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Phases, Tools and Techniques

Moron, James Paolo

Sarion, Shryl Mae
Mendoza, Eliaza Jane
Vidal, Keithlyn Penn
Lagat, Allan Lloyd
Roquio, James Adam
Reynancia, Rina Ñiña
Esplana, Joy
Rose, Christina Rose
Reynido, Ronnel
Banares, Krystel Chen

Success is within the mind of the individual. A large portion of one’s life is spent
working to become successful. People are told throughout childhood to work hard so they can
grow up and make lots of money. But success takes many different forms. Different people have
different interpretations of what success means to them. For some, success is measured by social
status and wealth; for others success is determined only by the amount of happiness one feels.

Money is the main concern for some people. It is a crucial necessity for anyone who is
trying to succeed in life. Many believe that the only way to succeed is to have a lot of money.
For this type of person, achieving success starts with going to a good college. It is a competitive
job market and if one wants a high paying job he needs some college credentials. College is also
said to prepare people to take on the world. Once one has graduated and has a well-paying job he
is on his way to becoming successful.
People work their whole lives making money so they can satisfy their desires. The idea of
being able to purchase the items one has always dream about is an achievement. People dream
about owning a home and having beautiful things to fill it with. Many people take pride in what
they possess. People want to own nice homes, nice cars, and nice clothes. Some need to look
successful in order to feel successful. These people feel successful when they can admire what
their hard work has given them. For some, happiness is all that matters. Happiness is achieved in
many ways, and it doesn’t always involve money. There are many things that contribute to
making a person feel happy and successful. One can feel successful without a lot of money at all.

Some individuals argue that some individual needs to be smart- and not hard working, for
them to be successful. However, successful people narrate of instances when they did not want to
pursue certain projects but pushed themselves to achieve their goals anyway. As a result, they
were able to stand out amongst the crowd. Therefore, it is hard work, and not smart work that
breeds success. In any case, most of the hard working and successful people are very smart.

Notably, many people give up when they do not feel like pursuing their goals or when
they experience setbacks at the initial stages of a project. For instance, many people trying to
lose weight may not see the results within the first few weeks of rigorous exercise and dieting. At
this stage, unsuccessful people will give up. On the other hand, hardworking people try to find
ways of solving some of the setbacks- instead of giving up. More so, they put in more effort even
when they realize that have slim chances of winning.

Hard work and success go hand in hand because life is designed to be tough. Nothing is
offered on a silver platter; which means that people have to keep trying to succeed. In actual
sense, there are so many challenges in life that only hardworking people can overcome them.
This explains why there are very few successful people in the world today.
Some of the things that one must do for them to be successful include going through the
planning process and doing some training and research. One must also have the right attitude or
mindset about their goals. Unless you work hard, it is impossible for one to engage in such
things. If anything, many people would rather give up than try. Precisely, hard work is a
necessity for an individual to be successful in life.

In life we wish, We could go back the time that we’ve made a mistake but think of it if
you didn’t do it, You did not learn cause mistakes are the one who shape or mold us to be a
better version of yourself from 1.0 to 2.0.If we were to reverse any of them we wouldn’t be the
person we are. So just live, make mistakes, have wonderful memories, but never ever second
guess of who you are, who you have been, and most importantly where it is you’re going you
have to keep walking.
I know life is very simple, but we always insist on making it’s complicated. But in the
end, it’s not the years in your life that count, it’s the life in your years.
The first first step to achieve your success is Imagination.“The world is but a canvas to
the imagination.”- Henry David Thoreau.Ask yourself this question: What is your dreams? Who
you want to be? What’s your plan? Who you want to be in the future? What I am thinking about?
Be careful on what you imagine because it can become real.
Imagination is the ability to form a mental image of something that is not perceived
through the five senses. It is the ability of the mind to build mental scenes, objects or events that
do not exist, are not present, or have happened in the past. Everyone possesses a certain degree
of imagination ability. The imagination manifests in various degrees in various people. In some,
it is highly developed, and in others, it manifests in a weaker form.
“What you think you, you become what you feel ,you attract and what you imagine, you create.”
The second step to achieve your success is Imitation. It is important for people to imitate
others before they can become original and creative. Imitation can be looked down upon by
society; however, it is not as bad as it is chalked up to be. Imitation allows people to establish
themselves. People have role models and admire them. A person aspires to achieve as much as
their idol has done. Imitating a role model is necessary to be original and creative because
mimicking allows one to be put in a position to influence others and to build upon qualities of the
role model.
The third step to achieve your success is Implementation.
It is the carrying out, execution, or practice of a plan, a method, or any design, idea,
model, specification, standard or policy for doing something. As such, implementation is the
action that must follow any preliminary thinking in order for something to actually happen.You
have keep walking so that you will do what you imagined and imitate.
Ask yourself” Do you working hard?
What does working hard really mean?
If you want to succeed you have to work hard.
Aim progress not perfection.
Others said ,Don’t work hard, work smart but if you work smart you have to work hard.
You got to do something right now.
Stop making excuses Do it now. Stop waiting
Keep moving forward.
Lastly, the line around our logo represents God as a center of our life.
In our everyday lives there have many struggles and obstacles that will continue coming
to measure our ability to face all. To surpass all struggles that we may have, we need to have a
faith to God, which he will never leave us, which he is always here to support and help. When I
entered in college, I thought that it will be so easy, but I was wrong; there are many problems
that cause to lose hope. But because of my supporting and loving family that always here for me,
Friends that also here to give me advice and one of the reasons behind of my smile on my face,
to my boyfriend that always cheer me up, and always me feel that I’m not alone, and to God that
always there for us despite of all things that I have done, he will never leave me.
. Too often, we think of "success" or "doing what we love" as an end. It's some
destination that we have to reach. What so many people fail to realize is that both of those terms
are more of an approach to the journey, not the end of the journey itself. You are "successful"
when you are walking your path, always learning, always growing. You are "doing what you
love" when you see every moment as an opportunity.
I believe that one day I will be successful, that all of challenges that I faced was gave me
a lesson to achieve my goals and to be strong.

Create a solid plan for developing your information system. This is the first phase in the systems
development process. It identifies whether or not there is the need for a new system to achieve a
business’s strategic objectives. This is a preliminary plan (or a feasibility study) for a company’s
business initiative to acquire the resources to build on an infrastructure to modify or improve a
service. The company might be trying to meet or exceed expectations for their employees,
customers and stakeholders too. The purpose of this step is to find out the scope of the problem
and determine solutions. Resources, costs, time, benefits and other items should be considered at
this stage.
There are 3 Primary Planning Activities
1. Define the system to be developed
 You can't build every system, so you make choice based on your organization
priorities which maybe expressed as critical success factors.
 Critical Success Factors (CSF) - a factor simply critical to your organizational
success. CSF is a management term for an element that is necessary for an
organization or project to achieve its mission. It is a critical factor or activity
required for ensuring the success of a company or an organization. The term was
initially used in the world of data analysis and business analysis. For example, a
CSF for a successful Information Technology project is user involvement.
Critical success factors are those few things that must go well to ensure success
for a manager or an organization and, therefore, they represent those managerial
or enterprise areas that must be given special and continual attention to bring
about high performance. CSFs include issues vital to an organization's current
operating activities and to its future success.
2. Set the Project Scope
 Project Scope - Clearly defines the high level systems. Project scope is the part of
project planning that involves determining and documenting a list of specific
project goals, deliverables, features, functions, tasks, deadlines, and ultimately
costs. In other words, it is what needs to be achieved and the work that must be
done to deliver a project.
 Scope Creep - Occurs when the scope of the project increase. Scope creep (also
called requirement creep, function creep and feature creep) in project
management refers to changes, continuous or uncontrolled growth in a project’s
scope, at any point after the project begins. This can occur when the scope of a
project is not properly defined, documented, or controlled
 Future Creep - Occurs when developers add extra features that were not part of
the initial requirements.
 Project Scope Document - a written definition of the project scope and is usually
no longer than a paragraph.

3. Develop the project plan including tasks resources and time frames Project Plan - defines
the what, when, who questions development.
 Project Manager - project manager is a professional in the field of project
management. Project managers have the responsibility of the planning,
procurement and execution of a project, in any domain of engineering. Project
managers are first point of contact for any issues or discrepancies arising from
within the heads of various departments in an organization before the problem
escalates to higher authorities. Project management is the responsibility of a
project manager. This individual seldom participates directly in the activities that
produce the end result, but rather strives to maintain the progress, mutual
interaction and tasks of various parties in such a way that reduces the risk of
overall failure, maximizes benefits, and minimizes costs.
 Project Milestone - represents key dates for which you need a certain group if
activities performed.

 Involves end user and IT specialist working together to gather, understand, and document
the business requirement for the proposed system.
 The second phase is where businesses will work on the source of their problem or the
need for a change. In the event of a problem, possible solutions are submitted and
analyzed to identify the best fit for the ultimate goal(s) of the project. This is where teams
consider the functional requirements of the project or solution. It is also where system
analysis takes place—or analyzing the needs of the end users to ensure the new system
can meet their expectations. Systems analysis is vital in determining what a business’s
needs are, as well as how they can be met, who will be responsible for individual pieces
of the project, and what sort of timeline should be expected.

There are 2 Primary Analysis Activities

1. Gather the Business Requirements Business Requirements - the detailed set of
knowledge worker requests the the system must meet in order to be successful. Business
Requirements address the why and what of your development activities.
 Joint Application (JAD) - knowledge workers and IT specialist meet sometimes
for several days, to define and review the business requirements for the system.
2. Prioritize the Requirements
 Requirement Definition Document - Prioritize the business requirements and
place in a formal comprehensive documents. User signoff on this document which
clearly sets the scope for the project. Take time during analysis to get business
requirement correct. If you find errors, fix them immediately. The cost to fix an
error in the early stage of the SDLC is relatively small than in latter stage the cost
is huge.

Based on the user requirements and the detailed analysis of a new system, the new system
must be designed. This is the phase of system designing. It is the most crucial phase in the
development of a system. The logical system design arrived at as a result of system analysis and
is converted into physical system design. In the design phase the SDLC process continues to
move from the what questions of the analysis phase to the how . The logical design produced
during the analysis is turned into a physical design - a detailed description of what is needed to
solve original problem. Input, output, databases, forms, codification schemes and processing
specifications are drawn up in detail. In the design stage, the programming language and the
hardware and software platform in which the new system will run are also decided. Data
structure, control process, equipment source, workload and limitation of the system, Interface,
documentation, training, procedures of using the system, taking backups and staffing
requirement are decided at this stage.


The fourth phase is when the real work begins—in particular, when a programmer,
network engineer and/or database developer are brought on to do the major work on the project.
This work includes using a flow chart to ensure that the process of the system is properly
organized. The development phase marks the end of the initial section of the process.
Additionally, this phase signifies the start of production. The development stage is also
characterized by instillation and change. Focusing on training can be a huge benefit during this

Before actually implementing the new system into operations, a test run of the system is
done removing all the bugs, if any. It is an important phase of a successful system. After
codifying the w
hole programs of the system, a test plan should be developed and run on a given set of test data.
The output of the test run should match the expected results. Sometimes, system testing is
considered as a part of implementation process.
Using the test data following test run are carried out:

 Program test
 System test
Program test : When the programs have been coded and compiled and brought to working
conditions, they must be individually tested with the prepared test data. All verification and
validation be checked and any undesirable happening must be noted and debugged (error
System Test : After carrying out the program test for each of the programs of the system and
errors removed, then system test is done. At this stage the test is done on actual data. The
complete system is executed on the actual data. At each stage of the execution, the results or
output of the system is analyzed. During the result analysis, it may be found that the outputs are
not matching the expected output of the system. In such case, the errors in the particular
programs are identified and are fixed and further tested for the expected output. All independent
modules be brought together and all the interfaces to be tested between multiple modules, the
whole set of software is tested to establish that all modules work together correctly as an
application or system or package.
When it is ensured that the system is running error-free, the users are called with their own actual
data so that the system could be shown running as per their requirements.

The Implementation Phases is a Distribute the system to all of the knowledge workers
and they begin using the system to perform their everyday jobs.

Two Primary Implementation Activities:

1. Write detailed user documentation
 User documentation - highlights how to use the system
2. Provide training for the system users
 Online Training - runs over the Internet or off a CD-ROM.
 Workshop Training - is held in a classroom environment and lead by an
Choose the Right Implementation Method
 Parallel Implementation – use both the old and new system simultaneously.
 Plunge Implementation – discard the old system completely and use the new.
 Pilot Implementation – start with small groups of people on the new system and
gradually add more users.
 Phased Implementation – implement the new system in phases.
A maintenance phase is a Monitor and supports the new system to ensure it continues to
meet the business goals.

Two Primary Maintenance Activities:

1. Build a help desk to support the system users.
 Help Desk - a group of people who responds to knowledge workers’
2. Provide an environment to support system changes.


Focuses on building small self-contained blocks of code (components) that can be reused
across a variety of applications. Component-based development (CBD) is a procedure that
accentuates the design and development of computer-based systems with the help of reusable
software components. With CBD, the focus shifts from software programming to software
system composing.

Component-based development techniques involve procedures for developing software systems

by choosing ideal off-the-shelf components and then assembling them using a well-defined
software architecture. With the systematic reuse of coarse-grained components, CBD intends to
deliver better quality and output.

Component-based development is also known as component-based software engineering


Component-Based Development Methodologies

 Rapid Application Development (RAD)
 Extreme Programming (XP)
 Agile Methodology
Rapid Application Development (RAD)
 Rapid Application Development (RAD) (also called Rapid Prototyping) - emphasizes
extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working
prototypes of a system to accelerate the systems development process
 The development team continually designs, develops, and tests the component prototypes
until they are finished

Agile Methodology
Agile methodology - aims for customer satisfaction through early and continuous
delivery of useful software components The Agile movement seeks alternatives to traditional
project management. Agile approaches help teams respond to unpredictability through
incremental, iterative work cadences and empirical feedback. Agilists propose alternatives to
waterfall, or traditional sequential development.

Extreme Programming (XP)

Extreme Programming (XP) - Breaks a project into tiny phases and developers cannot
continue on to the next phase until the first phase is complete. Extreme programming (XP) is
a software development methodology which is intended to improve software quality and
responsiveness to changing customer requirements. As a type of agile software development, it
advocates frequent "releases" in short development cycles, which is intended to improve
productivity and introduce checkpoints at which new customer requirements can be adopted.
Is the internal development and support of IT systems by knowledge workers with
minimal contribution from IT specialists. Knowledge workers develop and utilize their own IT
systems, as opposed to contracting out the work in a process known as outsourcing. Knowledge
workers are workers who are dependent upon information or who develop and utilize knowledge
in the workplace.

Self sourcing
 Self sourcing (End-User Development) The development and support of IT systems
by end users with little or no help from IT specialists.
 Do-It-Yourself Systems Development Approach
 Can relieve IT specialists of the burden of developing many smaller systems.
Self sourcing Approach
 Is similar to traditional SDLC
 Big exception is that design, development, testing, and implementation are replaced
by the process of prototyping.
 Prototyping is the process of building models, and – in this case – continually
refining those models until they become the final system.

The Self sourcing process.

The first step in the process is planning. This is where goals are set and aligned with the
organizational goals and objectives. A project plan is developed and the proposed system is
analyzed to determine if any external support is needed. The project plan lays out the what, when
and who of the system. It is the salient piece in ensuring successful completion. The second step
is analysis which includes the gathering and analyzing of the basic business requirements. The
third step is an extension of the second as the basic requirements are identified and prioritized.
This puts the knowledge workers in a position to now develop the initial prototype for the fourth
step. Prototyping is the process of constructing a model demonstrating the aspects and feasibility
of a proposed product. There are two types of prototyping processes: insourcing prototyping and
selfsourcing prototyping. Selfsourcing prototyping lets knowledgeable workers refine their
prototype until they are satisfied with it and it becomes the final working system. The fifth step is
knowledge worker reviewing. This is where knowledge workers evaluate the prototype and
suggest changes or additions. Following through with these suggestions is the sixth step where
the prototype is revised and enhanced. The final step is maintenance where one must monitor the
system and ensure it is achieving its goals.
Self Sourcing Advantages
 Improves requirements determination
 Increases end user participation and sense of ownership
 Increases speed of systems development
 Reduces invisible backlog
 Invisible Backlog – list of all systems that an organization needs to develop but
because of the prioritization of systems development needs – never get funded
because of the lack of organizational resources

Self Sourcing Disadvantages

 Inadequate end user expertise leads to inadequately developed systems.
 Lack of organizational focus creates “privatized” IT systems.
 Insufficient analysis of design alternatives leads to subpar IT systems.
 Lack of documentation and external support leads to short-lived systems.

The Right Tool for the Job

End users must have development tools that:
 Are easy to use
 Support multiple platforms
 Offer low cost of ownership
 Support a wide range of data types
● Process of building a model that demonstrates the features of a proposed products,
service, or system

● a model of a proposed product, service, or system.

Proof-of -concept Prototype - use to prove the technical feasibilty of a proposed system
● Selling the idea of proposed system
Selling Prototype - a prototype use to convince people
Prototyping Process
It involves four steps
● Identify Basic Requirements
● Develop Initial Prototype
● Knowledge Worker Prototype
● Revise and Enhance the Prototype

Advantages of Prototyping
● Encouarges Active knowledge Worker Participation
● Help Resolve Discrepancies among Knowledge Worker
● Gives Knowledge Workers a Feel for the Final System
● Helps Determine Technical Feasibility
● Helps Sell the Idea of a Proposed System

Disadvantages of Prototyping
● Leads People to Believe the Final System Will Follow Shortly
● Gives No Indication of Performance under Operational Conditions
● Leads the Project Team to Forgo Proper Testing and Documentatio
 The delegation of specified work to a third party for a specified length of time, at a
specified cost, and at a specified level of service.

 The third “who” option of systems development after in sourcing and self sourcing.

The main reasons behind the rapid growth of the outsourcing industry include the
• Globalization

• The internet

• Growing economy and low unemployment rate

• Technology

• Deregulation

Is both similar to and quite different from the system development life cycle it’s
different in that you turn over much of the design, development, testing, implementation
and maintenance steps to another organizations

1. Planning
2. Define Project System
3. Select a Target System
4. Establish logical requirements
5. Develop a Request for Proposal (RFP)
6. Evaluate RFP Returns and Select a Vendor
7. Create a Service Level Agreement
8. Test and Accept the Solution
9. Monitor and Reevaluate

Geopolitical Outsourcing Options

In a geopolitical sense furthermore there are three types of outsourcing:
1. Onshore outsourcing-is a process of engaging another company in the same country for
2. Nearshore outsourcing-is contracting an outsourcing arrangement with a company in a
nearby country.
3. Offshore outsourcing-is contracting with a company that is geographically far away.

Weighing the Pros and Cons of Outsourcing

Speed and efficiencies of outsourced business processes are enhanced
Organizations using BPO get access to the latest technology
Freedom and flexibility to choose the most relevant services for the company's operations
Quick and accurate reporting
Save on resources related to staffing and training

Some disadvantages of outsourcing business processes include:

Data privacy breaches

Underestimating running costs of services
Overdependence on service providers
Communication issues that delay project completion

Advantage and Disadvantage of Outsourcing


 Focus on unique core competencies

 Exploit the intellect of another organization
 Better predict future
 Acquire leading-edge technology
 Reduce Cost
 Improve performance accountability


 Reduces technical know-how for future innovation

 Reduces degree of control
 Increases vulnerability of your strategic information
 Increases dependency on other organizations