Self tuning controller

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Self tuning controller

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11-17, 1999

Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería

Lima - Perú

NONLINEAR PROCESSES EXPOSED TO NONLINEAR

DISTURBANCES

Arturo Rojas-Moreno

Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, Perú, arojas@uni.edu.pe

Luis Lecina-Sesen

Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, España, luis_lecina@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT

This paper develops a procedure for designing a self-tuning-controller (STC) with the

capability of controlling single-input-single-output (SISO) nonlinear processes operating

under the presence of nonlinear disturbances. Such processes can be represented by

nonlinear differential equations, where the nonlinear terms complicate the analytical aspects

of modeling and controller design. However, based on the corresponding linear process

model, we can form a discrete Self-Tuning Control System (STCS), in which is possible to

employ linear control algorithms. Modeling errors should be corrected by the estimation

procedure of the STCS. An application is provided to demonstrate the validity of the design

approach: controlling a nonlinear position process exposed to nonlinear disturbances.

1 INTRODUCTION

Adaptive control systems adjust their behavior to the changing properties of controlled processes and their

signals. This is unlike fixed control systems which are characterized by a control law that does not change with

time. Research on adaptive controllers has emphasized in two approaches: Model-reference adaptive controllers

and self-tuning controllers. This paper uses the configuration of the STCS depicted in Fig. 1. Such a STCS

combines in its design a parameter estimation method (the Improved Recursive Least Squares (IRLS)), a

process model representation, and the control law (the Proportional-Integral Linear-Quadratic State-Space

Feedback Controller (PI-LQSSFC)). The control objective of the STC is to choose an actual forcing function

capable of minimizing th difference between process output and reference signal.

Fig.1 Configuration of a self-tuning control system.

The STCS depicted in Fig. 1 operates as follows: After every sampling time, the estimated parameter vector

can be updated using the data provided by process input U and process output Y. The elements of can be

used to recover the linear process model, which permit the estimation of the state vector of the process model

(using a Kalman filter), and the reference value Uo of the actual control law U. Such estimates can be used to

compute the residual control law u and update the actual control law U from the relation U = Uo +u.

This paper is organized as follows. Section 2 deals with the problem of modeling nonlinear processes using linear

models. Procedures for estimating on-line process model parameters and states are developed in section 3, while

the control algorithm of the STC is derived in section 4. Section 5 presents the procedure for designing a STCS.

An application is provided in section 6: Controlling a nonlinear position process.

where (of order n) and U(t) (of order one) are the state vector and control law, respectively. The nonlinear

function may also contain disturbances on states. From the equation (1), it is possible to obtain the

following linear model representation:

where the subscript c stands for continuous, Ac is the state matrix of order n×n, Bc is the control matrix of order

n×1, Cc is the output matrix of order 1×n, and DAc, DBc, and DCc are the corresponding bounded uncertainties

with proper dimensions. Also, is a nonlinear disturbance vector on states of order n, is a

nonlinear output disturbance of order one, and is the process output of order one. The non-disturbed

nominal (or certain) process can be obtained setting all uncertainties and disturbances in equation (1) to zero. By

sampling such a nominal model, we can obtain the following representation:

where k is the discrete time. Employing the relations: y = Y-Yo , x = X-Xo , and u = U-Uo , where the superscript

o denotes and average value, we can obtain:

3 ESTIMATION PROCEDURES

This section presents procedures to estimate on-line process model parameters and process states.

For estimation of the process parameters, the state-space description given by equation (3) has to be rearranged

to the following form:

where the information or measurement vector [(y)\vec] contains present and past values of the process input u

and process output y, and the vector [(q)\vec] contains the parameters to be estimated. The corresponding

polynomial representation has the form given in equation (5). By employing relations y = Y-Yo and u = U-Uo in

equation (5), we can obtain the following polynomial equations:

In equation (9), the order of the resulting information and parameter vectors have increased by one. The new

information vector contains present and past values of the actual process input U and output Y, and

the new parameter C to be estimated on-line. For q = 1, equation (8) represents the steady state condition of C.

For such a condition, the reference value takes on the following form:

The basic RLS algorithm presents a number of potential problems that could affect the final design of a STC.

This paper employs the IRLS method proposed in [3], which is an improvement of the basic RLS. For designing

STC's, such a method can be used to estimate on-line process model parameters using actual measurements

(equation (9)) instead of residual ones (equation (6)). The IRLS method can be implemented as follows:

1. The initial parameter vector can be obtained using the valued parameters of the process model given

by equation (3), section 2.

2. The initial value of the parameter C can be obtained using equation (8) with q = 1.

3. The initial covariance matrix P may have the form: P = ÃI, where I is the identity matrix and Ã >> 1.

4. Rearrange equation (3) to the following form:

5. Compute:

6. Determine the matrix Ni(k) applying Cholesky factorization on: Ni(k)Ni(k)T = P(k).

7. Determine the scaled matrix S(k) that can minimize the condition number of the product S(k)N(k) by

choosing sjj = 1/njj, where the njj are the absolute row-sums of N.

8. Compute:

9. Implement the criteria to stop estimation and to find the new scaled matrix Nnew as follows: If tt £ t

(lower bound), stop estimation. Otherwise, if tt ³ k (upper bound), determine Nnew(k) from the relation

PS = NnewNnewT and the elements nnewjj (absolute row-sums of Nnew(k)). Also, determine the

diagonal matrix Snew with elements snewjj = 1/nnewii, and the matrix PnewS = SnewPSSnew. Finally,

update P = PnewS.

We can obtain from equation (4) the following nominal disturbed process:

During the estimation procedure, the parameter vector becomes the estimated parameter vector .

On using such estimates, we can recover the elements of the estimated matrices and in order to

obtain the estimated version of equation (4) as follows:

where the state estimates and can be obtained using a Kalman filter [2]) with observation

update:

where S(k) = S T(k) is the unique positive-definite solution to the following associated discrete matrix Riccatti

equation:

where Q(k) and X(k) are the positive-definite covariances of the disturbances and w respectively.

It is well-known [2] that the proportional LQSSFC is a gain matrix Kx, such that the feedback control law

minimizes the following cost function:

where the matrix Q = QT ³ 0 is positive-semidefinite and the matrix R > 0 is positive-definite. The gain Kx is

given by:

where S is the unique positive-definite solution to the following associated discrete matrix Riccati equation:

To improve the performance of the proportional LQSFC, it is possible to add integral action to the controller.

Let us define the variable z(k) as the integral (summation) of the system error as follows:

therefore:

and the augmented state space representation takes on the following form:

where the superscript a stands for augmented. The vector and matrices , , and take on the

following form:

Hence, the problem is to find the gain matrix such that the feedback control law

minimizes the following cost function:

In equation (25), Sa is the unique positive-definite solution to the following associated discrete matrix Riccati

equation:

The procedure for designing the STCS depicted in Fig. 1 is as follows: Using all the information available about

the nonlinear process, determine its linear process model (section 2). Following, implement the IRLS method

(subsection 3.1) for estimating process model parameters, and implement the procedure developed in subsection

3.2 for estimating process model states. Next, implement the residual control law u(k) given by equation (27),

compute the reference vector Uo (k) using equation (10), and update the actual control law using the relation

U(k) = u(k)+Uo (k). Finally, determine the performance-oriented parameters R and Qa for satisfactory operation

of the process.

6 APPLICATION

Fig. 2 depicts a nonlinear position plant: a DC servo motor (with permanent magnet and gear reduction

mechanism) driving a nonlinear load. Such a load, a metal rod attached to the motor shaft, is able to rotate (like a

robot manipulator) in a plane perpendicular to the shaft. Fig. 3 shows the block diagram of the nonlinear plant.

The notation employed in Figs. 2 and 3 has the following meaning: q is the controlled angular position; Y is the

the position in volt; K = 2×pi/512 volt/rad/s is the sensitivity of the position transducer; n = 19.74 is the gear

train radio; NB = 1 rad is the backlash due to the gear train; Nm is the torque required to

overcome the Coulombic friction with KC = 0.2 Nms; TL = LMg Nm is the nonlinear load torque due to the

rod that possesses a mass of M = 0.06377 Kg and a length of L = 0.776 m; JT = 0.0139 Kg-m2 is the total

moment of inertia referred to the motor; FT = 7.05×10-5 Nms is the total linear friction referred to the motor; Ra

= 7.38 ohm and La » 0 are the resistance and inductance armature of the motor, respectively; Kb = 0.0310352

Nm/A is the torque constant of the motor; Kv = 31.0352×10-3 volt/rad/seg is the back EMF of the motor; A =

14.9 is the gain of the power amplifier.

Fig.3 Block diagram of the nonlinear position process.

The designed STC must be able to control the angular position of the rod under the presence of parameter

uncertainties and variable load. Clockwise rotation of the rod, starting from its resting position (with its free end

oriented to the earth surface), originates negative angular positions.

The components of the implemented position control system depicted in Fig. 4 are: The actuator, that includes a

PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) signal generator and a H-type PWM-amplifier; the DC servo motor with

permanent magnet and commutation brushes; the sensor block, that includes an optical encoder that senses

angular position and its sign; a Lab-PC+ Input/Output interface; and, a compatible PC with Pentium

microprocessor. The sensor block is able to transmit the information in form of two pulse trains, one of them

leading by 90 degrees to the other;

where the nonlinear functions f(.) and h(u) represent the Coulombic friction and the motor saturation,

respectively, and u(t) is the continuous-time control law For modeling purposes, we can assume that senq » q.

Experimental results will demonstrate that modeling errors are corrected by the estimation procedure.

The terms f and h in equation (28) can affect the on-line computation of the control law u. On using the relation r

= u-f-h in equation (28), its corresponding difference equation takes on the form:

where a1 = -1.9641, a2 = 0.9614, b1 = 0.0044, and b2 = 0.0043. The canonical form of equation (29) takes on

the form:

where a11 = 0,a12 = 1, a21 = -a2, a22 = -a1, b11 = 0, b21 = 1, c11 = b2, and c12 = b1.

All required on-line programs to implement the designed STCS were written in C-code. To overcome the

Coulombic friction, the following relation was introduced:

where the value 0.2 was found via a trial-and-error procedure. On the other hand, to avoid motor saturation, the

following relation was employed:

To obtain the experimental results depicted in Fig. 5, the reference position was changed stepwise from pi/3 to

pi/2. Two cases were taken into consideration: The unloaded case depicted in Figs. 6(a) and (b)), and the

loaded case depicted in Figs. 6 (c) and (d). In both cases, the STC is able to control the output position of the

motor shaft (Figs. 6(a) and (c)) despite the simultaneous presence of the nonlinear load, the Coulombic

disturbance, and the motor saturation nonlinearity. Figs. 5 (b) and (d) depicts the corresponding control forces.

Process noise covariance and measurement noise covariance were taken Q = 0.01 and X = 0.04, respectively

(see equations (16) and (17)). The performance oriented parameters were set to R = 0.04 and Qa = 0.01I3,

where I3 is an order-three identity matrix. The sampling time was chosen to be Ts = 0.001 s.

Fig.5 Experimental results for the unloaded case

(Figs. (a), (b) and the loaded case (Figs.(c),(d)).

A design procedure of a STC for controlling nonlinear process subject to nonlinear disturbances was developed

in this paper. Such a procedure was applied to control a nonlinear position control operating under the presence

of Coulombic friction, motor saturation, and nonlinear load. In light of the developed application, we can assure

that it is possible to find a linear process model capable of capturing significant features of the actual nonlinear

process (section 2). Modeling errors can be corrected by the estimation procedure (section 3), and the resulting

process model permit the use of linear control algorithms (section 4).

The developed design approach can be extended for controlling MIMO nonlinear processes. However, in order

to employ the IRLS method, we need to transform MIMO process models into MISO (Multiple Input Single

Output) representations [1].

REFERENCES

[1] A. Rojas-Moreno, ``Design of self-tuning controllers for processes having multiple unknown

time-varying delays,'' Ph.D. thesis, Utah State University, Logan, UT, 1995.

[2] M. G. Sofonov, Stability and Robustness of Multivariable Feedback Systems. MA; London,

UK: The MIT Press Cambridge, 1980.

[3] N. Rao Sripada and D. Grant Fisher, ``Improved least squares identification,'' Int. J. Control,

vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 1889-1913, Dec. 1987.

igi@uni.edu.pe

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