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k':ts;DaGwL tkfO{s + f] cd}qLk"0f{ / ck"0f{tfnfO{ k"0f{tflt/ n}hfg kf] ;xof]u ;r]t kxnaf6 ;z:q ultlalwx? le/]/ k|:t't eO/x]sf 5g\ . df]6f a'l4 ePsf a'hs |' x?nfO{{ ljåfgsf]
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/ pBf]u xf] . t/ k|b]zsf] of] cfly{s /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]u / s]Gb|Lo ##=$, af/f @(=( / k;f{ @(=@ ultljlw 36\b} hfg'sf] c;/ ;du|
xf] eg] Hofb} nfhdbf]{ l:ylt 5 . anTsf/, xTof, lx+;f, u'08fubL{, ;|f]tsf] ;d"lrt ljsf; x'g ;s]sf] tYof+s ljefusf cg';f/ xfn g]kfnsf] k|ltzt ul/aLsf] b/ ePsf] lhNnfdf dw]zd} k/]sf] b]lvG5 . 8]9 bzsotf
dxFuL / e|i6frf/n] ;Ldf gf3]sf] 5 . hgtfsf] hghLljsf rf}k6 5}g . k|b]z @ sf] ljsf;sf lglDt cf} i ft jo:s ;fIf/tf b/ %( kb{5g\ . ljefusf] g]kfndf ul/aLsf] pRr ;d[l4 :t/ ePsf lhNnfaf6
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b]v]/ hgtf jfSslbSs alg;s]sf 5g\ . ;/sf/sf] oxL /a}ofsf ;S5 . ef/tsf k~hfa / eg] ;a}eGbf sd /f}tx6 -##=*(_ b]vfPsf] 5 . ;f] k|ltj]bgn] @)%* k|b]z g+ @ cGtu{tsf lhNnfsf]
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s[lifnfO{ ljsl;t ug{ ;lsof] eg] of] k|ltJolQm cfDbfgLtkm{ klg /fli6«o dxf]Q/L, ;nf{xL, /f}tx6, af/f / k;f{ cj:yfdf /x] s f 5g\ . o:tf]
lgisif{ lgsfNg yfln;s]sf 5g\ . ;/sf/ oxL 9+un] cufl8 a9] k|b]z b]zs} cGg e08f/ aGg ;S5 . cf}iftsf] t'ngfdf k|b]z @ sf @ pRr ;d[l4 :t/ ePsf] lhNnfdf cj:yfdf b] l vPsf] /fhgLlts
b]z k'gM e8\vfN8f]df kg]{ lglZrt 5 . b]z k'gM åGåf]Gd'v ePsf] t/, l;FrfO cefj, k|fljlws 1fg / lhNnf af/f / k;f{afx]s cGosf] k/]sf] b]vfPsf] 5 . t/ ljs]Gb|Ls[t cl:y/tfn] t emg\ @ g+ k|b]zsf]
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5 . t/, ;/sf/ /ldt] ag]sf] 5 . t;y{, ;/sf/sf] o:tf] k|bz] leqsf clwsf+z v]tLof]Uo hUuf k|fs[lts ljkt\sf] df/ klg ;a}eGbf k|efjsf/L ¿kdf Jojxf/df nfu" ug{ lglZrt 5 . lsgeg] cfly{ s
sfo{zn } LnfO{ ;Rofpg cfd;r]t gful/s cufl8 a9\gs ' f] ljsNk cg'Tkfbs aGb} uPsf] 5 . ljut a9L k|b]z @ cGtu{tsf lhNnfn] g;Sg' / s'g} ljz]if hfltsf] dfq ¿kfGt/0fsf] cg'e"lt u/fpg g;Sg'
5}g . b]znfO{ cu|udgtkm{ n}hfg / hgtfsf] df}lns clwsf/sf] 8]9 bzssf] cj:yfnfO{ ljZn]if0f u/]/ a]xf]b{} cfPsf 5g\ . r'/s
] f] tNnf] 5]pdf /fHo ;+oGqdf a9L jr{:j /xg' / / hgtfsf] hLjg:t/ a9fpg
x]g{] xf] eg] k|bz] g++ @ cGtu{tsf ePsf sf/0f vf;u/L jiff{ofddf /fHosf] ;| f ] t df klg pgLx¿s} g;Sg'df cfly{s d'2fdf /fhgLlts
/Iff ug{ ca hgtf ;8sdf pqg'sf] ljsNk 5}g . ;/sf/ b'O{ ;a} lhNnf pRr ;d[l4 :t/ ePsf af9Ln] o; e]usf lhNnf 8'afgdf xfnLd'xfnL sfod /xgfn] lj:tf/} oL bnn] cfFvf lrDng] k|j[lQ g} a9L
ltxfO{ hgdtsf] b'xfO{ lbFb} lbgk|ltlbg lg/+sz' tf nfb\g pBt lhNnfsf] >]0fLdf kb{y] . t/ kl5Nnf] kb} { cfPsf 5g\ . af9Ln] a;] { g lhNnf dWod / Go"g ;d[l4 :t/ lhDd] j f/ b] l vG5 ./fhgLlts /
;dodf of] k|b]zcGtu{tsf cf7 s[ l ifnufot If] q df s/f} 8 f] + ePsf lhNnfsf] >]0fLdf kg{ uPsf] cfly{s d'2f;Fu} hfg'kg]d{ f /fhgLlts
ePsf] 5 . zflGt, ;'/Iff / ;'zf;g Psfb]zsf] syf h:tf] ePsf] lhNnfdWo] tLg lhNnf dWod ;d[l4 ¿k}ofFa/fa/sf] Iflt k'¥ofpFb} cfPsf] xf] . bn ljsf;eGbf /fhgLltdf g} a9L
5 . ;Qf;Lg bnsf g]tf / sfo{stf{x? a]nufd eP/ /fHosf]ifdfly :t/ / tLg lhNnf Go"g ;d[l4 :t/ 5 . r'/] If]q lbg k|ltlbg gf+lub} o;sf ;fy} /fHoaf6 ;fdflhs, s] l Gb| t ePsfn] klg hgtfsf]
a|Xdn'6 dRofpFb} 5g\ . hgtfsf] hLjg:t/ lbgk|ltlbg v:sFb} ePsf lhNnfsf] >]0fLdf k/]sf 5g\ . uPsf] 5 . To;sf] k|lts"n c;/ cfly{s / /fhgLlts ¿kdf ePsf] hLjg:t/ a9g g;s]s} xf] . x'g t
dxf]Q/L / ;nf{xL dfq pRr ;d[l4 em]Ng] klxnf] If]q k|b]z @ g} xf] . lje] b tyf ;fdflhs Gofo / g]kfnnfO{ cltsd ljsl;t d'ns ' af6
uPsf] 5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf cfdgful/s ;r]t aGg'k5{ . b]znfO{ :t/ ePsf lhNnfsf] >]0fLdf 5 . hghLljsf psf:g] vfnsf ;dtfd" n s ;dfj] z L cfly{ s ;g\ @)@@ ;Dddf ljsf;zLn
cu|udgtkm{ n}hfg / hgtfsf] clwsf/ ;'lglZrt ug{ ca k'gM o;f] x' g ' s f k| d ' v sf/0f d'2ftkm{ ca k|b]zn] rfF8} Wofg ljsf;sf nflu ePsf] nfdf] dw]z d'n'ssf] ;"rLdf :t/f]Gglt ug]{ nIo
Ps k6s ;8sdf pqg cfjZos ePsf] 5 . To;}n] b]znfO{ /fhgLlts g]t[Tjn] cfd gful/ssf] lbg'k5{ . lsgeg] ;+3Lotfsf] d"n dd{ cfGbf]ngsf sf/0f klg of] k|b]zdf ;/sf/sf]] 5 . t/ em08} Ps rf}yfO
;fdflhs Gofo / ;dtfd"ns ;dfh eg]s} d'ns ' sf] ;du| ljsf; ug{' xf] . ul/aL / a]/f]huf/L b/ a9fPsf] 5 . hgtf ul/aLsf] /]vfd'lg a;f]af;
jt{dfg ;+s6af6 d'Qm kfb}{ ;Dd'gt g]kfn agfpg sDd/ s;]/ ;lxtsf] ;d[l4sf] rfxgfnfO{ ;'lglZrt k5fl8 k/]sf] If]q, ju{, ;d'bfo ;a}nfO{ em08} ^ dlxgfsf] lg/Gt/ dw]z aGb ul//x]sf], k"jf{wf/ ljsf; cToGt Go"g
PsLs[t hgqmflGtsf] sfo{lbzfnfO{ cFufNb} cufl8 a9]sf] g]kfn ug{ g;Sg' / e|i6frf/ / clgoldttf ljsf;sf] d"nwf/df Nofpg ;Sg' xf] . / kfFr dlxgfsf] gfsf cj/f]wsf /x]sf], d'n'ssf] ;du| s'n ufx{:Yo
df}nfpg' /x]sf] 5 . ut k';df /fli6«o /fhgLlt JolQmut / bnut sf/0f of] k|b]zdf ul/aLsf] ;+Vofdf pTkfbg -lhl8kL_sf] cfsf/ ;fgf]
sDo'lg:6 kf6L{nfO{ ;fy / ;xof]u ug'{ ca Ps dfq ljsNk of]hgf cfof]un] ;fj{hlgs u/]sf] :jfy{eGbf dfly p7]/ /fli6«o :jfy{ cem j[l4 ePsf] x'g;Sg] cg'dfg /x]sf] / To;df klg cfly{s j[l4 b/
/x]sf] 5 . To;}n] ;Dk"0f{ :jfledfgL hgtf g]skfn] cufl8 ;f/]sf] g]kfn ax'cfoflds ul/aL ;"rsf+s, xfl;n ug] { ;zQm dfWod x' g ul/Psf] 5 . o;sf ;fy} tTsfnLg cToGt sdhf]/ /x]sf] cj:yfdf
PsLs[t hgqmflGtsf] sfo{lbzfdf uf]na4 xf]cf}F / b]znfO{ jt{dfg @)&$ cg';f/ k|b]z @ sf] %) g;Sgfsf sf/0f g} of] k|bz ] sf] cfly{s cj:yfdf dfcf] j fbL / dw] z df ;/sf/n] lnPsf] ;f] nIo cToGt
k|ltzt hg;+Vof cem} ax'cfoflds ljsf; / ;d[l4 emg\ cf]/fnf] nfUb} cfGbf]ng/t ;z:q ;d"xn] rGbf dxTjfsf+IfL /x]sf] a'emfO w]/}sf] 5 .
;+s6af6 kf/ nufcf}F . clxn]sf] cfjZostf, ;dosf] dfu / ¿kdf ul/a 5g\ . pgLx¿sf] hLjg uPsf] xf] . /fhgLltsf] ;DaGw cf+ts ;[hgf u/]kl5 :yfgLo wgf9\o pQm nIo k"/f ug{sf nflu eP klg
hgrfxgf klg oxL 5, r]tgf eof . w]/} k|sf/sf jl~rtLs/0faf6 k|efljt hgtfsf] hLjg:t/, cfly{s pGglt ToxfFaf6 lj:yflkt x'g afWo eP . k|bz] @ sf] cfly{s ljsf; / ;d[l4
eO/x]sf] 5 . ;f] ;"rsf+sn] /fli6«o / k|ult;Fu g/x]sfn] g} k|bz ] @ sf] rGbf cft+s Pjd\ ;DklQsf] ;'/Iff ug{'kg]{ cfjZos 5 . o;sf nflu

;jf/L nfO;]G;sf] cfj]bg d+l;/ klxnf] ;ftfb]lv v'Ng] ¿kdf eg] @* bzdna ^ k|ltzt
g]kfnLnfO{ ax'cfoflds ¿kdf ul/a
b]vfPsf] 5 . k|ltJolQm jflif{s cfo,
cfly{s ljsf; / ;d[l4 cf]/fnf] nfUbf]
cj:yfdf k'u]sf] lgisif{ lgsfNg
;lsG5 . s]Gb|Lo tYofFs ljefusf
gx'g'h:tf sf/0fn] :yfgLo Jofkf/L
/ wgf9\o ju{ glhssf] ahf/lt/
;/]/ Jofkf/ Joj;fo ug{ yfn] .
ul/a, ljkGg / cfly{ s tyf
;fdflhs ¿kdf lk5l8Psf ju{ Pj+
;d'bfonfO{ /fli6«o ljsf;sf] d"n
sf7df8f} F . ;jf/L rfns e¥ofª, ;'s]wf/f, PsfGts'gfdf u/L
cg'dltkq -nfO;]G;_sf nflu d+l;/ rf/j6f oftfoft Joj:yf jo:s ;fIf/tf b/, dfgj ljsf; cg';f/ @! k|ltzteGbf sd ul/aLsf] o;af6 dw] z sf ahf/ lj:tf/} k|jfxdf NofO{ pgLx¿nfO{ /fHosf]
klxnf] ;ftfb]lv k'gM cfj]bg v'nf sfof{nodfkm{t df]6/;fOsn, :s'6/ ;"rsf+snufot If]qdf klg k|bz ] @ b/ ePsf lhNnf pRr ;d[l4 :t/ ;+s'lrt x'Fb} uP, ;DkGg Pjd\ pTkfbgzLn ;|ft] ;fwg dfly kx'r F
x'g] ePsf] 5 . bz}F ;'? x'g'eGbf / sf/ tyf hLk nufot ;jf/Lsf] sf] cj:yf bogLo g} b]lvPsf] 5 . ePsf lhNnfsf] >]0fLdf kb{5g\ eg] dWodju{sf] a;fOF;/fOn] cf};t k'¥ofpg h¿/L b]lvPsf] 5 . -dw]z
cl3b]lv g} nfOG;sf] cfj]bg :ylut nfO;]G;sf nflu cgnfOg cfj]bg dfgj ljsf; ;"rsf+stkm{ /fli6«o #! k|ltzteGbf a9L ul/aLsf] b/ ;dfh emg\ ul/a x'Fb} uof] . / bk{ 0 f lkmr/ ;] j f_
ul/Psf] lyof] . ca d+l;/ & ut]af6 eg{ ;lsg] vgfnn] atfP . o;cl3
k'gM cgnfOg kmf/fd v'Nnf ul/g]
oftoft Joj:yf ljefun] hfgsf/L
lbPsf] 5 . ljefusf lgb]z
{ s tLy{/fh
vgfnsf cg' ; f/ d+ l ;/ & af6
cgnfOg kmf/fd :ylut eP klg l/–
6«fonnufotsf sfdx? o; cjlwdf
rfn' g} /x]sf] pgsf] egfO 5 .
oftfoft Joj:yf ljefusf] j]a;fO6df
k|d] df kg{' :jf:Yosf nflu nfebfoL
sf7df8f} + . dfof ug{ ' jf pgLx?df cGo /f]u jf sdhf]/Lsf] c;Gt'lnt jf g/fd|f] ;DaGw x'g] t'ngfdf lgs} l56f] lgsf] ePsf] lyof] .
sf7df8f}F pkTosfleqsf oftfoft uP/ cgnfOg cfj]bg lbg ;lsg]5 . dfofhfndf kg{' cfkm}Fdf cgf}7f] dfqf t'ngfTds ?kdf sd x'G5 . dflg;sf] /Qmrfk pRr x'g] u5{ . g/fd|f] jf v/fa ;DaGw x'g] JolQmdf
Joj:yf sfof{nodf cgnfO{g kmf/d xfn ljefun] b]ze} l/ ;jf/L ;fwgsf] cg'e"lt xf], h;sf] cg'ej dfof o;sf] lglZrt sf/0f kQf] gnufP tgfj 36fp“ 5 Go"g pkrf/sf] Ifdtf ePsf] klg
v'nf x'g]5 . rfns nfO;]G;sf nflu cgnfOg ug]{nfO{{ jf dfofsf] hfndf kg]{nfO{{ klg Ps csf{sf] dfofdf k/]sf] hf]8L dfofhfndf pgLg' lgs} /dfOnf] cWoogn] k'li6 u/]sf] 5 . lgs}
pkTosfleqsf huftL, 7"nf] kmf/fd clgjfo{ u/]sf] 5 . dfq yfxf x'G5 . dfof jf …neÚn] Ps cem} :j:y eP/ bL3{hLjL x'g] ljifodf cg'el" t xf] . /fd|f] ;DaGw x'g] hf]8Ldf lg/fz, b'MvL, PSnf] jf xLgtfaf]w ug]{

;"rLnfO{ lbPsf] ;Ddfg lkmtf{ csf{df ;'dw'/ ;DaGw hf]8g\ ] cj;/
dfq lbFbg} , :jf:Yod} ce"tk"j{ kmfObf
u5{ . dfofsf cgluGtL :jf:Yo
rf;f] b]vfpg], plrt Jofofd ug]{ / lg/Gt/ v';L agfpg] xdf]g{ lgisf;g JolQmdf sf]ifx? v'lDrg] ePsfn] klg
pgLx?sf] pkrf/ l9nf] x'G5 .
bL3f{ o ' s f] cj;/
sf7df8f}F . dfgjclwsf/jfbL &# jifL{o ;'rLnfO{ lbOPsf] ;Ddfg
;+ u 7g Pdg] : 6L OG6/g] ; gnn] lkmtf{ ul/Psf] of] klxnf] k6s eg] kmfObf 5g\ . dfofdf kbf{ :jf:Yodf lj1x?sf cg';f/ v';L / l:y/
Dofgdf/sL ;jf]{Rr g]t[ cfª;fª xf] O g . Pdg] : 6L OG6/g] ; gnsf lgDg gf}j6f kmfObf o:tf 5gM– ;DaGw ePsf dflg;x? w]/} jif{
;"rLnfO{ lbPsf] cfˆgf] ;jf]R{ r ;Ddfg dxf;lrj s'dL gfO8"n] Dofgdf/sf 5fnfdf rds afFR5g\ . dfofn] Ps csf]n { fO{{ ;'/Iff
…PDaf;8/ ckm sG;fOG;; cjf8{Ú g]tfnfO{ kq k7fpFb} pgnfO{ lbOPsf] dfofdf kbf{ Pp6f cgf}7f] cg'ej / cfˆgf b'Mv;'Mv cfbfgk|bfg ug]{
lkmtf{ lnPsf] 5 . gf]a]n k'/:sf/ ;Ddfg lkmtf{ lnPsf] hfgsf/L u/fPsf x'g ;S5 . cfk"mnfO{{ ;+;f/s} pRr cj;/ lbG5 . hf]8LdWo] Pp6fnfO{{
ljh]tf ;"rLnfO{ Pdg]:6L OG6/g];gn] x'g\ . kqdf ;"rLn] dfgjclwsf/sf] :yfgdf /x] s f] cg' e " l t x' g ' s f] ;d:of kbf{ csf{]nfO{{ cfˆgf ;d:of
;g\ @))( df of] ;Ddfg k|bfg u/]sf] /Iffsf nflu ;xL c8fg lng g;s]sf] cltl/Qm dfofn] tkfO{+sf] 5fnfdf ;]o/ ug]{ / 5nkmnaf6 ;dfwfgsf]
lyof] . To;a]nf ;"rL cfˆg} 3/df / pgsf] sbdn] ;+u7g lg/fz ePsf] rds ylklbG5 . lj1x?sf cg';f/ pkfo ;d]t vf]Hg] x'bF f k|foM ;d:of
pNn] v ul/Psf] 5 . /f] l xUof dfofdf kbf{ z/L/n] ;dfwfg u/L ljleGg /f]u nfUgaf6
cNk;+ V ossf lj?4 ePsf] OG8«fl] kmG;nufotsf xdf]g{ lgisf;g arfpg'sf ;fy} bL3{hLjL x'g] cj;/
cTofrf/k|lt ;'rLsf] ?vf] Jojxf/n] u5{ . o;n] kL8faf] w s xdf] { g k|bfg u5{ .
cfk"mx? pxfFnfO{ lbPsf] ;Ddfg lkmtf{ sf]l6{;f]n lgisf;gsf] dfqf 36fpg zf/Ll/s tGb' ? :tL
ug{ afWo ePsf] Pdg]:6Ln] hgfPsf] ;xof]u u5{ .= ;Fu;Fu} ldn]/ sfd ug]{ / ;Nnfx
5 . of];uF } pgn] cfˆgf] sbdnfO{ l8k| ] ; g lhTg] zlQm ug]{ hf]8Ln] ;lhn} cfˆgf] p2]Zo k"/f
;Rofpg] ck]Iff;d]t Pdg]:6Ln] u/]sf] dfof ug]{ JolQmsf] ;fy / xft ug{ ;S5 . o;afx]s dfofdf hd]sf]
5 . ;"rL gh/aGbaf6 l/xf ePsf] * kfPkl5 l8k|];gnfO{{ ;lhn} x/fpg hf]8Ln] Ps csf{nfO{{ :j:y /xg
jif{ k'us
] } lbg Pdg]:6Ln] pgnfO{ lbPsf] ;lsG5 . j} 1 flgsx?sf cg' ; f/ lgoldt k/LIf0f u5{g\ . x'G5 / tgfjnufotnfO{{ x/fpF5 . pTk|/] 0ff lbg'sf ;fy} ;'Gb/ / km'lt{nf]
;Ddfg lkmtf{ u/]sf] xf] . qm'/ ;}Go dfofn] OG8«f]lkmG;nufotsf v';L /Qmrfk 36fp“ 5 o;afx]s tkfO{+ v';L x'Fbf b'MvL x'g xf};nf k|bfg u5{ .
zf;glj?4 / nf]stGqsf] /Iffsf nflu agfpg] xdf]{g lgisf;g ug{ ;xof]u PgN; ckm laoleo/n agfpg] xdf]g{ sf]l6{;nsf] dfqf 36\5 dfl;s wd{ lgoldt
!% jif{;Dd gh/aGbd} /x]/ ;+3if{ u/]sL k'¥ofpF5 . z/L/df o; xdf]g{ sf] j[l4n] d] l 8l;gdf k| s flzt Ps / laGbf; eP/ afFRg ;lsG5 . dfof / lgoldt of}g ;Dks{n]
;"rLnfO{ Pdg]:6L OG6/g];gnn] ;g\ l8k|;
] gnfO{{ lhTg ;xof]u k'¥ofpF5 . cWoogcg';f/ v';L ljjfx jf ;DaGw pkrf/ l56f] tkfO{+sf] dfl;s wd{nfO{{ lgoldt
!(*( df /fhgLlts aGbL 3f]lift sdhf] / Laf6 6f9} /fV5 ePsf] hf] 8 Lsf] /Qmrfk cGo - xf], dfofn] pkrf/ l56f] x'g] agfpg ;xof] u u5{ . KnfG8
gh/aGbdf lyOg . pgnfO{ lbOPsf] u/]sf] lyof] . o;sf] 7Ls @) jif{kl5 cd]l/sfsf] x]Ny PG8 Xo'dg cljjflxt jf Psn_sf] t'ngfdf Go"g j}1flgs ?kd} k|dfl0ft eO;s]sf] 5 . Kof/] G 6x' 8 df k| s flzt Ps
;Ddfg lkmtf{ lnFb} Pdg]:6Ln] /f]lx+Uof ;+:yfn] pgnfO{ ;jf]R{ r ;Ddfg lbPsf] ;le{ ; l8kf6{ d ] G 6sf] Ps lyof] . tkfO{s
+ f] ;DaGwn] /QmrfknfO{{ csf{Oe ckm hg/n ;fOSofl6«ofdf cWoogcg' ; f/ ;ftfdf sDtLdf
cNk;+Vossf ljifodf ;"rLn] u/]sf] lyof] . o;cl3 Pdg]:6Ln] of] ;Ddfg k|ltj]bgcg';f/ dfofdf k/]sf hf]8L lgb] { l zt ug] { :jf:Yo lj1x? k|sflzt Ps cWoogcg';f/ /fd|f] / Psk6s of}g ;Dks{ ug]{ dlxnfdf
sfd lg/fzfhgs /x]sf] hgfPsf] 5 . g]N;g d08]nfnfO{ klg lbPsf] lyof] . cGosf] t'ngfdf cem} a9L :j:y / atfpF 5 g\ . pgLx?sf cg' ; f/ l:y/ ;DaGw x'g] hf]8Lsf] 3fp cGosf] dfl;s wd{ lgoldt kfOPsf] lyof] .
@)&% d+l;/ @ ut] cfOtaf/ 3

qmflGtsf/L kqsf/ ;+u7g b]z bf}8fxfdf
dfgjclwsf/, k|]; tyf cleJolQm :jtGqtf kIfdf ax; rnfp“b}
sf7df8f}F . qmflGtsf/L kqsf/ ;+u7g g]kfn ;/sf/n] qmflGtsf/Lx?sf
lj?4 km}nfPsf] e|d lrg{ / ;/sf/L bdgsf] kbf{kmf; ug{ b]z bf}8fxfdf
lgl:sPsf] 5 . dfgjclwsf/, k|; ] tyf cleJolQm :jtGqtf ljifodf cGt/lqmof,
ax; Pjd\ 5nkmn rnfpb} cleofgdf vl6Psf] ;+u7gsf] s]Gb|Lo g]tT[ jn]
xfn} emfkf, tfKn]hu+' , la/f6gu/nufotsf :yfgx?df k'u/] cGt/lqmof sfo{qmd
;DkGg u/]sf] 5 .
kl5Nnf] k6s ;/sf/n] g]skf lj?4 k'jL{ g]kfndf Jofks bdg gLlt
ckgfp+b} u}/ sfg'gL lu/ˆtf/L, w/ks8 ug{'sf ;fy} lgz:q ?kdf e]nf e}
/fhgLlts ultlalw ug]{ clwsf/ vf];]sf] eGb} ;+u7gn] kl5Nnf] ;do
/fHokIfaf6 clwstd bdg ul/Psf] k|bz ] ! sf ljleGg lhNnfdf k'lu
cleJolQm :jtGqtfdf /fHo kIfaf6 ul/Psf] bdg / x:tIf]ksf la?4
dfgjclwsf/sdL{, sfg'gL Joj;foL, gful/s ;dfhsf cu'jf, a'l4hLjL,
Joj;foL, ljleGg /fhgLlts bnsf g]tfx¿;Fu ax; Pjd\ cGt/lqmof u/L
/fHo kIfaf6 ;ljwfg k|bQ clwsf/ ;d]t vf];]sf] laifonfO{ /fHo kIfnfO{
;r]t Pjd\ Wofgfsif{0f u/fPsf] 5 . ;+u7gn] o; cufl8 s~rgk'/, s}nfnL,
afFs], ;'v]{t, bfª, a'6jn, sf:sL, lrtjg, sf7df8f}, wg'iff / l;Gw'nLdf
sfo{qmd ;DkGg ul/;s]sf] 5 .

cleJolQm :jtGqtf xgg\ gug{ r]tfjgL ;/sf/ df}lns xsk|lt emg} cg'bf/ Û
sf7df8f}F . d'ns
' df df}lns clwsf/ :jflwgtf, hghLljsf, hgtGqsf] s'/f ;fy} k9fpb} u/]sf lzIfs, ldl8ofdf sf7df8f}F . dfgjclwsf/sdL{, tfKn]hª' zfvfsf] ;+of]hgfdf d+unaf/ 36gf aflx/ cfpFbg} g, o;df kqsf/n]
k|fKt ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f eP/ sfof{Gojgdf p7fpg' s'g} ck/fw xf]Og t/ clxn]sf] sfd ul//x] s f kqsf/, Jofkf/L /fhgLlts bn tyf kqsf/x?n] ;/sf/ ePsf] sfo{qmddf pgLx¿n] ;+ljwfgdf rf;f] lbP . g]kfn kqsf/ dxf;+3sf
cfO;s]sf]n] /fhgLlts cf:yfs} sf/0f Joj:yfn] oL s'/f p7fpbf ck/fw b]V5, nufotnfO{ /fHon] ljgf sf/0f lu/ˆtf/ gful/ssf] df}lns xsk|lt cg'bf/ ag]sf] ePsf clwsf/nfO{ klg sfg'g dfkm{t sfo{jfxs cWoIf rGb| kGbfsn]
s;}nfO{ kqmfp u/]/ oftgf lbg] / bdg u5{ To;}n] clxn]sf] Joj:yfsf] ul/ b'v lbg] sfdk|lt clwsf/sdL{n] hgfPsf 5g\ . qmflGtsf/L kqsf/ ;+u7g, /fHon] 3'dfp/f] kf/fn] /f]Sg] k|of; clwsf/sf nflu kIf lakIfdf gafl8P/
cleJolQm :jtGqtf xgg\ ug{ gx'gd] f ljsNk ;+3if{ ul//x]sf] atfP . g]skf rf;f] JoQm u/]sf lyP . g]kfnsf s]Gb|Lo ;ldltsf] cfof]hgf / ul//x]sf] eGb} cfklQ k|s6 u/] . ;a} Ps x'gk' g]d{ f hf]8 lbP . pgn]
clwsf/sdL{ tyf ;/f]sf/jfnfn] hf]8 qmflGtsf/L dfcf]jfbLsf s]Gb|Lo ;b:o g]kfn af/ Pzf]l;o;g tfKnh'ªsf …tfKn] h ' ª dfq} xf] O { g b] z e/sf]
lbPsf 5g\ . ;+ljwfgn] k|Tofe"t u/]sf
k|;] tyf cleJolQm :jtGqtf;lxt ;a}
l;tf/fd a'9fyf]sLn] dfgjclwsf/
pTkLl8t hgtfx?n] p7fpg] s'/f xf] t/
‘;/sf/n] kmf;LjfbL zf;g rnfpg vf]Hof]’ ;lrj an/fd e§/fO{n] ;+ljwfgsf] cfo'
sfof{Gjogdf e/ kg]{ pNn]v u/] . pgn]
dfgjclwsf/sf] cj:yf las/fn 5,
o;df yk cfjfh p7fpg cfjZos 5 .Ú
df}lns xs sfof{Gjog x'gk' g]d{ f pgLx¿sf] ;Qfl;g JolQmx?n] g} dfgjclwsf/sf] sf7df8f}F . clwsf/sdL{, sfg"g Joj;foL tyf ;+rf/sdL{, Joj;foLx?n] ;/sf/n] ;+ljwfg g/fd|f] ePklg Aojxfl/s ?kdf pgn] dfgjclwsf/ / k|;] :jtGqtfsf]
hf]8 5 . qmflGtsf/L kqsf/ ;+u7g rsf]{ s'/f ug]{ Jojxf/tM To;sf] 3f6L :jtGq k|;] nfO{ v'DRofP/ kmf;LjfbL zf;g rnfpg vf]hs ] f] eGb} lj/f]w u/]sf ;d:of b]lvPsf] atfP . /fHon] ljifodf ax; u/]sf] eGb} qmflGtsf/L
s]Gb|Lo ;ldltsf] cfof]hgf tyf lhNnf lgdf]7g\ ] k|jl[ tn] dfgjclwsf/sf] cj:yf 5g\ . dfgjclwsf/ pNn+3g / u}/sfg"gL 36gf ;/sf/af6} eO/x]sf] eGb} pgLx?n] dfgaclwsf/ pNn+3g ul//x]sf] atfpFb} kqsf/ ;+u7gnfO{ wGojfb lbP .
zfvf df]/ªsf] ;+of]hgdf la/f6gu/df sdhf]/ /x]sf] atfP . ulx/f] lrGtf JoQm u/]sf 5g\ . qmflGtsf/L kqsf/ ;+u7g g]kfnn] z'qmaf/ o;sf nflu ;a}n] va/bf/L ug{k' g]d{ f dfgjclwsf/ ;~hfn tyf c;xfo
ePsf] dfgj cwlsf/, k|;] tyf cleAolQm g]kfn kqsf/ dxf;+3 ! gDa/ hf]8 lbP . g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ sfg'gL ;]jf s]Gb|sf cWoIf a]bgLlw
:jtGqtf laifos cGt/s[of sfo{qmddf k|bz
] sf cWoIf ljqmd n'O6]nn] k|;] tyf tfKn]hª' sf OGrfh{ ;Ssn lnDa'n] kf}8n] n] dfgjclwsf/ ;+/If0f ePg eg]
af]Ng] jQmfx?n] pTkLl8tx?n] ha zf]if0f, cleJolQmsf] :jtGqtf lj/f]wL s'g} klg cfk"mx?nfO{ ;/sf/n] hgtfsf] aLrdf zflGt / ;Dj[4L ;Dej gePsf] atfP .
cGofo, cTofrf/sf lj?4 ljb|fx] u/]/ ultljlwnfO{ g;xg] atfpg'eof] . h;sf] hfg glbPsf] eGb} cfklQ hgfP . dfgjclwsf/ ;~hfn tyf zflGt sfo{
pGd'lQm kfp5g\ ta dfq gful/x?n] ;/sf/ ePklg :jtGqtfsf] ;w}el/ qmflGtsf/L kqsf/ ;+u7g, g]kfn s]Gb|Lo ;d"xsf cWoIf v8\slaqmd ;'ab] Ln]
dfgjclwsf/sf] Jojxf/df k|Tofe"t ug{ va/bf/L ug]{ atfP . g]kfn sDo'lgi6 ;ldltsf] cfof]hgf / tfKn]hª' lhNnf tfKn]hª' df nfdf] ;dob]lv cGt/s[of
kfpg] atfP . sfo{qmddf af]Nb} /fli6«o kf6L{ -g]skf_sf k|:tfljt cWoIf Clifs]z

emfkfsf] bdsdf cfof]hgf u/]sf] …dfgjclwsf/ / k|; ] tyf cleJolQm :tGqttfÚ
ljifos cGt/lqmof sfo{qmddf af]Ng] jQmfx?n] ;/sf/n] dfgjclwsf/ / :jtGq
k|; ] sf] ljZj dfGotfnfO{ s'Nr]/ hglj/f]wL / kmf;LjfbL zf;g rnfpg pBt /x]sf]
atfP . ;+u7gsf] s]Gb|Lo ;ldltsf] cfof]hgf ePsf] sfo{qmddf sfg"gL Joj;foL
clwjQmf /fhg 9'u+ fgfn] ;/sf/ sDo'lg:6 5 eGg nfh dfGg'kg{] l:ylt ;/sf/df
a:g] dfG5]x?n] lgdf{0f u/]sf] l6Kk0fL ub{} eg] …o:t} /xg] xf] eg] d'ns
' df l5§} PG6L
sDo'lg:6sf] lbg cfpg]jfnf 5 .Ú
g]kfn kqsf/ dxf;+3sf emfkfsf k"jf{cWoIf df]xgsfhLn] ;/sf/n] :jtGq
k|;] sf] ljZj dfGotfnfO{ s'Nr]/ ;Eo / ;d[l4 ;dfh lgdf{0fsf] cj;/nfO{ u'dfpFb}
uPsf] atfP . To:t} g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ emfkfsf ;]qm]6/L ;f}uftn] jt{dfg ;/sf/
:j]R5frf/L / kmf;LjfbL ePsf] eGb} b]zLljb]zL bnfnx?sf] sAhfdf ;/sf/ km;]sf] zfvfsf] cfof]hgfdf d+unaf/ ePsf] gePsf]a ] n f qmflGtsf/L kqsf/
dfgaclwsf/ cfof]u If]qLo lgb]z { s kf]vn]| n] cfkmgf] kf6L{ ;/sf/df /x]klg atfP . kmf;LjfbL ;/sf/s} sf/0f b]zdf JofKt dfqfdf e|i6frf/, xTof, lx+;f, dfgj clwsf/, k|; ] tyf cleAolQm ;+u7gn] /fd|f] sfo{qmd u/]sf] atfP .
df] x gb] j hf] z Ln] dfgjclwsf/ hgtfn] eg] h:tf] sfd ug{ g;s]sf] anfTsf/, dxFuL /fi6«3ftn] tLj|tf kfO/x]sf] atfpFb} ;]qm]6/L ;f}uftn] eg] …To;}sf/0f :jtGqtf ljifos cGt/lqmof sfo{qmddf pgn] clxn] klg ;/sf/n] :jtGqtf
dfgjclwsf/sf] ljZjJofkL 3f]if0ff kqdf atfP . sfo{qmddf g]kfnL sf+u;] | sf lhNnf g]skfn] hgtfsf] cfkm\g} ;Qf ;+rfngsf] ofqfdf nflu/x]sf] 5 . hgtfsf] ;Qf eg]s} af]Nb} lnDa'n] clxn] k"jL{ g]kfndf ;/sf/n] k"js{ cfˆgf larf/ /fVg glbPsf]
;d]t Gofo / ;dfgtfsf nflu gful/sn] ;b:o hgf{bg lg/f}nf, g]skf dfcf]jfbL j}1flgs ;dfhjfbL Joj:yf xf] . o;df ;a}n] lg;+sf]r ;fy lbg'k5{ .Ú bnfn ;+;bLo bdg u/]sf] atfP . hgtfsf] aLrdf atfP . …clxn] ;/sf/sf] sfdk|lt lrQ
lab|fx] ug{ kfpg] s'/f pNn]v /x]sf] atfP . s]Gb|sf ladn lg/f}nf, g]kfn kqsf/ Joj:yfdf gful/sn] ;w}F df}lns clwsf/af6 jlGrt x'gk' g{] ePsf]n] o;nfO{ eTsfpg s'/f n}hfg glbPsf] eGb} OGrfh{ lnDa'n] a'em]g eg] h'n;' cfGbf]ng ug]{ cj:yf
;+ljwfgdf ePsf s'/f Jojxf/df dxf;+3 df]/ªsf cWoIf aGw' kf]vn | , ldl8ofn] ;zQm e"ldsf v]Ng'kg{] pgsf] egfO{ lyof] . cfˆgf larf/x¿ /fVg kfpg'kg]d{ f hf]8 5}g wf/0ff 5}g of] s] xf] <Ú pgn] eg] .
sfof{Gjog gx'gn ' ] g} dfgjclwsf/ clvn g]kfn lzIfs ;+u7gsf ;lrj sfo{qmddf g]kfn kqsf/ dxf;+3 emfkfsf cWoIf tf/fdl0f ;fksf]6f, a'l4hLlj, lbP . g]kfnL sfFu;] | sf lhNnf ;lrj 5la qmflGtsf/L kqsf/ ;+u7g, g]kfnn]
lbgfg'lbg xgg x'bF } uPsf] atfP . . g]kfn ljsf; Gof}kfg] nufotsf jQmfx?n] ;+rf/sdL{, clwsf/sdL{, dlxnf tyf ;'/Iff lgsfosf clwsf/Lnufotsf] ;xeflutf u'?ªn] d'ns ' df dfgjclwsf/sf] ljifo dfgjclwsf/, k|; ] tyf cleJolQm
sDo'lgi6 kf6L{sf df]/ª ;]qm]6/L gj/fh af]Ng'ePsf] lyof] . sfo{qmddf af]Ng] /x]sf] 5 . ;+u7gn] lxhf] dfq df]/ªsf] lj/f6gu/df cGt/lqmof sfo{qmd ;DkGg uDeL/ aGb} uPsf] eGb} lrGtf AoQm :jtGqtfsf ljifodf tfKn]hª' df !#
e6/fOn] of] ;/sf/n] hgtfsf] xs aQmfx?n] kl5Nnf] ;do k|bz ] g+= ! df u/]sf] lyof] . qmflGtsf/L kqsf/ ;+u7g, g]kfn g]skf lgs6 hgjuL{o ;+u7g xf] . u/] . pgn] eg], …oxfF af]Ng kfpg] / n]Vg cf}+ sfo{qmd u/]sf] xf] . sfo{qmdsf
clwsf/nfO{ o;}u/L sl'07t u/] k|;] tyf cleJolQm :jtGqtf s'l07t ut c;f]h $ ut]otf ;+u7gn] ;'b/" klZrdsf] s~rgk'/b]lv k"js { f] tfKn]hª' ;Dd kfpg] dfq} xf]Og{ afRg kfpg] clwsf/ nflu ;+u7gsf s]Gb|Lo cWoIf k|sfz
;dfgfGt/ ;/sf/ agfpg] r]tfjgL lbP . ePsf]df b'v JoQm ub}{ ;/sf/sf] sl/a 8]9 bh{g :yfgdf cGt/lqmof ul/;s]sf] 5 . cfpg] lbgdf o;nfO{ cGoq ;d]t hf]lvddf k/]sf] 5, cfh x]g;'{ \ 8'd,]| dxf;lrj lxd lji6 / sf]iffWoIf
pTkLl8t hgtfx?sf] clwsf/, /fli6«o sfo{zn} Lsf] s8f cfnf]rgf u/]sf lyP . :yfgdf klg ub{} hfg] hgfOPsf] 5 . anfTsf/sf 36gf aflx/ cfpFbg} g\ xTofsf hfgsL rf}w/L tfKn]hª' k'us ] f x'g .
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k[YjL / dfgjhfltsf] Oltxf;af/] j]bzf:q / lj1fgaLrsf] Ps¿ktf / leGgtfx¿–#
s] OR5fd[To' k|fKt ug{ ;lsG5 < ljn'Ktk|fo kIfLsf] >]0fLdf ;dfj]z 5 . cfb]z b]p .Ú zflnjfxgsf] s'/f ;'g/] czf]s / /fhf ljqmdflbToaf6 ePsf] lz/ b]lvGYof] h;sf] sf/0f p;sf] !) w/tLsf] jf:tljs jf c;nL k|fs[lts
eLid lktfdxsf af/]df s] elgG5 k+rt+qdf u¿8sf sof}F sxfgLx¿ 5g\ . olIf0fL eGbl5g\– …d ltdL;Fu k|;Gg ePF . dflgG5 . pgLx¿sf] l;sf] ub}{ kl5sf lz/ ePsf] e|d x'GYof] . oBlk w]/h } ;f] k|hflt . cfhsf] dfgj t …:6f/ k|f8] S6Ú
eg] pgnfO{ OR5fd[To'sf] j/bfg k|fKt k|frLg dlGb/x¿sf] åf/df Psflt/ d ltdLnfO{ tL ljlwx¿ atfpF5' h;sf] /fhfx¿n] klgo; k/Dk/fnfO{ lg/Gt/tf ljåfg / k'/f0fx¿sf cg';f/ t ;To s] x'g\ hals laukm'6af6 dfgjn] w/tLnfO{
ePsf] lyof] . k'/f0fx¿sf cg';f/ u¿8, csf{lt/ xg'dfghLsf] d"lt{ df+8Jon] l;4 u/]sf 5g\ . d ltdLnfO{ lbP . csa/n] cfˆgf] b/af/df ( xf] eg] /fj0f Ps dfofjL JolQm lyof], hf] vf];] / pgLx¿nfO{ n'SgnfO{ afWo
a|XdfhLaf6 clq, clqaf6 rGb|df, cfj]il7t ug]{ ul/GYof] . 3/df /flvPsf o:tf–o:tf of]u atfpF5' h;af6 l;4 /Tgx¿sf] lgo'lQm u/]sf lyP . s]xL cfˆgf] dfofåf/f !) lz/ ePsf] e|d k}bf agfOlbof] < cfw'lgs hLj j}1flgs t
rGb|dfaf6 a'w / a'waf6 OnfgGbg dlGb/df u¿8 306L / dlGb/sf] lzv/df ul/Psf kf/f]af6 tfdf / ;L;f h:tf dflg;x¿ s] eG5g\ eg] czf]s;Fu o:tf ug{ ;SYof] . p;sf] dfofjL zlQm / hfb"sf oxL dfGb5g\ . k"/f ljZjdf logLx¿nfO{
k'?/jfsf] hGd eof] . k'?/jfaf6 cfo', u¿8 Wjh x'g] u5{ . u¿8 gfdsf] Ps wft'x¿ ;'gdf kl/0ft x'G5g\ .Ú ( hgf lyP, h;n] pgnfO{ /fhsfhdf rrf{ huk|l;4 lyP . cnu-cnu gfdaf6 lrlgG5 . ltAat
cfo'af6 /fhf gx'if / gx'ifaf6 ooflt j|t klg 5 . u¿8 gfdsf] Ps k'/f0f Pp6f csf{] syfsf] af/]df klg v"a lgb]z
{ uy]{ . ltgLx¿sf] lgb]z { / ;xof]usf] /fj0fsf !) lz/ ePsf] rrf{ / g]kfndf logLx¿nfO{ …otLÚ elgG5
pTkGg eP . oofltaf6 k'? eP . k'?sf] klg 5 . eujfg u¿8nfO{ ljgfos, rrf{ x'g] u/]sf] 5 . ljqmdflbTosf] /fHodf andf g} czf]sn] dxfg sfo{x¿nfO{ /fdrl/t dfg;df cfpF5 . /fj0f s[i0f eg] c:6«l] nofdf …of]jLÚ sf] gfdaf6
j+zdf e/t / e/tsf] s'ndf /fhf s'? u?Td, tfs{io, j}gt]o, gfufGts, a:g] …Jofl8Ú gfds Ps JolQmn] ;'g ;DkGg uy]{ . oL ( hgf sf] lyP o;sf] kIfsf] cdfj:ofsf] lbg /fd;Fu o'4sf lrlgG5 . ef/tdf o;nfO{ …oltÚ elgG5 .
eP . s'?sf] j+zdf cufl8 uP/ /fhf lji0f'/y, vu]Zj/, ;'k0f{ / kGgufzg agfpg] ljwf hfGgsf nflu cfˆgf ;f/f /x:o cfh klg oyfjt 5b: . s] nflu uPsf] lyof] tyf !–! lbg qmdzM olt dfgjsf] j0f{g k'/f0fx¿ / cGo
k|ltk eP h;sf csf{ k'q lyP zfGtg' . gfdaf6 klg lrlgG5 . lhGbuL aaf{b ul/lbPsf lyP . o:t} ltgLx¿ dg'io lyP jf b]jtf lyP < !–! lz/ sf6\y] . o:tf lx;fan] !) cf}F ef/tLo u|Gyx¿df klg k|z:t kfOG5 .
zfGtg'sf bfh' ;fg}df lat]sf lyP . ca ;jfn s] cfpF5 eg] cflv/ s] Ps ls:;f tf/aLh / x]daLhsf] klg ;d|f6 czf]snfO{ …b]jfgf+lk|oÚ czf]s lbg cyf{t z'Sn kIfsf] bzdLdf /fj0fsf] s] elgG5 eg] logLx¿ lxdfnosf] s'g}
zfGtg'sf u+ufaf6 b]jj|t -eLid_ hGd]sf slxno} kIfL dfgj x'g ;S5 t < 5 . s] elgG5 eg] oL tL kbfy{x¿ x'g\ df}o{ ;d|f6 eGg] ul/GYof] . b]jfgf+lk|o sf] jw eof] . To;}n] bzdLsf] lbg /fj0f 7fpFdf a:5g\ / Psbd yf]/} dflg;x¿n]
lyP . eLidn] a|Xdro{sf] k|lt1f u/]sf k'/f0fx/df eujfg u¿8sf] k/fqmdsf h;af6 sLldofu/x¿ ;fdfGo kbfy{af6 cy{ b]jtfx¿sf] lk|o . o:tf] pkflw bxg ul/G5 . dfq logLx¿nfO{ b]V5g\ . oBlk
lyP . To;}n] of] j+z cufl8 a9\g ;s]g . af/]df k|z:t syfx¿sf j0f{g kfOG5 . rfFbL / ;'g lgdf{0f ug]{ uy]{ . o; ljBfnfO{ ef/tsf s'g} cGo ;d|f6sf] gfdsf] cufl8 /fdrl/t dfg;df j0f{g eP cg';f/ clxn];Dd logLx¿sf] ePsf] k'li6
eLid clGtd sf}/j lyP . pgn] b]jtfx¿;Fu o'4 u/L ltgLx¿;Fu …x]djtL ljBfÚ sf gfdaf6 klg lrlgG5 . nufOPsf] 5}g . ca ;jfn s] p7\5 /fj0fsf] h'g lz/nfO{ /fd cfˆgf af0fn] eO;s]sf] 5}g, t/ sltko dflg;x¿
l;Gw' , ;/:jtL, u+ u f, gd{ b f / cd[t snz vf];s ] f lyP . pgn] eujfg jt{dfg o'udf s] elgG5 eg] eg] ;d|f6 czf]ssf ;fydf ltgLx¿ sf] sfl6lbGy] k'gM To; lz/sf] :yfgdf csf{] cfk"mn] olt b]vs ] f] bfaL u5{g\ . ef/tsf
a|Dxfk'q /fdnfO{ gfukfzaf6 d'Qm u/fPsf lyP . k+hfasf s[i0fkfnhL zdf{nfO{ kf/baf6 ( hgf lyP h;sf af/]df s] elgG5 lz/ knfpFYof] . oxfF ljrf/0fLo s'/f s] sZdL/, pQ/fv08, lxdfrn, l;lSsd,
pQm % gbLx¿nfO{ ef/t / ljz]if pgnfO{ cfˆgf] zlQmdfly w]/} 3d08 ePsf] ;'g agfpg] ljlw yfxf lyof] . o;sf] eg] pgLx¿dWo] k|To]s;Fu cfˆgf]-cfˆgf] 5 eg] s] Ps c+u sfl6;s]kl5 ToxfF c?0ffrn cflb /fHosf dflg;x¿
u/L lxGb" wd{df c;fWo} dxTjk"0f{ lyof] t/ xg'dfghLn] pgsf] 3d08 r"/– pNn]v ^ gf]eD] a/ ;g\ !(*# sf] 1fgsf] ljz]iftf lyP cyf{t pgLx¿dWo] k'gM gofF c+u pTkGg x'g ;S5 t < To;nfO{ b]vs ] f] atfpF5g\ . g]kfn /
dflgG5 . pQm kfFr gbLx¿sf] hn Ps– r"/ ul/lbPsf lyP . …;fKtflxs lxGb':tfgÚ df kfOG5 . k|To]s ljz]if 1fgn] o'Qm lyP / cGtdf j:t'tM /fj0fsf oL lz/ s[lqd lyP– ltAatsf dflg;x¿ klg olt dfgj
csf{sf eGbf cnu 5g\ t/ ltgLx¿dWo] u¿8 lxGb" wd{sf ;fy} af}4 wd{df klqsfsf cg';f/ ;g\ !($@ df k+hfasf ;d|f6 czf]s] pgsf] 1fgnfO{ b'lgofFaf6 cf;'/L dfofaf6 ag]sf . x'G5 eGg] ljZjf; u5{g\ .
gd{bf gbLnfO{ 5f]8/] afFsL gbLx¿ klg dxTjk"0f{ kIfL dflgPsf] 5 . af}4 s[i0fkfn zdf{n] Clifs]zdf kf/f]åf/f n'sfP/ /fv] . ltgLx¿ g} lyP h;n] df/Lr rfFbLsf] laGb'x¿n] o'Qm :j0f{ xfjfvf]/L jf cGg / kfgL lagfsf]
lxdfnosf] Ps} :yfgaf6 lg:sG5g\ . u|Gyx¿sf cg';f/ u¿8nfO{ ;'k0f{ - nueu !)) tf]nf ;'g agfP/ /flvlbPsf 7"nf–7"nf :t"k agP / h;n] lj1fg / d[u aGg', /fj0fn] ;Ltfsf] ;fd'Gg] /fdsf] hLjgsf] /x:o s] xf] <
gd{bf Psdfq o:tf] gbL xf], h'g ;a} /fd|f k+v ePsf]_ elgG5˜: . hfts lyP . elgG5, To; ;dodf ToxfF dxfTdf k|ljlwdf klg ef/tnfO{ ;d[4 agfP . sfl6Psf] lz/ /fVg' cflbaf6 s] l;4 cfh klg ef/tsf] w/tLdf o:tf
gbLx¿sf] ck]Iff ljk/Lt lbzfdf aUb5 syfx¿df klg u¿8sf] af/]df sltko ufGwL, pgsf ;lrj dxfb]j efO{ b];fO{ elgG5 pgsf 1fgnfO{ Ps k':tssf x'G5 eg] /fIf; dfofjL lyP . pgLx¿ sltko dflg;x¿ 5g\ h;n] sof}F
/ o;nfO{ kftfnsf] gbL elgG5 . sxfgLx¿ 5g\ . u' K t sfnsf / o'un lszf]/ la8nf cflb pkl:yt ¿kdf ;+ux| Lt ul/Psf] lyof] . h'g cg]s k|sf/sf OGb|hfn -hfb"_ hfGby] . jif{bl] v ef]hg u/]sf 5}gg, t/ pgLx¿
;/:jtL gbL t clxn] ef}ule{s zf;sx¿sf] k|lts lrXg klg u¿8 g} ePsf lyP . o; 36gfsf] j0f{g la8nf k':tsnfO{ s'g} ljz]if JolQmnfO{ lhDdf To;}n] /fj0fsf !) lz/ / @) xftx¿nfO{ ;"o{ of]usff] andf cfh klg :j:y /
xnrnsf sf/0f cl:tTj n'Kt x'g uof] lyof] . sgf{6ssf xf]o;n zf;sx¿sf] dlGb/df /flvPsf] lznfn]vaf6 klg nufOof], p;n] k':tf–k':tf To; k':ts klg dfofjL jf s[lqd dfGg ;lsG5 . lhpFbf 5g\ . ef]s / Kof;af6 d'Qm s]jn
/ l;Gw' gbLn] cfˆgf] dfu{ kl/jt{g klg k|lts u¿8 lyof] . cd]l/sf / kfOG5 . oBlk o; s'/fdf slQsf] ;Totf jf To;sf] 1fgnfO{ cufl8 a9fP . oBlk cfTdf jf k|f0f cnu cnu x'g' ;"os { f] k|sfzsf] andf logLx¿ lhpFbf
ul/lbof] . u+ufn] klg o; nfdf] OG8f]gl] zofsf] /fli6«o k|lts u¿8 xf] . 5, Tof] xfdL hfGb}gf}F . -Ph]G;Lx? of] /x:o cfh klg oyfjt 5 . To;f] t s] elgG5 eg] xfd|f] cfTdfsf] 5g\ . k|frLgsfndf o:tf sof}F ;"o{ ;fws
sfnv08df sof}F cf/f]x–cj/f]x Joxf]/s ] f] r]GgO{af6 ^) lsnf]ld6/ 6f9f Ps s] oL rdTsfl/s h8La' 6 Lx¿ s] /fj0fsf b; zL/ lyP < jf; b'O{ cfFvLe'Os
+ { f] dfemdf /x]sf] e[s6' Ldf lyP, hf] ;"o{ pkf;gfsf] andf ef]s–
5 / a|Xdk'qn] klg xhf/f}F jif{bl] v nfvf}F tLy{:yn 5 h;nfO{ …kIfL tLy{Ú elgG5 . x' G 5g\ < ;fFRr} eGg] xf] eg] sf]xL s;}sf] #, $ x'G5 . t/ xfdLn] k'/f0fx¿ / cGo Kof;af6 d'Qm dfq /xFbg} g\ a¿ ;"os { f]
dflg;x¿sf] d'dI' ffnfO{ b"/ u/]sf] 5 . of] tLy{:yn j]blul/ kj{tsf] dfly 5 . l;l4 lbg] h8L–a'6L M u'nt'/f -lbJotfsf jf !) lz/ x'g' eg]sf] cfkm}dF f Ps u|Gyx¿df s] k9]sf 5f}F eg] s]xL zlQmåf/f slt pmhf{ xfl;n ub{y] eg]
d'dI' ffsf] cy{ df]Ifsf] sfdgf xf] . sof}F ztfAbLx¿b]lv ck/fXgsf] ;dodf nflu_, tfk;b|d' -e"tflb u|x lgjf/s_, zn /x:odo s'/f xf] . eujfg bQfqosf #, dflg;x¿, kz'x¿ jf kIfLx¿sf] k|f0f logLx¿ s'g} klg k|sf/sf rdTsf/ ug{
;/:jtL Ps hf]8L u¿8 ;'b/" cfsfzaf6 o; -bl/b|tfgfzs_, ef]hkq -u|x afwfx¿ a|XdfhLsf $ / /fj0fsf !) lz/ lyP . jf hLj cGo st} x'GYof], h:tf] s'g} /fIf;sf] ;Sy] . ltgLx¿dWo] xL Ps ;'uL| jsf bfh'
;/:jtL gbL t clxn] cfP/ ef}ule{s dlGb/df cfpF5g\ / dlGb/sf] k'hf/Låf/f lgjf/s_, lji0f'sfGtf -zq'gfzs_, d+uNo - …/fj0fÚ… b'lgofFdf o; gfdsf] csf{] s'g} k|f0f ;'ufdf lyof] . To;}n] ha;Dd aflnsf] gfd klg lnOG5 . aflndf s:tf]
xnrnsf sf/0fn] cl:tTj n'Kt eof] lbOPsf] vfBfGgnfO{ u|x0f u/L k'gM tflGqs lqmofgfzs_, u'Naf; -lbJotf JolQm 5}g . /fd t w]/} kfOG5g\ t/ ;'ufnfO{ dfl/Fbg] lyof] Tolta]nf;Dd vfnsf] zlQm lyof] eg] afln hf];uF o'4
t/ cfh klg o;n] /fh:yfg / xl/of0ffsf cfsfzdf kmls{G5g\ . k|bfgstf{_, hLjs -P]Zjo{bflogL_, uf]/f]rg /fj0f Ps dfq e]l6G5 . /fj0f t s]jn /fIf;nfO{ dfg{ c;+ej lyof] . To;} u/L uYof{] p;sf] cfwf zlQm vf];L lbGYof] .
s]xL e"–efudf cfˆgf] cl:tTj /x]sf] ;of}F dflg;x¿sf] To; Ps hf]8L -jzLs/0f_, u'Uun -rfd08' l;l4_, cu:t /fj0f xf] . /fhflw/fh n+sflwklt dxf/fh /fj0fsf] k|f0f p;sf] gfledf lyof] . s] jt{dfg o'udf k|xnfb hfgL o;
b]vfpF5 . elgG5, nueu !* O;fk"j{ u¿8sf] bz{g ug{sf nflu ToxfF klxn]bl] v -lkt[bf]ifgfzs_, ckdfu{ -afhLs/0f_, /fj0fnfO{ …bzfggÚ klg elgG5 . elgG5 o:tf] klg ;+ej x'g ;S5 < s'/fsf HjnGt pbfx/0f x'g\ h;n] lagf
o; gbLsf] cl:tTj d]l6of] . o; gbLsf] g} pkl:yt eO/x]sf x'G5g\ . ToxfFsf cf+wLemf8f -e:ds /f]u ef]s-Kof;gfzs_, /fj0f n+sfsf] tldn /fhf lyof] . o; ;Gbe{df s:tf dfGotfx¿ 5g\ vfgf–lkgf JolQm lhGbuL latfpg ;S5 .
lsgf/fdf g} j]bsf Crfx¿sf] hGd eof] k'hf/Lsf cg';f/ ;To o'udf a|Xdfsf * Zj]t ck/flhtf -bl/b|fgfzs_, xTyf hf]8L h}g zf:qx¿df /fj0fnfO{ k|ltgf/fo0f eg] /fj0fn] cd/Tj k|flKtsf] p2]Zo lnP/ u'h/ftdf d]x;f0ff lhNnfsf k|xnfb hfgL
/ eujfg a|Xdfn] cfˆgf sltko dfg;k'q lzjsf] >fkn] u¿8 ag]sf -jzLs/0f_, ;df]jNnL -d[Togfzs_, dflgPsf] 5 . h}g wd{sf ^$ znfsf eujfg a|Xdfsf] 3f]/ tk:of u/L j/bfg Ps o:tf] rdTsf/ ag]sf 5g\ h;n]
dxTjk"0f{ o1 o;} gbLsf] lsgf/df ;DkGg lyP . pgLx¿dWo] @ ;To o'usf] cGtdf, lznfhLt -gk';+ stfgfzs_, cZjuGwf - k'?ifx¿df /fj0fsf] luGtL ul/G5 . h}g dfUof], t/ a|Xdfn] p;sf] To; j/bfgnfO{ lj1fgnfO{ rf}tkmL{ rSs/df xflnlbPsf
u/]sf lyP . k|frLg ;Eotfx¿sf] hggL @ q]tfsf] cGtdf, @ åfk/sf] cGtdf jLo{jw{s_ cflb . k'/f0fx¿sf cg';f/ dxfkl08t /fj0f c:jLsf/ ub}{ eGg'eof], ltd|f] hLjg gfledf 5g\ . j}1flgsx¿ :jo+ g} of] s] xf] eg]/
;/:jtL gbL cfh klg Ps /x:o xf], >fkaf6 d'Qm eO;s]sf 5g\ . s] elgG5 af+bf -r'DasLo zlQm k|bftf_, Zj]t cfufdL rf}aL;Ldf tLy{s + /sf] ;"rLdf l:yt x'g5 ] . /fj0fsf] ch/–cd/ /xg] a'‰g ;ls/x]sf 5g\ .
vf; u/L tL dflg;x¿sf nflu, hf] eg] ca h'g @ j6f u¿8 ar]sf 5g\, / sfnL u'h + f -e"t lkzfrgfzs_, eujfg dxfjL/ h:t} @$ cf}F tLy{s + /sf OR5f afFsL g} /Xof] . oxL sf/0fn] ubf{ g} ef/tsf 8fS6/n] ;g\ @))# /
hfgL–a'emLsg klg o;sf] cl:tTj tL sno'usf] cGtdf d'Qm x'g5 ] g\ . p6s6f/L -/fhof]u bftf_, do"/ lzsf - ¿kdf dfGo x'g5 ] g\ . To;}n] s]xL k|l;4 ha eujfg /fd;Fu /fj0fsf] o'4 @))% df klg k|Xnfb hfgLsf] /fd|f;] uF
:jLsf/g rfxb}gF g\ . s] ;f“Rr} s'g} ;'g jf :j0f{ agfpg] b'i6fTdfgfzs_ / sfnf] a];f/ -tflGqs k|frLg h}g tLy{:ynx¿df pgsf d"lt{x¿ rln/x]sf] a]nfdf /fj0f / p;sf ;]gf r]s hfFr jf :jf:Yo k/LIf0f ul/;s],
zf]wfg';f/ of] ;Eotf nueu (,))) ljlw 5 < k|of]u x]t_' cflb o;tf cg]s h8L–a'l6x¿ klg e]l6G5g\ . /fddfly xfaL eO/]sf lyP . To;}n] t/ cGtdf s'g} lj1fg;Ddt JofVof lbg
O;f k"j{ cl:tTjdf cfPsf] lyof] / #,))) elgG5, k|frLg ef/tjf;Lx¿ :j0f{ 5g\, h;n] JolQmsf] ;f+;fl/s / s] /fj0fsf !) lz/ lyP < /fj0fsf ljeLif0fn] /fdnfO{ s] /x:o atfP eg] ;s]gg\˜ . oL k/LIf0fx¿sf cu'jf /x]sf
O;fk"j{ To; ;Eotfn] cfˆgf] :j0f{ o'u agfpg] ljlw hfGby] . pgLx¿ kf/b cfWoflTds hLjgnfO{ ;xh agfpg !) lz/ lyP . s] of] ;fFRr} xf] t < s]xL /fj0fsf] hLjg p;sf] gfledf 5 . gfledf cxdbfjfbsf Go"/f]nf]lh:6 -tlGqsf /f]u
b]Vof] / nueu !*)) O;f k"j{ cfpFbf– cflbnfO{ s'g} ljz]if ld>0fdf ld;fP/ dxTjk"0f{ dflgPsf] 5 . oBlk o:t} vfnsf ljåfgx¿ s] dfG5g\ eg] /fj0fsf !) g} cd[t 5 . ta /fdn] /fj0fsf] gfledf ljz]if1_ 8f= ;'wL/ zfxn] eg]– …pgsf]
gcfpFb} n'Kt x'g uof] . s] elgG5 eg] :j0f{ agfpFy,] t/ s] of] ;To xf] < of] cGo sof}F xhf/f}F h8L–a'l6x¿sf] /x:o j6f lz/ lyPgg\ lsGt' p;n] !) lz/ af0f xfg] / /fj0f dfl/of] . oBlk /fj0fsf] s'g} zf/Ll/s 6«fG;kmd]z { g -sfofsNk_
!,*)) O;f k"js { f] cf;kf; s'g} eofgs cfh klg Ps /x:o g} xf] . eGg t s] oyfjt 5 . ePsf] e|d k}bf ul/lbGYof] . To;} sf/0f k|f0f t gfledf lyof] t/ xfdLn] k9]sf ePsf] 5 . pgL hfg–cghfgdf
k|fs[lts ljklQsf] sf/0f Psflt/ hxfF klg elgG5 eg] lxdfnodf kf/; gfdsf] ltAatsf] odåf/ M k|frLgsfndf dflg;xx¿ p;nfO{ bzfgg eGb5g\ . ;fdu|Lx¿df sltko b}Tox¿, bfgjx¿, aflx/af6 zlQm k|fKt ub{5g\ . pgnfO{
;/:jtL gbL n'Kt x'g uOg\ eg] csf{lt/ Ps ;]tf] kTy/ kfOG5 h;nfO{ olb ltAatnfO{ lqlji6k elgGYof] . of] s]xL ljåfgx¿sf cg';f/ /fj0f ^ bz{g /fIf;x¿ cflbsf] k|f0f p :jo+sf] Sofnf]/L -ofg] ef]hg_sf] h¿/t g} kb}g{ .
o; If]qsf dflg;x¿ kZlrdlt/ knfog kmnfddf 5'jfOlbg] xf] eg] Tof] kmnfd ef/tjif{sf] g} Ps lx:;f lyof] . ltAatdf / rf/} j]bsf] 1ftf lyof] . To;}n] p;nfO{ z/L/eGbf aflx/ st} cGt} ;'/lIft xfdLn] t sof}F lbg;Dd pgsf] cjnf]sg
x'g yfn] . k'/fTjj]Qf d];f]kf]6fldof - ;'gdf kl/0ft x'g hfG5 . kf/f], h8L– bf/r]gaf6 #) ldg]6sf] b"/Ldf 5 of] b;s+7L klg eGg] ul/GYof] . b;s+7L /flvPsf] x'GYof] . /fIf;sf] k|f0f ;'ufdf uof{,F} Ps–Ps ;]s0] 8sf] lel8of] lnof}F .
%)))–#)) O;fk"j_{ nfO{ ;aeGbf jg:kltx¿ / /;fogx¿åf/f ;'g agfpg] odsf] åf/ . odsf] åf/ kljq s}nfz elgPsf] sf/0f k|rngdf p;sf !) lz/ lyof] . ;'ufsf] uw{g dsf{of] eg] /fIf;sf] pgn] g t s]xL vfP, g s]lx lkP, g t
k|frLg eG5g\ . To;}n] cem} ;/:jtL ljlwsf] af/]df sltko u|Gyx¿df pNn]v kj{tsf] af6f]df kb{5 . o;sf] kl/qmdf dfGg yflnof] . uw{g dls{GYof] . lkzfa u/] / g t zf}rfno uP .Ú
;Eotfsf] zf]w ug{k' g]{ cfjZostf 5 . ul/Psf] kfOG5 . u/]kl5 dfq} s}nfz ofqf ;'¿ ePsf] h}g zf:qx¿df s] pNn]v ul/Psf] olt j]ab'lgofaf6 g]kfnLdf cg'jfb
u+uf gbL k|frLg ef/tdf ;'g agfpg] Ps dflgG5 . lxGb" dfGotfsf cg';f/ o;nfO{ 5 eg] /fj0fsf] 3fF6Ldf 7"nf–7"nf uf]nfsf/ laukm'6 dfgj hfltsf] ljgfzsf] efiff cg'jfbsM s'df/ kf}8]n
of] Ps /x:os} ¿kdf 5, cflv/ /x:odoL ljBf lyof] . st} o:tf] t xf]Og d[To'sf b]jtf od/fhsf] 3/sf] k|jz ] åf/ ( dl0fx¿ x'Gy] . pQm ( dl0fx¿df p;sf] k|ltIff ul//x]sf] 5, lsgeg] ToxL g} xf] ;dfKt
u+uf gbLsf] kfgL lsg ;8\bg} t < oBlk s'g} …vggÚ geOsg klg ef/tsf] ;fydf dflgPsf] 5 . of] s}nfz kj{tsf] kl/qmdf
j}1flgsx¿ s] eG5g\ eg] o; gbLdf #
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elgG5 eg] laxf/sf] ;f]glu/ u'kmfdf
nfvf}F 6g ;'g cfh klg /flvPsf] 5 .
slt;Dd elgG5 eg] oxfF /ftdf
a:g] dflg; hLljt /xFbg} . o:tf sltko
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k|eb' j] f, Jonfrfo{, OGb|BD' g, /Tg3f]if,
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lji0f'sf jfxg x'g\ . eujfg u¿8nfO{ cToGt rlr{t u|Gy …/; /Tgfs/Ú df s'g} kl/0ffd xft nfu]g . elgG5, åf/sf]
sZok Clif / ljgLtfsf k'q elgPsf] Ps :yfgdf /f]rs j0f{g 5 h;df otfkl§ ;+;f/ 5 eg] csf{lt/ df]Ifwfd
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/ysf ;f/yL x'g\ . kIfL/fh u¿8nfO{ sfndf ;'g agfOGYof] . la/fdL nfdf clGtd OR5f:j¿k oxfF
g] k fn ;/sf/
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!! gf]e]Da/ !(*# ;Dd b'j} v]dfn] dfq o;sf] p8g] Ifdtf 5 . yf]/} ;dosf nflu p8fg eg]{ Ifdtf /x]sf] of]
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pgLx?sf] p2]Zo lyof] t];f| ] ljZjo'4 dfl/Psf lyP . klZrdL d'n'ssf] v]dfdf hfFbf cGo /fhwfgL jflz+6gl8;Ldf ;"rgfsf] nflu lk|–c8{/ :j?k tTsfn !) xhf/ cd]l/sL 8n/ hDdf ug{k' g]{ x'G5 .
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o"lgel;{6Ldf g]zgn l;Sof]l/6L
csf{ O e 5 . oxfF b] z sf]
;' / Iff;F u hf] l 8Psf] P] l txfl;s
b:tfj] h /flvPsf] 5 . oL
;S5 . sltkon] t o:tf] sNkgf klg u/]sf 5}gg\ xf]nf . t/, cfd sNkgf
jflx/sf] of] s'/fnfO{
;Dej jgfP, l:6e
xflkG;n] . xf], l:6en]
rk]6fdf u'lh|/x]sf 5g\ t/ slt d'ns
' x? cTofw'lgs %= LGM-30G Minuteman III – ICBM - USA ) b:tfj]haf6 …Pan cfr{/ *#Ú sf] ljZjsf] ;j}eGbf k'/fgf]
xltof/ agfpFb} cfˆgf] zlQm k|bz{g ul//x]sf 5g\ . of] k|sl[ tsf] @ j6f ld;fO{n !(^@ / !(^% df ag]sf] 5 . hfgsf/L h'6fpg hf]G;nfO{ sof}+ jif{ df]6/;fOn a|fG8 xfn]{
nfUof] . …ha d}n] Tof] o'4fEof;;Fu 8]le8;g afOsnfO{
;DalGwt b:tfj] h dfu] F ta cfZro{ h gs ?k
dflg;x? xf:g yfn] . pgLx?n] pQm lbPsf 5g\ . l:6en]
b:tfj]h uf]Ko ePsf sf/0f lbg o; afOsdf Ps of
g;lsg] atfP . t/ !@ jif{sf] sfg'gL b'O xf]Og, !) l;6sf]
n8fOFkl5 @)!% of] ;a} hfgsf/L k|of]u u/]sf 5g\ . oL !) l;6df dflg;x? ;lhn} j;]/ ofqfsf] dHhf lng
lng] cg'dlt kfPF,Ú pgn] eg] . cem ;S5g\ . of] x]g{df klg cfsif{s 5 . o;sf] pTs[i6 OlGhg Ifdtfn] klg
/dfOnf] t s] eg] hf]G;nfO{ tL ;j}sf] dg nf]Eofpg ;S5 . !) l;6 ePsf] sf/0f of] afOs t'ngfTds
b:tfj]hsf] hfgsf/L pgsf] hGd ?kdf lgs} nfdf] 5 . l:6en] cfˆgf] of] c;fw/0f afOsnfO{ hd{gLdf
lbgdf k|fKt eof] . tL b:tfj]h ;DkGg P;]g df]6/ zf]df ;j}sf] ;fd' k|:t't u/]sf lyP . vf;u/L of] afOs
!(() df cd]l/sL /fi6«kltsf] ljb]zL xfn]{ 8]le8;gsf] P]ltxfl;s ;kmntf k|bz{g ug{sf nflu jgfOPsf] xf] . of]
v'lkmof ;Nnfxsf/ af]8n { ] tof/L u/]sf] afOs nfdf] ePklg ;xh ?kdf ;~rfng xf];\ eGg] x]t'n] o;df s'n &
lyof] . h;sf] gfd lyof]–b ;f]leot OlGhg k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 . o;df k|of]u ePsf ;j} & OlGhg rnfpg
;+3 jf/ :s]o/ .Ú !)( k]hsf] of] ;lsG5 . t/, nfdf] b'/Lsf] ofqfsf nflu of] ;Dej 5}g . olb nfdf] ofqfdf
b:tfj]hdf …Pan cfr{/ *#Ú b]lv oL & OlGhg rnfof] eg] Tof] tfltg] vt/f /xG5 . xfn]{ 8]le8;gsf] of]
;f]leot ;+3 leq dlRrPsf] v}nf afOsdf bdbf/ 6fo/ / k|mG6 l8:s a|s ] k|of]u ul/Psf] 5, h;n] afOsnfO{
a}nfnfO{ ;lj:tf/ aofg ul/Psf] 5 . pTs[i6 / ;Gt'lnt ult k|bfg u5{ . of] afOssf] lgdf{0f kl5 l:6e Psbd}
s'g} o'4fEof;df g]6f] ;]gfn] v'lkmof pT;flxt 5g\ .
cfh xfdL o:tf zlQmzfnL xltof/sf] af/]df hfgsf/L o;sf] ljif]ztf eg]sf] xfjfsf] h:tf];s ' } cj/f]w klg kf/ u/]/
u/fpFb} 5f}F . h;df ;+;f/nfO{ Wj:t kfg]{ zlQm 5 . ljikmf]6 x'G5 . o;sf] df/ Ifdtf !# xhf/ ls=dL= /x]sf] 5 .
!=M51 – SLBM -k|mfG;_ ^= RSM-56 Bulava – SLBM -¿;_
/ sf]8]8 ;Gb]z k7fPsf] of] klxnf]
k6s xf] . nfdf] ;do;Dd /]l8of]df ;dfrf/ jfrg ug]{ /f]af]6 Û
;"rgf k|zf/0f ug{ k|ltaGw nufOof] . sf7df8f}F . ;"rgf / k|ljlwsf] b'lgofFdf ljleGg d'n'sn] 7"nf] km8\sf]
o;nfO{ k|mfG;sf] ;a}eGbf zlQmzfnL ld;fOn of] ld;fOn @)!# df ag]sf] xf] . o;sf] l8hfOg OlG:6Ro'6 of] o'4fEof;kl5sf lbgsf v'lkmof df/]sf 5g\ . b}lgs hLjgdf c;xh dx;'; ug{sf] nflu ;fwg lgdf{0f
dflgG5 . o;sf] df/ Ifdtf !! xhf/ ls=ld= /x]sf] ckm yd{n 6]Sgf]nf]hL /l;ofn] agfPsf] xf] . o;sf] df/ Ifdtf l/kf]6{nfO{ Pstfa4 u/]/ !(() df ePsf 5g\ eg] x/]s sfdnfO{ 5f]6f] ;dodf ;DkGg ug{ k|ljlwn] Nofst
5 . o;sf] leqL efudf ;'k/ sDKo'6/ / g]leu]zgn ;f9] * xhf/ ls=dL= /x]sf] 5 . of] l/kf]6{ cd]l/sL /fi6«kltnfO{ klg /fVg] ub{ 5 .
l;:6d /flvPsf] 5 . h;n] cfˆgf] nIodf df/ &= R29RMU2 Layner – SLBM -¿;_ a'emfOPsf] lyof] . pQm l/kf]6{df x'Fbfx'Fbf ca ;dfrf/
nufpF5 . o;nfO{ @)!$ df /lzog l8km]G; o"lg6df ;fd]n ul/Psf] o'4fEof;kl5 ;f]leot ;+3n] s] s] jfrs klg /f]af]6n]
@= DF-31/31A – ICBM -rLg_ 5 . o;n] Ps k6sdf !@ j6f nIodf df/ xfGg ;S5 . ug]{ tof/L u/]sf] lyof] eGg] pNn]v ug{ yfn] s f] 5 .
o;sf] jf:tljs gfd 8fGu km+}u #! xf] . ;g\ o;sf] df/ Ifdtf !! xhf/ ls=dL= /x]sf] 5 . lyof] . pQm l/kf]6s { f cg';f/ ;f]leot kTofpg g;lsg]
@))^ df lrgn] o;nfO{ cfˆgf] ;]gfdf ;fd]n u/]sf] *= UGM-133 Trident II – SLBM -USA/UK) ;+3n] cfˆgf] ;a} p8fg /f]Sg], P6dL k|ljlwsf] ljsf;sf] of]
xf] . o;sf] df/ Ifdtf * xhf/ lsnf]dL6/ 5 . of] ld;fOn agfpg o's] / cd]l/sfsf] kmf];{ ;fd]n ul/Psf] xltof/ t}gfy ug]{/ p;sf] nIo to /f]rs k|;+u casf]
o;sf] P8efG; e;{gsf] df/ Ifdtf !! xhf/ lyof] . o;n] Ps}k6sdf !$ j6f nIodf df/ xfGg ;S5 . ug]{ tof/Lsf ljifodf pNn]v lyof] . qmddf . logL lrlgofF
lsnf]dL6/ /x]sf] 5 . o;sf] df/ Ifdtf * xhf/ b]lv !! xhf/ ls=dL= ;Dd /x]sf] cfdgful/snfO{klg o'4sfnflu tof/ ;dfrf/jfrs PcfO{ .
# = RT-2UTTKh Topol-M – ICBM-¿;_ 5. kfg{ tflnd lbg'kg]{df hf]8 lbOPsf] cGo ;dodf tkfO{n]
o;nfO{ /l;og cfdL{df !((& df ;fd]n ul/Psf] (= DF-5/5A – ICBM -rLg_ lyof] . cyf{t ;f]leot ;+3 k"0f{ ?kdf l6eLdf b]Vg] ;dfrf/
5 . o;nfO{ sf] gfdn] klg af]nfO{G5 . o;sf] df/ o;n] kne/d} k'/} zx/nfO{ vQd agfpg ;S5 . o;sf] o'4sf] tof/Ldf h'6s ] f] lyof] . ;f]leot jfrs / pgLdf s'g}
Ifdtf !),%)) ls=dL= /x]sf] 5 . df/ Ifdtf !@ xhf/ ls=dL= /x]sf] 5 . ;+3sf g]tfnfO{ s] s'/fdf ljZjf; km/s b]lvFb}g . k|i6 af]nL / cfslif{t cg'xf/n] pgnfO{ em§ x]bf{ /f]af]6 x'g\
$= RS-24 Yars – ICBM -¿;_ !)= R-36M2 – ICBM -¿;_ lyPg eg] …Pan cfr{/ *#Ú jf:tjd} eg]/ 5'6\ofpg ;lsFb}g . rLgsf] ;/sf/L ;dfrf/ ;+:yf l;GXjfn] lbgsf]
of] ld;fOnsf] lgdf{0f cd]l/sfsf /fi6«kl5 hh{ o;nfO{ gf6f] åf/f SS -18 Satan gfdn] klg af]nfOG5 . Ps o'4fEof; xf] . p;nfO{ t of] o'4s} rf}la;} 306f ;dfrf/ ;Dk|z ] 0f ug{ ;Sg] eGb} pgnfO{ ;dfrf/ jfrssf]
8An' a';n] cd]l/fsfdf agfPsf] ld;fOnsf] hjfkmdf o;n] Ps} ;dodf @) b]lv @% j6f nIodf df/ xfGg ;S5 . tof/L ePsf] nfu]sf] lyof] . g]6 hf]G; ?kdf k|:t't u/]sf] xf] . ;do ;dodf a|]lsª ;dfrf/ k|;f/0f ug{ of]
agfO{Psf] lyof] . o;sf] ljz]iftf eg]sf] o;n] cfˆgf] o;sf] df/ Ifdtf !! xhf/ ls=dL= /x]sf] 5 . / pgsf ;fyLsf nflu ;f]leot ;+3sf] k|ljlw ljz]if ?kdf pkof]uL ;fljt x'g5] . of] k|ljlw ljsl;t ug{ cfl6{lkml;on
xhf/f}+ ;}Go 6's8L klZrdL o'/f]kdf ld;fOn t}gfy u/]sf] lyof] . oL :Sofl8g]ljofO{ d'ns ' cyf{t 8]gdfs{, v'lkmof Ph]G;L s]hLaLsf] b:tfj]h OG6]lnh]G; k|0ffnL k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 .
x'g] o'4fEof;df efu lnGy] . hlta]nf ld;fOn / P6dL xltof/, k|xf/ u/]sf] gj]{ / :jL8]gdfly ;f]leot ;]gfn] klg vf]lh/x]sf 5g\ . To;afx]s o;df df}lns k|:t'tstf{sf] cfjfh, cf]7sf] rfn, efje+ludf gSsn
…Pan cfr{/ *#Ú o'4fEof; eO/x]sf] kfFr ldg]6leq} cfˆgf] lg;fgfnfO{ cfqmd0f ;'? u¥of] . rfF8} ;f]leot ;]gf o'qm]gdf /flvPsf b:tfj]hsf] klg ul/Psf] 5 . t/, pgL klxnf] ;dfrf/jfrs eg] xf]Ogg\ . o;cl3 hfkfgn]
lyof], Tolta]nf zLoo'4 pTsif{df Wj:t kfg{ ;Sy] . cyf{t ljZj ljgfz klZrdL of]/f]kLo d'ns ' df b]lvg yfn] . vf]hL hf/L 5 . g]6 hf]G; eG5g\– klg Pl/sf gfd u/]sf] /f]af]6{nfO{ dlxnf 6]lnlehg k|:tf]tf agfpg k|of;
lyof] . g]6f] b]zsf] ;DaGw ;f]leot Nofpg] P6dL o'4sf] ;+3f/df plePsf] bjfa w]/} a9]kl5 g]6f] ;]gf kl5 x6\g xfdLnfO{ !(*$ df ;f]leot ;+3sf] u/]sf] lyof] . t/, pgL k|i6 /f]af]6{ g} x'g\ eg]/ 5'6\ofpg ;lsGYof] . t/,
;+3sf] ;dy{s d'n's;Fu lgs} v/fa lyof] . …Pan cfr{/ *#Ú o'4fEof;df afWo eof]. s]xL dlxgfkl5 sfNklgs Ps ;}lgs b:tfj]h k|fKt eof] . o;df s]xL lbg cl3 dfq} ;fj{hlgs ePsf PcfO{nfO{ lnP/ eg] lrlgofF ;~rf/sdL{n]
cj:yfdf k'u]sf] lyof] . ToxL jif{sf] h'g k|sf/sf] o'4sf] sNkgf ul/Psf] o'4 km]l/ ;'? eof] . klZrdL b]zsf …Pna cfr{/ *#Ú sf] lj:tf/df o;sf] g} k|Zg p7fPsf 5g\ . ljgf s'g} ?sfj6 @$ 306f g} ;dfrf/ jfrg ug{
;'?jftdf cd]l/sL /fi6«klt /f]gfN8 lyof], To;sf] ;'?jft c/a d'ns ' af6 g]tfx?n] ;f]leot ;+3 lj?4 P6dL ;dLIff ul/Psf] 5 . o;nfO{ x]g]{ xf] ;Sg] /f]af]6{n] 6]lnlehgdf sfd ug]{ kqsf/sf] hflu/ g} w/fkdf kfg{ ;Sg]
l/ugn] ;f]leot ;+3nfO{ …;}tfgsf] x'g] jfnf lyof] . oxL sf/0f ;f]leot xltof/ k|of]u ug{ cg'dlt lbPsf lyP . eg] s] yfxf x'G5 eg] ;f]leot ;+3sf eGb} pgLx? cfGbf]lnt 5g\ . ;dfrf/ jfrgdf /f]af]6{sf] k|of]u ug{ ;lsg]
/fd|fHoÚ eg]sf lyP . !(*# sf] ;+3nfO{ t]n ;KnfO{ ug{ jfwf pTkGg P6dL cfqmd0fsf] sNkgf g]tf …Pan cfr{/ *#Ú ;Fu 8/fPsf ePkl5 aflx/ uP/ ;dfrf/ ;+sng ug]{ kqsf/ klg lj:yflkt ug]{ ul/
;]S6]Da/ dlxgfdf g} ;f]leot ;+3sf ePsf] lyof] . ptf o'uf]:nfleof, hf] o'4fEof;df ;xefuL g]6f] ;]gfn] lyP .Ú – l/r8{ x"ln+ud, aLaL;L /f]af]6{ pTkfbg x'g]df lrlgofF kqsf/ ;z+lst ePsf 5g\ .
6 @)&% ;fn d+l;/ @ ut] cfOtaf/

‘s};] j'8\js cfbdL x} Û’
of] pgG;f7L ;fnlt/sf] s'/f xf] .
Tof] ;do d g]skf dfcf]jfbL k"jL{
klg sxfF lyof] / < lrKn] sL/fsf]
ultdf k|x/Lx?sf] vfgtnf;L cl3
k|x/Ln] xf/ dfg]sf] d'8df t/ 7'nf]
:j/n] dnfO{ eGof]– …af]l/ofsf] gLr]
yfgfdf va/ u/]sf] 5 . ;'/Iffsf
sf/0fn] xfdLnfO{ af6f]df g;dfPsf]
ef]ssf] cGTo
cfh w]/} jif{ k5fl8 p;nfO{
ef]s;Ë} s':tL nl8/x]sf] b]lv/x]5'
¿k 5 t/ /Ë 5}g p;df
/fhafa' >]i7 ‘;fu/’

sdf08cGtu{t ljefuLo lhDd]jf/Ldf a9\b} lyof] . hlt hlt vfgtnf;L /flvP .Ú d klg xNsf xf}l;PF / af]/f xf]nf . a;n] hlt k6s a|s ] nfufp5 z/L/ 5 s]jn vf]qmf]
/x]/ sfd uy]+{ . sdf08 OGrfh{ df]xg glhs cfpYof] Tolt Tolt d'6s ' f] tn /fv]+ . To; kl5sf] syf o:tf] 5 Tolt g} k6s 5fQL 9Ss km'Ng] x'b}
a}B ls/0f x'gx' G' Yof] . d]/f] sf]7f k6gfdf w8\sg a9\b} lyof] . syf s;/L cl3 – k|x/Ln] d]/f] cfFvf glhs} p;sf a; xlhk'/ k'Uof] . ca k|x/Lsf] 8/
lyof] eg] ls/0f sd/]8 l;lnu'8L a:g' a9\nf / s;/L cGt xf]nf eg]/ cfFvf NofP/ ;f]Wof]– …cfksf gfd Sof nueu x/fof] / a;s} ofq'x?sf] 8/ t/ hjfgLsf] cfuf] lge]sf] 5
x'GYof] . Tof] k6s g]kfnaf6 !@ nfv cg'dfg nufpg sl7g lyof] . ca x} <Ú d}n] hjfkm lbPF – …s]kL zdf{ /Ú ;'? eof] . emf]nf el/ k};f ePsf] s'/f ;'ss] f] cf]7+ 5 t/ d':sfgn]
?k}ofF cfPsf] lyof] . g]kfnaf6 wg'iffsf emG8} emG8} k|x/Lx? xfd|f] glhs bf]>f] k|Zg – …cfk sxf s] /xg] jfn] t ;a}n] yfxf kfO{ ;s] . log} ofq'x? kms]6fxfnL cfsfz pl8;s]sf] 5
sd/]8 /fdrGb| d08nn] Tof] k};f cfOk'u] . s[i0f clwsf/Ln] k};f xfn]sf] x} <Ú d}n] eg] – …l;lNnu'/LÚ t]>f] k|Zg k|x/L;Fu ldNg s] a]/ < o:t} o:t} kl/l:yltsf] nx/fn] a]l//x]sf] 5 p;nfO{
emf]nf lt3|fdfly /fVg' ePsf] lyof] . …cfk Sof sfd s/t] x} <Ú d]/f] ;f]r/] d}n] s[i0f clwsf/LnfO{ eg]+ –
k|x/Ln] ;f]r]5 – of] ev{/} ahf/af6 algagfp hjfkm lyof]– …rfoklQsf …sd/]8 xlhk'/d} cf]ln{P s;f] xf]nf <Ú
lsg]sf] ;6{ /x]5 . Tolx eP/ xf]nf lalhg]; s/tf x'F /Ú yk k|Zg– …cle ;fyLn] ;xdlt hgfP . xfdL a;af6 slxNo} km'Tsg] g;Sg] u/L
Tof] emf]nf lgu/fgLdf k/]g . d}n] ;f]r] sxfF ;] cfP x} <Ú d]/f] hjfkm– cf]ln{bf a;sf ofqL xfdLnfO{ ulx/f];uF oL lbgx¿df d p;nfO{
– Ps tLxfO{ k};f / Ps hgf ;fyL …d'hˆkm/k'/ ;] .Ú csf]{ k|Zg– …sxfF x]b{} lyP . a;af6 cf]nk{] l5 xfdL t'?Gt} s]jn Psf]xf]/f] x]l//x]sf] 5'
hf]luof] Û dg dg} of] klg ;f]r] ls hfgf x} <Ú d]/f] pQ/– …k6gf .Ú Pp6f l/S;f ;dft]/ ufGwL /]Nj]
Ps hgf ;fyL hf]luPkl5 d]/f] jf/]df olt ;afn hjfkm ha km'lt{;fy :6];glt/ nfUof}+ . ToxfF k'u/] klZrd s]jn Psf]xf]/f] pNn"n] lbgdf g b]v+] em}+ u/L .
klg kf6L{df vj/ k'Ug] eof] . ;f]Rbf eof], To;kl5 k|x/L dnfO{ ;Demfpg] sdf08sf sd/]8 laa]snfO{ kmf]g u/]/
;f]Rb} d]/} kfnf] cfOk'Uof] . d}n] k};fsf] a'emfpg] tl/sfn] t/ x]k/] efif0f ug{ cfk"mnfO{ k/]sf] cK7]/f] jf/] hfgsf/L cefj, ul/aL / ef]sd/L
emf]nf v'§fd'lg /fv]sf] lyPF . k|x/Ln] yfNof] – …s};] a'8as cfbdL x} Û Otg] lbof}+ . k6gf k'uk] l5 Pp6f lkmNd p;};Ë k|z:t 5Fb} lyP
;f]Wof] – …af]l/ofd] Sof x} <Ú s] eGg] 9]/ ?k}of af]l/of d] n]s/ s] rntf xndf e]6g\ ] ;Nnfx u/]kl5 Pp6f 6]Dkf]
s] eGg] xFb' f xFb' } ;dflnP/ d}n] hjfkm x} . O; cfbdLsf] a}s + s] af/] d] eL l/he{ ul/of] . k};fsf] emf]nfdfly b'O{
Tof] cnfjf lbgnfO{ d;Ë s]xL lyPg
lbPF – …af]l/ofd] lstfa x} .Ú cxF hfgsf/L gxL x} Sof <Ú d}n] klg dg ;osf] lnrL lsg]/ 5f]lkof] / xfd|f] kmut p;nfO{ bof ug{ lzjfo
k|x/Ln] ljZjf; u/]g . …af]l/ofsf] pk/ dg} ;f]r+] – …a'8as tF xf];\ ls d x'F 6]Dkf] xflGgof] k6gflt/ . nueu cfwf
;+:d/0f p7fcf]Ú, k|x/Ln] cfb]z u¥of] . d}n]
emf]nfnfO{ dfly prfn]+ . k|x/L cfkm}n]
eGg] la:tf/} yfxf xf]nf ca ÛÚ
la:tf/} k|x/Lx? a;af6 cf]ln{P,
306fkl5 sd/]8 ljj]s;Fu xfd|f] e]6
eof] . k};fsf] b'O{ j6f emf]nf laa]s
cfefjsf tL lbgdf –
an/fd ltdlN;gf emf]nfsf] r]g vf]Nof] / kf]lnlygsf 9f6 v'Nof] / a; u'8o\ f] . dgleq eg] sd/]8nfO{ a'emfP/ sf]7flt/ kms{bf
p;n] dnfO{ sltslt ;DemLxf]nL xf]nL
ef/tsf] d'hˆkm/k'/ NofOk'¥ofP/ xfd|f] kf]sfx? vf]tNg ;'? u¥of] . To;kl5 cfFwL rnL g} /x]sf] 5 . Ps k6s ;/L/ kl;gfn] lgy|S' s leh]sf] lyof] . p;nfO{ slt w]/} cfjZostf lyof] xf]nf d]/f]
lhDdf nufpg' eof] . Tof] k};fnfO{ k|x/L cfZro{df k¥of] . s'lxgf];Dd ;fyLsf] cg'xf/ x]/+] . cxF 3fd em'Ns]sf] lbdfudf emNof:; ;Demgf eof] pxL t/ p;nfO{ lbg]
xfdLn] k6gf nu]/ klZrd sdf08sf k};fdf 8'a]kl5 p;nfO{ klg em8\sf 5}g . k'j{ klg kmf6]sf] 5}g . o:tf] k|x/Lsf] egfO – …s};] a'8as cfbdL
ljefuLo k|d'v sd/]8 ljj]snfO{ nUof] xf]nf . b]lvGYof] cg'xf/ . d]/f] cg'xf/ emg\ x} Û Otg] 9]/ ?k}of af]l/ofd] n]s/
lhDdf nufpg' kg]{ lyof] . To;kl5 To;kl5 syf o;/L cl3 a9\of] – s:tf] lyof] xf]nf, ;fyLnfO{ ;f]lwg Tof] rntf x} ÛÚ dg dg} hjfkm klg cfof]
d;Ë klg t s]xL lyPg .
Tof] k};f ef/tsf] nvgf} xFb' } s]Gb|Lo …af]l/ofd] lstfa x} af]n] y] g < Sof o] 7§f ug]{ ;do klg lyPg . xlhk'/ – …of] k6s tF a'8as ePsf] xf]; ls ctLtsf tL lbgx¿ ;DemFbf
sfof{no /x]sf] 7fpF lbNnL hfG5 eGg] lstfa x} <Ú d k|x/LnfO{ s] hjfkm cfpg cem} klg„ la; ldg]6 nfUg] d <Ú o;/L Pp6f a'8as cfbdLn] cfh bof nfu]/ cfpF5 t[KtLdfly
dnfO{ yfxf lyof] . t/ xfd|f] sfd k6gf lbg] eg]/ ;f]Rb} lyPF, Tolx ;dodf jfnf lyof] . dg dg} ;f]r] – af6fdf csf]{ rnfv k|x/LnfO{ ;fFRr}sf] a'8as t/ tL lbgx¿ cfh p;nfO{
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clwsf/Ln] rf/ nfv ?k}ofF ahf/df yfn] / ‰ofn vf]n/] xfDkmfNg] tof/L
cSzg xfp;n] o;nfO{ ut d+unaf/ laqmL u/]sf] xf] . of]eGbf klxn] gf]eD] a/
/ p;sf] cfˆg} hjfgL lr/}tf em}F tLtf] .
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@)!& df !% Sof/]6sf …lk+s k|fld;Ú 8fod08 -#&( s/f]8_ #=@% s/f]8
/fVg' eof] / k;nn] lbPsf] Knfl:6ssf] k4¥of] . k|x/Lsf] xlKsblKssf] Pp6f ;do d d'¶Ldf s:5'
8n/df ljqmL ePsf] lyof] . ;f] 8fo08nfO{ klg lqmli6hn] ljqmL u/]sf] xf] .
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lk+s lnu];L lsGg]jfnf Xof/L ljG:6g 8fod08 Hj]n;{n] o; 8fod08sf] / t[Kt x'g rxfFG5' ltdL;Ë x/]skn
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gfdnfO{ kl/jt{g u/]/ …b ljG:6g lk+s lnu];LÚ /fVg]5g\ . Xof/L ljG:6g
la6f agfP/ Pp6f lrofkQL xfNg] ug{' kg]{ csf]{ n]7f] klg ylkof] . d}n]
8fod08 Hj]n/L / nUh/L 38Lx?sf] Jofkf/ ug]{ gfdL cd]l/sL sDkgL xf] .
h'6sf] emf]nfdf xfn]+ . vfgf vfP/ ;se/ cfk"mnfO{ ;dfn]+ / eg] – efOof]+ d]/f] of] j}z
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klg xfd|f] dgdf vf;} lrGtf lyPg . jfnf gxL x'F . af]l/ofd] lstfa gxL x],
cg';f/ lk+s lnu];L 8fod08sf] nflu kmf]gdf % hgfn] af]n u/]sf lyP, hxfF
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Sof/L ljG:6gn] cfˆgf] kf]N6fdf kfg{ ;kmn ag] .
k5{ eg] jfl/ xlhk'/ eGg] :yfg 5 . x} . kf]ln; r]s s/ /xL x} . afbd] pm b]lv k/k/ x'bF } .
xfdL xlhk'/ k'Ug To:t} cfwf 306f ;as'5 ktf rn]uf . cfknf]u ckg]
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/f]lsof] / 9f]sfaf6 Ps x'n k|x/Lx? xNsf ;dlnP / l;6df a:g ;'? u/] . t[Kt x'g' 5}g lx+hf]sf] lbg em}F
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s;}nfO{ klg aflx/ glg:sg s8f ;fob k|x/Lsf] klg lbdfu v/fa ug{ /;fpFbg} p;sf] dg of}jgsf] ef]sn] cr]n
cfb]z u/] . dgdf lr;f] k:of] . ca ;'? u/]sf] lyof] . To; kl5syf h;/L /;fpF5 t s]jn ef]sn] p;sf] d'v
s] xf]nf t eg]/ dgn] ;f]Rg yfNof] . cl3 a9\of], Tof] syfn] To;} eG5 .
pgLx?n] vfgtnf;L olt s8f u/] k|x/L Ps k6s km]/L sl:;of] / eGof]– clxn] d p;sf] d'vaf6
ls dlxnfx?n] af]Sg] xft] emf]nf klg …af]l/of n]s/ s] afx/ rlnP ÛÚ d}n]
lgu/fgLdf k/] . d}n] ;u} a;]sf s[i0f klg 8/fpb} t/ axfb'/L k'js { eg] – ljifsf] ¥ofn bf}l8/x]sf] b]lv/x]5'
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ls;fgsf] nflu vf]/ 7"nf] k|of]hgsf] ;fwg v'Nnf rf}/ / v'Nnf h+unsf k|fs[lts /dfOnf] lhjgdf cFWof/f] b]Vg yfn], To;}n] l3p, cGo kl/sf/ vfg} k¥of] . klg gsfg{ ldNb}g . t/, k|lalwsf] b'?kof]u ubf{ lgDtg] lagfz eg] kSs}
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;fgf] 9f]sf ePsf] / To; 9f]sf aflx/af6 d}n] a'‰b}u/]sf] 7fn' dfG5]nfO{ y'lglbG5 yfn] . kg]{ ePsf] 5 . dxËf ;f/L / /fd|f kmf]g k};fsf] artsf] nflu dfq geO{ tkfO{s + f] cfˆgf] dxTjk"0f{ ;"rgf OG6/g]6df
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laj]ssf] cg'sn' tfdf lgdf{0f u/]sf] x'G5 . ;f+rf] nufP/ laxfg Psk6s a]ns ' f lx/f;t / h]n gfdsf] vf]/df y'lgO/x]sf af+rs] f] 7fn' kl/jf/nfO{ a}ejsf] hLjg ;~rf/sf] dfWodnfO{ cem k|efasf/L agfpg / of] k|lalwd'vL ;+;f/sf]
s's/' , afv|f, ufO{, la/fnf], klIf+hGo Psk6s ;fgf] 9f]sfaf6 u'0f:t/lxg vfgf 5g\ . kz' klIf+nfO{ y'Gg] ls;fg w]/} lhpg' 5 . 5f]/f 5f]/Lx?nfO{ dxËf :s'n
le8df cfˆgf] k[ys klxrfg agfpgsf] nflu klg xf] eg]/ a'‰bf x'G5 .
hgjf/x? oL ;a}nfO{ Pp6f ls;fgn] v'jfP/ y'g/] /flv/fVbf] /}5 . x'gt d]/f] a}1flgs / pRr r]t ePsf /x]5g . / dxËf] hLjg z}nL clgjfo{ aGb} uPsf]
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lgsfN5 of y'lg/xG5 . kz', klIf+x?nfO{ ls;fg cfk"m af+R5, c?nfO{ a+rfp5, lab]zlt/ e|d0fdf hfg} kg]{ ePsf] 5 . !_ tkfO{+n] cfˆgf] Excel kmfOnnfO{ ;]e ubf{, kmfOnsf] gfdsf]
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s's/' :jtGq eP/ 8'Ng rfxfGYof] Tof] eGbf a9L dfof / rfs/ ;fy;fy} knËdf lgbfP/ bDeL ;kgf b]Vg' 5 . cfwfeGbf w]/} sDtLdf ;]e x'g ;S5 .
xf]nf, afv|f cfˆgf] ayfg lnP/ a's;'{ L lbG5 . cfˆg} kl/jf/sf dfgj?kL ;b:o 7fn'sf] 7"nf] dxnsf] d'lGt/ s]xL @_ tkfO{+n] ;fOn]G6df /fv]sf] cfˆgf] PG8«f]O8 kmf]g cfˆg} sf]7f leq st}
dfb}{ rg{ st} hfGYof] xf]nf . ufO cfˆgf] a/fa/ Jojxf/ u5{, kz'klIf+sf] cToGt} em'k8Lx? 5g\ . tL em'k8Lsf kmf]xf]/L la;{g'eof] / vf]Hbf km]nf kfg{'ePg < o;sf] klg Pp6f pkfo 5 .
af5f afR5L lnP/ df]xs 9Ën] :tgkfg Vofn /fV5 . ;f] afkt tL kz'kIfL+ dfkm{t dfG5]x? laxfg b]lv a]ns ' f;Dd kl;gf To;sf] nflu tkfO{n + ] cfˆgf] sDKo'6/df jf c? s;}sf] PG8«fO] 8 kmf]gdf
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cfˆgf aRrf aRrL / cfˆg} ;fyL clwsf/ ;dfg x'g' kb{5 eGg] d]/f] dt 7fn'sf] 3/ p;}n] agfOlbPsf] xf], cfO8L nlug ug{'kg]{ x'G5 h'g tkfO{+sf] x/fPsf] kmf]gdf lyof] . To;
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v'n/] e'nS' s e'lNsGYof] xf]nf . ;'uf -u+x,' l5d]sL ls;fgklg cfˆgf] laa]s / k[YjL gfdsf] 8Nnf] / o;sf] ;'Gb/tf pgLx?nfO{ . hLjg lgs} lg/; / lg/y{s lg < olb tkfO{+n] ;'Gg'ePsf] uLtsf] efsf dfq} ofb 5 eg] tkfO{+
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km'nx? kmnx? v'n/] vf+b} lx+8y\ ] xf]nf, y'lg/x]sf] x'G5 . 7fn' t cem a9]/ laj]s 7fn'x? s:tf x'g < lsg dfG5]x?nfO{ ;xg ;s]g Û To;}n] ha ha p s'g uLt xf] eGg] s'/f yfxf kfpg ;Sg'x'G5 .
p8\y] xf]nf . / r]tgf cfk"m ;dfg ePsfx?nfO{{ cfˆgf] y'Gg k'U5g . lolgx? ls;fg eGbf ef]sf] eof], gfËf] eof], cefj / ul/aLsf] $_ tkfO{n + ] O{G6/g]6 rnfpFbf–rnfpFb} s'g} gf]6 ;]e ug{k' ¥of] eg] j8{,
slt ;'Gb/ 5 k|fl0fx?sf] hLjg, vf]/df y'lg/xG5 . oxfF ls;fg / 7fn'sf] cRrsfnL /x]5g lg . lolgx?n] dfG5] df/df lklN;P/ tl8\kof] . p;n] cfjfh gf]6Kof8 h:tf cGo k|f]u|fd vf]Ng' kb}{g . tkfO{+n] cfˆgf] a|fph/df g}
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lgZrn 5 . olt kljq nfUg], olt ljifonfO{{ lrq0f ug{ vf]lhPsf] 5 . s]xL s'kfqx?sf] s'–larf/ / pgLx? kfpg'k5{, nfpg kfpg' k5{, af; kfpg' 6fOlkË Kof8 vf]Ng ;Sg'x'G5 .
ld7f; / cfxf …olx vf]/sf] j;df Pp6f las6, b'ud{ ufpF, ;fgf] em'k8L, åf/f laa]lrt sfg'gsf] tVtf kN6fP/ k5{, pkrf/ / lzIff kfpg' k5{ log} %_ tkfO{n + ] cfˆgf] Nofk6k !))% eGbf klg *)% dfq} rfh{ u/]/ rnfpg]
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g]tf tyf sfo{stf{x?nfO{ lgb]{zg g]kfnL r]nL anfTs[t x'Fbf ;/sf/ afFw/] lgd{d oftgf lbOFb5 } . g]kfnL cleofg rnfpg] klg lg0f{o u/]sf] pgsf] Toqf] cWoog sDo'lg:6sf] af/]df lardf cr]tg cj:yfsf cyf{t sdhf]/
lbP . pgn] cGo ;d'x;+u ldn]/ y/y/L sfFk/] df}g a:b5 . ;g\ !(&% >dhLjL tyf pTkLl8t hgtfsf] 5 . h;cGt/ut a}7sn] tLg dlxg] o:tf] a'emfO{ 5 . pgL cem yk]sf 5g\ /x]sf x'G5g\ . ;fd|fHojfbL kIfsf x}gf}+
;'sD' af;L a:tLdf hfg], k};f p7fpg] df l;lSsd sAhf ul/;s] k l5 cu|b:tf g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf :yfoL sDo'lgi6 ljBfyL{ cleofg ;Grfng ls k'h F Lsf] lghL :jfldTjsf] lgjf{w klg eGg], ;dfhjfb klg sfd 5}g eGg]
/ ANofSd]ln+u ug]{ h:tf ;'s'Daf;L tTsfnLg ef/tLo k|d OlGb/f ufGwLsf] ;ldlt ;b:o v8\uaxfb'/ ljZjsdf{ ug]{ ePsf] 5 . pkof]udf /f]s nufpg] sDo'lg:6sf] a'l4lhjLx? kfn]/ ;fd|fHojfbLn] p;sf]
la/f]wL ultljwL ug]{ hf] sf]xLnfO{ lgb]{zgdf …/Ú sf ;+:yfks k|d'v …k|sf08Ú, kLaLPdx¿ kbdaxfb'/ /fO{ gLltdf vf]6 5 . ;j{xf/f ju{sf] /fhgLlt :jfy{ k'/f ul//x]sf] 5 . To:tf
sf/afxL ul/g] s8f r]tfjgL lbP . cf/=Pg=sfcf]n] agfPsf] t/fO{ sAhf …ljsf;Ú, pdf e'hn ] …lzn'Ú, cf]dk|sfz ;+ ; bLo===== ug]n{ ] ;Fw} ;j{xf/f ju{ g} agfp5, pgLx? a'l4lhjLx? ;fd|fHojfbsf c;nL Ph]G6
cfˆgf] kf6L{ e'ldxLd–;'sD' af;Lsf] ug]{ of]hgf hf/L 5 eGg] s'/fk|lt of] k'g …lgdf{0fÚ, df]xg sfsL{ …hLjGtÚ / sfFu|];sf g]tf /d]z n]vsn] ;d]t To:t} /fhgLlt ul//x]sf 5g\ . k'h F Lsf] x'g\ . clxn] klg dfS;{jfbnfO{{ e|dkfg]{
kIfdf n8\g] kf6L{ ePsf] lhls/ ub}{ /fHo;Qfdf /x] s f clwsf/Lu0f s[i0fk|;fb wdnf …uDeL/Ú, s]Gb|Lo o; lsl;dsf] ;+;bLo Joj:yfsf] gLlh :jfldTj x6fP/ ;fdflhs ;+zf]wgjfbL ;d]tn] To:t} a'l4hLjLsf]
g]tf k'gn] kf6L{sf] gLlt / lg0f{o r'krfk 5g\ . cfGtl/s /fli6«otfk|lt ;b:ox¿ ls/0f /fO{, bLk]z /fO{, cf} l rTo gePsf] wf/0ff /fv] . agfPkl5 t emg\ ;a}nfO{{ ;j{xf/f kf] e"ldsf v]ln//]sf 5g\ .
lakl/t hyfefaL ;'s'Daf;L a:tL klg of] /fHo;Qf ;+jb] gzLn 5}g . rGb| a xfb' / v8\ s f, b] j gf/fo0f cGt/lqmof sfo{qmddf cleofgsf agfpg] u/]sf 5g\ . c1fgL d'vx{ ?nfO{{ la8Dagf s] 5 eg] bl/b| r]tgf
ga;fNg pgn] cg'/f]w u/] . vfnL / ljleGg pTkLl8t hghflt / pTkLl8t zfxnufot ;of} F sd/] 8 x¿sf] cWoIf jl/i7 clwjQmf Ps/fh o:tf laåfgn] v'/fsL lbO/x]sf]df a'hj'{ f ePsf a'h{'jf ljåfgx?;Fu af}l4s
k|lt hUufdf gd'gf a:tLsf ?kdf If]qx¿sf] ;ª\3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq lu/ˆtf/L, ckdfg / cdfgjLo e08f/Ln] sfo{kq k|:t't ub{} eg], zf;sx? dVv 5g\ / To:tf a'hs | ' x?sf] ax;af6 kfvf nufpg dfS;{jfbL
a:tL a;fNg] / klxNo} a;L ;s]sf egfpFbf] ;/sf/n] ltgLx¿NffO{ PsLs[t oftgfn] nf]stflGqs u0ftGqsf] wHhL …;+;bLo Joj:yfdf dfgjclwsf/sf e/0fkf]if0f / ;'v;'ljwfsf] Joj:yf a'l4lhjLx?n] Ifdtfsf] k|bz{g ug{
a:tLx?sf] hgtfnfO{ nfnk' h f{ ug]{ xf]Og, a? b]z ljv08g ug]{ p8fPsf] 5 . lgd{nf kGtnufot s'/f klg b]vfpg] bfFt lzjfo c¿ ldnfO{lbO/x]sf 5g\ . ;s]sf 5}gg\ . kl5Nnf] ;dodf t emg\
pknAw u/fpg n8\g] kf6L{sf] :k:6 lsl;dn] u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx¿ / aflnsfx¿sf anfTsf/L, ;'g t:s/ s]xL xf]Og /x]5 egL ;f]Rg afWo ePsf sDo'lg:6 eg]sf] s] xf] / ;j{xf/f of] l:ylt emg\ sdhf]/ ag]sf] 5 .
gLlt /x]sf] :k:6 kfb}{ pgn] kf6L{ lqml:rogx¿nfO{ rnv]n ug]{ dfu{ / e|i6frf/Lx¿nfO{ ;/sf/n] ;+/If0f 5f}F .Ú hfF8/S;L, /fFuf / e}F;Lsf] df;' eg]sf] s] xf] eGg] ;fdfGo 1fg klg ju{;3+ if{n] d't{ ?k glno~h]n of] l:ylt
tyf ;+u7gsf] lg0f{o u/]/ dfq cl3 k| z :t ul//x] s f] 5 . pTkLl8t u/]sf] 5 eg] Gofok|d] L / kl/jt{gsf Vjfpg] / nf]enfnr b]vfpFb} hgtfnfO{ gePsf To:tf l/Qf lbdfusf efF8fx?nfO{{ sfod g} /xg] h:tf] b]lg k'us ] f] 5 .
a9\g cfˆgf g]tf tyf sfo{stf{x?nfO{ hghflt / pTkLl8t If]qsf] ljsf;sf jfxsx¿nfO{ w/ks8 / y'g5]s u/]/ r'gfjdf ef]6 xfNg nufP/ lhtfpg] k|ltlqmofjfbLn] ultn} k|df0fkq le/fPsf] bf;o'ub]lv laeflht ePsf dflg;
s8f lgb]{zg lbP . nflu s'g} of]hgf ag]sf] 5}g . Gofok|d] L of] ;/sf/ gfª\u]emf/ ePsf] 5 . ljlw ;+;bLo Joj:yfn] u/]sf] wf/0ff x'gk' 5{ . lognfO{{ nfUbf] xf] sDo'lg:6 clxn] ;fd|fHojfb / hgtfaLrsf]
g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ sf:sLsf hg;d'bfo Û hghLljsfsf] k|Zg cfb/0fLo hg;d'bfo Û bnfn k'h F LjfbL pgn] /fv] . pgn] @! cf}F ztfAbLdf lagfsf] ;+;f/ slt ;Eo, zfGt, ;'Gb/ / cGt/;+3if{sf] :t/df ljeflht 5g\ .
;]qm]6/L cfqmf]zn] lautdf sf:sLsf ljs/fn ag]sf] 5 . dxFuL / s/ j[l4n] ;+;bLo Joj:yf / g]kfnL >dhLjL klg /fhgLlts clwsf/dfly aGb]h ljsl;t x'G5 . ;Eotfla?4 ;dfhdf a'hj'{ f / ;j{xf/f ju{sf] g]tT[ jdf clxn]
Ps0:–b'O{ 7fpFdf kf6L{ / ;+u7gnfO{ hgtfsf] 9f8 ;]ss ] f] 5 . b}lgs vfB tyf pTkLl8t hgtfaLrsf] nufP/ cbfntdf u'xf/ dfUg hfg'kg{] slxn]bl] v ;d:ofx? cfOnfu] / lab|fx] sf ;fd|fHojfb / hgtf h'lw/x]sf 5g\ .
hfgsf/L glbO{ kf6L{ / ;+u7gsf] gLlt j:t' x ¿ M bfn, rfdn, t] n , cGt/lj/f]w tLj| aGb} uPsf] 5 . o;sf] l:ylt lgdf{0f ul/Psf] eGb} of] s:tf] slt nfdf ;+3if{x? eP eGg] /lQ klg ;dfhsf x/]s kIf o;}df s]lGb|t ePsf
ljk/Lt ;'s'Daf;L a:tL a;fNbf lrgLnufot ;fdfgsf] d"No csfl;Fbf] ;fdfwg eg]sf] PsLs[t hgqmflGtåf/f nf]stGq xf] eg]/ k|Zg;d]t u/] . 1fg gePh:tf] JofVof ul//x]sf 5g\ . 5g\ . ;fd|fHojfb ;a} ;d:ofsf] h9
;/sf/L bdg ;xg' k/]sf] lhls/ u/] . 5 . ls;fg, dhb' / , l;kfxL / k|fKt x'g] j}1flgs ;dfhjfb g} xf] . jl/i7 clwjQmf e08f/Ln] lab|fx] / o'4x?df s/f]8f}s + /f]8 dflg; ePsf] 5 eg] ;dfhsf ;a} ;d:ofsf]
g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ sf:sLsf ;'sD' af;Lsf] cj:yf w]/} v/fa ePsf] jf:tljs ¿kdf o;n] g} ufF;, af;, GofokflnsfnfO{ /fhgLlts etL{sG] b| dfl/Psf, lx+;fsf xhf/f}+ 36gfx? u/fpg] ;dfwfgsf] nflu hgjfbLx? ;+3if{sf]
;b:o Pj+ cGgk'0f{ ufpFkflnsfsf 5 . cGt/f{li6«o ahf/df k]6f« l] nod skf;, lzIff, :jf:Yo, /f]huf/ / agfOPsfn] o;nfO{ tTsfn /f]Sg dfu sDo'lg:6 g} x'g\ eGg] 7fGbf x'g\ . d}bfgdf 5g\ . ljåfgx?sf ts{lats{x?
OGrfh{ kl/jt{gn] g]skfsf s'g} klg kbfy{sf] d"No 3l6/x]sf] a]nf g]kfnsf ;~rf/sf] ;d:of ;dfwfg ug]5 { . u/] . lgd{nf kGtnufot sof}Fsf] sDo'lg:6x? Oltxf; 5f]6f] 5, k/Dkf/ / klg log} @ kIfdf laeflht 5g\ . To;}n]
g]tf tyf sfo{stf{n] g}ltstf u'Dg] bnfn Jofkf/L / ;/sf/ ldn]/ o;sf] plNnlvt ;Dk"0f{ ljifodf g]kfnL dfgjclwsf/ xgg ePsf] ;fj{hlgs ;+:s[lt lgdf{0f ePsf] ev{/} xf] eGg] dfS;{jfbL cyf{t dfn]dfjfbL ljåfgx?n]
u/L e| : 6;F u ldNg] u/L sbflk d" N o b} l gs a9fO/x] s f 5g\ . hgtfnfO{ :ki6 kfg{ / ;fdflhs bnfn x' F b f klg ;/sf/n] clxn] ; Dd hfgsfl/ 5}g ;fob logLx?nfO{{ . klg cfˆgf] 1fgsf] If]qnfO{{ cem} km/flsnf]
;Demf}tf gug]{ atfP . pgn] kf6L{ / nQfsk8fsf] d"No klg lbg b'O{ u'gf k'FhLjfbL Joj:yfnfO{ r'gf}tL lbg kLl8tnfO{ Gofo lbnfpg g;s]sf] sDo'lg:6x?n] lgdf{0f u/]sf ;Qfx? slt kfg{' h?/L ePsf] 5 .
;+u7gsf] lgtL / l;4fGt ljk/Lt uP/ / /ft rf}ug' f al9/x]sf] 5 . slyt cfufdL dª\l;/ * ut] g]kfn sDo'lg:6 pgn] atfP . sfo{ q mdf /fli6« o k|efjsfl/ / dxTjk"0f{ lyP eGg] oL dfgj ;EotfnfO{{ cem ljsl;t ug]{
s;}nfO{ klg hUuf lbg] em'§f cf:jf;g :yfgLo ;/sf/n] b'O{ xhf/ k|ltzteGbf kf6L{sf] cfof]hgfdf a[xt\ hgk|bz{g dfgjclwsf/ cfof]usf ;b:o ;'bLk k|ltlqmofjfbLsf ef8fsf 6§'x?n] a'‰g] ;kgf gePsf jf oxL Joj:yfdf l;ldt
glbPsf] pgsf] lhls/ lyof] . a9L s/ a9fP/ ul/a ls;fg, dhb'/ tyf hg;ef ul/Fb}5 . o; eJo kf7sn] clxn] klg ;/sf/sf] Ifdtf /fVg] s'/} ePg . ePsf lbdfux? >dhLjL hgtfsf] nflu
g]skf===== / ;'sD' af;LnfO{ larNnL agfPsf] 5 . hg;efdf xfdL ljleGg tx / tKsfsf dfgjclwsf/;DaGwL Jojxf/ pgL;Fu} s]xLjif{ cufl8 ofqfdf ;f/df s]xL sfd nfUg] x'bF g} g\ . cem
clxn] ;fdflhs bnfn kFh ' Ljfbaf6 7"nf gf]s/zfx, 7]sb] f/ / OlGhlgo/ Gofok|d] L hg;d'bfonfO{ pkl:yltsf ;'wf/f]Gd'v lbzflt/ hfg g;s]sf] e]l6Psf csf{ ljåfg ;f}/jn] Pp6f n]vdf las]sfx? t emg\ slt vt/gfs x'G5g\ Û
klg cl3 a9]/ ;fdflhs kmfl;jfblt/ ldn]/ ljsf; lgdf{0fsf] ah6lagf sfd nflu xflb{s cfdGq0f / clkn ub{5f}F . atfP . ;+ljwfgn] lbPsf] e]nf x'g], eg]sf 5g\ ls dfS;{jfbLn] dflg;n:nfO{{ o:tf a'hs | ' dfG5]x? laqmL ePkl5 eGg]
pGd'v /x]sf] klg hgfO{Psf] 5 . bnfn n'l6/x]sf 5g\ . rsf]{ 3/ef8fn] ;x/df o; a[xt\ ;efnfO{ kf6L{sf zLif{ af]Ng], h'n'; lgsfNg]nufot sfddf k"jf{ux| L, af]wf], O{iof{n,' cefjsf] s'07fn] s'/f ;fdfGo dflg;x? a'‰g ;Sb}gg\ .
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F LjfbL ;+;bLo Joj:yf / g]kfnL sfd ug]{ dhb'/, ljBfyL{ / ;fgf g]tfx¿n] ;Daf]wg ug'x{ g' 5] . ;/sf/n] cj/f]w ul//x]sfn] o;sf] u|:t, cj;/jfbL / dfS;{ h:t} k/hLjL dfS;{jfb @ ;o jif{ cufl8 b]lvsf] xf]
>dhLjL tyf pTkLl8t hgtfaLrsf] sd{rf/Lx¿nfO{ afFRg} ufx|f] ePsf] 5 . k'li6 u/]sf] pgsf] egfO lyof] . agfpF5, rfx] kl/jf/cfl>t xf];\ rfx] t/ ;fdflhs ;d:ofx? w]/} cufl8b]lv
cGt/lj/f]w tLj| aGb} uPsf]n] o;sf] z} l Ifs If] q / :jf:Yo If] q df 8f= Clif/fh===== ;/sf/n] lgd{nf kGtsf] xTof / /fHocfl>t, lghL{j / kTy/ Åbo lyof] eGg} rfxFbg} g\ oL a'hs | ' x? . dflg;
;fdfwg PsLs[t hgqmflGtåf/f k|fKt dflkmofs/0fn] hgtfdf cftª\s afa' / fdx¿ eofgs ;} 4 flGts, anfTsf/sf] 36gfsf ck/fwL kQf agfpF5 . ljZjsf dflg;x¿ dfS;{jfb / ;dfhn] ef]lu/x]sf ;d:ofx? /
x'g] j}1flgs ;dfhjfb g} ePsf] klg pTkGg u/]sf] 5 . ltgLx¿ hgtfsf /fhgLlts tyf j}rfl/s ¿kdf ktg nufO{ sf/afxL ug{ g;Sg] ;/sf/ gfdsf] /f]uaf6 d'Qm x'g h?/L 5 . tgfjx? ;dfwfgsf nflu dflg;n] u/]sf
g]skfn] k|:6kf/]sf] 5 . 5f]/f5f]/LnfO{ /fi6«;j] fsf nflu k|l] /t x'ge' Pkl5 of] cj:yf cfPsf] s'/fdf cfkm\gf] sfdeGbf klg c?sf] sfdk|lt lalal;n] ;x>fAbL k'?if elgPsf dfS;{ k|oTgx? ;d]t pgLx? eGg} rfxFbg} g\ .
dlª\;/ * ut]sf]hgk|bz{g / ul//x]sf 5}gg\, a? la|l6; ;]gfdf s'g} zÍf 5 / < s]Gb|Ls[t eP/ hgtfnfO{ ;zQm / pgn] :yfkgf u/]sf] ;dfhjfb tyf jf, ;Sb}gg\ klg . ;j{xf/f ju{sf] pTklt,
hg;ef cfd hgf ;d'bfonfO{ ;xefuL etL{ vf]Ng] uNnfjfnh:t} ePsf 5g\ . #= sd/]8 ls/0fk|ltsf] ;Ddfg agfpg'sf] ;f6f] bdgtkm{ uPsf] eGb} ;fDojfbnfO{{ olt s'?k tl/sfn] a'‰g] Tof] ju{sf] ;d:of / ;dfwfgsf] laifodf
x'g\ clkn ub}{ g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ /fHo;Qfn] …;Dk"0f{ sDo'lg:6, jfdkGyL, / cfb/ cfˆgf] 7fpFdf 5 / x'g' klg pgn] cfklQ klg hgfP . dfG5] d'v{ x'g\ jf g'gsf] ;f]emf] ug]{ bf; af]Ng] s'g} Ifdtf geP klg tL cfk"mnfO{{
s]Gb|Lo sfof{non] kf]:6/ / krf{;d]t b]zeQm / nf]stflGqs zlQm– Ps kb{ 5 t/ pxfF n ] klg sfo{qmddf gful/s cu'jf 8f= 5'6o\ fpg s'g} d'l:snsf] ;jfn ePsf] ljåfgsf] laNnf leg{ slQ klg lxrlsr
k|sfzgdf NofPsf] 5 . h;sf] k"0f{ xf]cfF} Û j}1flgs ;dfhjfbsf nflu cfjZostfcg';f/ dfcf]jfbL /fhgLlt ;'Gb/dl0f bLlIftn] ;/sf/;dIf Ps 5}g . csf{ Ps cfk"mnfO{{ ljåfg 7fGg] ub}g{ g\ . ;txL ts{ / sDo'lg:6nfO{{ ufnL
ljj/0f o; k|sf/ /x]sf] 5 – …;Dk"0f{ ;ª\3if{ u/fF} ÛÛÚ b]zdf /f]huf/L lbg xfFSg / cfk"m klg xfFlsg g;Sg' ePsf] ltxfO hgdt klg gePsf] eGb} of] dflg;n] eGb} lyP Tof] ! s¶f hldg / u/]sf] e/df zf]ifs ju{af6 pgLx?x?sf]
sDo'lg:6, jfdkGyL, b]zeQm / g;Sbf b}lgs b'O{ xhf/eGbf a9L o'jf s'/f ;xL xf]Og / < Joj:yf g]kfndf l6sfp x'bF } gx'g] # tf]nf ;'g ;DklQ b]vfPklg cg]sf}+ e/0fkf]if0f x'bF f klg s'/} ga'‰g] / cK7\of/f]
nf]stflGqs zlQm– Ps xf]cfF} Û ljb] z knfog eO/x] s f 5g\ . $= s] sd/]8 ljKnj klg c¿n] atfP . lblIftn] g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ 7fpFaf6 ;DklQ y'kfg]{ Ps gj;fdGt gnfUg'df pgLx?sf] 1fg Ifdtfdf g}
j}1flgs ;dfhjfbsf nflu ;ª\3if{ ;fdflhs bnfn k'h F LjfbL ;/sf/n] h:t} rf}/df abfd 5f]8fpFb,} 3fd tfKb} -g]skf_ sf cWoIf k'iksdn bfxfn 5g\ . of] To:t}sf] ;do xf] . dgsf] tLtf] ;d:ofn] ubf{ xf] eGg ;lsG5 t/ pgLx?
u/fF} ÛÛÚ cfw' l gs ;~rf/sf nflu / a/fln+b} a:g'kb{Yof] < ;fdflhs k|r08 ?;sf zf;s hf/zfxL h:tf kf]v/] pgn] ;Gt'li6 lnPsf xf]nfg\ t/ g} ;fdflhs ;d:ofsf kfq x'g\ eGg]
hg;efdf ;xefuL agfF} ;fd| f HojfbLsf ;~hfndf bnfn k'h F jfbL tyf kmfl;:6 ;/sf/– ePsf] atfP . pgn] eg], lxhf] xfdL ;dfh, ju{, cj:yf lrGg] ;jfndf :ki6 x'g' h?/L 5 .
cfb/0fLo hg;d'bfo Û e/kg] { a gfPsf 5g\ . hfn–8f] / L /fHoJoj:yfsf lj?4 cfGbf]ng 5]8g\ ' gful/s ;dfhsf cu'jfx? @)$^ pgsf] sdhf]/ x}l;ot :ki6 u/]sf] 5 . clg sDo'lg:6 a'emfO{ ePsf
tkfO{+–xfdL g]kfnsf] /fhgLlts pgLx¿sf] xftdf x'G5 / xfdL Tof] sd/]8 ljKnjsf] ck/fw eof] < ;fndf cfkm\gf] Hofgsf] k|jfx gu/L pgn] eg] h:t} To:tf dflg; gj;fdGt elgPsf a'l4lhjLsf] x}l;ot s:tf 5g\
kl/b[Zodf Pp6f rnlrq x]l//x]sf hfndf k};f ˆofFls/xG5f}F . 7"nf ;~rf/ %= tkfO{s + f] ;f] l6Kk0fLn] sxfF / cfGbf]ngdf xf]ldof}, @)^@ ;fndf klg x'G5 t < of] To:t}sf] ;do xf] t < of] eGg] klg a'emfO{ /fVg' h?/L ePsf] 5 .
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