mafia as well as wellknown politicians and journalists. McClellan's book subsequently became the subject of an episode of Nigel Turner's ongoing documentary television series. entitled "The Guilty Men". as described in the Warren Commission Hearings Volume XXIII. The FBI later investigated the source of funds for the ad. The ad was signed by the "American Fact-Finding Committee". which subsequently agreed not to air the episode in the future. and that Mac Wallace was therefore the assassin. Brown. 1963 Dallas Morning News that accused Kennedy of ignoring the United States Constitution and implying that he was a communist. Howard Hunt. Edgar Hoover and LBJ at a dinner at Murchison's mansion shortly before the assassination. motivated by the fear of being dropped from the Kennedy ticket in 1964 and the need to cover up various scandals. In the documentary The Men Who Killed Kennedy. masterminded Kennedy's assassination with the help of his friend attorney Edwardo Clark. Hunt had begun planning Kennedy's demise as early as 1960. has also implicated him in a conspiracy to kill Kennedy. black-bordered advertisement published in the Nov 22. 3." Johnson was also accused of complicity in the assassination by former CIA agent and Watergate figure E. Brown alleged in 1997 that Johnson along with H. Madeleine D.11 American Fact-Finding Committee Many researchers and conspiracy theorists talk about the full page. The episode. The Men Who Killed Kennedy. Bernard Weissman.102 Lyndon Johnson.12 Soviet Bloc conspiracy .
Julio Fernandez told her that Lee Harvey Oswald had approached his group and offered his services as a potential Castro assassin. Ion Mihai Pacepa described his conversation with Nicolae Ceauşescu who told him about "ten international leaders the Kremlin killed or tried to kill": "László Rajk and Imre Nagy of Hungary. a source considered reliable by the Bureau related to the FBI in late 1963 that Colonel Boris Ivanov. the highest-ranking Soviet Bloc intelligence defector. Finally. stated that it was his personal feeling that the assassination of President Kennedy had been planned by an organized group rather than being the act of one individual assassin. Palmiro Togliatti of Italy. that the KGB organized the assassination of Kennedy. and Mao Zedong. the caller's name was "something like" Julio Fernandez. However. she received a phone call from one of the boat's crew members. Meyer's statement seems to suggest that CIA learned many years ago." Pacepa provided some additional details. Clare Luce revealed that on the night of the assassination." New information regarding the murder of John F. that country's chief diplomat. . Rudolf Slánský. and that they kept a close watch on his activities until he suddenly came into money and went to Mexico City and then Dallas. who resided in New York City at the time of the assassination. such as a plot to kill Mao Zedong with the help of Lin Biao organized by KGB and noted that "among the leaders of Moscow's satellite intelligence services there was unanimous agreement that the KGB had been involved in the assassination of President Kennedy. In a 1975 interview. Fernandez further claimed that he and his associates had eventually found out that Oswald was actually a committed Communist and supporter of Castro. the head of Czechoslovakia. American President John F.13 Cuban conspiracy In the early 1960s Clare Booth Luce. the shah of Iran. This support included the funding of a motorboat used by exile commandos in their raids against Cuba. Lucreţiu Pătrăşcanu and Gheorghiu-Dej in Romania. Kennedy confidante Mary Pinchot Meyer has led to a reinterpretation of a statement by retired senior CIA official Cord Meyer shortly before his death in 2001.103 According to a 1966 FBI document. most likely as revenge for the humiliation of the Cuban missile crisis. possibly from a defector. According to Luce. Kennedy. Gen. Cord Meyer himself has been mentioned as a possible conspirator in the LBJ assassination theory. and Jan Masaryk. Much later. and he said he was calling her from New Orleans. Lt. wife of publisher Henry Luce was one of a number of prominent Americans who sponsored the anti-Castro movement in the United States. 3. Chief of the Soviet Committee for State Security (KGB).
and that Attorney General Robert Kennedy had known about both the plots and the Mafia's involvement. Gangster Meyer Lansky and Lyndon B. In July 2004 Israel's nuclear whistleblower Mordechai Vanunu claimed in the London-based Al-Hayat newspaper that the state of Israel was complicit in the assassination of John F. made the statement after his 2004 release. a former technician at the Dimona plant who was jailed for 18 years for revealing its inner workings to Britain's Sunday Times in 1986. but were unsuccessful in uncovering any evidence to corroborate the allegations in question. In October. the CIA had tried to have Castro assassinated. Smith.104 Fernandez told Luce." 3. in an interview with Walter Cronkite of CBS. Vanunu. "There is a Cuban Communist assassination team at large and Oswald was their hired gun. thus bleeding into and possibly catalyzing many of the other conspiracies as well. Johnson told Leo Janos of Time Magazine that he.14 Israeli conspiracy This theory alleges that the Israeli government was displeased with Kennedy for his pressure against their pursuit of a topsecret nuclear program at the Negev Nuclear Research Center (commonly called "Dimona") and/or the Israelis were angry over Kennedy's sympathies with Arabs." Luce told the caller to give his information to the FBI." 3." In September. He claimed there were "near-certain indications" Kennedy was assassinated in response to "pressure he exerted on Israel's then head of government. had employed members of the Mafia in this effort. "honestly say that I've ever been completely relieved of the fact that there might have been international connections. Johnson said that in regard to the assassination he could not. "never believed that Oswald acted alone. David Ben-Gurion. President Lyndon Johnson informed several journalistic sources of his personal belief that the assassination had been organized by Fidel Castro from Cuba. to shed light on Dimona's nuclear reactor." Finally. Subsequently.15 Decoy hearse and wound alteration . 1968. 1969. that "Kennedy was trying to get to Castro. It was Johnson's belief that JFK's assassination had been organized by Castro as a retaliation for the CIA's efforts to kill Castro. Johnson often play pivotal roles in this conspiracy theory as organizing and preparing the hit. she would reveal the details of the incident to both the Church Committee and the HSCA. Both committees attempted to investigate the incident. Johnson told veteran newsman Howard K. in 1971. Johnson had received in 1967 information from both the FBI and CIA that in the early 1960s. Kennedy. but Castro got to him first.
in which Lipsey said that in his capacity as aide to General Wehle. Thornton Boswell's shoulder. Lipsey mentioned that he and Whele then flew by helicopter to Bethesda and took the President's body into the back of Bethesda. There was no smooth flow of procedure at all. director of the 1988 British television documentary The Men Who Killed Kennedy. he had met President Kennedy's body at Andrews Air Force Base. Lipsey on January 18. which differed from the sheet it was wrapped in at Parkland Hospital. Lifton and others have theorized that the coffin removed from Air Force One and placed in a waiting ambulance at Andrews Air Force Base on the evening of November 22." A decoy hearse carrying an empty casket. then they'd go back and have a conference in the corner. 1963 was empty. O'Connor says that President Kennedy's body arrived at Bethesda in a body bag." As done with all cargo on airplanes for safety.' We jumped back and forth. This portion of Lifton's theory comes from a House Select Committee on Assassinations report of an interview of Lt. According to Nigel Turner. Mark Flanagan Jr. the plane was watched by thousands of people that bathed the far side of the plane in lights and provided a very public stage for any body snatchers. and that there was only "half of a handful" of brain matter left inside the skull. J. 4.105 David S. In addition. The president's body was taken off the jet out of the television camera's view. The report stated that Lipsey "placed [the casket] in a hearse to be transported to Bethesda Naval Hospital. Richard A. Then one of them would say 'Stop what you're doing and go on to another procedure. Other published theories • James W. Laboratory Technologist Paul Kelly O'Connor was one of the major witnesses supporting David Lifton's theory that somewhere between Parkland and Bethesda the President's body was made to appear as if it had been shot only from the rear. They seemed to command a lot of respect and look over my shoulder or over Dr. He stated the brain had already been removed by the time it got to Bethesda. and T. the coffin and lid were held by steel wrapping cables to prevent shifting during takeoff and landing and in case of air disturbances in flight. back and forth. Douglass' JFK and the Unspeakable (2008) presents evidence that JFK was assassinated by elements within the US . a fact that Lifton neglects to mention. The casket was also under ample armed guard at all times. "There were mysterious men in civilian clothes at the autopsy. 1978 by committee staff members Donald Andrew Purdy Jr. A decoy hearse had been driven to the front.
The JFK assassination is only a small part of the Gemstone File's account. purely by coincidence. In Dallas. Roosevelt. and Eugene Brading). • The Gemstone File: A Memoir (2006). author of the Gemstone File papers. Will Fritz). He was afforded the unique opportunity to interview Oswald about his goals including his genuine desire for a Cuban visa. The Kennedy Mutiny (2002) by Will Fritz (not the same as police captain J. Roosevelt was riding in an open car with Mayor Anton Cermak of Chicago. by Stephanie Caruana. JFK was the real target. and that JFK's throat and back wounds were caused by an in-and-through shot originating from the grassy knoll. but holds that the evidence may point to a second gunman on the grassy knoll. ISBN 1-4120-6137-7. Nechiporenko. and that he also killed Officer J.D. and Connally was a secondary target. In 1990. Roscoe's widow Geneva also claimed that before her husband's death in 1971 he left a diary in which he revealed that he was one of the marksmen who shot the President. ISBN 0-7006-1291-2. Oswald's role was to shoot John Connally. posits that Oswald was part of a 28-man assassination team which included three U. and that he framed Oswald for the crime. Roscoe's son Ricky made public a claim that his father. D. claims that the assassination plot was orchestrated by General Edwin Walker. was involved in killing the president. JFK: The Second Plot (2002) by Matthew Smith explores the strange case of Roscoe White. His conclusions were (1) that • • • • • . ISBN 1-84018-501-5. Wrone is a professor of history (emeritus) at the University of Wisconsin– Stevens Point. Tippit. Such a gun could have belonged to another lone killer or to a conspirator working for some other group altogether. claimed that the JFK assassination scenario was modeled after a supposed attempted assassination of President F. the Soviet consular official (and highly placed KGB officer) who met with Oswald in Mexico City in 1963. it was not necessarily fired by a conspirator of Oswald's.106 Government opposed to his attempts to end the Cold War through back channel negotiations with Khrushchev and Castro. who had been a Dallas police officer in 1963. Cermak was shot and killed by Giuseppe Zangara. John Roselli. Passport to Assassination (1993) by Oleg M. "If there was indeed another shot. Norman Mailer's Oswald's Tale: An American Mystery (1995) concludes that Oswald was guilty. was attempting to kill JFK at the same time as Oswald. David Wrone's The Zapruder Film (2003) concludes that the shot that killed JFK came from in front of the limousine. Mafia hitmen (Jimmy Fratianno. Three shots were fired from three different angles. who. ISBN 157075-755-0. Bruce Roberts. ISBN 0-9721635-0-6." ISBN 0-679-42535-7.S. none of them from Lee Harvey Oswald's window at the Texas School Book Depository.
ISBN 0-88184-877-8. The case was dismissed as its statute of limitations had run out. and turned to the rear. Mr. • Who Shot JFK? : A Guide to the Major Conspiracy Theories (1993) by Bob Callahan and Mark Zingarelli explores some of the more obscure theories regarding JFK's murder. Oswald killed JFK due to mental impairment stemming from an addiction to refined sugar. Hickey's testimony says otherwise: "At the end of the last report (shot) I reached to the bottom of the car and picked up the AR 15 rifle. Appointment in Dallas (1975) by Hugh McDonald suggests that Oswald was lured into a plot that he was told was a staged fake attempt to kill JFK to embarrass the Secret Service and to alert the government of the necessity for beefed-up Secret Service security. North also charges Hoover with failure to work adequately to uncover the truth behind Kennedy's murder. The theory alleges that after the first two shots were fired the motorcade sped up while Hickey was attempting to respond to Oswald's shots and he lost his balance and accidentally pulled the trigger of his AR-15 and shot JFK. suggested by the editor of an organic gardening magazine. and suggests that he failed to take proper action to prevent the assassination. and (2) that the KGB never sought intelligence information from Oswald during his time in the USSR as they did not trust his motivations. George Hickey sued Menninger in April 1995 for what he had written in Mortal Error. cocked and loaded it. Edgar Hoover in the assassination of President Kennedy. who writes about his Warren Commission doubts. (1991) implicates the FBI Director." (italics added). ISBN 0-671-79494-9. Reasonable Doubt (1985) by Henry Hurt. ISBN 155972-210-X. the fatal shot was accidentally fired by Secret Service agent George Hickey. along with Texas oilmen and the supposed Ferrie/Shaw alliance. who was riding in the Secret Service follow-up car directly behind the Presidential Limousine. North documents that Hoover was aware of threats against Kennedy by organized crime before 1963.107 Oswald killed Kennedy due to extreme feelings of inadequacy versus his wife’s professed admiration for JFK. McDonald claims that. Hurt pins the plot on professional crook Robert Easterling. Mark North's Act of Treason: The Role of J. ISBN 0-03-004059-0. such as "The Coca-Cola Theory. after being told the "truth" about JFK's death by CIA agent Herman Kimsey in 1964." According this theory. he spent years trying to locate a man • • • • . Mortal Error: The Shot That Killed JFK (1992) by Bonar Menninger (ISBN 0-312-08074-3) alleges that while Oswald did attempt to assassinate JFK and did succeed in wounding him. Oswald’s role was to shoot at the motorcade but deliberately miss the target. The plotters then killed JFK themselves and framed Oswald for the crime. as evidenced by his need for his favorite beverage immediately after the assassination.
transmissions.108 known as “Saul. and even some key witnesses themselves.” Saul was supposedly the unidentified man who was photographed exiting the Russian embassy in Mexico City in September 1963.” McDonald claims to have finally tracked Saul down in London in 1972 at which time Saul revealed the details of the plot to him. and mislabelled “Lee Harvey Oswald. or tampering with evidence. 1963 (before the assassination). and commentators have published detailed rebuttals to the hoax claims. Various polls have shown that 6% to 28% of the people surveyed in various locations do not think the Moon landing happened. instead NASA and others intentionally deceived the public into believing the landings did occur by manufacturing. rock samples. Moon landing theories conspiracy Different Moon landing conspiracy theories claim that some or all elements of the Apollo Project and the associated Moon landings were falsifications staged by NASA and members of other organizations. Such claims are common to most of the conspiracy theories. Some of the more notable of these various claims include allegations that the Apollo astronauts did not set foot on the Moon. Since the conclusion of the Apollo program. ISBN 08217-3893-3. There is abundant third-party evidence for Apollo Moon landings. whose photos were subsequently sent to the FBI in Dallas on the morning of November 22. Contents . a number of related accounts espousing a belief that the landings were faked in some fashion have been advanced by various groups and individuals. destroying. telemetry tapes. including photos.
1 Tapes 3.1 Motives 2.3 Hoax proponents and their proposals 3.2 Blueprints ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ • • 3.7 Ionizing radiation and heat 3. was released in 1974. two years after the Apollo Moon flights had ceased. Bill Kaysing's selfpublished We Never Went to the Moon: America's Thirty Billion Dollar Swindle.Origins and history The first book dedicated to the subject.4.6 Photographs and films 3. Folklorist Linda Degh suggests that writer-director Peter Hyams's 1978 film Capricorn One.1 Public opinion 2. which depicts a hoaxed journey to Mars in a spacecraft that looks .2 Academic work 3.9 Mechanical issues 3.4 Missing data • 2 Predominant hoax claims ○ ○ ○ • 3 Critical examination of hoax accusations ○ ○ ○ ○ 3.5 Technology 3.109 • 1 Origins and history ○ 1.2 Involvement of the Soviet Union 2.1 Imaging the landing sites 3.11 Deaths of key Apollo personnel 4 Alleged non-NASA involvement 5 NASA book incident 1.8 Transmissions 3.10 Moon rocks 3.4.3 MythBusters special 3.
Similarly. Andrew Chaikin mentions that at the time of Apollo 8's lunar-orbit mission in December 1968 similar conspiracy ideas were already in circulation. She notes that this occurred during the post-Watergate era. Degh writes: "The mass media catapult these half-truths into a kind of twilight zone where people can make their guesses sound as truths. 2. published in 1994. 25% of Americans between the age of 18 and 25 are not sure the landings happened. A 2000 poll conducted by the Russian Public Opinion Fund found that 28% do not believe that American astronauts have been on the Moon. A 1999 Gallup poll found that 6% of the American public doubted that the Moon landings had occurred and that 5% had no opinion on the subject. may have given a boost to the hoax theory's popularity in the post-Vietnam War era. a poll conducted by the British Engineering & Technology magazine found that 25% of Britons do not believe that humans have walked on the Moon. Believers have focused on perceived gaps or inconsistencies in the historical record of the missions. 2001 airing of that network's TV show entitled Conspiracy Theory: Did We Land on the Moon? Seen by approximately 15 million viewers. The Flat Earth Society was one of the first organizations to accuse NASA of faking the landings." In A Man on the Moon. to perpetuate false information about landings that never occurred. arguing that they were staged by . In 2009. Predominant hoax claims A number of different hoax claims have been advanced that involve conspiracy theories outlining concerted action by NASA employees and sometimes others. Officials of Fox television stated that such skepticism increased to about 20% after the February 15. James Oberg of ABC News stated that claims made that the Moon landings were faked are actively taught in Cuban schools and wherever Cuban teachers are sent. or to cover up accurate information about the landings that occurred in a different manner than have been publicized. which roughly matches the findings of a similar 1995 Time/CNN poll. the 2001 Fox special is viewed as having promoted the hoax claims. and this percentage is roughly equal in all socialdemographic groups. Mass media have a terrible impact on people who lack guidance. when segments of the American public were inclined to distrust official accounts. 1.110 identical to the Apollo craft.1 Public opinion There are subcultures worldwide which advocate the belief that the Moon landings were faked.
Philippe Lheureux. Another variant on this is the idea that NASA and its contractors did not recover quickly enough from the Apollo 1 fire. Bart Sibrel has claimed that the crew of Apollo 11 and subsequent astronauts had faked their orbit around the Moon and their walk on its surface by trick photography and that they never got more than halfway to the Moon. and so lunar activities suddenly stopped.S.1 Motives Proponents of the view that the Moon landings were faked give several differing theories about the motivation for the U. French author of Moon Landings: Did NASA Lie? and Lights on the Moon: Did NASA Lie? (Lumières sur la Lune: La NASA a-t-elle menti?).The U. A subset of this proposal is advocated by those who concede the existence of retroreflectors and other observable human-made objects on the Moon. solar flares. government to fake the Moon landings.S. win the Space Race against the Soviet Union.S. Clarke and directed by Stanley Kubrick. government benefited from a popular distraction from the Vietnam War. Cold War prestige. Proponents also claim that the U. chose to go because it was hard. with Apollo 14 or 15 being the first authentic mission. Kennedy famously stating that the U. as exemplified by John F. He goes on to say that photographs of the lander would not prove that the United States put men on the Moon. "Getting to the Moon really isn't much of a problem – the Russians did that in 1959. ceased its involvement in the Vietnam War.111 Hollywood with Walt Disney sponsorship and based on a script by Arthur C. Bill Kaysing maintains that. despite close . monetary gain and providing a distraction are some of the more notable motives given. the big problem is getting people there". with planned missions canceled. 2. Some claim that the technology to send men to the Moon was insufficient or that the Van Allen radiation belts. coronal mass ejections and cosmic rays made such a trip impossible.S.S. around the same time that the U. The most predominant idea is that the entire human landing program was a complete hoax from start to finish. Going to the Moon would be risky and expensive. government considered it vital that the U. solar wind. and so all the early Apollo missions were faked.S. He suggests that NASA sent robot missions because radiation levels in space would be lethal to humans. British publisher Marcus Allen represented this argument when he said "I would be the first to accept what [telescope images of the landing site] find as powerful evidence that something was placed on the Moon by man". NASA published fake images. said that astronauts did land on the Moon but in order to prevent other nations from benefiting from scientific information in the real photos.
providing significant motivation for complicity. broadcast on live TV. the Moon landings had to be faked in order to fulfill President Kennedy's 1961 promise "to achieving the goal. in Spaceflight. The Soviet Union monitored the missions at the Space Transmissions Corps. while Saturn communication stations were added to IP-3.017%.S.112 monitoring by the Soviet Union. and Kaysing claims that this amount could have been used to pay off a large number of people. Philip Plait states in Bad Astronomy that the Soviets. before this decade is out." Others have made the claim that. immediately after which. the last three Apollo missions were abruptly canceled. "the Soviets did not have the capability to track deep spacecraft until late in 1972. Bart Sibrel has responded. than for the U. to fake the Moon landing. which was "fully equipped with the latest intelligence-gathering and surveillance equipment"."). NASA would not have risked the public humiliation of astronauts crashing to their deaths on the lunar surface. and "during 1962. with their own competing Moon program and a formidable scientific community able to analyze NASA data. it's argued that NASA had to stage and fake the moon landing to avoid such a major risk. 33 (March 1991): 2-3 describes how the Soviet Moon programme lost energy after the Apollo landing. could be expected to have cried foul if the United States tried to fake a Moon landing. NASA raised approximately US$30 billion in order to go to the Moon as well. the Soviet Union had been sending unmanned spacecraft to the Moon since 1959. The issue of delivering on the promise is often brought up as well. of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth. with all the known and unknown hazards of traveling into deep space.S. . Kaysing claimed that the chance of a successful landing on the Moon was calculated to be 0.. it would have been easier for the U. the latter having a 100 million km range. thereby guaranteeing success. Successfully pointing out a hoax would have been a major propaganda coup. 4 and 14". So. especially since their own program had failed. 2." However. instead of risking a national fiasco and embarrassment and a cut-off of funding of billions of dollars should some catastrophe happen. Vasily Mishin ("The Moon Programme That Faltered. deep space tracking facilities were introduced at IP-15 in Ussuriisk and IP-16 in Evpatoria (Crimean Peninsula). to actually go there. with time running out. Since most proponents believe that the technical issues involved in getting people to the Moon either were insurmountable at the time or remain insurmountable.2 Involvement of the Soviet Union A primary reason for the race to the Moon was the Cold War.
2.3 Hoax proponents and their proposals
Bill Kaysing (1922–2005) an ex-employee of Rocketdyne, the company which built the F-1 engines used on the Saturn V rocket. Kaysing was not technically qualified, and worked at Rocketdyne as a librarian. Kaysing's self published book, We Never Went to the Moon: America's Thirty Billion Dollar Swindle, made many allegations, effectively beginning the discussion of the Moon landings possibly being hoaxed. NASA and others have debunked the claims made in the book. Bart Sibrel, a filmmaker, produced and directed four films for his company AFTH, including a film in 2001 called A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Moon, examining the evidence of a hoax. The arguments that Sibrel puts forward in this film have been debunked by numerous sources, including Svector's video series Lunar Legacy, which disproves the documentary's primary argument that the Apollo crew faked their distance from the Earth command module, while in low orbit. Sibrel has stated that the effect on the shot covered in his film was produced through the use of a transparency of the Earth. Some parts of the original footage, according to Sibrel, were not able to be included on the official releases for the media. On such allegedly censored parts, the correlation between Earth and Moon Phases can be clearly confirmed, refuting Sibrel's claim that these shots were faked. Sibrel was also punched in the face by Buzz Aldrin after Sibrel confronted Aldrin with his theories about the moon hoax while accusing the former astronaut of being "a coward, and a liar, and a thief". Sibrel attempted to press charges against Aldrin but the case was thrown out of court when the judge ruled that Aldrin was within his rights given Sibrel's invasive and aggressive behavior. William L. Brian, a nuclear engineer who self-published a book in 1982 called Moongate: Suppressed Findings of the U.S. Space Program, in which he disputes the Moon's surface gravity. David Percy, TV producer and expert in audiovisual technologies and member of the Royal Photographic Society, is co-author, along with Mary Bennett of Dark Moon: Apollo and the Whistle-Blowers (ISBN 1-898541-10-8) and co-producer of What Happened On the Moon?. He is the main proponent of the "whistle-blower" accusation, arguing that the errors in the NASA photos in particular are so obvious that they are evidence that insiders are trying to 'blow the whistle' on
the hoax by deliberately inserting errors that they know will be seen.
Ralph Rene - An inventor and 'self taught' engineering buff. Author of NASA Mooned America (second edition OCLC 36317224). Charles T. Hawkins - Author of How America Faked the Moon Landings, James M. Collier (d. 1998) - American journalist and author, producer of the video Was It Only a Paper Moon ? in 1997. Jack White - American photo historian known for his attempt to prove forgery in photos related to the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy. Marcus Allen - British publisher of Nexus who said that photographs of the lander would not prove that the U.S. put men on the Moon. "Getting to the Moon really isn't much of a problem - the Russians did that in 1959 - the big problem is getting people there". the 2001 Digital Video Underground Festival in San Francisco. He received a Golden Cine Eagle and two fellowships from the National Endowment for the Arts. Aron Ranen states in his documentary film Did We Go? (2005) "at this point right now I'm about 75% believing we went". On July 20, 2009, Ranen appeared on Geraldo at Large (Fox News Channel) to argue that no one has landed on the moon. Clyde Lewis - Radio talk show host. David Groves - Works for Quantech Image Processing and worked on some of the NASA photos. Notably he has examined the photo of Aldrin emerging from the LM. He said he can pinpoint the exact point at which an artificial light was used. Using the focal length of the camera's lens and an actual boot, he has calculated, using ray-tracing, that the artificial light source is between 24 to 36 centimetres (9.4 to 14 in) to the right of the camera.  This corresponds with the sunlit part of Armstrong's spacesuit. Yuri Mukhin - Russian opposition politician, publicist and writer and author of the book The Moon affair of the USA (2006) in which he denies all Moon landing evidence and accuses the U.S. establishment of plundering the money paid by the American taxpayers for the Moon program and the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and some Soviet scientists for helping NASA commit the hoax without being denounced.
Alexander Popov - Russian doctor of physical-mathematical sciences and author of the book Americans on the Moon - a great breakthrough or a space affair? (Moscow, 2009, ISBN 978-5-9533-3315-3) in which he aims to prove that Saturn V was in fact a camouflaged Saturn 1B and denies all Moon landing evidence. Stanislav Pokrovsky - Russian candidate of technical sciences and General Director of a scientific-manufacturing enterprise Project-D-MSK who calculated that the real speed of the Saturn V rocket at S-IC staging time was only half of what was declared. His analysis appears to assume that the solid rocket plumes from the fusellage and retro rockets on the two stages came to an instant halt in the surrounding air so they can be used to estimate the velocity of the rocket. He ignored high altitude winds and the altitude at staging, 67 km, where air is about 1/10,000 as dense as at sea level, and claimed that only a loop around the Moon was possible, not a manned landing on the Moon with return to the Earth. He also determined the reason for this - problems with the Inconel superalloy used in the F-1 engine.
3. Critical accusations
According to James Longuski, Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics Engineering at Purdue University, the size and complexity of the alleged conspiracy theory scenarios make their veracity an impossibility. More than 400,000 people worked on the Apollo project for nearly ten years, and a dozen men who walked on the Moon returned to Earth to recount their experiences. Hundreds of thousands of people, including astronauts, scientists, engineers, technicians, and skilled laborers, would have had to keep the secret. Longuski also contends that it would have been significantly easier to actually land on the Moon than to generate such a massive conspiracy to fake such a landing. Vince Calder and Andrew Johnson provided a detailed rebuttal to the conspiracy theorists' claims, in a question and answer format, on the Argonne National Laboratory web site. They show that NASA's portrayal of the Moon landing is fundamentally accurate, allowing for such common errors as mislabeled photos and imperfect personal recollections. Through application of the scientific process, any hypothesis that is contradicted by the observable facts may be rejected. The lack of narrative consistency in the hoax hypothesis occurs because hoax accounts vary from proponent to proponent. The 'real landing' hypothesis is a single story, since it comes from a single source, but there
are many hoax hypotheses, each of which addresses a specific aspect of the Moon landing, and this variation is considered a key indicator that the hoax hypothesis actually constitutes a conspiracy theory. Many astronauts of the Apollo era have observed that the "hoax" stance has never been officially taken by Russia or members of its space program. Given the importance of the space race during the years leading to the first moon landing, this is usually received as one of the clearest and most significant rejections of hoax theories.
3.1 Imaging the landing sites
Another component of the Moon hoax theory is based on the argument that professional observatories and the Hubble Space Telescope should be able to take pictures of the lunar landing sites. The argument runs that if telescopes can "see to the edge of the universe" then they ought to be able to take pictures of the lunar landing sites, implying that the world's major observatories (as well as the Hubble Program) are complicit in the Moon landing hoax by refusing to take pictures of the landing sites. Images of the moon have been taken by Hubble, including at least two Apollo landing sites; but the Hubble resolution limits viewing of lunar objects to sizes no smaller than 60-75 yards (55–69 meters), which is insufficient to see any landing site features. Leonard David published an article on space.com, on April 27, 2001 which displayed a picture taken by the Clementine mission showing a diffuse dark spot at the location that NASA says is the Apollo 15 Lunar Module Falcon. The evidence was noticed by Misha Kreslavsky, of the Department of Geological Sciences at Brown University, and Yuri Shkuratov of the Kharkov Astronomical Observatory in Ukraine. The European Space Agency's SMART-1 unmanned probe sent back imagery of the Apollo Moon landing sites, according to Bernard Foing, Chief Scientist of the ESA Science Program. "Given SMART-1’s initial high orbit, however, it may prove difficult to see artifacts", said Foing in an interview on space.com. The Daily Telegraph (London) published a story in 2002 saying that European astronomers at the Very Large Telescope would use it to view the remains of the Apollo lunar landers. According to the article, Dr Richard West said that his team would take "a high-resolution image of one of the Apollo landing sites". Marcus Allen, a Moon hoax proponent, pointed out in the story that no images of hardware on the Moon would convince him that manned landings had taken place. As the VLT is capable of resolving equivalent to the distance between the headlights of a car as seen from the Moon, it may be able to directly image some features of the Apollo landing site. Such
2009 NASA released low-resolution engineering test photographs of the Apollo 11. they have not done anything to convince conspiracy theorists that the landings took place. if and when they become available. 3."There the lunar module sits. Alex R. Photographs of the Apollo 12 landing site were released by NASA on September 3. Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 landing sites that have been imaged by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter as part of the process of starting its primary mission." –The New York Times. The picture of the Apollo 14 landing site also shows tracks created by an astronaut between a science experiment (ALSEP) and the lunar lander. 3. A 3-D reconstructed photo also matched the terrain of an Apollo 15 photograph taken from the surface. Blackwell.117 photos. In May 2008 JAXA reported detecting the "halo" generated by the Apollo 15 lunar module engine exhaust from a Terrain Camera image. and each myth addressed during the show was related to the Moon landings. Apollo 11 landing site . and is therefore assumed to be biased. 2009. The main reason for this doubt is because the LRO is a NASA project. SELENE orbited the Moon at about 100 kilometres (62 mi) altitude. Apollo 14. but not the lander itself.3 MythBusters special An episode of MythBusters in August 2008 was dedicated to NASA. would be the first non-NASA produced images of the site at that definition.2 Academic work In 2004. experiment package (ALSEP). parked just where it landed 40 years ago. While the LRO images have been enjoyed by the scientific community as a whole. Apollo 15. On July 17. of the University of Hawaii has pointed out that photos taken by Apollo astronauts are currently the best available images of the landing sites. 2007 (JST) from Tanegashima Space Center. they show shadows of the lander. such as the pictures and video footage. and astronaut footpaths are all visible. Martin Hendry and Ken Skeldon of the University of Glasgow were awarded a grant by the UK based Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council in order to investigate 'Moon Hoax' proposals. In November 2004. they gave a lecture at the Glasgow Science Centre where the top ten lines of evidence advanced by hoax proponents were individually addressed and refuted. Surveyor 3 spacecraft. The photographs show the descent stage of the lunar module from each mission on the surface of the Moon. A few members of the MythBusters crew were allowed into a NASA training . The Intrepid lunar module descent stage. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) launched their SELENE lunar orbiter on September 14. as if it still really were 40 years ago and all the time since merely imaginary.
The original SSTV transmission had better detail and contrast than the scanconverted pictures.118 facility to test some of the myths. About fifteen minutes of the SSTV images of the Apollo 11 moonwalk were filmed by an amateur 8 mm film camera. It also received a better picture than NASA's antenna at Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex.4 Missing data Blueprints and design and development drawings of the machines involved are missing. and their video is also available. so it received a better picture. 3. before the scan conversion.4. The radio telescope at Parkes Observatory in Australia was in position to receive the telemetry from the Moon at the time of the Apollo 11 Moonwalk. The tapes contain the original and highest quality video feed from the Apollo 11 lunar landing which a number of former Apollo personnel want to recover for posterity. David Williams (NASA archivist at Goddard Space Flight Center) and Apollo 11 flight director Eugene F. a scan conversion has to be done. was recorded onto one-inch fourteen-track analog tape there.1 Tapes Dr. In order to be broadcast to regular television. Parkes had a larger antenna than NASA's antenna in Australia at the Honeysuckle Creek Tracking Station. Tapes or films of the scan-converted pictures exist and are available. Hoax proponents interpret this as support for the case that they never existed. while NASA engineers looking . Others are looking for the missing telemetry tapes. For technical reasons. and these are also available. which is missing. along with telemetry data. The Apollo 11 telemetry tapes were different from the telemetry tapes of the other Moon landings because they contained the raw television broadcast. Apollo 11 data tapes containing telemetry and the high quality video (before scan conversion) of the first moonwalk are missing. Kranz both acknowledged that the Apollo 11 telemetry data tapes are missing. Still photographs of the original SSTV image are available (see photos). At least some of the telemetry tapes from the ALSEP scientific experiments left on the Moon (which ran until 1977) still exist. Later Apollo missions did not use SSTV. the Apollo 11 Lunar Module (LM) carried a slow-scan television (SSTV) camera (see Apollo TV camera). according to Dr. This direct TV signal. Copies of those tapes have been found. It is this tape. A crude. 3. All of the hoax-related myths examined on the show were labeled as having been "Busted". Williams. realtime scan conversion of the SSTV signal was done in Australia before it was broadcast around the world. but for different reasons. that was recorded in Australia.
On November 1. One of the old tapes has been sent to NASA for analysis.000 new tapes per year in 1967. 2009. On December 22. California has been tasked with restoring the surviving footage.com documents a hoax claim that blueprints for the Apollo Lunar Module. The $230. and efforts to determine where they were stored are ongoing. but copies of the blueprints for the Saturn V . Their investigations have determined that the Apollo 11 tapes were sent for storage at the U. which will remain in black and white and contain conservative digital enhancements. Some selections of restored footage in high definition have been made available on the NASA website. Grumman appears to have destroyed most of their documentation. an "inescapable conclusion" was that approximately 45 tapes (estimated 15 tapes recorded at each of the three tracking stations) of Apollo 11 video were erased and reused.com. and associated equipment are missing. Australia. said Nafzger. 3. Britain's Sunday Express reported in late June 2009 that the missing tapes were found in storage facility in the basement of a building on a university campus in Perth. Lunar rover.000 restoration project that will take months to complete will not include sound quality improvements. 2009 NASA issued a final report on the Apollo 11 telemetry tapes Senior engineer Dick Nafzger. even before the lunar landings. Australia. There are some diagrams of the Lunar Module and Lunar rover on the NASA web site as well as on Xenophilia. After an extensive three-year search.S.2 Blueprints The website Xenophilia. In time for the 40th anniversary of the Apollo moon landing.119 towards future moon missions believe the Apollo telemetry data may be useful for their design studies. The tapes are believed to have been stored rather than re-used.4. who was in charge of the live TV recordings back during the Apollo missions. is now in charge of the restoration project. President of Lowry Digital Mike Inchalik stated that. On July 16. Goddard was storing 35. National Archives in 1970. NASA indicated that it must have erased the original Apollo 11 Moon footage years ago so that it could reuse the tape. Nafzger praised Lowry for restoring "crispness" to the Apollo video. 2006 Cosmos Magazine reported that some one-hundred data tapes recorded in Australia during the Apollo 11 mission had been discovered in a small marine science laboratory in the main physics building at the Curtin University of Technology in Perth. "this is by far and away the lowest quality" video the company has previously dealt with. Lowry Digital of Burbank. but by 1984 all the Apollo 11 tapes had been returned to the Goddard Space Flight Center at their request. The slow-scan television images were not on the tape.
Valentina Tereshkova (June 1963. An unused LM is on exhibit at the Cradle of Aviation Museum. Voskhod 2). the first man in space. The "Moon buggies" were built by Boeing. Vostok 1). In any case. Bart Sibrel believes that the accident led NASA to conclude that the only way to win the Moon race was to fake the landings. as part of a second dual-spacecraft flight including Vostok 5). 1967. Alabama. trainers. (November 1957. An original Saturn V rocket is currently on display at the USA Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville. the first to safely return living creature from orbit. 21 . the three astronauts aboard Apollo 1 died in a fire on the launch pad during training. The only lunar rovers on display are test vehicles. Voskhod 1). and left there. the first crew of three cosmonauts on board one spacecraft (October 1964. the first manned Apollo flight. occurred in October 1968.120 exist on microfilm. and fueled by a significant quantity of combustible material within the spacecraft. the first to have two spacecraft in orbit at the same time [though it was not a space rendezvous. The Lunar Module designated LM-13 would have landed on the Moon during the Apollo 18 mission. The rockets components are on public display as well. Sputnik 2). Four mission-worthy Lunar Rovers were built.5 Technology At the time that the Apollo Program occurred. 3. and that they had put the first man-made satellite in orbit (October 1957. as is much of the original equipment used in the Apollo missions. a female dog named Laika. and models. Three of them were carried to the Moon on Apollo 15. 40 mice. Two years later all of the problems were declared fixed. and 17. 2 rats (August 1960. Apollo 7. Other unused Lunar Modules are on display: LM-2 at the National Air and Space Museum and LM-9 at Kennedy Space Center. the other lunar rover was used for spare parts for the Apollo 15 to 17 missions. Sputnik 5). but was instead put into storage when the mission was canceled: it has since been restored and put on display. After Apollo 18 was canceled (see Canceled Apollo missions). although not the design blueprints. Bart Sibrel claims that the Soviet Union had five times more manned hours in space than the United States. The fire was triggered by a spark in the oxygen-rich atmosphere used in the spacecraft test. two dogs Belka and Strelka. the first woman in space. Vostok 3 and Vostok 4). as frequently described] (August 1962. and the first spacewalk (EVA) (March 1965. On January 27. 16. The 221-page operation manual for the Lunar Rover contains some detailed drawings. Yuri Gagarin. Sputnik 1). the first living creature to enter orbit. also the first man to orbit the Earth (April 1961. Vostok 6.
1.S.S. The USSR never developed a successful rocket capable of a Moon landing mission — their N1 rocket failed on all four launch attempts. as Soyuz 1 crash-landed. are in fact precisely what one would expect from a real Moon landing. A negative first for the Soviets was the first inflight fatality. (See List of human spaceflights. In terms of astronaut/cosmonaut time.121 months after the fire. one with three). each had six spaceflights in 1961-63. Most of the Soviet accomplishments listed above were matched by the U. The U.024 hours. the U. Hoax proponents also state that whistleblowers may have deliberately manipulated the NASA photos in hope of exposing NASA. that a number of these firsts were mere stunts that did not advance the technology significantly. A close examination of the many flight missions reveal many problems. in April 1967. 1957-1969 for a more complete list of achievements by both the U. In 1965 the U. and occasionally within weeks. .992 hours. Crosshairs appear to be behind objects.) NASA and others say that these achievements by the Soviets are not as impressive as the simple list implies. the USSR had made nine spaceflights (seven with one cosmonaut. Experts in photography (even those unrelated to NASA) respond that the anomalies.S. and near-catastrophes for both the Soviet and American programs. the Soyuz program continued.S. had accumulated 1. had ten in this period (averaging over four days each). the first woman in space). the USSR had accumulated 534 hours of manned spaceflight whereas the U.S. each with one astronaut or cosmonaut. one with two. had made sixteen flights (six with one astronaut. Before the first manned Earth-orbiting Apollo flight (Apollo 7).g. The USSR had only three spaceflights in 1964-67 (each only a little longer than one day) whereas the U. They point to various oddities of photographs and films purportedly taken on the Moon. 1960s. risks.S. By the time of Apollo 11. within a year. the USSR had 460 hours of space flight. and USSR.S.S. after a lengthy interval to solve design problems. The USSR and U. ten with two). 3. started to achieve many firsts which were important steps in a mission to the Moon. See List of space exploration milestones.6 Photographs and films Moon hoax proponents devote a substantial portion of their efforts to examining NASA photos. while sometimes counter-intuitive. as with the Apollo program. three months after the Apollo I fire. or at all (e. Despite that disaster. the United States's lead was much wider than that. had 1. In terms of spacecraft hours. and contrary to what would occur with manipulated or studio imagery. They never tested a lunar lander on a manned mission.
Crosshairs are sometimes misplaced or rotated. The Apollo astronauts used high resolution Hasselblad 500 EL/M Data cameras with Carl Zeiss optics and a 70mm film magazine. Camera settings can turn a well-lit background into ink-black when the foreground object is brightly lit. A demonstration of this effect is here. forcing the camera to increase shutter speed in order not to have the foreground light completely wash out the image. The quality of the photographs is implausibly high. There are many poor quality photographs taken by the Apollo astronauts. Cameras were set for daylight exposure. They regularly sighted stars through the spacecraft navigation optics while aligning their inertial reference platforms.122 • Overexposure causes white objects to bleed into the black areas on the film. • . • • 4. Neil Armstrong said that he could not see stars on the daylight side of the Moon with his naked eyes. 2. The sun was shining. Even the brightest stars are dim and difficult to see in the daytime on the Moon. • 3. The astronauts could see stars with the naked eye only when they were in the shadow of the Moon. There are no stars in any of the photos. All of the landings were in daylight. Popular versions of photos are sometimes cropped or rotated for aesthetic impact. and could not detect the faint points of light. • The astronauts were talking specifically about nakedeye observations of stars during the daytime. the Apollo 11 astronauts also claimed in a post-mission press conference to not remember seeing any stars. The effect is similar to not being able to see stars outside when in a brightly-lit room—the stars only become visible when the light is turned off. Edwin Aldrin saw no stars from the Moon Harrison Schmitt saw no stars from the Moon. NASA chose to publish only the best examples. The astronauts' eyes were adapted to the brightly sunlit landscape around them so that they could not see the relatively faint stars.
Pictures of the solar corona that included the planet Mercury and some background stars were taken from lunar orbit by Apollo 15 Command Module Pilot Al Worden shortly before lunar sunrise and after lunar sunset. • Simplified gear with fixed settings permitted two photographs a second. Identical backgrounds in photos which. 8. Shadows also display the properties of vanishing point perspective leading them to converge to a point on the horizon. • Shots were not identical. Without an atmosphere to obscure distant objects. light reflected from the Earth. The photos contain artifacts like the two seemingly matching 'C's on a rock and on the ground. The color and angle of shadows and light are inconsistent. and lunar dust. some of which are dim in visible light but bright in the ultraviolet. These observations were later matched up with observations taken by orbiting ultraviolet telescopes. . it can be difficult to tell the relative distance and scale of lunar features. Shadows on the Moon are complicated by uneven ground. according to their captions. Background objects were mountains many miles away. (It is seen in the background of the pictures showing JohnYoung's jump salutes of the US flag. One specific case is debunked in Who Mourns For Apollo? by Mike Bara.123 • An ultraviolet telescope was taken to the lunar surface on Apollo 16 and operated in the shadow of the lunar module. 7. Many were taken immediately after each other as stereo pairs or panorama sequences. wide angle lens distortion. the positions of those stars with respect to the earth are correct for the time and location of the Apollo 16 photographs. were taken miles apart. This theory was demonstrated to be unsubstantiated on the MythBusters episode "NASA Moon Landing". • 5. Furthermore. and does not take into account that there were two persons sharing the workload during the EVA. The number of photographs taken is implausibly high. • • 6. This calculation was based on a single astronaut on the surface. just similar.) It captured pictures of the earth and of many stars. Up to one photo per 50 seconds.
This creates a glow around the photographer's own shadow when it appears in a photograph. These properties allow the moon dust particles to stick together and retain their . Some widely-published Apollo photos were high contrast copies. Footprints in the extraordinarily fine lunar dust. There appear to be "hot spots" in some photographs that look like a huge spotlight was used at a close distance. • The moon dust has not been weathered like Earth sand and has sharp edges. light reflected off his white spacesuit produces a similar effect to a spotlight. A resident of Perth. i. • No such newspaper reports or recordings have been verified. from the TV monitor.e. not in the original film from the camera. "Una 9. There are also flaws in the story. (see Heiligenschein) If the photographer is standing in sunlight while photographing into shade. • Pits in Moon dust focus and reflect light in a manner similar to minuscule glass spheres used in the coating of street signs. with no moisture or atmosphere or strong gravity. • • 12. with the pseudonym Ronald".124 • The "C"-shaped image was from printing imperfections. Australia. said she saw a soft drink bottle in the frame. or dew-drops on wet grass. • It was used in lieu of the only existing real images. in the minds of some observers – as if made in wet sand. Scans of the original transparencies are in general much more uniformly illuminated. which the editors of the book apparently felt were too grainy to present in a book's picture section. are unexpectedly well preserved. "Una Ronald"'s existence is authenticated by only one source. 10. The book publishers did not work for NASA. since this event was an unusual compulsory viewing for school children in Australia. the emphatic statement that she had to "stay up late" is easily discounted by numerous witnesses in Australia who observed the event to occur in the middle of their daytime. The book Moon Shot contains an obvious composite photograph of Alan Shepard hitting a golf ball on the Moon with another astronaut. 11.
Even Dr. • 2. the discoverer of the Van Allen radiation belts. Some hoax theorists have suggested that Starfish Prime (high altitude nuclear testing in 1962) was a failed attempt to disrupt the Van Allen belts. The astronauts were mostly shielded from the radiation by the spacecraft. rebutted the claims that radiation levels were too dangerous for the Apollo missions. . James Van Allen. Film in the cameras would have been fogged by this radiation. The total radiation received on the trip was about the same as allowed for workers in the nuclear energy field for a year. which is equivalent to the ambient radiation received by living at sea level for three years. The radiation is actually evidence that the astronauts went to the Moon. In addition. At least thirty-nine former astronauts have developed cataracts. only twenty-seven astronauts left Earth orbit. However. the orbital transfer trajectory from the Earth to the Moon through the belts was selected to minimize radiation exposure. Irene Schneider reports that thirtythree of the thirty-six Apollo astronauts involved in the nine Apollo missions to leave Earth orbit have developed early stage cataracts that have been shown to be caused by radiation exposure to cosmic rays during their trip. Plait cited an average dose of less than 1 rem.125 shape in the vacuum environment of the moon. The astronauts could not have survived the trip because of exposure to radiation from the Van Allen radiation belt and galactic ambient radiation (see radiation poisoning). 3. • The spacecraft moved through the belts in about four hours. and the astronauts were protected from the ionizing radiation by the aluminium hulls of the spacecraft. The spacecraft passed through the intense inner belt and the low-energy outer belt. Thirty-six of those were involved in high-radiation missions such as the Apollo lunar missions. • This theory was demonstrated to be unsubstantiated on the MythBusters episode "NASA Moon Landing".7 Ionizing radiation and heat 1. The astronauts described it as being like "talcum powder or wet sand".
 In addition. only radiation remains as a heat transfer mechanism. so it wasn't overheated. During the longer stays. The physics of radiative heat transfer are thoroughly understood. In a vacuum. The Moon's day is approximately 29½ days long. There were large solar flares in August 1972. They should have been fried. and the proper use of passive optical coatings and paints was adequate to control the temperature of the film within the cameras. • There is no atmosphere to efficiently couple lunar surface heat to devices such as cameras not in direct contact with it. lunar module temperatures were controlled with similar coatings that gave it its gold color. The Moon's surface during the daytime is so hot that camera film would have melted. Also. Note: all of the lunar landings occurred during the lunar daytime. while the Moon's surface does get very hot at lunar noon. The Apollo 16 crew should not have survived a big solar flare firing out when they were on their way to the Moon. but the effect was easily countered by the passive and active cooling systems. and as a consequence a single lunar day (dawn to dusk) lasts nearly fifteen days. 3. As such there was no sunrise or sunset while the astronauts were on the surface. Most lunar missions occurred during the first few Earth days of the lunar day. 3. • No large solar flare occurred during the flight of Apollo 16. . every Apollo landing was made shortly after lunar sunrise at the landing site. The film was not in direct sunlight.000 miles).126 • The film was kept in metal containers that prevented radiation from fogging the film's emulsion. The lack of a more than two-second delay in two-way communications at a distance of a 400.000 km (250.8 Transmissions 1. film carried by unmanned lunar probes such as the Lunar Orbiter and Luna 3 (which used on-board film development processes) was not fogged. after Apollo 16 returned to Earth and before the flight of Apollo 17. the astronauts did notice increased cooling loads on their spacesuits as the sun continued to rise and the surface temperature increased. • 4.
delays in getting the Moonwalk started meant that Parkes did cover almost the entire Apollo 11 Moonwalk. See also The Parkes Observatory's Support of the Apollo 11 Mission. Principal motivations for editing the audio would likely come in response to time constraints or in the interest of clarity. • Claims that the delays were only on the order of half a second are unsubstantiated by an examination of the actual recordings. but Australian media and all other known sources ran a live feed from the United States.Mission Control. Responses from Mission Control could be heard without any delay. consistent time delay between every response. as the recording is being made at the same time that Houston receives the transmission from the Moon. according to some sources. the Australian Broadcasting Commission (ABC) did take the transmission direct from the Parkes and Honeysuckle Creek radio telescopes. Typical delays in communication were on the order of half a second. These were converted to NTSC television at Paddington. • The timing of the first Moonwalk was moved up after landing. This meant that Australian viewers saw the Moonwalk several seconds before the rest of the world. Parkes supposedly provided the clearest video feed from the Moon. 2. as the conversation is being recorded at one end . from "Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia" The events surrounding the Parkes Observatory's role in relaying the live television of man's first steps on the Moon were portrayed in a . in Sydney. • While that was the original plan. 4. and. the official policy. The Parkes Observatory in Australia was billed to the world for weeks as the site that would be relaying communications from the Moon. but this does not always appear as expected. 3. then five hours before transmission they were told to stand down.127 • The round trip light travel time of more than two seconds is apparent in all the real-time recordings of the lunar audio. There may also be some documentary films where the delay has been edited out. It should also be borne in mind that there should not be a straightforward. In fact.
further making it impossible for the descent engine to blast out a "crater". and photographs do show scouring of the surface along the final descent path. (In comparison the Saturn V F-1 first stage engines produced 3. and many mission commanders commented on its effect on visibility. The effect of an atmosphere on rocket plumes can be easily seen in launches from Earth.128 slightly fictionalized 2000 Australian film comedy The Dish. The Descent Propulsion System was throttled very far down during the final landing. Finally. The landers were generally moving horizontally as well as vertically.) Rocket exhaust gases expand much more rapidly after leaving the engine nozzle in a vacuum than in an atmosphere. Beyond the engine nozzle. but they still cannot prevent this spreading. No blast crater or any sign of dust scatter as was seen in the 16 mm movies of each landing. the lunar regolith is very compact below its surface dust layer. so the descent engine only had to support the module's own weight. The Lunar Module was no longer rapidly decelerating. the engine thrust divided by the nozzle exit area is only about 10 kilopascals (1. a blast crater was measured under the Apollo 11 Lunar Module using shadow lengths of the descent engine bell and estimates of the amount that the .2 MPa (459 PSI) at the mouth of the nozzle.9 Mechanical issues 1. rocket engines designed for vacuum operation have longer bells than those designed for use at the Earth's surface. 5. the exhaust plumes broaden very noticeably. Better signal was supposedly received at Parkes Observatory when the Moon was on the opposite side of the planet. To reduce this. The Lunar Module's exhaust gases therefore expanded rapidly well beyond the landing site. At landing. • No crater should be expected. 3. In fact. However. the descent engines did scatter a lot of very fine surface dust as seen in 16mm movies of each landing.5 PSI). as the rocket rises through the thinning atmosphere. the plume spreads and the pressure drops very rapidly. diminished by the 1/6 g lunar gravity and by the near exhaustion of the descent propellants. • This is not supported by the detailed evidence and logs from the missions.
The same fuel was used by the core of the American Titan rocket. The presence of deep dust around the module. On Earth. 4. (They can be seen as a 'goof' in the movie Apollo 13 when Jim Lovell (played by Tom Hanks) imagines walking on the Moon). an exhaust plume might stir up the atmosphere over a wide area. • The Lunar Module used Aerozine 50 (fuel) and dinitrogen tetroxide (oxidizer) propellants. but settling immediately without air to stop them. The rocks brought back from the Moon are identical to rocks collected by scientific expeditions to Antarctica. the excess fuel burns in contact with atmospheric oxygen. . This clearly shows the astronauts to be (a) in low gravity and (b) in a vacuum. • The dust is created by a continuous rain of micrometeoroid impacts and is typically several inches thick. Note: In addition.129 landing gear had compressed and how deep the lander footpads had pressed into the lunar surface and it was found that the engine had eroded between 4 and 6 inches of regolith out from underneath the engine bell during the final descent and landing. 2. dust clouds would have formed. this should not be present. given the blast from the landing engine. Finally. This cannot happen in a vacuum. Some areas around descent engines were scoured clean. The second stage of the launch rocket and / or the Lunar Module ascent stage produced no visible flame. These propellants produce a nearly transparent exhaust. further reducing their visibility. The plumes of rocket engines fired in a vacuum spread out very rapidly as they leave the engine nozzle (see above). rocket engines often run "rich" to slow internal corrosion. The transparency of their plumes is apparent in many launch photos. Had these landings been faked on the Earth. a layer of impact rubble several meters thick and highly compacted with depth. only the exhaust gas itself can disturb the dust. On the Earth. chosen for simplicity and reliability. It forms the top of the lunar regolith. 3. On the Moon. they ignite hypergolically –upon contact– without the need for a spark. moving footage of astronauts and the lunar rover kicking up lunar dust clearly show the dust particles kicking up quite high due to the low gravity.
visible in many photographs.130 5. The top support rod telescoped and the crew of Apollo 11 could not fully extend it. • The astronauts were moving the flag into position. the flag is unchanged. Without air drag. head turned toward the seen behind his helmet). it remains motionless. The flag placed on the surface by the astronauts flapped despite there being no wind on the Moon. Later crews preferred to only partially extend the rod. The flag's rippled appearance was from folding during storage. uncirculated space suits. camera. otherwise they might have fallen over". and it could be mistaken for motion in a still photograph. See the photographs below. Videotapes show that when the flag stops after the astronauts let it go. Buzz (note the fingers of Aldrin's right hand can be Aldrin's hand is down. A horizontal rod. At one point the flag remains completely motionless for well over thirty minutes. The cooling systems in the backpacks would have been removed to lighten the load not designed for Earth’s six times heavier gravity. Sibrel said "The wind was probably caused by intense air-conditioning used to cool the astronauts in their lightened. . these movements caused the free corner of the flag to swing like a pendulum for some time. extended from the top of the flagpole to hold the flag out for proper display. Cropped photo of Buzz Aldrin saluting the flag Cropped photo taken a few seconds later.
• The cooling units could only work in a vacuum. The air conditioning units that were part of the astronauts' spacesuits could not have worked in an environment of no atmosphere. The astronauts were much lighter than the lander. but is swinging as a pendulum after being touched by the astronauts.4 kg] of feedwater provided some eight hours of cooling. rather than force. 6. The Lander weighed 17 tons and sat on top of the sand making no impression but directly next to it footprints can be seen in the sand. The flag is not waving.131 Animation of the two photos. with the lander being more than 100 times the weight of the astronauts would in fact have been of similar magnitude to the bearing pressure exerted by the astronauts' boots. showing that though Armstrong's camera moved between exposures. carrying his metabolic waste heat through the sublimator plate where it was cooled and returned to the LCG. but their boots were much smaller than the 1-meter landing pads. Pressure. especially when they moved sideways at touchdown. Here is a thirty-minute Apollo 11 video showing that the flag does not move. it was often the limiting consumable on the length of an EVA. because of its bulk. Because this system could not work in an . or force per unit area. • This theory was demonstrated to be unsubstantiated on the MythBusters episode "NASA Moon Landing". forming a layer of ice on the outside of the plate that also sublimated into space (turning from a solid directly into a gas). The loss of the heat of vaporization froze the remaining water. Water from a tank in the backpack flowed out through tiny pores in a metal sublimator plate where it quickly vaporized into space.) 7. (The bearing pressure under the lander feet. determines the extent of regolith compression. A separate water loop flowed through the LCG (Liquid Cooling Garment) worn by the astronaut. In some photos the landing pads did press into the regolith. Twelve pounds [5. • The lander weighed less than three tons on the Moon. the flag is not waving.
By the time Apollo 12 flew.132 atmosphere. • Radiative cooling would have avoided the need to consume water. in making a pin-point landing. The Apollo astronauts were highly skilled pilots. 8. Armstrong took semiautomatic control of the lander and directed it further down range when it was noted that the intended landing site was strewn with boulders near a moderate sized crater. During the powered descent phase the astronauts used the PNGS (Primary Navigation Guidance System) and LPD (Landing Point Designator) to predict where the LM was going to land. on November 19. The radioisotope thermoelectric generators could use radiative cooling fins to permit indefinite operation because they operated at much higher temperatures. Although Apollo 11 had made an almost embarrassingly imprecise landing well outside the designated target area. Apollo 12 succeeded. The alleged Moon landings used either a sound stage. the astronauts required large external chillers to keep them comfortable during Earth training. • 9. but still within it. • The Apollo 11 landing was several kilometers to the southeast of the center of their intended landing ellipse. 1969. which had landed on the Moon in April 1967. within walking distance (less than 200 meters) of the Surveyor 3 probe. but it could not operate below body temperature in such a small volume. and the LM was a maneuverable craft that could be accurately flown to a specific landing point. the cause of the large error in the landing location was determined and improved procedures were developed and were demonstrated by the pin-point landing next to Surveyor III made by Apollo 12. or were put outside in a remote desert location with the astronauts . Apollo 11 fulfilled its purpose by simply landing safely on the lunar surface and a pin-point landing was not a requirement on that mission. and then they would manually pilot the LM to a selected point with great accuracy.
• Other nations and later presidential administrations were evidently less interested in spending large sums to be merely the second nation to land on the Moon or to explore the barren Moon further. This video from Apollo 15 shows that they were in low gravity and in a vacuum: • 10. would have been much more expensive and perhaps too provocative to be in any nation's self-interest during the Cold War arms race.R. the Apollo CSM and LM and the flights up to Apollo 8 (which orbited the moon) were completed before Richard Nixon became president on January 20. In the film footage from the Apollo missions.S. Nixon did not personally care much for the program started by the man who defeated him in the 1960 Presidential Election. such as establishing a Moon base. 1969. the development of the Saturn V rocket.S. and settled immediately to the surface in an uninterrupted parabolic arc (due to there being no air to support the dust).. Furthermore. All six lunar landings occurred during the first presidential administration of Richard Nixon and no other national leader of any country has even claimed to have landed astronauts on the Moon. dust kicked up by the astronauts' boots and the wheels of the lunar rovers shot up quite high (due to the lunar gravity).S. and a scene from "Apollo 13" used the soundstage and harness setup. the Soviets would have been happy to argue for a hoax as a propaganda victory. even though the mechanical means of doing so should have become progressively much easier after almost 40 years of steady or even rapid technological development. • While the HBO Mini-series "From the Earth to the Moon".133 either using harnesses or slow-motion photography to make it look like they were on the Moon and acting in lunar gravity. Had Nixon faked the Moon landings. but the Soviets never did. it is clearly seen from those films that dust kicked up did not quickly settle (some dust briefly formed clouds). Further exploration by the U. or U. the dust would have reached nowhere near the height and trajectory as the dust shown in the Apollo film footage because of terrestrial gravity. Additionally. Even if there had been a sound stage for hoax Moon landings that had had the air pumped out. and his administration • .
most are significantly older than the oldest rocks found on Earth. 1969 Apollo 11 launch) was in order to study and/or collect lunar meteorites to be used as fake Moon rocks. and 20 in favor of development of the space shuttle. Wade pointed von Braun to Antarctica. The Moon rocks also share the same characteristics as the Soviet lunar samples that were obtained at a later date. and they have unique geochemical characteristics. However. 3.10 Moon rocks The Apollo Program collected a total of 382 kilograms (840 lb) of Moon rocks during the Apollo 11. NASA continues to send teams to work in McMurdo Dry Valleys. 19. Alton Wade. Chatterjee's predecessor. 14. and hardware". In 2008 some rocks were found on Earth that are older than any previously found Earth rocks but the Moon rocks are still more than 200. they show evidence for having been subjected to impact events on an airless body. An article by Sankar Chatterjee at Texas Tech University states that von Braun sent a letter to F. and that "Von Braun was searching for a secretive locale to help train the United States’ earliest astronauts. 16. the documentary film Did We Go? suggests that he could have been susceptible to pressure to agree to the conspiracy in order to protect himself from recriminations over the past.000 years older than them. the first Antarctic lunar meteorite was collected in 1979. While NASA does not provide much information about why von Braun. The Moon rocks are more than 600. The Apollo samples are easily distinguishable from both meteorites and terrestrial rocks in that they show a complete lack of hydrous alteration products. Analyses by scientists worldwide all agree that these rocks came from the Moon — no published accounts in peer-reviewed scientific journals exist that dispute this claim. Furthermore. and to mimic the conditions on other planets such as Mars and the Moon. the Marshall Space Flight Center Director.000. Because von Braun was a former SS officer (though one who had been detained by the Gestapo). and three others were in Antarctica at that time. NASA has said that the purpose was "to look into environmental and logistic factors that might relate to the planning of future space missions. and 17 missions. Hoax proponents argue that Wernher von Braun's trip to Antarctica in 1967 (approximately two years before the July 16. and its lunar origin was not recognized until . 15. 12.000 years older than the oldest Earth rocks known at the time.000. It is now accepted by the scientific community that rocks have been ejected from both the Martian and lunar surface during impact events.134 pushed for NASA to cancel Apollo 18. and that some of these have landed on the Earth in the form of Martian and lunar meteorites.
territories each an Apollo 11 Moon rock and Apollo 17 Goodwill Moon Rock. Since in 1969 water was believed to be absent on the Moon. . Currently. Texas. and Luna 24 robotic sample return missions only obtained 326 grams combined (that is. destroyed. The loss of so many moon rocks has been used by conspiracy theorists to bolster their claim that man never went to the moon.  and a recently proposed South Pole-Aitken basin sample return mission would only obtain about 1 kilogram of Moon rock. the Soviet Luna 16. Luna 20. President Nixon gave 135 nations of the world. there are only about 30 kilograms of lunar meteorites discovered thus far. lunar meteorites are so rare that it is very improbable that they could account for the 382 kilograms of Moon rocks that NASA obtained between 1969 and 1972. despite private collectors and governmental agencies worldwide searching for these for more than 20 years.  If a similar technology to collect the Apollo Moon rocks was used as with the Soviet missions or modern sample return proposals.11 Deaths of key Apollo personnel In a television program about the hoax allegations. then between 300 and 2000 robotic sample return missions would be required to obtain the current mass of Moon rocks that is curated by NASA. NASA counters that accusation by stating that the vast majority of moon rocks and soil collected on the moon are securely maintained at Johnson Space Center in Houston. Indeed. Kaysing asked: "Why was there no mention of gold. Concerning the composition of the Moon rocks. diamonds." Geologists realize that gold and silver deposits on Earth are the result of the action of hydrothermal fluids concentrating the precious metals into veins of ore.S. Many of these Moon rocks have been stolen. all 50 states and the U. Fox Entertainment Group listed the deaths of ten astronauts and of two civilians related to the manned spaceflight program as having possibly been killed as part of a cover-up. or other precious metals on the Moon? It was never discussed by the press or astronauts. 3. or are missing and in one celebrated case a moon rock housed in a museum in the Netherlands was found to be petrified wood. While the Apollo missions obtained 382 kilograms of Moon rocks. In addition NASA is quick to point out that independent scientists have studied the moon rocks collected on the Moon for 40 years. Texas and Brooks Air Force Base in San Antonio.135 1982. current plans for a Martian sample return would only obtain about 500 grams of soil. silver. The large combined mass of the Apollo samples makes this scenario implausible. Furthermore. less than one-thousandth as much). no geologist would bother discussing the possibility of finding these on the Moon in any significant quantity.
after which he was fired). January 1967) Roger B. January 1967). Welch.. a leading official in NASA's Public Affairs Office and Director of Media Services. His obituary claims he died of a heart attack at the relatively young age of 42." Williams (T-38 accident. died a few months after appearing in the media to debunk the Fox pro-Moon hoax television show cited above. Ruled as suicide. had no connection with the civilian manned space program. NASA worker Thomas Ronald Baron (automobile collision with train. Baron was a quality control inspector who wrote a report critical of the Apollo program and was an outspoken critic after the Apollo 1 fire. 1966) Virgil Ivan "Gus" Grissom (Apollo 1 fire. but had flown X-15 above 50 miles). for example. Two of the astronauts. (http://www.h tml) Conspiracy theorists find his age at death suspiciously young and would note that heart attacks can be induced. • • • All but one of the astronaut deaths (Irwin's) were directly related to their job with NASA or the Air Force.136 • • • • • • • • Theodore Freeman (T-38 crash.com/news/spaceagencies/welch_obit_001127. 1967 shortly after making accusations before Congress about the cause of the Apollo 1 fire. Astronaut James Irwin had suffered several heart attacks in the years prior to his death. through the stress of torture or through ingestion of certain chemicals. scheduled to be an Air Force Manned Orbiting Laboratory pilot. "Mike" Adams (the only X-15 pilot killed during the X-15 flight test program in November 1967 . Baron and his family were killed as their car was struck by a train at a train crossing. Robert Henry Lawrence.not a NASA astronaut. There is no independent confirmation of Gelvani's claim that Irwin was about to come forward. . All except two of the deaths occurred at least one or two years before Apollo 11 and the subsequent flights. Brian Welch's death is a blow against the alleged Hoax Conspirators since he was a debunker of hoax claims. 1964) Elliot See and Charlie Bassett (T-38 accident. C. Edward Higgins "Ed" White (Apollo 1 fire. who died in a jet crash in December 1967. Jr. 1967) Clifton "C. January 1967) Edward "Ed" Givens (car accident. Brian D. October 1967) X-15 pilot Michael J.space. Chaffee (Apollo 1 fire. Mike Adams and Robert Lawrence. shortly after reporting for duty to that (later canceled) program.
which ignores many facts. NASA book incident . Kubrick also used some 50 mm f/0. With the government's track record of keeping secrets (especially the Nixon administration. including Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin. (There is a mockumentary based on this idea. As of April 2010 nine of the twelve astronauts who landed on the Moon still survive. He stated that. government could have silenced everybody if the landings were faked. Jillette said there's no way the U. noting Watergate as an example). somebody would have outed the hoax by now. which is clearly tongue-in-cheek by claiming to interview people with names as Dave Bowman or Jack Torrance. Penn Jillette made note of this in the "Conspiracy Theories" episode of his contrarian television show Penn & Teller: Bullshit! in 2005. However. 5. No evidence was presented for this theory. It has been claimed that when 2001 was in post-production in early 1968. both of whom had worked for NASA and major aerospace contractors. to work with him on 2001. 4. Kubrick only acquired this lens for Barry Lyndon (1975). presumably because he had just directed 2001: A Space Odyssey which is partly set on the moon and featured advanced special effects. Dark Side of the Moon. with the number of people that would have been required to be "in the know" of the staging.137 Conspiracy theorists would argue his death was to prevent any public reversal of his position after he had served his purpose of debunking hoax claims and to prevent his leaking of any inside info about a hoax.S.7 lenses that were left over from a batch made by Zeiss for NASA. 2001 was released before the first Apollo landing and Kubrick's depiction of the lunar surface is vastly different from its actual appearance in Apollo video. Kubrick did hire Frederick Ordway and Harry Lange. but could have contributed to the conspiracy theory in the eyes of casual viewers. nobody from the United States government or NASA who would have had a connection to the space program has come forward claiming the moon landings were staged. Alleged non-NASA involvement Stanley Kubrick is accused of having produced much of the footage for Apollo 11 and 12. The launch and splashdown would be real but the spacecraft would remain in Earth orbit and fake footage broadcast as "live" from the lunar journey. For example. film and photography.) To date. The lens was originally a still-photo lens and required modifications to be used for motion filming. NASA secretly approached Kubrick to direct the first three Moon landings.
In 2002, NASA granted US$15,000 to James Oberg for a commission to write a point-by-point rebuttal of the hoax claims. NASA subsequently canceled the commission later in the year, in the face of complaints that the book would dignify the accusations. Oberg stated that he intended to finish the project. In November 2002 Peter Jennings said "[NASA] is going to spend a few thousand dollars trying to prove to some people that the United States did indeed land men on the Moon." and "[NASA] had been so rattled, [they] hired [somebody] to write a book refuting the conspiracy theorists." Oberg says that belief in the hoax theories is not the fault of the hoax proponents or believers, and that he puts the blame on educators and people (including NASA) who should provide information to the public.
9/11 conspiracy theories allege that the September 11 attacks in 2001 were either intentionally allowed to happen or were a false flag operation orchestrated by an organization with elements inside the United States government. A poll taken in 2006 by Scripps Howard and Ohio University showed that, "More than a third of the American public suspects that federal officials assisted in the 9/11 terrorist attacks or took no action to stop them so the United States could go to war in the Middle East." The most prominent theory is that the collapse of the World Trade Center and 7 World Trade Center were the result of a controlled
demolition rather than structural weakening due to fire. Another prominent belief is that the Pentagon was hit by a missile launched by elements from inside the U.S. government  or that a commercial airliner was allowed to do so via an effective standdown of the American military. Motives cited by conspiracy theorists include justifying the invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq, and geostrategic interests in the Mideast, including pipeline plans launched in the early 1990s by Unocal and other oil companies. Published reports and articles by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Popular Mechanics and mainstream media have rejected the 9/11 conspiracy theories. The civil engineering establishment generally accepts that the impacts of jet aircraft at high speeds in combination with subsequent fires, rather than controlled demolition, led to the collapse of the Twin Towers.  NIST stated that it did not perform any test for the residue of explosive compounds of any kind in the debris.
• • • •
1 History 2 Mainstream account 3 Types of criticism 4 Main theories
4.1.1 Suspected Insider Trading 4.1.2 Air Defense Stand Down Theory
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ •
4.2 World Trade Center collapse 4.3 The Pentagon 4.4 Flight 93 4.5 Hijackers 4.6 Phone calls 4.7 Jewish and Israeli involvement 5.1 Cockpit recorders 5.2 Bin Laden tapes
5 Cover-up allegations
6 Other theories
○ ○ ○ ○
6.1 Foreign governments 6.2 No plane theories 6.3 Reptilian shape-shifting aliens 6.4 Drug industry cartel 7.1 Pax Americana 7.2 Invasions 7.3 Suggested historical precedents
○ ○ ○
8 Proponents 9 Media reaction
9.1 In popular culture 10.1 In the political arena 10.2 Anti-Semitism in conspiracy theories
Since the September 11 attacks, a variety of conspiracy theories regarding the 9/11 attacks have been put forward in Web sites, books, and films. Many groups and individuals advocating 9/11 conspiracy theories identify as part of the 9/11 Truth Movement. Unlike other conspiracy theories, such as those about the death of Princess Diana, 9/11 conspiracy theories did not emerge immediately after the event. Indeed, most professional conspiracy theorists in the United States appeared to be as shocked as the rest of the population. The first theories that emerged focused primarily on various anomalies in the publicly available evidence, and proponents later developed more specific theories about an alleged plot. One allegation that was widely circulated by e-mail and on the Web, is that not a single Jew had been killed in the attack and that attacks must have been the work of the Mossad, not Islamic terrorists. The first elaborated theories appeared in Europe. One week after the attacks the "inside job" theory was mentioned in Le Monde. Six months after the attacks Thierry Meyssan’s 9/11 exposé "L'Effroyable Imposture" topped the French bestseller list. 9/11 conspiracy theories were
published by Mathias Bröckers, an editor at the German newspaper Die Tageszeitung at the time, the book 9/11: The Big Lie by French journalist Thierry Meyssan, the book The CIA and September 11 by former German state minister Andreas von Bülow and the book Operation 9/11, written by the German journalist Gerhard Wisnewski. While these theories were popular in Europe, they were treated by the U.S. media with either bafflement or amusement and were dismissed by the U.S. government as the product of anti-Americanism. In an address to the United Nations on November 10, 2001, United States President George W. Bush denounced the emergence of "outrageous conspiracy theories [...] that attempt to shift the blame away from the terrorists, themselves, away from the guilty." By 2004, conspiracy theories about the September 11 attacks began to gain ground in the United States. One explanation for the increase in popularity was that it was not the discovery of any new or more compelling evidence or an improvement of the technical quality of the presentation of the theories, but rather the growing criticism of the Iraq War and the presidency of George W. Bush, who had been reelected in 2004. Revelations of spin doctoring and lying by federal officials, such as the claims about the existence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq, the belated release of the President's Daily Brief of August 6, 2001 and reports that NORAD had lied to the 9/11 Commission, may have fuelled the conspiracy theories. Between 2004 and the fifth anniversary of the September 11 attacks in 2006, mainstream coverage of the conspiracy theories increased. Reacting to the growing publicity, the U.S. government issued responses to the theories, including a formal analysis by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) about the collapse of the World Trade Center, a revised 2006 State Department webpage to debunk the theories, and a strategy paper referred to by President Bush in an August 2006 speech, which declared that terrorism springs from "subcultures of conspiracy and misinformation," and that "terrorists recruit more effectively from populations whose information about the world is contaminated by falsehoods and corrupted by conspiracy theories. The distortions keep alive grievances and filter out facts that would challenge popular prejudices and self-serving propaganda." Al-Qaeda has repeatedly claimed responsibility for the attacks, with chief deputy Ayman al-Zawahiri accusing Shia Iran and Hezbollah of intentionally starting rumors that Israel carried out the attacks to denigrate Sunni successes in hurting America. Some of the conspiracy theories about the September 11 attacks do not involve representational strategies typical of many conspiracy theories that establish a clear dichotomy between good
2001: What Really Happened.S. or guilty and innocent. The list was based on following and traction." Several surveys have included questions about beliefs related to the September 11 attacks. Just prior to the fifth anniversary of the attacks. Government elements actively planned or assisted some aspects of the attacks". According to the German daily Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung the videos which were published shortly before the ninth anniversary of the attacks provide "new food for conspiracy theorists".” As of 2010.142 and evil. National Institute of Standards and Technology had not made available to the public for years. they call up gradations of negligence and complicity. Instead.6% of Americans believe that Arab fundamentalists were responsible for 9/11 while 26. In Germany in 2003 the German book market was flooded with 9/11 "truth" books. a private organization that is said to be sympathetic to conspiracy theories. dismisses the official account of the September 11 attacks as being itself a conspiracy theory that seeks "to reduce complexity.S. Matthias Bröckers. Many of the videos show images of 7 World Trade Center. military and economic reasons" and 4. 67 percent of the German respondents identify "George W. mainstream news outlets released a flurry of articles on the growth of 9/11 conspiracy theories. the "International Center for 9/11 Studies". successfully sued for the release of videos about September 11. that the U. a skyscraper in the vicinity of the WTC towers that also collapsed on September 11. 9/11 conspiracy theories topped a "greatest conspiracy theory” list compiled by The Daily Telegraph. 2001. 2001. Eyewitnesses have repeatedly reported explosions happening before the collapse ." and "explain the inexplicable". an early proponent of such theories. government knew the attacks were coming but consciously let them proceed for various political. A study conducted by journalist Elizabeth Woodworth for the Center for Research on Globalization concludes that the increased presence in mainstream media reflected an improved professional approach within the 9/11 Truth movement. In 2010. Only 25 percent choose Osama Bin Laden while the issue of surveillance was reasonating with the German 9/11 truth movement.4% of believed that "certain elements in the U. disentangle what is confusing.8% of them believe that "certain U. Authorities" (25 percent) or the "Armaments Lobby" (15 percent) as having been behind the attacks.S.org found that 63. It is a mainstream political reality. An August 2007 Zogby poll commissioned by 911Truth.  In 2008. with an article in the magazine Time stating that "This is not a fringe phenomenon.S. Bush" (27 percent) or "U. In 2007 for the sixth anniversary of the attacks ZDF broadcast the sympathetic documentary “September 11.
Investigations by non-government organizations that support the mainstream account — such as those by the National Fire Protection Association. the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). while experts consider these theories to be unreasonable. Mainstream account On September 11. The report said that the government ignored these warnings due to a lack of communication between various law enforcement and intelligence personnel. 2. and by scientists of Purdue University and Northwestern University. killing everyone on board and many others working in the buildings. Both buildings collapsed within two hours. Within the context of 9/11 conspiracy theories. the report cited bureaucratic inertia and laws passed in the 1970s to prevent abuses that caused scandals during that era. destroying at least two nearby buildings and damaging others. and the studies into building performance carried out by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Scientific American. The hijackers crashed a third airliner into the Pentagon and a fourth plane crashed into a field near Shanksville. the • • • . Articles supporting these facts and theories appearing in magazines such as Popular Mechanics. Le Monde. including The Times of India. The report faulted the Clinton and the Bush administrations with “failure of imagination”. The hijackers intentionally crashed two of the airliners into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City. Pennsylvania after the passengers and flight crew revolted. For the lack of inter-agency communication.' 'official account' and 'official conspiracy theory' all refer to: • The reports from government investigations — the 9/11 Commission Report (which incorporated intelligence information from the earlier FBI investigation (PENTTBOM) and the Joint Inquiry of 2002). the terms 'mainstream account. Most members of the Democratic and the Republican parties applauded the commission's work. 19 al-Qaeda terrorists hijacked four commercial passenger jet airliners. 2001.143 of both of the towers. Similar articles in news media throughout the world. the BBC. The 9/11 Commission Report disclosed prior warnings of varying detail of planned attacks against the United States by al-Qaeda. and Time. Deutsche Welle.
• President Barack Obama's June 2009 speech to the Muslim world where he said "I am aware that some question or justify the events of 9/11. Also.S. "They feel their job is to show everybody that the official theory of 9/11 is wrong. Non-conspiracy Theories that do not necessarily require a conspiracy frequently allege that official reports have covered up incompetence or negligence from U. And then. would lead to a general call for a new official investigation into the events of September 11. MIHOP ("Make it happen on purpose") – that key individuals within the government planned the attacks and collaborated with. who is currently working on a book about proponents of 9/11 conspiracy theories. 2001. according to them.S. but try to demonstrate that the U.S.144 Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC). Types of criticism Most 9/11 conspiracy theories generally originate dissatisfaction with the mainstream account of 9/11. personnel or the Bush Administration.000 people on that day. and The Chosun Ilbo of South Korea. But let us be clear: al-Qaeda killed nearly 3." 3. al-Qaeda in carrying them out. then the population will rise up and demand a new . This. government are not proposing specific theories. Conspiracy The most prevalent conspiracy theories can be broadly divided into two main forms: • from LIHOP ("Let it happen on purpose") – suggests that key individuals within the government had at least some foreknowledge of the attacks and deliberately ignored them or actively weakened America's defenses to ensure the hijacked flights were not intercepted.  • Causes to be determined Other critics of the account of the September 11 attacks provided by the U. some theories claim involvement of a foreign government or organization other than al-Qaeda. when everybody is convinced. managing editor for comment at the Canadian newspaper National Post. According to Jonathan Kay. or framed. government's account of the events is wrong. There is a range of opinions about how this might have been achieved.
and that investigation will tell us what actually happened. officials with foreknowledge was intended to ensure that the attacks took place successfully.  —Allen M. 2010 speech to the United Nations General Assembly. On 10 September. more trading in Chicago saw the purchase of 4." 4. Michael Meacher.S. For example. Main theories 4. in order also to save the Zionist regime. former British environment minister and member of Tony Blair's Cabinet until June 2003 claims that the United States knowingly failed to prevent the attacks. Poteshman. The Journal of Business On the days leading up to 9/11. the paper concludes that there is evidence of unusual option market activity in the days leading up to September 11 that is consistent with investors trading on advance knowledge of the attacks.744 "put" option contracts in UAL versus 396 call options. and some conspiracy theorists continue to maintain." In a September 23. the two airlines whose planes were hijacked on 9/11. Consequently. the other airline involved in the hijackings.1 Suspected Insider Trading Just before 9/11 there was an "extraordinary" amount of put options placed on United Airlines and American Airlines stocks. two airlines saw a rise in their put to call ratio. This compares with a . Iran's president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad claimed many in the United States and in other countries support the idea that "some segments within the US government orchestrated the attack to reverse the declining American economy and its grips on the Middle East. that trading insiders may have known in advance of the coming events of 9/11 and placed their bets accordingly.516 put options in American Airlines. Between 6 and 7 September. These two airlines were United Airlines and American Airlines. Author David Ray Griffin alleges that the 9/11 conspiracy was considerably larger than the government claims and that the entire 9/11 Commission Report "is constructed in support of one big lie: that the official story about 9/11 is true." 4.145 investigation with government resources.1 Foreknowledge It has been claimed that action or inaction by U.1. Authorities believed. An analysis into the possibility of insider trading on 9/11 concludes that: A measure of abnormal long put volume was also examined and seen to be at abnormally high levels in the days leading up to the attacks. the Chicago Board Options Exchange saw purchases of 4.
and its failure to do so indicates a government conspiracy to allow the attacks to occur. Elsis says "There is only one explanation for this. Our Air Force was ordered to Stand Down on 9/11." In September 2001. Later.S. experienced bigger-than-normal pre-attack trading of options that profit when stock prices fall. and TD Waterhouse.2 Air Defense Stand Down Theory A common claim is that the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) issued a stand down order or deliberately scrambled fighters late to allow the hijacked airplanes to reach their targets without interference. military failed to do their job. government agencies. which has estimated that its Travelers Insurance unit may pay $500 million in claims from the World Trade Center attack. a fact that would indicate that the FAA repeatedly lied to other U. The Securities and Exchange Commission launched an insider trading investigation in which Osama Bin Laden was a suspect after receiving information from at least one Wall Street Firm. StandDown. a subsidiary of Fidelity Investments. 4. Citigroup shares fell $1. No other airline companies saw anomalies in their put to call ratio in the days leading up to the attacks. Citigroup Inc. American Airlines however. NORAD had the capability of locating and intercepting planes on 9/11.25 in late trading to $38. Other companies that were directly affected by the tragedy had similar jumps. A Raytheon option that makes money if shares are more than $25 each had 232 options contracts traded on the day before the attacks.09. including NFS.net's Mark R. which occupied 22 floors at the World Trade Center. almost six times the total number of trades that had occurred before that day. Insurance companies saw anomalous trading activities as well.com argues that the U. Morgan Stanley. had just released a major warning about possible losses. the U.S. The initial options were bought through at least two brokerage firms. had about 45 times the normal volume during three trading days before the attack for options that profit if the stock falls below $40. NORAD generals said they learned of the hijackings in time to scramble fighter jets. According to this theory. government released tapes claiming to show the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) did not tell the military about the hijackings until three of the four planes had crashed. It was estimated that the trader or traders would have realized a five million dollar profit. Raytheon. a defense contractor.146 mere 748 call options in American purchased that day. Phil Molé of Skeptic magazine has explained that it is neither quick nor easy to locate and intercept a plane behaving .1. The Web site emperors-clothes.. had an anomalously high number of call options trading on September 10..S...
According to Popular Mechanics. and theologian David Ray Griffin." says FAA spokesman Bill Schumann. only 14 fighter jets were on alert in the contiguous 48 states on 9/11. Rules in effect at that time.2 World Trade Center collapse Criticism of the reports published by NIST on the destruction of the World Trade Center buildings plays a central role in theories about an alleged controlled demolition. There was no automated method for the civilian air traffic controllers to alert NORAD. The reasoning behind this explained that if the US Government had planted explosives in the building but made it look like terrorists had done the damage. and that the hijackers turned off or disabled the onboard radar transponders. "Until 9/11 there was no domestic ADIZ. . which took 1 hour and 22 minutes." says Maj. such as physicist Steven E. argue that the aircraft impacts and resulting fires could not have weakened the buildings sufficiently to initiate a catastrophic collapse.The controlled demolition conspiracy theories claim that the collapse of the North Tower. Jones. but by explosives installed in the buildings in advance. the FAA and NORAD increased cooperation. nor at the speeds that they did. Without these transponder signals to identify the airplanes. A passenger airline hadn't been hijacked in the US since 1979. The picture shows the simulated exterior buckling of 7 WTC during the collapse. it would have given them a perfect excuse to go to war in Iraq. without additional energy involved to weaken their structures. and on 9/11. Demolition theory proponents. or by resulting fire damage. Before 9/11. 4. the hijacked airplanes would have been only blips among 4.500 other blips on NORAD’S radar screens. public affairs officer for NORAD. making them very difficult to track. only one civilian plane was intercepted in the decade prior to 9/11. South Tower and 7 World Trade Center was not caused by the plane crash damage. They set up hotlines between command centers while NORAD increased its fighter coverage and installed radar to watch airspace over the continent. software engineer Jim Hoffman. and that the buildings would not have collapsed completely. all other NORAD interceptions were limited to offshore Air Defense Identification Zones (ADIZ). According to Popular Mechanics. Douglas Martin. Jones has presented the hypothesis that thermite or nanothermite was used to demolish the buildings and says he has found evidence of such explosives in the WTC dust. barred supersonic flight on intercepts. "They had to pick up the phone and literally dial us.147 erratically. architect Richard Gage. After 9/11.
S. one wing hit the ground and the other was sheared off by the .000 °C was about 15 to 20 [minutes]. gravity-driven collapse of the World Trade Center buildings without the use of explosives. together with the damage caused by the planes' impacts." 4. NIST does not claim that the steel was melted. the U. Instead. L’Effroyable Imposture (published in English as 9/11: The Big Lie) became an instant bestseller in France and is available in more than a dozen languages. The NIST and many mainstream scientists refuse to debate conspiracy theorists because they feel it would give these theories unwarranted credibility. they argue that the Pentagon was hit by a missile launched by elements from inside the U. Soon after the day of the attacks. When Flight 77 hit the Pentagon. Knowledge that the burning temperatures of jet fuel would not melt the steel support structure of the WTC contributed to the belief among skeptics that the towers would not have collapsed without external interference (something other than the planes). Specialists in structural mechanics and structural engineering generally accept the model of a fire-induced.3 The Pentagon According to some theories." According to Mete Sozen. government. the book was heavily criticized by the French press. major media sources published that the towers had collapsed due to melted steel. entirely without foundation. long fit into a hole which is only 60 ft. a crashing jet doesn't punch a cartoon-like outline of itself into a reinforced concrete building. The rest of the time. the duration of [gas] temperatures near 1. NIST reported that a simulation model based on the assumption that combustible vapors burned immediately upon mixing with the incoming oxygen showed that "at any given location.148 The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) concluded the official version was more than sufficient to explain the collapse of the buildings. When released.org says that the holes in the Pentagon walls were far too small to have been made by a Boeing 757: "How does a plane 125 ft. across?" Meyssan’s book. The French newspaper Liberation called the book "a tissue of wild and irresponsible allegations. administration deliberately chose not to shoot down a plane that was heading for the Pentagon. a professor of structural engineering at Purdue University. the calculated temperatures were 500 °C or below.S. caused the collapses. Thierry Meyssan and Dylan Avery argue that American Airlines Flight 77 did not crash into the Pentagon. but rather that the weakened steel (at 1000 degrees Celsius steel weakens to roughly 10% of its room temperature strength). while others contend that no plane hit the Pentagon at all. wide and 155 ft. Reopen911.
Many eyewitnesses saw the plane strike the Pentagon. an airplane tire. 4. because the engine was found only 300 yards from the main crash site. Out of the four planes hijacked on that day. a massive casualty (MASCAL) exercise was conducted in which a hijacked plane crashed into the Pentagon.S. Another passenger named Barbara Olson called her husband (U. According to ArchitectureWeek.149 Pentagon's load-bearing columns. Flight 77 passengers made phone calls reporting that their airplane had been hijacked. and an intact cockpit seat were observed at the crash site. David Ray Griffin and Alex Jones say that large parts of the plane including the main body of the engine landed miles away from the main wreckage site. Hynes. A year before the attacks. passenger Renee May called her mother to tell her that the plane had been hijacked and that the passengers had been herded to the back of the plane. Airplane debris including Flight 77's black boxes. too far away to have resulted from an ordinary crash. According to the magazine Skeptic." Michael K.S. landing gear.com claimed that the main body of the engine was found miles away from the main wreckage site with damage comparable to that which a heat-seeking missile would do to an airliner. the nose cone. For example. According to some theories. Solicitor General Theodore Olson) and said that the flight had been hijacked. crashed in an open field near Shanksville. (This was part of a renovation program which had been begun in the eighties. "[this] claim rests largely on unsupported assertions that the main body of the engine and other large parts of the plane turned up miles from the main wreckage site.4 Flight 93 The fourth plane hijacked on 9/11. The remains of passengers from Flight 77 were found at the Pentagon crash site and their identities confirmed by DNA analysis. One of the popular conspiracy theories surrounding this event is that Flight 93 was actually shot down by a U. Further. the reason the Pentagon took relatively little damage from the impact was because Wedge One had recently been renovated. and Wedge One was the first of five to be renovated. and that this is not compatible with reports of wreckage found farther away from the main crash site. United Airlines Flight 93. and that the hijackers had knives and box cutters. Jones says that planes usually leave a small debris field when they crash. an airline . it was the only one not to reach its target. This is incorrect. and its location was consistent with the direction in which the plane had been traveling. A posting on Rense. the plane had to be shot down by the government because passengers had found out about the alleged plot. too far away for an ordinary plane crash. the fuselage. Pennsylvania after the passengers revolted. fighter jet.
The road between the two locations takes a roundabout route of 6." Some conspiracy theorists believe a small white jet seen flying over the crash area may have fired a missile to shoot down Flight 93. says that. Conspiracy theorists have . However. Reports of wreckage discovered at Indian Lake by local residents are accurate.p. "strands of charred insulation". it was later learned that Delta Flight 1989 was the plane confused with Flight 93. speculate that Flight 93 safely landed in Ohio. Ben Sliney. at very high velocities of 500 mph or more. According to the BBC. "Lighter. it would only take a few seconds to move or tumble across the ground for 300 yards. Often cited is a preliminary news report that Flight 93 landed at a Cleveland airport. and an "endorsed paycheck". Some internet videos. the Smithsonian. The same article quotes FBI agent Bill Crowley that. and a substituted plane was involved in the crash in Pennsylvania. smaller debris probably shot into the air on the heat of a fireball that witnesses said shot several hundred feet into the air after the jetliner crashed.. and a Pittsburgh Post-Gazette article from September 14. and claim that such "hoax theories.. The FBI. government agencies such as the FBI assert this was a Dassault Falcon business jet asked to descend to an altitude of around 1500 ft to survey the impact. who was the FAA operation manager on September 11. says no military aircraft were near Flight 93. according to CNN. the distance between the crash site and Indian Lake was misreported in some accounts.9 miles— accounting for the erroneous reports. citing the wreckage at the scene. who claim she faked the photo. appear calculated to alienate victims' survivors and the larger public from the 9/11 truth movement". The editor of the article has since written a rebuttal to the claims.h. However. CNN reported that investigators found debris from the crash at least eight miles away from the crash site. Several websites within the 9/11 Truth Movement dispute this claim.150 accident expert who investigated the crash of TWA Flight 800 in 1996. Indian Lake is just over a mile from the crash site. and the National Park Service’s Flight 93 National Memorial consider it to be authentic. Then. such as Loose Change. this debris was all very light material that the wind would have easily blown away. and the difficulty of secretly substituting one plane for another. "In a straight line." Also. 2001 describes the material as "mostly papers". and the report was retracted as inaccurate. The woman who took the only photograph of the mushroom cloud from the impact of Flight 93 hitting the ground says she has been harassed by conspiracy theorists. 2001. eyewitness testimony. including in New Baltimore. it probably rode a wind that was blowing southeast at about 9 m.
claimed that passengers of Flight 93 and/or Flight 77, were murdered or that they were relocated, with the intent that they never be found.
During the initial confusion surrounding the immediate aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, the BBC published the names and identities of what they believed to be some of the hijackers. Some of the people named were later discovered to be alive, a fact that was seized upon by 9/11 conspiracy theorists as proof that the hijackings were faked. The BBC explained that the initial confusion may have arisen because the names they reported back in 2001 were common Arabic and Islamic names. In response to a request from the BBC, the FBI stated: The FBI is confident that it has positively identified the nineteen hijackers responsible for the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Also, the 9/11 investigation was thoroughly reviewed by the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States and the House and Senate Joint Inquiry. Neither of these reviews ever raised the issue of doubt about the identity of the nineteen hijackers. The New York Times also acknowledged these as cases of mistaken identity. According to John Bradley, the former managing editor of Arab News in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, the only public information about the hijackers was a list of names issued by the FBI on September 14, 2001. When the FBI released photographs four days after the cited reports on September 27, the mistaken identities were quickly resolved. According to Bradley, "all of this is attributable to the chaos that prevailed during the first few days following the attack. What we're dealing with are coincidentally identical names." In Saudi Arabia, says Bradley, the names of two of the allegedly surviving attackers, Said alGhamdi and Walid al-Shari, are "as common as John Smith in the United States or Great Britain." According to Thomas Kean, chair of the 9/11 Commission, "Sixteen of the nineteen shouldn't have gotten into the United States in any way at all because there was something wrong with their visas, something wrong with their passports. They should simply have been stopped at the border. That was sixteen of the nineteen. Obviously, if even half of those people had been stopped, there never would have been a plot." Khalid al Mihdhar and Nawaf al Hazmi had both been identified as al-Qaeda agents by the CIA, but that information was not shared with the FBI or U.S. Immigration, so both men were able to legally enter the U.S. to prepare for the 9/11 attacks. Five of the alleged hijackers may have received training at U.S. military
facilities. The Defense Department confirmed that three of the hijackers, Mohamed Atta, Abdulaziz al-Omari and Saeed al-Ghamdi, "have the same names as alumni of American military schools." A Mohamed Atta attended the International Officers School at Maxwell Air Force Base in Alabama; an Abdulaziz al-Omari went to the Aerospace Medical School at Brooks Air Force Base in Texas; and a Saeed al-Ghamdi was at the Defense Language Institute at the Presidio in Monterey, California.
4.6 Phone calls
After 9/11, cellular experts said that calls were able to be placed from the hijacked planes, and that they were surprised that they lasted as long as they did. They said that the only reason that the calls went through in the first place is that the aircraft were flying so close to the ground. Alexa Graf, an AT&T spokesperson said it was almost a fluke that the calls reached their destinations. Other industry experts said that it is possible to use cell phones with varying degrees of success during the ascent and descent of commercial airline flights.  Marvin Sirbu, professor of Engineering and Public Policy at Carnegie Mellon University said on September 14, 2001, that "The fact of the matter is that cell phones can work in almost all phases of a commercial flight." According to the 9/11 Commission Report, 13 passengers from Flight 93 made a total of over 30 calls to both family and emergency personnel (twenty-two confirmed air phone calls, two confirmed cell phone and eight not specified in the report). According to Debunk911myths.org, all but two calls from Flight 93 were made on air phones, not cell phones, and both calls lasted about a minute before being dropped. Brenda Raney, Verizon Wireless spokesperson, said that Flight 93 was supported by several cell sites. There were reportedly three phone calls from Flight 11, five from Flight 175, and three calls from Flight 77. Two calls from these flights were recorded, placed by flight attendants Madeleine Sweeney and Betty Ong on Flight 11.
4.7 Jewish and Israeli involvement
There are theories that 9/11 was part of an international Jewish conspiracy. According to Cinnamon Stillwell, another myth popular with 9/11 conspiracy theorists is that 4,000 Jewish employees skipped work at the World Trade Center on September 11. This was first reported on September 17 by the Lebanese Hezbollah-owned satellite television channel Al-Manar and is believed to be based on the September 12 edition of the Jerusalem Post that stated "The Foreign Ministry in Jerusalem has so far received the names of 4,000 Israelis believed to have been in the areas of the World
Trade Center and the Pentagon at the time of the attacks." Both turned out to be incorrect; the number of Jews who died in the attacks is variously estimated at between 270 to 400. The lower figure tracks closely with the percentage of Jews living in the New York area and partial surveys of the victims' listed religion. The U.S. State Department has published a partial list of 76 in response to claims that fewer Jews/Israelis died in the WTC attacks than should have been present at the time. Five Israeli citizens died in the attack. It has been claimed that Israeli agents may have had foreknowledge of the attacks. Four hours after the attack, the FBI arrested five Israelis who had been filming the smoking skyline from the roof of a white van in the parking lot of an apartment building, for "puzzling behavior". The Israelis were videotaping the events, and one bystander said they acted in a suspicious manner: "They were like happy, you know … They didn't look shocked to me. I thought it was very strange," While The Forward, a New York Jewish news magazine, reported that the FBI considered them to be intelligence operatives, a spokesperson for the Israeli Embassy in the United States said that they had not been involved in any intelligence operation in the United States. The FBI had eventually concluded that the five Israelis had no foreknowledge of the attacks. Imam Anwar al-Awlaki of Virginia initially condemned the attacks. But just six days after the attack, he wrote on the IslamOnline.net website a suggestion that Israeli intelligence agents might have been responsible for the attacks, and that the FBI "went into the roster of the airplanes and whoever had a Muslim or Arab name became the hijacker by default. ABC news cited this report on June 21, 2002, adding that the FBI had concluded that the five Israelis had no foreknowledge of the attacks.
5. Cover-up allegations
Conspiracy theorists say they detect a pattern of behavior on the part of officials investigating the September 11 attack meant to suppress the emergence of evidence that might contradict the mainstream account. The debris from ground-zero, for example, was removed without a proper forensic investigation, making it very difficult to discover why the World Trade Center buildings collapsed.
5.1 Cockpit recorders
According to the 9/11 Commission Report, the cockpit voice recorders (CVR) or flight data recorders (FDR), or "black boxes", from Flights 11 and 175 were not recovered from the remains of
the WTC attack; however, two men, Michael Bellone and Nicholas DeMasi, who worked extensively in the wreckage of the World Trade Center, stated in the book Behind-The-Scenes: Ground Zero that they helped federal agents find three of the four "black boxes" from the jetliners: "At one point I was assigned to take Federal Agents around the site to search for the black boxes from the planes. We were getting ready to go out. My ATV was parked at the top of the stairs at the Brooks Brothers entrance area. We loaded up about a million dollars worth of equipment and strapped it into the ATV. There were a total of four black boxes. We found three." According to the 9/11 Commission Report, both black boxes from Flight 77 and both black boxes from Flight 93 were recovered. However, the CVR from Flight 77 was said to be too damaged to yield any data. On April 18, 2002, the FBI allowed the families of victims from Flight 93 to listen to the voice recordings. In April 2006, a transcript of the CVR was released as part of the Zacarias Moussaoui trial.
5.2 Bin Laden tapes
A series of interviews, audio and videotapes have been released since the 9/11 attacks that have been reported to be from Osama bin Laden. At first the speaker denied responsibility for the attacks. In a tape released in December 2001 the speaker claimed responsibility for the attacks. The Central Intelligence Agency claimed the tape was probably from Osama bin Laden. Some observers, especially people in the Muslim world, doubted the authenticity of the tape. In a audiotape released in a November 2007 also said to be from Bin Laden the speaker claimed sole responsibility for the attacks and denied the Taliban and the Afghan government or people had any prior knowledge of the attacks.
6. Other theories
6.1 Foreign governments
There are allegations that individuals within the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) may have played an important role in financing the attacks. There are also claims that other foreign intelligence agencies, such as the Israeli Mossad, had foreknowledge of the attacks, and that Saudi Arabia may have played a role in financing the attacks. Francesco Cossiga, former President of Italy from 1985 until his resignation over Operation Gladio, asserts that it is common knowledge among democratic circles in the U.S. and Europe, and primarily in the Italian
com and other conspiracy theory sites.155 center-left. a reptilian global elite is behind all things that occur in the world." Truth movement veterans tend to distance themselves from "noplaners". Horowitz and journalist Sherri Kane published online and sent to the F. "Watch footage frame by frame and you will see a cigar-shaped missile hitting the World Trade Center. taken from a news helicopter." he says. "The only explanation is that they were missiles surrounded by holograms made to look like planes. perpetrated by Israel or neo-conservative. 6. Discussion of no plane theories have been banned from certain conspiracy theory websites while advocates have been threatened with violence by posters at other conspiracy theory websites." According to David Shayler. and that digital compositing was used to depict the plane crashes in both news reports and subsequent amateur video. Nico Haupt and Morgan Reynolds.I. a former head of ISI. I know.B. depicts a video composite of a Boeing 767 accidentally appearing from behind a Layer Mask. Icke's 2002 book Alice in Wonderland and the World Trade Center Disaster is focused on the 9/11 attacks. I'm out of the mainstream. 6. The pair alleged the documents show a link between the ." Reynolds insists. Reynolds claims it is physically impossible that the Boeing planes of Flights 11 and 175. asserts that this shot of the second impact. Icke's theories are rejected by 911blogger. believes the attacks were an “inside job” originating in the United States. According to Icke. being largely aluminium. 6. an affidavit with documents they claim prove the 9/11 attacks were part of a population reduction conspiracy by an international drug industry cartel that involves leading business and media figures. formerly the chief economist within the Labor Department under the Bush administration argue that no planes were used in the attacks. "There were no planes." promoted by internet-only videos like 911 Taboo. could have penetrated the steel frames of the Towers. "I know.2 No Plane theory The "no plane theory.3 Reptilian shape-shifting aliens English author and public speaker David Icke argues that reptilian. that the 9/11 attacks were a joint operation of the CIA and the Mossad. General Hamid Gul. there were no hijackers. but that's the way it is.4 Drug industry cartel In September 2009 public health expert Leonard G. shape-shifting extraterrestrial humanoids are responsible for the 9/11 attacks.
1 Pax Americana In 2006. and that the "transformation" referenced in the paper is explicitly stated to be a decades-long process to turn the Cold War-era military into a "new.2 Invasions Conspiracy theorists have questioned whether the Oil Factor and 9/11 provided the United States and the United Kingdom with a reason to launch a war they had wanted for some time. In September 2000 the PNAC released a strategic treatise entitled Rebuilding America's Defences. either those responsible would have decided to openly state their objectives. Specifically the language in the paper that read "the process of transformation. is likely to be a long one. Matt Taibbi argued in his book The Great Derangement that conspiracy theorists have taken what is written in the paper "completely out of context". absent some catastrophic and catalyzing event – like a new Pearl Harbor" was describing an alleged motive. which included Paul Wolfowitz.Motives 7.S. even if it brings revolutionary change. was drafted by Paul Wolfowitz on behalf of then Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney. 7. modern military" which could deal with more localized conflicts. David Ray Griffin in his 2004 book The New Pearl Harbor: Disturbing Questions About the Bush Administration and 9/11 argued that the treatise may have been the blueprint for 9/11 attacks. Diplomacy. and suggest that this gives them a strong motive for either carrying out the attacks. or allowing them to take place. Afghanistan and later Iran. This was described as "a blueprint for permanent American global hegemony" by Andrew J. Dick Cheney and Donald Rumsfeld. or would have read the paper in 2000 and quickly laid the groundwork for the 9/11 attacks using it as inspiration. Andreas . for this to be evidence of motive. members of the group Scholars for 9/11 Truth argued that a group of US neo-conservatives called the Project for a New American Century (PNAC). The Defense Planning Guidance of 1992. For instance. Larry Silverstein and a involved creating the swine flu pandemic. set on US world dominance and orchestrated the 9/11 attacks as an excuse to hit Iraq. Bacevich in his book American Empire: The Realities and Consequences of U. He stated that.156 9/11 attacks. conspiracy that also 7.
S. 9/11 Citizens Watch. Scholars for 9/11 Truth. and the Hispanic Victims .3 Suggested historical precedents Conspiracy theorists often point to Operation Northwoods as a precursor of the 9/11 attacks. Operation Northwoods was a plan presented by the United States Joint Chiefs of Staff in 1962. Kennedy. Adherents of the 9/11 truth movement come from diverse social backgrounds and hold diverse views on other political issues. government as a false flag operation. Time called the public assassination of Kennedy a "private. former member of the U. House of Representatives Cynthia McKinney. a former research minister in the German government. which was witnessed by millions of people and documented by hundreds of videographers. Ed Asner. and stated. which was then blamed on Islamic extremists." 8. physicist Steven E. among others. intimate affair" when compared with the attack on the World Trade Center. has argued that 9/11 was staged to justify the subsequent wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. and Scholars for 9/11 Truth & Justice. architect Richard Gage. founded in 2004. actors Daniel Sunjata. a group that focuses on the collapse of the World Trade Center buildings.Proponents Many individuals and organizations that support or discuss 9/11 conspiracy theories consider themselves to be part of the 9/11 Truth movement. which was already formed in 2002. former Governor of Minnesota Jesse Ventura. 7. Among the organizations that actively discuss and promote such theories are Architects & Engineers for 9/11 Truth. theologian David Ray Griffin. The plan called for covert operatives to commit genuine acts of terrorism in U.S. Former Malaysian premiere Mahathir Mohamad was quoted as saying that there was "strong evidence" that the attacks were faked so the United States could go to war against Muslims. founded in 2005. "there is no event so plain and clear that a determined human being can't find ambiguity in it. which they theorize were carried out by the U. and to blame and subsequently invade Cuba for it. film producer Dylan Avery. 9/11 Truth. a group that split from Scholars for 9/11 Truth in 2007 and runs the online publication Journal of 9/11 Studies. and Charlie Sheen. Time magazine contrasted events which inspired past conspiracy theories with those that inspire 9/11 conspiracy theories such as the assassination of John F.S. cities.157 von Bülow. Prominent adherents of the movement include. Jones. software engineer Jim Hoffman. political science professor Joseph Diaferia and journalist Thierry Meyssan.
documentary films. The Norwegian version of the July 2006 Le Monde diplomatique sparked interest when they ran. a program titled. Several of these groups collects signatures for petitions asking for further investigation of the September 11 attacks. 11. quotes taken out of context and the scattered testimony of traumatized eyewitnesses”. on the Canadian website for CBC News: The Fifth Estate." Also. 2001" was broadcast on October 29. 2009. on their own initiative. alleging that it was a sign of "theoretical emptiness. in a perverse way. and enjoy continued popularity because “the idea that there is a malevolent controlling force orchestrating global events is. which has changed position since the September 11 attacks and whose director.Media reaction While discussion and coverage of these theories is mainly confined to Internet pages. An article in the September 11. a number of mainstream news outlets around the world have covered the issue. became a leading proponent of 9/11 conspiracy theory.158 Group. stating that what they found may be more surprising than any theories. left-wing.S. the mother-house. categorically refused it this right. and conversation. facts without analysis or documentation. which strongly criticized the alleged endorsement of conspiracy theories by the U. On November 27. in France. Thierry Meyssan. It concludes that “conspiracy theories are part of the process by which Americans deal with traumatic public events” and constitute “an American form of national mourning. "Conspiracy Theories: uncovering the facts behind the myths of Sept. a three page main story on the 9/11 attacks and summarized the various types of 9/11 conspiracy theories (which were not specifically endorsed by the newspaper. The Voltaire Network. books. 2003. 9. thus displaying an open debate between various national editions.  In December 2006. comforting”. The Fifth Estate aired a documentary entitled The Unofficial Story where several prominent members of the 9/11 Truth Movement made their case. only recensed). co-editor of CounterPunch.” . explained that although the Norwegian version of Le Monde diplomatique had allowed it to translate and publish this article on its website. the French version published an article by Alexander Cockburn. 2006 edition of Time magazine comments that the major 9/11 conspiracy theories “depend on circumstantial evidence.
159 The Daily Telegraph published an article titled "The CIA couldn't have organised this. This article mainly attacked a group of scientists led by Professor Steven E.. asking. Russian State Television aired a debate on the subject. sympathetic to those who question the mainstream account of the attacks according to Chiesa. Charlie Brooker. in a July 2008 column published by The Guardian as part of its "Comment is free" series agreed that 9/11 conspiracy theorists fail to take in account human fallacies and added that believing in these theories gives theorists a sense of belonging to a community that shares privileged information thus giving the theorists a delusional sense of power. supporters of the theories fail to take into account both human nature and that nobody has come forward claiming they were participants in the alleged conspiracies. Jones. They said "most of them aren't scientists but instructors. On June 7. published an article in May 2007 that was highly critical of Loose Change 2. Russian State Television broadcast in prime time a documentary made by Member of the European Parliament Giulietto Chiesa entitled Zero." which said "The same people who are making a mess of Iraq were never so clever or devious that they could stage a complex assault on two narrow towers of steel and glass" and "if there is a nefarious plot in all this bad planning. the largest in the history of the series. The Financial Times Magazine published a lengthy article on the 9/11 Truth Movement and 9/11 conspiracy theories. a British comedian and multimedia personality. The commentary generated over 1700 online responses. According to Thierry Meyssan in conjunction with the documentary. Doug MacEachern in a May 2008 column for the Arizona Republic wrote that while many "9/11 truthers" are not crackpots that espouse "crackpot conspiracy theories". 2008. In a September 2009 piece. a movie which presents a 9/11 conspiracy theory. The panel consisted of members from several countries including 12 Russians who hold divergent views. now called Scholars for 9/11 Truth and Justice.. at second-rate colleges". a Calgary Herald op-ed columnist specializing in foreign policy. This view seconded by Timothy Giannuzzi. 2008. A major Australian newspaper The Daily Telegraph.. it is one improvised by a confederacy of dunces".. The motive of Russian State Television in broadcasting the documentary was questioned by a commentator from The Other Russia who noted that Russian State Television had a history of broadcasting programs . "when did it become uncool to ask questions? When did questioners become imbeciles?" On September 12. The Guardian were more supportive of 9/11 conspiracy theories however.
that using thermite is not an effective technique to melt a steel column. in which the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center tested some of the claims frequently made by those who question the official 9/11 account. ITN broadcast a story summarizing various 9/11 conspiracy theories. that a controlled demolition using conventional techniques would leave clear evidence that was not found at Ground Zero. The emergence of the birther movement in 2009 has led to comparisons between that movement and the 9/11 Truth Movement. The publication listed 9/11 conspiracy thories as "one of the most pernicious global myths". The magazine said that Griffin's "books on the subject have lent a sheen of respectability that appeals to people at the highest levels of government". it would be impossible to tell if thermite was actually used or if the traces came from the reaction of aircraft aluminum with other substances in the fire. and that even if thermite chemical signatures were found. the experiments concluded that burning jet fuel alone can sufficiently raise the temperature of a steel support column to the point of structural failure. and expressed their disagreement with the findings. Nasir Mahmood in a commentary printed by the Pakistan Observer wrote favorably about a 9/11 truth lecture and film festival held in California and quoted a Jewish speaker at that festival who said that none of the 19 suspected hijackers had been proven guilty of anything and compared racism against Muslims resulting from what he called false accusations to the racism against Jews in the Nazi era. several prominent 9/11 conspiracy theorists viewed rough edits of the experiments. The testing also concluded that the type of hole found at the Pentagon was consistent with the mainstream scenario. 2009. Specifically. a journalist for The Times who covered the September 11 Attacks. Moon Landing conspiracy theories have also been compared to the birther and 9/11 conspiracy theories. Denver public .160 involving conspiracy theories involving the United States government. the National Geographic Channel aired the program 9/11 Science and Conspiracy. On November 10. with both movements seen in a very negative light. and that damage from a bombing or missile attack would differ from the damage that occurred. On August 31. In the program. James Borne. 2008. Griffin's book The New Pearl Harbor Revisited was chosen by Publishers Weekly as a "Pick of the Week" in November 2008. The British left wing magazine New Statesman listed David Ray Griffin as the 41st most important person who matters today. described his assignment covering a 9/11 truth meeting "Perhaps the most intellectually scary assignment I have had in recent years".
9. it's one thing to believe that our politicians are capable of being Bernie Madoff. aren't there? I mean. The episode viewed by 7 million people ended when the detectives investigating the death believed her and she escapes to an unnamed Arab country. explaining to a French journalist that the 9/11 attacks were a “neoconservative government effort” to create a new Pearl Harbor to control oil and increase military spending. said of the allegations: "There are limits to debasement of this country. A Rescue Me episode featured a character played by actor Daniel Sunjata who is a 9/11 conspiracy theorist in real life. The stations spokesperson claimed airing these documentaries has been a boon for the stations fund raising efforts.000 Americans. television and radio host. and eventually it is revealed that the government wants people to think that they caused 9/11. so that they think the government has more power than it does. blames Kyle Broflovski of causing 9/11. the episode "Mystery of the Urinal Deuce" centers around 9/11 conspiracy theories. It's another to think that they are willing to kill 3. where they are told that the government did in fact cause the 9/11 attacks. The roommate was trained to be a 9/11 pilot but was left behind. They described Fujita as "a man so susceptible to the imaginings of the lunatic fringe". For the ninth anniversary of the attacks the Egyptian daily Almasry Alyoum published article n Egyptian questioning of the US government story and belief in conspiracy theories in which the senior analyst for the semi-official Al-Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies and a member of Parliament from the Muslim Brotherhood was quoted. According to Denis Leary major plot lines in the first 10 episodes of the show's season 5 revolved around reinvestigation and conspiracy theories surrounding the 9/11 attacks.161 television KBDI-TV has aired 9/11 truth documentaries several times. . After Eric Cartman. In season 10 of the animated show South Park. a prominent Japanese politician who has espoused 9/11 conspiracy theories. They escape.1 In popular culture In June 2005 the popular German State Television murder mystery program Tatort ran an episode in which a woman who claims the 9/11 attacks were instigated by the Bush family for oil and power is targeted by FBI and CIA hitmen after her male roommate is found dead." In March 2010 The Washington Post editorialized against Yukihisa Fujita. you're in a whole new territory. Glenn Beck. a main character in the show. Kyle and his friend Stan Marsh end up in the White House. Once you cross that line.
Thomas W. "I've told people that if the argument gets too mainstream. Such notions are easily refuted by noting that scientific theories are not built on single facts alone but on a convergence of evidence assembled from multiple lines of inquiry.  and Jim Hoffman has written an article called . government for the events "mars the memories of all those lost on that day" and "exploits the public's anger and sadness. this happened when Steve Jones. took up the issue. they share a basic thought pattern: great tragedies must have great reasons.S.Criticism Critics of these conspiracy theories say they are a form of conspiracism common throughout history after a traumatic event in which conspiracy theories emerge as a mythic form of explanation. They determine what happened. said: "The mistaken belief that a handful of unexplained anomalies can undermine a well-established theory lies at the heart of all conspiratorial thinking. All the evidence for a 9/11 conspiracy falls under the rubric of this fallacy. It shakes Americans' faith in their government at a time when that faith is already near an all-time low. and then hail their findings as the only possible conclusion. and The Skeptic's Dictionary have published articles that rebut various 9/11 conspiracy theories. unfounded accusations of extraordinary evil against fellow Americans. Popular Mechanics. suggested they "use the 'reverse scientific method'. An internet site run by the U. Michael Shermer.  A related criticism addresses the form of research on which the theories are based.S. writing in Scientific American. throw out all the data that doesn't fit their conclusion. In the foreword for the book Senator John McCain wrote that blaming the U.162 10." According to him. apparently believing that the allegations need to be addressed forcefully rather than dismissed out of hand as the ruminations of a fringe group. State Department devotes space to debunking the theories." Der Spiegel dismissed 9/11 conspiracy theories as a "panoply of the absurd". It trafficks in ugly. Eagar." Eagar's criticisms also exemplify a common stance that the theories are best ignored. Popular Mechanics has published a book entitled Debunking 9/11 Myths that expands upon the research first presented in the article." David Ray Griffin has published a book entitled Debunking 9/11 Debunking: An Answer to Popular Mechanics and Other Defenders of the Official Conspiracy Theory." Scientific American. I'll engage in the debate. a physics professor at Brigham Young University. an engineering professor at MIT. stating "as diverse as these theories and their adherents may be.
" Taibbi also argued that 9/11 conspiracy theorists form "completely and utterly retarded" narratives to explain the attacks because of "defiant unfamiliarity with the actual character of America's ruling class". He suggests that the answer is criminal negligence on the part of the president and vice president. a disconnection from reality due to widespread "disgust with our political system". he argues that both "chose to battle bugbears that were completely idiotic. Journalist Matt Taibbi. and constitute more than "a small. and imaginary. Lesley Hughes. followed by a coverup conspiracy after 9/11. 10. He concludes that 9/11 truthers while "desperately trying to legitimately question a version of events" end up playing into the hands of the neoconservatives they are trying to take down by creating a diversion. discusses 9/11 conspiracy theories as symptomatic of what he calls the "derangement" of American society. Drawing a parallel with the Charismatic movement.. Mankelow noted that this has irritated many people who are politically left wing. just as they claim to be. Earlier. This was expanded upon by columnist Matt Mankelow writing for the online edition of the British Socialist Worker. fanciful. claimed that the theories strain credulity." instead of taking control of their own lives. scattered group of nutcases [. almost everyone you meet. German..163 'popular mechanics assault on 9/11 truth" where he attacks the methods Popular Mechanics uses in forming their arguments. David Aaronovitch. in his book entitled Voodoo Histories: The Role of the Conspiracy Theory in Shaping Modern History that was published in May 2009.] they really were. a columnist for The Times. Aaronovitch also charged that 9/11 conspiracy theorists have exaggerated the expertise of those supporting their theories. and noted that 9/11 conspiracy theorists including David Ray Griffin cross cite each other. Historian Kenneth J. While critical. in his book The Great Derangement. Deputy Editor of Global Television Network News and Conservative .S. Taibbi explains that 9/11 conspiracy theories are different from "Clinton-era black-helicopter paranoia".1 In the political arena Former Canadian Liberal Party leader Stéphane Dion forced a candidate from Winnipeg. who were repeatedly warned. Russian and Israeli intelligence officials knew about the 9/11 attacks in advance.. to terminate her campaign after earlier writings from Hughes surfaced in which Hughes wrote that U. Peter Kent. Dillon argues that 9/11 conspiracy theories represent an overly easy target for skeptics and that their criticisms obfuscate the underlying issue of what actually happened if there wasn't a conspiracy.
There are some very good arguments. Van Jones said he was a victim of a smear campaign. was fired by French Defence Minister Herve Morin for writing a book entitled Chronicle of the Clash of Civilizations that espoused 9/11 conspiracy theories. so I have not taken a position on that. Medina stated ." After being criticized for the remarks by opposing candidates. were partially based on his support investigating the validity of 9/11 conspiracy theories. Later another Conservative Party candidate called for the leader of the New Democratic Party to fire a candidate for her pro 9/11 truth views. in an effort to what he describes as purifying within and totally canadianize the organization." On June 16. the Canadian Islamic Congress is trying to remove 9/11 conspiracy theorists from the the board of the organization. the special rapporteur on human rights in the Palestinian territories for the United Nations. In September 2009 Van Jones.164 Party candidate in the 2008 Canadian election. Aymeric Chauprade(fr). The 9/11 truth movement became an issue in the 2010 Texas Gubernatorial Republican primary when candidate Debra Medina replied when asked by Glenn Beck about US government involvement in the 9/11 attacks: "I think some very good questions have been raised in that regard. Hughes sued Kent. 2009. and I think the American people have not seen all of the evidence there. resigned after his signature on a 2004 petition calling for an investigation into whether government officials deliberately allowed the 9/11 attacks to occur and other controversial statements came to light drawing criticism. According to Aaronovitch. a professor of geopolitics at CID military college in Paris. had called for Hughes's resignation saying that the 9/11 truth movement is "one of Canada’s most notorious hatemongering fringe movements" composed of "conspiracy theorists who are notorious for holding anti-Semitic views. adding that he does not currently. because a significant portion of educated Pakistanis believe that George W. In 2008 calls for the resignation of Richard Falk. Bush brought the towers down. Zijad Delic head of Canada's largest Muslim advocacy organization. the Canadian Jewish Congress. the B'Nai Brith of Canada and four senior members of the two organizations alleging the anti-Semitic allegations were untrue and defamatory and ruined her career. 9/11 conspiracy theorist critic David Aaronovitch claims the popularity of 9/11 conspiracy theories has hurt the War on Terror. nor ever has agreed with that theory. In February 2009. an adviser to US President Barack Obama. dealing with the Taliban is difficult “because they actually don't believe the fundamental premise on which the war against terror was waged”.
The remarks prompted the United States delegation as well as others to walk out. President Obama criticized Ahmadinejad's remarks before the United Nations General Assembly on the following day saying "For him to make a statement like that was inexcusable" and called the remarks "offensive" and "hateful." Previously Ahmadinejad had described the 9/11 attacks as a "suspect event" and suggested that the Bush Administration was involved in 9/11. 2010 Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in a speech to the United Nations said that "The majority of the American people.. The ADL has characterized the Jeff Rense website as carrying anti-semitic materials such as that "American Jews staged the 9/11 terrorist attacks for their own financial gain and to induce the American people to endorse wars of aggression and genocide on the nations of the Middle East and the theft of their resources for the benefit of Israel" .2 Anti-Semitism in conspiracy theories In 2003. 10.S. as well as in Europe and the United States. government orchestrated the attack to reverse the declining American economy and its grips on the Middle East in order also to save the Zionist regime". On September 23. It asserted that many of the theories were modern manifestation of the 19th century Protocols of the Elders of Zion which purported to map out a Jewish conspiracy for world domination. believe. as well as other nations and politicians.165 that she has never been a 9/11 truth movement member and believes the twin towers were attacked by Muslim terrorists." It found that such theories were widely accepted in the Arab and Muslim world. pro-Israel Anti-Defamation League (ADL) published a report attacking "hateful conspiracy theories" that the 9/11 attacks were carried about by Israelis and Jews which had the potential to "rationalize and fuel global anti-Semitism.. The League's report found that "The Big Lie has united American farright extremists and white supremacists and elements within the Arab and Muslim world".some segments within the U.
This led in 2004 to the establishment of a special Metropolitan Police inquiry team. so we are all being used by the man in every sense of the word. headed by the then Commissioner Lord Stevens to investigate the conspiracy theories. Operation Paget. brake failure and serious head injury in order to make the path clear for him to marry Tiggy (Legge-Bourke). Camilla (Parker-Bowles) is nothing but a decoy.166 Death of Diana. In this letter."This particular phase in my life is the most dangerous . a number of researchers. Princess of Wales conspiracy theories Although the initial French investigation found that Diana. and others.my husband is planning "an accident" in my car. In December 2007. witnesses at Diana's inquest were questioned about a letter to Paul Burrell which Diana had written by hand in October 1993. including most notably Mohammed AlFayed and the Daily Express have persistently raised conspiracy theories that she was assassinated." Contents • • • • • • 1 Henri Paul 2 Allegation of MI6 involvement 3 Relationship with Dodi Fayed 4 Pregnancy 5 Embalming of the body 6 A bright flash . of which only redacted versions had previously been public. Diana said . Princess of Wales had died as a result of an accident.
which confirmed the level of alcohol measured by blood and also showed Paul had been taking antidepressants. French forensic pathologist Dominique Lecomte was said to be facing an investigation over allegations of misleading the inquiry. had finally been ascertained.167 • 7 A white Fiat Uno and James Andanson ○ 7. include that he was in the pay of a national security service. and that the samples belonged to a suicide victim. In November 2006. in response. This initial analysis was challenged by a British pathologist hired by Al Fayed. Other . French authorities carried out a third test. though different versions of the allegation name the country of the security service alternately as Britain.Henri Paul Allegations made about the driver of the Mercedes. Purported evidence to support this arises mainly from the money in his possession at the time of his death and his personal wealth. stands by his belief that the Princess and his son were killed in an elaborate conspiracy. this time using the medically more conclusive fluid from the sclera (white of the eye). Fayed. The French investigators' conclusion that Henri Paul was drunk was made on the basis of an analysis of blood samples.1 Possible Suicide • • • • 8 CCTV images 9 Seatbelt 10 Transport to the hospital 11 Conspiracy theories expressed in contemporary art 1. France or the United States. These allegations are covered in chapter four of the Operation Paget criminal investigation report. One of the most well known allegations concerns the reliability of blood tests carried out that indicate he had been drinking before he took the controls of the car. Henri Paul. for his part. various news sources[who?] reported that the identity of the person to whom the blood samples belonged. It is claimed that the level of alcohol reported to have been found in Henri Paul's blood was not consistent with his sober demeanour. as captured on CCTV that evening. The families of Dodi Fayed and Henri Paul have not accepted the French investigators' findings. which were said to contain an alcohol level that (according to Jay's September 1997 report) was three times the French legal limit.
He said that one of the photographers. It has been disclosed that on November 2006 Lord Stevens had met with Henri Paul's parents telling them that their son was not drunk. has claimed that Britain's . DNA samples confirm the owner of the blood samples with high alcohol levels was indeed the driver. Inspector Carpenter who was giving evidence confirmed to the court that Mr Paul had waved at the photographers within minutes of the couple's departure. 2. An expert cited in the report estimated that Paul had sunk the equivalent of ten small glasses of Ricard. sitting in his car close to where the couple would later exit the hotel. and was found to have only had two alcoholic drinks (this was verified by CCTV footage at the hotel). who was therefore correctly said to be under the influence of alcohol. Al Fayed claims that Henri Paul was working for MI6 and that they set him up." On CCTV footage made available for the jury. He told the jury: "You may conclude that there are some unsatisfactory features about aspects of the sampling and recording procedures". The tests confirm that original post-mortem blood samples were from driver Henri Paul and that he had three times the French legal limit of alcohol in his blood. his favourite liquorice-flavoured French aperitif. "Some of the results are puzzling. Allegation of MI6 involvement Richard Tomlinson. Yet just five weeks later the report stated that Henri Paul was twice over the British drink-drive limit and three times over the French one. before driving.168 sources stated that while there were omissions and errors in the pathologist's report. the BBC said. Henri Paul is shown on the night of the accident waving to photographers. which if true would have shown Mr Paul noticeably unwell. This contradicted Lord Steven's previous stance. Another issue raised in court by Lord Justice Scott Baker was the level of carbon monoxide found in one sample. 2006. On December 10. Inspector Carpenter earlier explained to the jury: "You will see Henri Paul exit into Rue Cambon [at the back of the hotel] and when you watch this sequence you will see him raise his hand as if waving to the paparazzi across the road. was in contact with other paparazzi. it was reported[who?] that DNA evidence concludes that the blood tested is indeed that of Henri Paul. If you look at the paparazzi across the road you will see one of them (Jacques Langevin) raises his camera". The images claim to cast doubt on the long-held belief that the group of paparazzi waiting outside the hotel had been acting without any help from inside the hotel. a former MI6 agent who was dismissed from the intelligence services and later served time in prison for breaching the Official Secrets Act.
Further evidence that discredited Tomlinson's claims was found in drafts of a book he was writing about his time in MI6 before he was jailed in 1998 for breaching the Official Secrets Act. rogue agents of the secret service had investigated John Lennon and tried to destabilize the 1970s Labour government. Although it would not have seemed impossible for such autonomous cells to get involved in a scandal. evidence later discredited the MI6 theory. However. The memo was shown to Tomlinson and he confirmed it was the one he was referring to in his claims. that her driver on the night she died was an MI6 agent. The inquiry found no evidence Henri Paul was an agent for any security service and only had very limited occasional and unpaid contact with the French Security Services due to the sensitive nature of his job. Tomlinson alleged that MI6 was monitoring Diana before her death (many have said the group helped leak the Squidgygate phone-tap tapes). The Operation Paget Inquiry was given unprecedented access to the offices of both MI5 and MI6 to investigate Tomlinson's claims. Furthermore. and that her death mirrored plans he saw in 1992 for the assassination of then President of Serbia Slobodan Miloševic'. It also found limited evidence of surveillance of Diana. Operation Paget regarded it as no coincidence that this detail appeared after news of how Diana died was in the public domain. French police were also reported to have seized computer files and personal papers from his home in Cannes. dating from 1996. The first draft of the book. The inquiry concluded by dismissing Tomlinson's claims as .169 MI6 was involved. Previously. mainly arising from phone calls she made to her friend Lucia Flecha De Lima at the Brazilian Embassy but there was nothing to suggest a concerted effort to bug her phone calls and there was certainly no monitoring of her in Paris as there was strong evidence the British Authorities had no way of knowing she was in Paris at the time of the accident. They found the original memo he referred to from 1992 and it was found to be a proposal to assassinate another Serbian figure if he gained power. a later draft of the book from late 1997 had the same reference to the memo but contained the added car crash detail. not Slobodan Miloševic'. Tomlinson was arrested by French authorities in July 2006 as part of their inquiry into the death of Diana. The inquiry consulted the Crown Prosecution Service to see if a prosecution for conspiracy to murder was appropriate for the report's author as it is against British Government policy to carry out assassinations. referred to the 1992 memo proposing assassination and contained none of the detail about a staged car crash in a tunnel. A prosecution was not pursued but the author was subjected to a disciplinary procedure by MI6. the plan had none of the detail about a car crash in a tunnel.
Statements from other friends and confidantes she spoke to in the week before her death including her butler Paul Burrell. The alleged dislike of the idea of a non-Christian within the British Royal Family meant such a relationship between the mother of the future king and a prominent Egyptian Muslim would not be tolerated. No evidence that any such preparation had been made was found. Claude Roulet. evidence has shown that Dodi did purchase a ring from Alberto Repossi jewellers on the day of their deaths. and the CCTV. It went on to comment that this embellishment is largely responsible for giving rise to the theories Diana was murdered. after he went back to attempt to find a ring Dodi had seen in the Repossis' shop in Monaco. Mohammed Fayed made the assertion in television interviews that the couple were going to announce their engagement on the Monday after the accident: 1 September 1997. Operation Paget commented that an announcement of such magnitude from the Princess of Wales would have been a substantial media event of worldwide interest and would have required much preparation. a shop assistant. 3. Repossi casually offering it from her finger to Dodi's assistant. Diana spoke about Dodi Fayed in a manner that gave her sister the impression the relationship was on "stony ground".170 an embellishment. and her spiritual adviser Rita Rogers were unanimous in stating she was firm about not wanting to get engaged or married to anyone at that point in her life. Her former private secretary. as CCTV footage from the jeweller show Mrs. Patrick Jephson. Lady Sarah McCorquodale. her friend Lady Annabel Goldsmith. The statements of Mohammed Fayed and the Repossis were contradicted by the statements of Claude Roulet. Richard Kay received a call on his mobile phone from Diana in which she asked about what was likely to appear in the following day's Sunday papers about her. During this call. This ring was from a range of engagement rings offered by the jeweller. Whether or not it was intended to be an engagement ring for Dodi to present to Diana is uncertain. she made no mention of any announcement she intended to make. Diana's journalist friend. on the afternoon of 30 August. More revealing was the statement given by Diana's eldest sister. said to the BBC in reaction to the publication of the Operation Paget Report in December 2006 that her facial expression in the CCTV footage of her at the Paris . However. A few hours before the accident. who testified that in a phone conversation with Diana on Friday 29 August. Relationship with Dodi Fayed One of the main motives which have been advanced for alleged murder include suggestions Diana was pregnant with Dodi Fayed's child and the couple were about to get engaged.
Tropez on 14 July. said (in an interview with The Times) that he attended a post-mortem examination of the Princess's body at Fulham mortuary. Pregnancy In January 2004. The inquiry interviewed Hasnat Khan. Her friend. Operation Paget had scientific tests carried out on pre-transfusion blood found in the footwell of the seat in the wrecked Mercedes the Princess of Wales occupied at the time of the accident. show a relaxed Diana and Dodi affectionately holding hands. The evidence obtained from these witnesses was of a very sensitive nature and most of it was not included in Operation Paget's criminal investigation report. CCTV images released on October 6 taken just minutes before their deaths. meaning there were only 47 days from their first meeting until the night of the accident. it was reported that friends said she was in her normal menstrual cycle and there was evidence she was using contraception. John Burton. Paul Burrell stated that Diana was still not over her break-up with Khan at the time of her death. where he personally examined her womb and found her not to be pregnant. However. He also stated that he felt the relationship was not opposed by either the Royal Family or any other branch of the British Government including the security services. from September 1995 until July 1997. This had been met with no opposition from the Royal Family and Prince Charles had given it his blessing. The inquiry also extensively interviewed friends of Diana's who were in close contact with her in the weeks leading up to her death. it is likely they had only spent approximately 23 days together before the accident. Of those days. who had a relationship with Diana for almost two years. Dr. This blood was found to have no trace of the hCG hormone associated with pregnancy. From analysis of Diana's actual movements. Khan stated that he had received some racist hate mail from members of the public because of the relationship but he had no reason to take what was said in this hate mail seriously. their schedules permitted them to be together for an absolute maximum of 35 days. Diana had even explored the possibility of marriage with him. Rosa Monckton. at Mohammed Fayed's villa in St. It was also pointed out that Dodi and Diana had only first met each other just under seven weeks before the accident. 4. In an effort to prove the assertions made by Mohammed Fayed.171 Ritz on her final evening with Dodi Fayed was one she would wear when she was disgruntled with a situation. the former coroner of The Queen's Household. a Muslim heart surgeon of Pakistani origin based in London. said in an interview to a BBC documentary on the conspiracy theories in December 2006 .
He later . While the couple had indeed visited the villa. felt uncomfortable about lying about the matter and sold his story to The Sun stating the visit lasted just under thirty minutes and was not in the company of any interior designer. I can say with one hundred per cent certainty that she was not pregnant. when you have the years of experience that I have of caring for women’s bodies there are many indications as to whether or not a woman is pregnant. ‘…This is a very sensitive issue for me to discuss but I know for a fact she wasn’t pregnant because she told me she wasn’t and through the course of my work on her body I found no indications to show that she was. She provided the following statement to the Operation Paget investigators: ‘I have been asked whether or not Diana was pregnant. A security guard at the villa. she told me herself that she was not pregnant. no matter what stage it’s in. through the full term of a pregnancy and I am familiar with what a pregnant body feels like even in its early stages. often providing him with regular treatment. She had known Dodi Fayed since the late 1980s and travelled with him. Further evidence that disproved the pregnancy allegation was provided by Myriah Daniels who was a holistic healer who travelled aboard Mohammed Fayed's yacht ‘Jonikal’ on the second cruise she went on with him and his son Dodi at the end of August 1997. If there were any chance that she were pregnant. Firstly. Diana and his son had visited a villa he owned in Paris with a view to choosing a room "for the baby".172 that Diana had her period while on holiday with her about ten days before she died. It is incomprehensible to me that Diana would have allowed me to carry out such an invasive treatment [deep massage] on her stomach and intestines if she thought she was pregnant…… ‘I have worked with women in the past. the circumstances of the visit were exaggerated to say it lasted two hours and was in the presence of a prominent Italian interior designer. Reuben Murrell. I will explain how I can be so sure of this fact. as well as the things that women would normally say to me about their pregnancy. Secondly. He provided stills from CCTV to prove this and said he had been in the presence of Diana and Dodi for the entirety of their visit and there was no conversation about them coming to live at the villa. This is supported by a direct conversation I had with Diana on board the ‘Jonikal’.‘ Mohammed Fayed's persistence in asserting Diana was pregnant led him to get members of his staff to tell the media that on their final day together. she definitely did not know about it herself. from prior to conception.
Diana's body had been stored in an empty room adjacent to the emergency room where she had been treated at the PitiéSalpêtrière Hospital as the mortuary was on the other side of the hospital grounds and some distance away.A bright flash . giving rise to allegations of suspicious circumstances. Embalming of the body Mohamed Al Fayed alleged that Diana's body was deliberately embalmed soon after her death to ensure that any pregnancy test at post-mortem would produce a false result. Under French law. This comes despite there being no way the hospital staff could have known whether or not Diana was pregnant as a pregnancy test would have been irrelevant to her post crash treatment and accordingly was not carried out. This meant there was very little time to prepare the body for viewing and it was clearly unacceptable to present Diana's body to her family and the President of France in its then state.173 resigned from Mohammed Fayed's employment and initiated an employment tribunal for constructive dismissal after Fayed had successfully sued him for breach of contract because of the CCTV images he supplied to The Sun. In 2004. a Channel 4 documentary. This paperwork was completed but only after the embalming had been carried out. Dry ice and air conditioning units were placed in the room to keep it cool but appeared to have little success. who assured Jean Monceau "that everything would be in order". paperwork is required to be completed before undertaking the embalming of any body likely to be subject to a post-mortem. 5. 6. Faced with this situation. The Diana Conspiracy. the hospital staff decided to press ahead with embalming with only verbal authority from Madame Martine Monteil. President Jacques Chirac and his wife also wished to pay their respects. Diana's two sisters and Prince Charles were scheduled to view the body later that afternoon before bringing it back to England. Senior members of Fayed's staff made derogatory comments about Murrell and Trevor Rees-Jones in their statements to Operation Paget. the local superintendent of police. refuting the conspiracy theories claimed the butler at the villa who gave an interview to the ITV documentary Diana: Secrets Behind the Crash in June 1998 who claimed to have shown the couple around with a view to them living there wasn't even present at the villa on the day as he was on vacation. Operation Paget found that 31 August 1997 was a very hot day in Paris.
however.174 An alternative explanation for the cause of the crash has been reports of a bright white flash just before the car entered the tunnel. Crucially. Furthermore. Other eyewitness testimony made little reference to the appearance of any inexplicable flashes at the crash site. at any time. a strobe light of the type that was alleged to have been used is so powerful that a flash emitted from it would have been bright enough to illuminate a very wide area. The detail of eyewitness testimony was thoroughly reviewed and Operation Paget officers succeeded in uncovering two new witnesses. Several witnesses who would be expected to have seen a blinding flash made no reference to one. Richard Tomlinson made this allegation in media interviews and claimed it was consistent with eyewitness testimony. In any event. The police found that only one eyewitness at the scene of the crash. formed part of MI6 training. a task which would have required his full attention on the road in front of him. but also the driver of the white Fiat Uno. specific reference to seeing a bright flash.A white Fiat Uno and James Andanson Analysis of the wreckage of the Mercedes revealed it had glancing contact with a white Fiat Uno car which left traces of paint on the Mercedes bodywork but extensive attempts by the French police to find the vehicle involved failed. Television documentaries produced by Channel 4 in 2004 and the BBC in 2006 both raised the issue of Levistre's prior criminal record for offences involving dishonesty. The police found that such a tactic never. 7. the pursuing paparazzi and witnesses standing at the road side. He claimed to have seen it in his rear-view mirror and recounted other elements of what he saw in considerable detail while he was negotiating the difficult bend out of the tunnel. who sat in the passenger seat next to him. causing it to swerve and thereby crash into the side of . his testimony was directly contradicted by his then-wife. made a clear. François Levistre. Operation Paget investigated Tomlinson's claim that the use of a powerful strobe light to blind helicopter pilots formed part of MI6 agents' training in the early 1990s and it was apparent this tactic had been used to facilitate the murder of Diana. The essence of the allegations made by Mohammed Fayed were the white Fiat Uno was used by the "security services" to block the road in front of the Mercedes. the detailed crash reconstruction revealed that the chain of events that led to the car unavoidably colliding with the pillar started well before it was at the mouth of the tunnel where the flash is alleged to have been discharged. The Operation Paget report concluded the alleged flash did not happen. It would have likely blinded not only Henri Paul. blinding the driver.
175 the tunnel. Fayed further alleged that the Fiat Uno involved was owned by a French photojournalist named Jean-Paul James Andanson who had photographed Diana while she was at his villa in St. his head was detached and lay between the front seats. There was also a hole in his left temple. seven years later. The Paget report states that when the car was found. Andanson's body was in the driver's seat of the car. He traded it in part exchange with a Fiat dealership near his home in November 1997 for a new car. The white Fiat Uno he owned was in an unroadworthy condition. This alibi was supported by documents related to travel he made from his home on the morning after the accident and statements from his widow and son. 7. The French pathologist concluded this was due to the intense heat of the . Andanson's death was attributed to problems in his private life and evidence was uncovered from his friends and associates that he had talked of suicide long before the death of Diana and he had even mentioned details of the social circumstances in which he would take his life and the method by which he would do it.Possible Suicide James Andanson died in May 2000. Tropez in July 1997.000 km on the clock and had not been maintained for several years before the death of Diana. They reached the same conclusion Operation Paget investigators were to. The French police spent a year after the accident searching for the vehicle and eliminated over 4000 white Fiat Unos from their inquiry.1. the doors were locked with no sign of the car keys. His body was found in a black. Operation Paget concluded it extremely unlikely because of the car's condition and the fact Andanson had so openly disposed of it that it was the one at the scene of the accident in Paris. The official verdict was suicide. Their testimony was consistent with the way Andanson actually took his life. Fayed claimed. Andanson's death in May 2000. burnt-out BMW in a forest in the south of France. Operation Paget found Andanson had a solid alibi for the night of the accident placing him at his home some 175 miles (282 km) south of Paris. was either due to guilt over what he had done or because he was assassinated by the French or British security services to silence him. being nine years old at the time with 370. French police examined James Andanson's car as part of their effort to trace the one that had come into contact with the Mercedes with a view to prosecuting the driver for failing to render assistance. It concluded the threat of prosecution for an imprisonable offence probably deterred the driver from coming forward at the time. Operation Paget decided it would be unlikely renewed enquiries would identify the vehicle involved as such a long period of time had elapsed since the accident.
A break-in at his former workplace in June 2000 alleged to have been carried out by security services was found to be unconnected to his death as no items related to him were stolen. Operation Paget found no evidence Andanson was known to any security service and.CCTV images The absence of CCTV images showing the Mercedes' journey from the hotel to the crash site has been frequently cited as evidence of an organized conspiracy. by Judicial Order. initially by retracing the route several times and drawing up a list of possible locations. Officers in the Police Headquarters Information and Command Centre could continue to view the pictures shown by the traffic camera in real time but could not control it. There was a traffic-monitoring camera above the underpass in the Place de l’Alma itself but this was under the control of la Compagnie de Circulation Urbaine de Paris (Paris Urban Traffic Unit).. The subject of the CCTV cameras is dealt with in Chapter 5 of the Operation Paget report. His report showed that the team identified ten locations of CCTV cameras. On that day. his death was thoroughly investigated by French police. The Independent newspaper published an article stating there were more than 14 CCTV cameras in the Pont de l'Alma underpass. Lieutenant Eric Gigou of the Brigade Criminelle led the team that carried out that work. Mohammed Fayed stated that there were approximately 10 video cameras on the route taken by the Mercedes. Scotland for Public Inquiry in February 2003. since they were principally security cameras facing the entrances to buildings. yet none have recorded footage of the fatal collision. There would be no reason for those in the overnight control room in Paris to be viewing that camera in particular. 8. None of these had any images relevant to the inquiry. In December 2006.176 fire. The break-in was also thoroughly investigated by French police who successfully prosecuted known criminals for carrying it out. That department closed down at about 11 p. he tasked the Brigade Criminelle with identifying all video and photographic images along the route taken by the Mercedes. yet there are no recordings from any of these cameras for the night in question. had no night duty staff and made no recordings. It was also found that a photograph that was published in a book by . Most of the cameras were not maintained by the City of Paris: the owners of the buildings to which they were attached operated them privately. Judge Hervé Stéphan was appointed as Examining Magistrate in this case on 2 September 1997. before the crash.m. including one on the entrance to the tunnel itself. contrary to Fayed's claims. In a submission to the Minister for Justice.
06 a. we'd have been able to save her. as suggested. We would like to think that if she had been wearing a seat belt. Andre Lienhart.177 David Cohen 'Diana. Other sources question if she did in fact use her belt all the time. the car crash was then caused by a bright flash of light aimed at Henri Paul from a passing white Fiat Uno.26 a. suggesting the damage to this seatbelt took place after the accident.m. 9. "What is certain is that she was not wearing a seat belt and this made things worse. The period between the crash and the arrival at the hospital needs to take into account the following: the time taken for emergency services to arrive. The SAMU ambulance carrying the Princess arrived at the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital at 2. Seatbelt There was some media discussion in April 2006 suggesting that Diana was a faithful seat belt user and therefore the fact that both her and Dodi's belts either failed or were not used was sinister and may suggest sabotage. who reviewed the emergency services' response for the French government investigation of the incident. CNN did an analysis of the crash and concluded that injuries would have been minor had the occupants been wearing seat belts.m. In 2005. This alteration had allegedly been carried out by the DST working in co-operation with MI5 and MI6. In this version of events." said Prof. and the actual journey time . 10. Death of a Goddess' and captioned as having been taken just before the car entered the tunnel was in fact taken by a photographer as the car left the back of the Paris Ritz. the Daily Express published an article claiming that the Mercedes had been stolen prior to the crash and altered to render the seat belts dysfunctional. This length of time has prompted much conspiracy-related comment. Follow up enquiries with French investigators found that they had declared all the seatbelts operational at an examination in October 1998. Analysis of the wreckage of the car after its repatriation to England in 2005 by a Forensic Accident Investigator from the Transport Research Laboratory of thirtyfive years experience on behalf of Operation Paget found that all the seatbelts were in good working order with the exception of the right rear one which was for the seat Diana occupied. the time taken by the Sapeurs-Pompiers de Paris to remove the Princess from the damaged car. Transport to the hospital The first call to the emergency services switchboard was logged at 12.
m. London.Conspiracy theories expressed in contemporary art Diana has been depicted a number of times in contemporary art since her death. This included a stop at the Gare d’Austerlitz ordered by Dr Martino because of the drop in the blood pressure of the Princess of Wales and the necessity to deal with it. The decision to transfer the Princess to the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital was taken by Dr Marc Lejay who was on despatch duty in SAMU Control on that night. British artist Tracey Emin.m. The ambulance was travelling slowly on his express instructions. She then went into cardiac arrest.m. Doctor Jean-Marc Martino.m. at the height of her Turner Prize fame.m. 11. Dr Marc Lejay stated: ‘The Hôtel-Dieu hospital on the ‘Ile de la Cité’ is closer but not equipped with heart surgery teams or neurosurgical teams or teams trained to take patients with multiple injuries. She was moved to the SAMU ambulance at 1:18 a. Some artworks have referenced the conspiracy theories. and arrived at the hospital at 2:06 a. Following external cardiopulmonary resuscitation the Princess of Wales’ heart started beating again. arrived at around 12:40 a. Sergeants Xavier Gourmelom and Philippe Boyer of the Sapeurs-Pompiers arrived at around 12:32 a. The doctor was concerned about the Princess of Wales’ blood pressure and the effects on her medical condition of deceleration and acceleration. The Princess was removed from the car at 1:00 a.m.’ Dr Lejay was also aware that Professor Bruno Riou was on duty at the Pitié-Salpêtrière that night and was particularly skilled to treat the Princess of Wales’ injuries. who was at the scene. as well as paying tribute to Diana's compassion. The Hôtel-Dieu was not equipped to deal with the injuries the Princess of Wales had sustained. Police Officers Sébastien Dorzee and Lino Gagliadorne were the first emergency officials to arrive at the scene at around 12:30 a.m.178 from the crash site to the hospital. The PitiéSalpêtrière Hospital was the main reception centre for multiple trauma patients in Paris. In July 1999. in consultation with Dr Derossi. Among the works was a . Dr Jean-Marc Martino supported this view. created a number of monoprint drawings inspired by the public and private life of Diana for a themed exhibition called Temple of Diana held at The Blue Gallery. The SAMU ambulance carrying the Princess of Wales passed the Hôtel-Dieu Hospital on the Ile de la Cité en route to the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital. a specialist in anaesthetics and intensive care treatment and the doctor in charge of the SAMU ambulance.—a journey time of approximately 26 minutes. The ambulance departed the crash scene at 1:41 a. and acknowledging her perceived victimhood.
Alternate formulations of the term conspiracy theory are "global warming hoax" or "global warming fraud. or sometimes CAGW for "catastrophic anthropogenic global warming") is incorrect. And the other who lives down the Whitecross Street. Vine said she was upset that some people. "and I also see myself. Vine destroyed many of these paintings soon after they were created. pregnant and embalmed (2005). and that it is perpetuated for financial or ideological reasons. She put them in a skip as she didn't have enough space to dry nor store the wet paintings. Murdered. British artist Stella Vine provoked media controversy in 2004 when Charles Saatchi bought Hi Paul can you come over I'm really frightened (2003). Vine painted as many as 30 paintings of Diana. It makes perfect sense to know they killed you. "I look at the picture. The only one she kept was later added to Saatchi's collection. Global warming conspiracy theory Global warming conspiracy and global warming conspiracy theory are terms used to refer to the claim that there is no scientific consensus on global warming or that it exists but is incorrect. that the theory of anthropogenic global warming (AGW. One who lived in Kensington Palace. having become fascinated by conspiracy theories into the Princess' tragic car crash which she had read on the Internet. a new Vine painting of Diana." says Vine. reported in The Sun newspaper which condemned it as "sick". as she believe it was not a disrespectful picture but it was in fact a self portrait as much as depiction of Diana: "The picture is about two women."" In 2005. was bought by George Michael for £25. a painting by her of Diana. The work's title came from the thick red text painted across the canvas. a reference to Diana's butler Paul Burrell. didn't like her image of Diana. including her relatives." .000. Princess of Wales.179 delicate sketch of a rose drawn next to the phrase.
Claims The suggestion of a conspiracy to promote the theory of global warming was put forward in a 1990 documentary The Greenhouse Conspiracy broadcast by Channel Four in the United Kingdom on 12 August 1990. Patrick Michaels downplayed the idea. all of the fear." Bailey subsequently conceded that anthropogenic global warming is real. The program was part of the Equinox series. A small cadre of obscure international bureaucrats are hard at work devising a system of 'global governance' that is slowly gaining control over ordinary Americans' lives. declaring that the "debate over whether or not humanity is contributing to global warming" is over. and it asserted that scientists critical of global warming theory were denied funding. Senator James Inhofe (R-Okla) concluded by asking the following question: "With all of the hysteria. . Writing in the National Review in 1997. journalist Ronald Bailey said. all of the phony science. "Militia members are famously worried that black helicopters are practicing maneuvers with blue-helmeted UN troops in a plot to take over America. Although the program uses the word conspiracy in its title. could it be that man-made global warming is the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on the American people?" Inhofe has suggested that supporters of the Kyoto Protocol such as Jacques Chirac are aiming at global governance. and governments a worthy cause".1 Fictional representations • • • • 2 Participants 3 Motives 4 Criticism 5 Counterclaims of conspiracy 1. but certainly a coalition of interests has promoted the greenhouse theory. But the actual peril is more subtle." saying. In a speech given to the US Senate Committee on the Environment and Public Works on July 28. saying. 2003. A Washington Post article describing the views of global warming skeptics quotes retired climatologist William M.180 Contents • 1 Claims ○ 1. Gray as having "his own conspiracy theory. scientists have needed funds. the media a story. entitled "The Science of Climate Change". "It may not quite add up to a conspiracy.
the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration stopped giving him research grants. Gray also cites the ascendancy of Al Gore to the vice presidency as the start of his problems with federal funding.benefit from instilling fear into billions of human beings over the unproven theory of man-made global warming". 2007 issue of Whistleblower magazine. a publication of the conservative WorldNetDaily website. The report challenges man-made global warming claims made by the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and former Vice President Al Gore. and so did NASA. propagandize." Retired geography professor Tim Ball wrote in a February 2007 interview. regulation and protectionism. "Sounds plausible to us." A 2007 Minority Report of the United States Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works (updated in 2009) originally citing support of 400 "dissenting scientists". force conformity and exercise political influence. charitable bodies like Greenpeace which depend for their funding . I’m not a conspiracy theorist and I hate being even pushed toward that. the Cooler Heads Coalition notes that "Hamilton accuses the Lavoisier Group of painting the UN's global warming negotiations as "an elaborate conspiracy in which hundreds of climate scientists have twisted their results to support the 'climate change theory' in order to protect their research funding" and adds. energy companies and investors who stand to make a fortune from scams like carbon trading. which intend to use ‘global warming’ as an excuse for greater taxation. The March 1. In 2009 conservative journalist James Delingpole wrote that "there is now a powerful and very extensive body of vested interests up against him: governments like President Obama’s. and growing to 700 dissenting scientists. According to him. "You’ve got this incestuous little group that is controlling the whole process both through their publications and the IPCC. but I think there is a consensus conspiracy that’s going on. is titled "HYSTERIA: Exposing the secret agenda behind today's obsession with global warming. Commenting on criticism of the Lavoisier Group by Clive Hamilton.181 "He has made a list of 15 reasons for the global warming hysteria. The list includes the need to come up with an enemy after the end of the Cold War. government leaders and environmentalists to find a political cause that would enable them to 'organize." and asserts that "all the main players –from politicians and scientists to big corporations and the United Nations –. and the desire among scientists. Big world government could best lead (and control) us to a better world!'" In this article.
environmental correspondents who need constantly to talk up the threat to justify their jobs. 2. Participants Many of those claimed to be participants in a conspiracy to promote global warming theory appear prominently in other conspiracy theories. in which he stated that a scientific paper submitted to the IPCC did not include the criticizing peer reviews." The Lyndon LaRouche organization claims that a scientific conference in 1975 was the origin of the "Global Warming Hoax". Jacques Chirac Maurice Strong George Soros Mikhail Gorbachev and individuals such as 3. described by Crichton as providing a factual basis for the nonplotline elements of the story. Monckton also appeared in an episode of Conspiracy Theory with Jesse Ventura.182 on public anxiety. 1. These include organizations such as • • • • • • • • • • • • The United Nations The Bilderberg Group The environmental movement The Club of Rome Green Cross International Al Gore Kofi Annan Ed Begley. Jr. which were deliberately omitted.1 Fictional representations The novel State of Fear by Michael Crichton describes a conspiracy by scientists and others to create public panic about global warming. This claim has been endorsed by the right-wing Australian opinion columnist Janet Albrechtsen. Motives . The novel includes 20 pages of footnotes. Former journalist Lord Monckton claims that the draft agreement for the United Nations Climate Change Conference 2009 would establish a communist world government.
and offering the same giddy promise to followers: The delicious prospect of being in the right.183 A number of different. And like environmentalism. the urge to proselytize and faith in big government. anti-American." A desire on the part of conservative political leaders including Margaret Thatcher. every bit as unquestioning as socialism in its heyday. and Helmut Kohl to promote nuclear power while attracting the political support of Green groups A desire on the part of leftwing individuals to garner financial gains for themselves through business dealings related to the global warming agenda.) Environmentalism is neither religion nor science. running things. and sometimes contradictory. shared those same instincts—distrust of private enterprise.. it marched under the banner of a superior morality. It is a political mission. motives have been claimed for a conspiracy to promote the idea of global warming • A desire on the part of the United Nations and its supporters to promote a system of world government or global governance. anti-west ideology which goes hand in hand with anti-globalisation and the belief that everything done by the industrialised world is wicked. "For socialism. at least in its early form. which affect emissions and consequent temperature predictions. A desire on the part of attract financial support climate science researchers to • • • A desire by the government to raise taxes A desire on the part of left-wing political activists to promote an agenda described by Melanie Phillips as a "leftwing. A desire on the part promote socialism: ○ • • • of leftwing political leaders to According to a critical special contribution written by Lawrie McFarlane in Victoria's Times Colonist. (.. animus toward wealth. Proponents of this theory frequently stress the role of Maurice Strong." Czech President Václav Klaus said that "This ideology preaches earth and nature and under the slogans of ○ . technology or population movements. and better still. The agenda to cripple this world is revealed by highly questionable assumptions made by climate modellers about likely developments in economics.
Christine Stewart. there are collateral environmental benefits. According to the 1993 book Science under Siege by Michael Fumento." saying." . those who describe the supposed scientific consensus on global warming as a "hoax". and the.184 their protection – similarly to the old Marxists – wants to replace the free and spontaneous evolution of mankind by a sort of central. we will be doing the right thing – in terms of economic policy and environmental policy. former Canadian Environment Minister for the Liberal Party of Canada. Criticism Critics of claims that scientists and others who promote anthropogenic (man made) global warming are propagating a fraud or hoax believe scientists are "data rigging" or fudging the numbers. "Reading through the technical summary of this draft (IPCC) report. former US Senator Timothy Wirth. planning of the whole world" ○ Nick Minchin. You know the collapse of communism was a disaster for the left. it is clear that no one could go away with the impression that climate change is some conspiratorial hoax by the science establishment.. ○ According to a critical editorial written by Peter Menzies in the Calgary Herald. as some would have us believe. “| ○ 4. Even if the theory of global warming is wrong. Steve Connor links the terms "hoax" and "conspiracy." • Statements made or allegedly made by various supporters of climate change policies have been quoted as giving support to the idea that anthropogenic global warming may be used primarily for political purposes. to sort of de-industrialise the western world. and really they embraced environmentalism as their new religion. said in 1998 that "No matter if the science is all phoney. now global. On the other hand. Australian former leader of the Opposition in the Senate stated on the ABC program 4 Corners that "For the extreme left it [climate change] provides the opportunity to do what they've always wanted to do. (DColo) said that "We've got to ride the global warming issue. "fraud" or even "conspiracy" often object to the use of the terms "conspiracy theory" or "conspiracy theorists" to describe them and their views.
" 5.185 In a piece headed Crichton's conspiracy theory. The documentary The Great Global Warming Swindle received much criticism. United States Secretary of the Interior Bruce Babbitt stated in 1998 that: it’s an unhappy fact that the oil companies and the coal companies in the United States have joined in a conspiracy to hire pseudo scientists to deny the facts. but the science of climate change looks like fact to me. former Chancellor of the Exchequer who is not a scientist and who shows little knowledge of the science but who is party to the creation of a conspiracy theory that questions the motives and integrity of the world scientific community. Critics have also been labeled as "holocaust deniers" by climate scientists and the main stream media. George Monbiot described it as "the same old conspiracy theory that we’ve been hearing from the denial industry for the past ten years". Farming and Rural Affairs.] working to suppress the truth.. there's a rather more credible one documented by the pressure group Greenpeace. the energy companies need to be called to account because what they are doing is un-American in the most basic sense. Counterclaims of conspiracy Some who accept the scientific consensus that humans have been largely responsible for recent and projected warming have similarly accused their opponents of being motivated by financial or ideological interests.. and in some cases have used the term "conspiracy" to describe this.. Harold Evans described Crichton's theory as being "in the paranoid political style identified by the renowned historian Richard Hofstadter.. which presumably now includes virtually the entire scientific community and everyone from Shell to Greenpeace and The Sun to Science magazine. Similarly. "The most prominent person in the programme was Lord Lawson. in response to James Delingpole. David Miliband presented a rebuttal of the main points of the film and stated "There will always be people with conspiracy theories trying to do down the scientific consensus." John Houghton said. especially as represented by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).." UK Secretary of State for Environment." namely the funding by ExxonMobil of groups opposed to the theory of global warming ." and went on to suggest that "if you happen to be in the market for a conspiracy theory today." Further evidence of the energy industry funding climate change denial has been produced by Greenpeace with their Exxon Secrets . and that is part of scientific and democratic debate. Monbiot stated that his Spectator article was "the usual conspiracy theories [. They are compromising our future by misrepresenting the facts by suborning scientists onto their payrolls and attempting to mislead the American people.
.186 project. ExxonMobil announced in 2008 that it would cut funding to many of the groups that were denying the science behind global warming but continues to fund over "two dozen other organisations who question the science of global warming or attack policies to solve the crisis.9m to 39 groups that the society said "misrepresented the science of climate change by outright denial of the evidence"." A survey carried out by the UK's Royal Society found that in 2005 ExxonMobil distributed $2.
1 Comparison between The Maurice Joly's Dialogue in Hell 5. and Protocols and • 5 First Russian language editions ○ ○ • 6 Historical investigations ○ 6.1 Emergence in Russia .187 The Protocols of the Elders of Zion Conspiracy Theory The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion (Russian: "Протоколы сионских мудрецов" or "Сионские протоколы") is one of many titles given to an antisemitic text purporting to describe a plan to achieve global domination by the Jewish people. a series of articles printed in The Times in 1921 revealed that much of the material was directly plagiarized from earlier works of political satire unrelated to Jews.1 The Protocols in the West • • • 2 Images of early editions of the Protocols 3 Plagiarism Sources and Origin of the Plot 4 Literary forgery ○ ○ 4.2 Hermann Goedsche 5. Contents • 1 Publication history ○ 1.1 Maurice Joly 4. usage.2 Conspiracy references publications. Following its first public publication in 1903 in the Russian Empire.
in a work which was translated into English and published in 2004. a Black Hundreds newspaper owned by Pavel Krushevan. however.2 Stolypin's fraud investigation. In 1906 it appeared in pamphlet form edited by G. where he treats his subject as Apocrypha.4 German language publications 6.1.188 ○ ○ ○ ○ • 6. the front matter and back matter are needed to explain its alleged origin. 1921 6.1 The Berne Trial. Common to all three texts is the idea that Jews aim for world domination. a book by Serge Nilus. blamed by the monarchists for the defeat in the Russo-Japanese War and the 1905 Russian Revolution.5 Middle East 7.2 The Basel Trial 7 Switzerland ○ ○ • • 8 Germany 9 Contemporary imprints 1. Since The Protocols are presented as merely a document. The anti-Semitic tract was published in Znamya. This has been done by the Italian scholar.3 The Times exposes a forgery.1.Publication history The Protocols appeared in print in the Russian Empire as early as 1903. The general claim is that the document was stolen from a secret Jewish organization. are mutually inconsistent. These first three (and subsequently more) Russian language imprints were published and circulated in the Russian Empire during 1903–1906 period as a tool for scapegoating Jews. 1905 6. of his Six . It appeared again in 1905 as a final chapter (Chapter XII) of a second edition of Velikoe v malom i antikhrist (The Great in the Small & Antichrist). As fiction in the genre of literature the tract was further analyzed by Umberto Eco in his novel Foucault's Pendulum in 1988 (English translation in 1989). Butmi. Cesare G. one is forced to restore a purported original edition. The diverse imprints. as a serialized set of articles. "Fictional Protocols". 1934–1935 7. Since the alleged original stolen manuscript does not exist.1 Krushevan and Nilus editions 6. De Michelis in 1998. and in 1994 in chapter 6.2 English language imprints 6.
But all references to "Jews" were replaced with references to Bolsheviki as an expose by the journalist and subsequently highly respected Columbia University School of Journalism dean Carl W. an entity created and headed by Henry Hamilton Beamish. the First Red Scare (1917–1920). in typescript form. a political weapon used against the Bolshevikis who were depicted as overwhelmingly Jews. Most versions substantially involve "protocols". The Protocols has been proven to be a literary forgery and hoax as well as a clear case of plagiarism. This imprint was allegedly a translation by Victor E. specifically diplomatic and military. this text was carried along and assumed a new purpose. It also appeared in 1919 in the Public Ledger as a pair of serialized newspaper articles. Ackerman. Marsden. causing white Russians to flee to the West. The text circulated in 1919 in American government circles. Images of editions of Protocols early the . The purpose was to discredit the October Revolution. It was now a tool. Until then The Protocols remained obscure. of Zion. or Sages. a copy of which is archived by the Hoover Institute. or minutes of a speech given in secret involving Jews who are organized as Elders. it was now an instrument for blaming Jews for the Russian Revolution.189 Walks in the Fictional Woods. 2. and bring the downfall of Vladimir Lenin's regime. who died in October 1920. As the 1917 Russian Revolution unfolded. and underlies 24 protocols that are supposedly followed by the Jewish people. a successor to The Britons. prevent the West from recognizing the Soviet Union. 1. In 1923 there appeared an anonymously edited pamphlet by the Britons Publishing Society.1 The Protocols in the West In the United States The Protocols are to be understood in the context of the Red scare. allegedly executing the "plan" embodied in The Protocols.
At the Door.190 The front piece of a 1912 edition utilizing occult symbols. It is Near. An edition from 1917 by Serge Nilus .
Joly. a monarchist and legitimist. Company of Chicago A 1934 edition by the Patriotic Publishing 3. The source material for the forgery was the synthesis of an 1864 book of fiction by French political satirist Maurice Joly. 1920 edition from New York. Napoleon III was represented by Machiavelli and was depicted as secretly plotting to rule the world. 4. In the book. Joly's book was written as a veiled attack on the political ambitions of Napoleon III. had been imprisoned as a direct result of his book's publication.191 Texts drawn The Protocols appeared in the Public Ledger as anti-Bolshevik propaganda in 1919. Literary forgery . Plagiarism Sources and Origin of the Plot Implicated in the creation of the forgery was Pyotr Ivanovich Rachkovsky. titled Dialogue aux enfers entre Machiavel et Montesquieu or Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu and a chapter from an 1868 book of fiction entitled "Biarritz" by antisemitic German novelist Hermann Goedsche. which had been translated into Russian in 1872. head of the Paris office of the Russian Secret Police during the same time period.
Joly's work attacks the political ambitions of Napoleon III using Machiavelli as a diabolical plotter in Hell as a stand-in for Napoleon's views. where Cagliostro and company plot the affair of the diamond necklace. With Biarritz appearing at about the same time as The Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu. It is also one of the best-known and most-discussed examples of literary forgery.192 The forgery contains numerous elements typical of what is known in literature as a "False Document": a document that is deliberately written to fool the reader into believing that what is written is truthful and accurate even though. 4. Machiavelli describes a series of steps that he intends to take to become ruler of the world. written by the French satirist Maurice Joly. The forgery is also an early example of "Conspiracy Theory" literature. In the chapter. "Goedsche was a postal clerk and a spy for the Prussian secret police. etc. change the traditional social order. especially in detailing the outcome of the cabal's secret meeting. "The Jewish Cemetery in Prague and the Council of Representatives of the Twelve Tribes of Israel". with analysis and proof of its fraudulent origin going as far back as 1921. Written mainly in the first person plural. Biarritz (in English as To Sedan) contributed another idea that may have inspired the scribe behind the Protocols. the Devil appears before those who have gathered on behalf of the Twelve Tribes of Israel to plan a "Jewish conspiracy". it is not. Dialogue aux enfers entre Machiavel et Montesquieu (Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu). It does not contain specifics.2 Hermann Goedsche Hermann Goedsche's 1868 novel. père's Joseph Balsamo. truisms and platitudes on how to take over the world: take control of the media and the financial institutions. Goedsche wrote about a nocturnal meeting between members of a mysterious rabbinical cabal. the text embodies generalizations. His depiction is also similar to the scene in Alexandre Dumas. 4. in actuality.1 Maurice Joly Elements of the text in the Protocols were plagiarized from the 1864 book. describing how at midnight. He had been forced to leave the postal work due to his part in forging evidence in the prosecution against the . In the book. it is possible that Goedsche was inspired by the ideas in Joly's pamphlet.
my press These newspapers. while also producing literary work under the pen name Sir John Retcliffe. then in 20 after 20 years. order to cover the percentage. if a loan is at 5%. Thus. after 60 years triple: yet it In 40 years it will have paid remains debtor for the entire twice.1 Comparison between The Protocols and Maurice Joly's Dialogue in Hell The Protocols 1–19 closely follow the order of Maurice Joly's The Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu 1–17. Petersburg as a separate pamphlet of purported non-fiction. the State. "The Jewish Cemetery in Prague". — Montesquieu. If a loan is at 5%. When 40 years have equal to that of the loan in expired it has paid double. to all the different shades of each of which will be feeling opinion throughout the country. the pulse of varying public . like the will have a hundred arms. Goedsche began a career as a conservative columnist. In some places. In 1871. but the loan will still capital sum. has paid out a years the Government would have sum equal to the borrowed unnecessarily paid out a sum capital. In 1872. appeared in St. trained or not. remain as an unpaid debt. and Indian god Vishnu. translated into Russian." Following his dismissal. François Bournand. 77 Like the god Vishnu. For example: Dialogue in Hell Between The Protocols of the Elders of Machiavelli and Montesquieu Zion How are loans made? By the issue A loan is an issue of Government which entails an of bonds entailing on the paper to pay interest Government the obligation to pay obligation interest proportionate to the amounting to a percentage of the capital it has been paid. 209 — Protocols. p. 5. will be these arms will give their hands possessed of hundreds of hands. and in 60 thrice that amount.193 Democratic leader Benedict Waldeck in 1849. p. the story was being presented in France as serious history. First Russian language editions 5. reproduced a speech from the chapter as that of a Chief Rabbi "John Readcliff". the plagiarism is incontrovertible to any observer. total sum of the borrowed money. in his Les Juifs et nos contemporains (1896). Dialogues.
207 Dialogues. — Protocols. In 1921. dates. the semi-messianic idea that carries strong connotations of Jesus. textual references to the "King of the Jews". philo-Semitism and antisemitism. it was "self-generating. American and Japanese. The great importance of The Protocols lies in its permitting antisemites to reach beyond their traditional circles and find a large international audience. 65 In addition to mentioning Vishnu. including capitalism and communism. p. The forgery poisoned public life wherever it appeared. Right and Left. The purportedly Jewish authorship also helps to make the book more convincing. . 141 Dialogues. or issues are specified — has been one key to this wide-ranging success. democracy and tyranny — made it possible for The Protocols to reach out to all: rich and poor. Christian and Muslim. opinion. a process that continues to this day. Each of our hundred arms like the Indian hundred hands will hold one idol. it became clear that the Protocols was not an authentic document. when Philip Graves published articles in The Times which showed the writers of the Protocols had plagiarized from the Dialogue. p. — Montesquieu. — Protocols. p. and each of your fingers spring of the social machinery touches a spring. a blueprint that migrated from one conspiracy to another.194 — Machiavelli.2 Conspiracy references According to Daniel Pipes. 43 Now I understand the figure of Our Government will resemble the the god Vishnu. of State. Its embrace of contradiction — that to advance. improbable in the Jewish religious literature." The book's vagueness — almost no names. Jews use all tools available. you have a Hindu god Vishnu. as this term has been avoided in the Judaic tradition since the schism between Judaism and Christianity. and the lack of Talmudic citations that would be expected in it. 5. p. further suggest the author was not well-versed in Jewish culture.
and The chapter "In the Jewish Cemetery in Prague" from Goedsche's Biarritz. Radziwill's account was supported by Russian historian Mikhail Lepekhine. In 1921 Princess Catherine Radziwill gave a private lecture in New York. The author . with its strong antisemitic theme containing the alleged rabbinical plot against the European civilization. De Michelis studies early Russian publications of the Protocols. Novoye Vremya (Новое Время . or even.The New Times). In 1944 German writer Konrad Heiden identified Golovinski as an author of the Protocols.1 Emergence in Russia usage. "extra-dimensional entities. Freemasons. "Jews are everywhere". in the opinion of David Icke. The Protocols were first mentioned in the Russian press in April 1902. "Jews obey a central authority.195 Pipes notes that the Protocols emphasizes recurring themes of conspiratorial antisemitism: "Jews always scheme". The Grand Inquisitor and The Possessed) on Golovinski's writings." 6.Historical publications. and reappears repeatedly in contemporary conspiracy literature. was translated into Russian as a separate pamphlet in 1872. "Jews are behind every institution". The article was written by a famous conservative publicist Mikhail Menshikov as a part of his regular series "Letters to Neighbors" ("Письма к ближним") and was titled "Plots against Humanity". who published his findings in November 1999 in the French newsweekly L'Express. Italian scholar Cesare G. Ukrainian scholar Vadim Skuratovsky offers extensive literary. She claimed that the Protocols were a forgery compiled in 19041905 by Russian journalists Matvei Golovinski and ManasevichManuilov at the direction of Pyotr Rachkovsky. by the Saint Petersburg newspaper. historical and linguistic analysis of the original text of the Protocols and traces the influences of Fyodor Dostoyevsky's prose (in particular. In his book The Non-Existent Manuscript." The Protocols is widely considered influential in the development of other conspiracy theories. Lepekhine considers the Protocols a part of a scheme to persuade Tsar Nicholas II that the modernization of Russia was really a Jewish plot to control the world. investigations 6. and "Jews are close to success. including the Protocols. the Priory of Sion. the shadowy 'Elders'". Chief of the Russian secret service in Paris. Some recent editions proclaim that the "Jews" depicted in the Protocols are a cover identity for other conspirators such as the Illuminati. such as Jim Marrs' Rule by Secrecy.
saying the Protocols were the work of the 1902–1903 meetings of the Elders.1.196 described his meeting with a lady (Yuliana Glinka. which translates as "The Great within the Small: The Coming of the Anti-Christ and the Rule of Satan on Earth". came to the conclusion that the Protocols first appeared in Paris in antisemitic circles around 1897–1898. 6. the Philadelphia Public Ledger published excerpts of an English language translation as the "Red . The person who gave me this manuscript guaranteed it to be a faithful translation of the original documents that were stolen by a woman from one of the highest and most influential leaders of the Freemasons at a secret meeting somewhere in France — the beloved nest of Freemasonic conspiracy. Sergei Nilus published the full text of the Protocols in Chapter XII. 1905 A subsequent secret investigation ordered by Pyotr Stolypin. When Nicholas II learned of the results of this investigation. the newly appointed chairman of the Council of Ministers. Krushevan had initiated the Kishinev pogrom four months earlier. 1919. a good cause cannot be defended by dirty means. in serialized form. numerous reprints proliferated. but after reading some excerpts Menshikov became quite skeptical about their origin and did not publish them. I succeeded through an acquaintance of mine (the late Court Marshal Alexei Nikolayevich Sukotin of Chernigov) in getting a manuscript that exposed with unusual perfection and clarity the course and development of the secret Jewish Freemasonic conspiracy.S. a Saint Petersburg daily newspaper. in Znamya. held in 1897 in Basel. but contradicting his own prior statement that he had received his copy in 1901: In 1901. according to some sources) of his book. which would bring this wicked world to its inevitable end. Velikoe v malom i antikhrist. from August 28 to September 7 (O. When it was pointed out that the First Zionist Congress had been open to the public and was attended by many non-Jews. under Pavel Krushevan.) 1903.1 Krushevan and Nilus editions The Protocols were published at the earliest. of the second edition (or third. Nilus changed his story.2 Stolypin's fraud investigation. the final chapter (pages 305–417). or because of the "good cause". He claimed it was the work of the First Zionist Congress. implored him to get familiar with the documents later known as the Protocols. In 1905. he requested: "The Protocols should be confiscated. 6." Despite the order.1. after telling him about her mystical revelations.2 English language imprints On October 27 and 28. as it is known now) who. Switzerland. 6.
It proves that the Jews of the world have no intention of settling in Palestine or any separate country. It also demonstrates that the Jews are now a world menace. claiming his assistants had duped him. This 1934 text circulates most widely in the English-speaking world. The production of this uncredited compilation was a 300page book. The author of the articles was the paper's correspondent at the time. 6. It proves that Dr. In 1934. Ford cited evidence of a Jewish threat: "The only statement I care to make about the Protocols is that they fit in with what is going on. On May 8. 1920 remark at a banquet: "A beneficent protection which God has instituted in the life of the Jew is that He has dispersed him all over the world". a translation of some passages of which appeared in the Jewish Chronicle of July 14. the commentary must have been written at least two years after Marsden's death. in The Dearborn Independent." In 1927. and that their annual prayer that they may all meet "Next Year in Jerusalem" is merely a piece of their characteristic make-believe.000 copies. Accordingly. and that the Aryan races will have to domicile them permanently out of Europe. This quote occurs on page 138. 1920. a newspaper he owned. They are 16 years old. published a series of antisemitic articles titled "The International Jew: The World's Foremost Problem". In the United States. from 1920 to 1922. It proves that the desire for a "National Home" in Palestine is only camouflage and an infinitesimal part of the Jew's real object. who later became the head of the journalism department at Columbia University. On the previous page. He remained an admirer of Nazi Germany.197 Bible. 1922". however. 1921 . In 1921. the courts ordered Ford to retract his publication and apologize. as well as on the internet. and. The "Text and Commentary" concludes with a comment on Haim Weizman's October 6. the nameless commentator has the following: "There has been recently published a volume of Theodor Herzl's Diaries. Ackerman. he complied. an anonymous editor expanded the compilation with "Text and Commentary" (pages 136– 141). and they have fitted the world situation up to this time. Marsden. is credited with the following assertion: It proves that the Learned Elders exist. however. It consists of substantial liftings of excerpts of articles from Ford's antisemitic periodical The Dearborn Independent. who was dead by then.3 The Times exposes a forgery. Carl W. an inauthentic expanded edition of the twelfth chapter of Nilus's 1905 book on the coming of the anti-Christ. an article in The Times followed German translation and appealed for an inquiry into what it called an "uncanny note of prophecy"." deleting all references to the purported Jewish authorship and re-casting the document as a Bolshevik manifesto. Henry Ford sponsored the printing of 500. Weizmann knows all about them.
Philip Graves. discovered 'the source' of the documentation ultimately provided to The Times. a lecturer in economic history of Sheffield University. 1921.198 In 1920-1921. who discovered the plagiarism from the work of Maurice Joly. the editors of The Times wrote. Grose writes that The Times extended a loan to the source. He has forwarded us a copy of the French book from which the plagiarism is made. Allen Dulles. the history of the concepts found in the Protocols was traced back to the works of Goedsche and Jacques CrétineauJoly by Lucien Wolf (an English Jewish journalist). identified the émigré as Michael Raslovleff. Despite this widespread and extensive debunking. "our Constantinople Correspondent presents for the first time conclusive proof that the document is in the main a clumsy plagiarism. an entire book documenting the hoax was published in the United States by Herman Bernstein. whose friend I have never been." The New York Times reprinted the articles on September 4. and published in London in August 1921. a Russian émigré who refused to be identified. But a dramatic exposé occurred in the series of articles in The Times by its Constantinople reporter. According to writer Peter Grose. In the same year." In the first article of Graves' series. a self-identified antisemite. the Protocols continued to be regarded as important factual evidence by antisemites. . Colin Holmes. who was in Constantinople developing relationships in post-Ottoman political structures. with the understanding the loan would not be repaid. titled "A Literary Forgery". who gave the information to Graves so as not to "give a weapon of any kind to the Jews.
It appeared in January 1920 as a part of a larger antisemitic tract dated 1919.5Middle East . 1921 6. 6.4 German language publications The first and "by far the most important" German translation was by Gottfried Zur Beek (pseudonym of Ludwig Müller von Hausen). Alfred Rosenberg's 1923 edition "gave a forgery a huge boost". and Kaiser Wilhelm II had portions of the book read out aloud to dinner guests". "The Hohenzollern family helped defray the publication costs.199 The Times exposed the Protocols as a forgery on August 16–18. After The Times discussed the book respectfully in May 1920 it became a bestseller.
The court declared the Protocols to be forgeries. Working on behalf of the defense was German anti-Semitic propagandist Ulrich Fleischhauer. 7. On November 1.Switzerland 7. a Russian émigré. The court refused to impose the fees of defence of the acquitted defendants to the plaintiffs. this time as a book. The plaintiffs (the Swiss Jewish Association and the Jewish Community of Berne) were represented by Hans Matti and Georges Brunschvig. on October 29. plagiarisms. based on his testimony. The first translation by an Arab Muslim was also published in Cairo. The Protocols of the Elders of Zion: A Proved Forgery. to the total state costs of the trial (Fr. did not violate the statute at issue because they were "political publications" and not "immoral (obscene) publications (Schundliteratur)" in the strict sense of the law. 1937 the defendants appealed the verdict to the Obergericht (Cantonal Supreme Court) of Berne. that the forgery of the Protocols was not questionable and expressed regret that the law did not provide adequate protection for Jews from this sort of literature. the capital of Switzerland. the very Protocols that. but only in 1951. 1934–1935 The selling of the Protocols (edited by German antisemite Theodor Fritsch) by the National Front during a political manifestation in the Casino of Berne on June 13.1 The Berne Trial. though. harmful as they have been and will be. 1934. and the acquitted Theodor Fischer had to pay 100 Fr. and obscene literature. Judge Walter Meyer. while false. 28'000) that were eventually paid by the Canton of . a Christian who had not heard of the Protocols earlier. A panel of three judges acquitted them. anti-Bolshevik and antiFascist who exposed numerous Okhrana agents provocateurs in the early 1900s. the time will come when nobody will be able to understand how in 1935 nearly a dozen sane and responsible men were able for two weeks to mock the intellect of the Bern court discussing the authenticity of the so-called Protocols. 1935. holding that the Protocols.200 A translation made by an Arab Christian appeared in Cairo in 1927 or 1928. served as a witness at the Berne Trial. 1933led to the Berne Trial in the Amtsgericht (district court) of Berne. Vladimir Burtsev. two defendants (Theodore Fischer and Silvio Schnell) were convicted of violating a Bernese statute prohibiting the distribution of "immoral. On May 19. obscene or brutalizing" texts while three other defendants were acquitted. The presiding judge's opinion stated. said in conclusion: I hope. helped by Emil Raas. are nothing but laughable nonsense. In 1938 in Paris he published a book.
201 Berne.2 The Basel Trial A similar trial in Switzerland took place at Basel. the United States. the destructive inflation.. This decision gave grounds for later allegations that the appeal court "confirmed authenticity of the Protocols" which is contrary to the facts. At the same time. they had sensational popularity and large sales in the 1920s and 1930s. Only in 1942 a central Swiss Criminal Law was introduced.Germany The Protocols also became a part of the Nazi propaganda effort to justify persecution of the Jews. . It was made required reading for German students. To what extent the whole existence of this people is based on a continuous lie is shown incomparably by the Protocols of the Wise Men of Zion.. and England. A view favorable to the pro-Nazi defendants is reported in an appendix to Leslie Fry's Waters Flowing Eastward. Nora Levin states that "Hitler used the Protocols as a manual in his war to exterminate the Jews": Despite conclusive proof that the Protocols were a gross forgery. Jewish efforts concentrated on the Berne Trial because Bernese law seemed to offer better chances for their concern. 1936 these proceedings ended with a settlement. and since 1995 Art. Hitler refers to the Protocols in Mein Kampf: . The Swiss Frontists Alfred Zander and Eduard Rüegsegger distributed the Protocols (edited by the German Gottfried zur Beek) in Switzerland. 7. Jules Dreyfus-Brodsky and Marcus Cohen sued them for insult to Jewish honor. the hunger. A more scholarly work on the trial is in a 139 page monograph by Urs Lüthi. In The Holocaust: The Destruction of European Jewry 1933–1945. 261 bis (against racial discrimination) should prevent discrimination and racial propaganda. 8. They were translated into every language of Europe and sold widely in Arab lands. chief rabbi Marcus Ehrenpreis of Stockholm (who also witnessed at the Berne Trial) sued Alfred Zander who contended that Ehrenpreis himself had said that the Protocols were authentic (referring to the foreword of the edition of the Protocols by the German antisemite Theodor Fritsch). But it was in Germany after World War I that they had their greatest success. There they were used to explain all of the disasters that had befallen the country: the defeat in the war. In June 5.
202 so infinitely hated by the Jews. The exception to this is the Middle East. and Colonel Muammar al-Gaddafi of Libya. and Hamas. governments or political leaders in most parts of the world have generally avoided claims that The Protocols represent factual evidence of a real Jewish conspiracy. since the defeat of Nazi Germany and fascist Italy in WWII.. King Faisal of Saudi Arabia. one of the President Arifs of Iraq. where a large number of Arab and Muslim regimes and leaders have endorsed them as authentic. 9. . Sheikh Ekrima Sa'id Sabri. At the height of World War II. to the education ministry of Saudi Arabia.Contemporary imprints While there is continued popularity of The Protocols in nations from South America to Asia. [. They are based on a forgery." In Norman Cohn's words. the Frankfurter Zeitung moans and screams once every week: the best proof that they are authentic. and it was studied in German classrooms after the Nazis came to power.. Past endorsements of The Protocols from Presidents Gamal Abdel Nasser and Anwar Sadat of Egypt. it served as the Nazis' "warrant for genocide". Hitler endorsed it in his speeches from August 1921 on. the Nazi Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels proclaimed: "The Zionist Protocols are as up-to-date today as they were the day they were first published. among other political and intellectual leaders of the Arab world. are echoed by 21st century endorsements from the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem.] the important thing is that with positively terrifying certainty they reveal the nature and activity of the Jewish people and expose their inner contexts as well as their ultimate final aims.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.