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part -1

1 Prof&Dr Zhongzhu Qiu

Fuel is a combustible substance which during
combustion gives large amount of heat.
There are chemical fuels, nuclear fuels and fossil
Classification of Fuels
These can be classified on the basis of their
occurrence and physical state
On the basis of occurrence they are of two types:
Primary Fuels: Fuels which occur in nature as such
are called primary fuels. E.g., wood, peat, coal,
2 Prof&Dr Zhongzhu Qiu
petroleum, and natural gas.
Secondary Fuels: The fuels which are derived from
the primary fuels by further chemical processing are
called secondary fuels. E,g., coke, charcoal, kerosene,
coal gas, producer gas etc.
(ii) On the basis of physical state these may be
classified as:
Solid Fuels
Liquid Fuels
Gaseous Fuels

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Solid Fuels: Primary as well as secondary are widely
used in domestic and industrial purposes.
e.g., wood, coal, charcoal and coke.
Wood: Wood has been used as a fuel from ancient
times. Due to large scale deforestation, wood is no
longer used except in forest areas where wood is
available at a low cost.

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Wood when freshly cut contains 25-50% moisture.
Normally it is used in air dried condition with 10-15
percent moisture content.
The calorific value of air dried wood is about 3500-
4500 kcal/kg.
When wood burns, the ash content is low but the
oxygen content is very high. This makes even dry
wood a fuel of low calorific value.
Wood charcoal is obtained by destructive distillation of
The major use of wood charcoal is for producing
Prof&Dr Zhongzhu Qiu
Coal: coal is regarded as a fossil fuel produced from
the vegetable debris under conditions of high
temperature and pressure over million of years.
The transformation of the vegetable debris to coal
takes place in two stages:
(a)Biochemical or peat stage: During this stage, the
plant materials were attacked by various micro
(b)Chemical stage or metamorphism: In this stage,
the peat deposit buried under sedimentary deposits
lose moisture and volatile components under the
effect of high temperature and pressure.
peat gets enriched in carbon whereas its oxygen
Prof&Dr Zhongzhu Qiu
content decreases.
The spongy peat transforms into hard brittle coal
gradually. The time required for the formation of young
brown coal is of the order of 107 years.
Classification of Coal: Coals are mainly classified on
the basis of their degree of coalification from the
parent material, wood. When wood is converted into
coal, there is gradual increase in the concentration of
carbon and decrease in the percentage of oxygen and
Coal is given a ranking depending upon the carbon
content of the coal from wood to anthracite.

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Type of Percentage (dry, mineral matter % calorific
coal free basis) moist value

Wood 45-50 5-6 20-40 0-0.5 - 70-90 4000-

Peat 45-60 3.5-6.5 20-45 0.75-3 45-75 70-90 4125-
Brown Coal 60-75 4.5-5.5 17-35 0.75-2 45-60 30-50 6600-
Bituminous 75-90 4.0-5.5 20-30 0.75-2 11-50 10-20 8800

8 90-95Qiu 3-4
Prof&Dr Zhongzhu 2-3 0.5-2 3.8-10 1.5-3.5 8800
Characteristics of coal
1. Composite of coal

Ultimate analysis
① C: combustible, calorific value 32700kJ/kg when completely combusted,
content ranges from 30%-90%, heating value and C content increase
with ages but volatile decreases with ages
② H: combustible, calorific value 120000kJ/kg, 3 times more than C, low
content 1~6%, easily burned out.
③ O: low content, incombustible but combustion assistant。
④ N: incombustible, low content, resource of NOx
⑤ S: combustible, low heating value 904kJ/kg, resource of SOx
combustible S: organic S(combined with C、H、O and FeS2)
Inorganic S:(CaSO4、MgSO4、FeSO4 etc.)—ash

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⑥ M
 Free water(ARB water, surface water, air-dry water)
 Combined water(AD water, inherent water, inner water)
 Free water can be naturally dried, however, the combined water
needs heating.
⑦ A
harmful substance, environment pollution, heating surface abrasion,
content ranges from 10%-50%。

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Proximate analysis

1. Moisture (M)
2. Volatile matter (V): The organics decompose and release gas
during heating process. The gas contains CO, H2, H2S, CH4 and
other hydrocarbons as well as a few O2, CO2, N2
incombustible gases.
3. Ash (A)
4. Fixed carbon (FC)

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Coal composition calculation basis
Why use different basis?
 As received(ar) basis
Car+Har+Oar+Nar+Sar+Aar+Mar =100
 Air dried(ad) basis
 Dry(d) basis
 Dry ash free(daf) basis

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Air dry
Dry Ash Free

Moisture Volatile Fixed Ash


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Conversion between basises

 Car+Har+Oar+Nar+Sar+Aar+Mar =100 〔%〕

 Cad+Had+Oad+Nad+Sad+Aad+Mad =100 〔%〕
 Cd+Hd+Od+Nd+Sd+Ad=100 〔%〕
 Cdaf+Hdaf+Odaf+Ndaf+Sdaf=100 〔%〕

Correlation for conversion: X = K X0

X0 、 X — original basis, new basis,%
K — conversion coefficient

100  M ad
Example: C ad   C ar
100  M ar

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Liquid Fuels: The importance of liquid fuels is the
fact that almost all combustion engines run on them.
The largest source of liquid fuels is petroleum. The
calorific value of petroleum is about 40000 kJ/kg.
There are other supplements of liquid fuels such as
coal tar, crude benzol, syntheic liquid fuel made from
coal etc.
Petroleum: The term petroleum means rock oil. It is
also called mineral oil.
Petroleum is a complex mixture of paraffinic, olefinic
and aromatic hydrocarbons with small quantities of
organic compounds containing oxygen, nitrogen and
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Element Carbon Hydrogen Sulphur Oxygen Nitrogen

Percentage 80-87 11.1-15 0.1-3.5 0.1-0.9 0.4-0.9

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Gaseous Fuels
 Advantages of gaseous fuels
• Least amount of handling
• Simplest burners systems
• Burner systems require least
• Environmental benefits: lowest GHG
and other emissions

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Gaseous Fuels
Classification of gaseous fuels

(A) Fuels naturally found in nature

-Natural gas
-Methane from coal mines
(B) Fuel gases made from solid fuel
-Gases derived from coal
-Gases derived from waste and biomass
-From other industrial processes
(C) Gases made from petroleum
-Liquefied Petroleum gas (LPG)
-Refinery gases
-Gases from oil gasification
(D) Gases from some fermentation

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Gaseous Fuels
 Calorific value
• Fuel should be compared based on the net
calorific value (NCV), especially natural gas

Typical physical and chemical properties of various gaseous fuels

Fuel Relative Higher Heating Air/Fuel Flame Flame
Gas Density Value kCal/Nm3 ratio m3/m3 Temp oC speed m/s
Natural 0.6 9350 10 1954 0.290

Propane 1.52 22200 25 1967 0.460

Butane 1.96 28500 32 1973 0.870

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Type of Fuels

Gaseous Fuels
 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
• Propane, butane and unsaturates, lighter C2
and heavier C5 fractions
• Hydrocarbons are gaseous at atmospheric
pressure but can be condensed to liquid state
• LPG vapour is denser than air: leaking gases
can flow long distances from the source

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Rural heating

Motor fuel



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Type of Fuels

Gaseous Fuels
 Natural gas
• Methane: 95%
• Remaing 5%: ethane, propane, butane, pentane,
nitrogen, carbon dioxide, other gases
• High calorific value fuel
• Does not require storage facilities
• No sulphur
• Mixes readily with air without producing smoke or
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Power generation
Domestic use

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Type of Gaseous Fuels
Compressed natural gas (CNG) is a fossil fuel substitute for gasoline (petrol), diesel,
or propane/LPG. Although its combustion does produce greenhouse gases, it is a
more environmentally clean alternative to those fuels, and it is much safer than
other fuels in the event of a spill (natural gas is lighter than air, and disperses
quickly when released). CNG may also be mixed with biogas, produced
from landfills or wastewater, which doesn't increase the concentration of carbon in
the atmosphere.
CNG is made by compressing natural gas (which is mainly composed
of methane [CH4]), to less than 1% of the volume it occupies at standard
atmospheric pressure. It is stored and distributed in hard containers at a pressure of
200–248 bar (2900–3600 psi), usually in cylindrical or spherical shapes.

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Liquefied Natural Gas

 LNG is natural gas that has been super cooled to

minus 260 degrees F becoming liquid for easier
storage and shipping
 LNG is a clear, odorless, colorless, non-corrosive
and non-toxic liquid
 LNG takes up 1/600th of the space –simplifying
storage and transportation

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Comparing Fuels
Fuel Oil Coal Natural
Carbon 84 41.11 74
Hydrogen 12 2.76 25

Sulphur 3 0.41 -
Oxygen 1 9.89 Trace
Nitrogen Trace 1.22 0.75
Ash Trace 38.63 -
Water Trace 5.98 -
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Combustion reactions are exothermic reactions
accompanied by evolution of heat and light and the
temperature rises considerably. The amount of oxygen
or air required for combustion of a given sample of fuel
can be calculated.

Calculation of Air Quantities

To determine the amount of oxygen and hence the amount of air
required for combustion for a unit quantity of fuel, the following
chemical principles are applied.
(1) Substances always combine in definite proportions given by
molecular mass.
C + O2 → Co2
12 32 44
12 g of carbon requires 32 g of oxygen and 44 g of CO2 is formed.
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(2) 22-4 L of a gas at 0°C and 760 mm pressure has a
mass equal to 1 mol. That is, 22-4 L of oxygen has a
mass of 32 g.
(3) Air contains 21% oxygen by volume and 23% oxygen
by mass. From the amount of oxygen required by the
fuel, the amount of air can be calculated.

1 kg oxygen is supplied by 1 x 100/23 = 4.35 kg of air

1 m3 of oxygen is supplied by 1x100/21= 4.76 m3 of air

(4) The molar mass of air is 28.94 g mol

(5) Minimum oxygen required for combustion is equal to

the theoretical oxygen required minus the oxygen
present in the fuel.

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(6) Mass of any gas can be converted to volume at
certain temperature and pressure by assuming that
the gas behaves ideally.
(PV = nRT)
The total amount of oxygen consumed is given by the
sum of the amount of oxygen required by individual
combustible constituents present in the fuel.

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Procedure for combustion calculations:
Reaction Weight of oxygen Volume of oxygen
required (g) required (m3)
C + O2 → CO2 A × 32/12 A×1
A gm or m3
H2 + 1/2 O2 → H2O B × 16/2 B × 1/2
B gm or m3
CO + 1/2 O2 → CO2 C × 16/28 C × 1/2
C gm or m3
S + O2 → SO2 D × 1 × 32/32 D×1
D gm or m3
CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O E × 2 × 32/16 E×2
E gm or m3
C2H6 + 3.5O2 → 2CO2 + F × 3.5 × 32/30 F × 3.5
F gm or m3
C2H4+3O2 → 2CO2+3H2O G × 3 × 32/28 G×3
G gm or m3
C4H10+6.5O2 → 4CO2+5H2O H × 6.5 × 32/58 H × 6.5
H gm or m3
Total X Y
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in fuelZhongzhu Qiu = - w gm = - w m3
Let oxygen required = X – w (g) or Y –w (m3)
Since air has 23% oxygen by weight and 21% oxygen
by volume
Weight of air required = Net oxygen × 100/23 g
Volume of air required = Net oxygen × 100/21 g
Conversion of volume to weight
1 m3 = 1000 L
For air 1 L × (mol/22.4 L) × (28.94/mol)
1 L = 28.94/22.4 gm

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Composition of Combustion Volume of 02
Fuel gas/m3 Reaction required

H2 = 0.5 m3 H2+ 1/2 O2 = H2O 0.50 x 0.5 = 0.25

C2H6 = 0.06 m3 C2H6 + 3.502 = 0.06 x 3.5 = 0.21
2C02 + 3H20 m3
CH4 = 0.30 m3 CH4 + 2O2 = C02 + 0.30 x 2 = 0.6 m3
CO = 0.08 m3 CO + 1/2 O2 = CO2 008 x 0.5 = 0.04 m3

Total 1.1 m3

Volume of air supplied = 1.1 × 100/21 ×
120/100 = 6.6 m3 = 6600 L
Weight of air supplied = 28.94 × 6600/22.4 =
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part -2

34 Prof&Dr Zhongzhu Qiu

Fuel calorific value:
It is defined as the total quantity of heat liberated
when a unit mass of a fuel is burnt completely.

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Units of Calorific value:

System Solid/Liquid Gaseous

Fuels Fuels
CGS Calories/gm Calories/cm3
MKS k cal/kg k cal/m3
B.T.U BTU/lb BTU/ft3

The quantity of heat can be measured in the

following units:
(i) Calorie: It is defined as the amount of heat
required to raise the temperature of 1gm of water by
1oC Prof&Dr Zhongzhu Qiu 1 calorie = 4.184 Joules
(ii) Kilo Calorie: 1 k cal = 1000 cal
(iii) British thermal unit: (B. T. U.) It is defined as the
amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1
pound of water through 1oF.
1 B.T.U. = 252 Cal = 0.252 k cal
(IV) Centigrade heat unit (C.H.U): It is defined as
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature
of 1 pound of water through 1oC.
1k cal = 3.968 B.T.U.
= 2.2 C.H.U. restore

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Characteristics of Good Fuel:
(i) Suitability: The fuel selected should be most suitable for
the process. E.g., coke made out of bituminous coal is
most suitable for blast furnace.
(ii) High Calorific value
(iii) Ignition Temperature: A good fuel should have moderate
ignition temperature.
(iv) Moisture content: Should be low
(v) Non combustible matter content
(vi) Velocity of combustion: It should be moderate
(vii) Nature of the products
(viii) Cost of fuel, (ix) Smoke, (x) Control of the process
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Gross and net calorific Value
Gross Calorific Value: It is the total amount of heat
generated when a unit quantity of fuel is completely
burnt in oxygen and the products of combustion are
cooled down to the room temperature.
As the products of combustion are cooled down to
room temperature, the steam gets condensed into
water and latent heat is evolved. Thus in the
determination of gross calorific value, the latent heat
also gets included in the measured heat. Therefore,
gross calorific value is also called the higher calorific
The calorific value which is determined by Bomb
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calorimeter gives the higher calorific value (HCV)
Net Calorific Value: It is defined as the net heat
produced when a unit quantity of fuel is completely
burnt and the products of combustion are allowed to
The water vapour do not condense and escape with
hot combustion gases. Hence, lesser amount than
gross calorific value is available. It is also known as
lower calorific value (LCV).
LCV=HCV-Latent heat of water vapours formed
Since 1 part by weight of hydrogen gives nine parts
by weight of water i.e.
H  1O  H O
2 2 2 2
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LCV=HCV-weight of hydrogen x 9 x latent heat of
= HCV-weight of hydrogen x 9 x 587
Determination of Calorific value
1. Determination of calorific value of solid and non
volatile liquid fuels: It is determined by bomb
Principle: A known amount of the fuel is burnt in
excess of oxygen and heat liberated is transferred to
a known amount of water. The calorific value of the
fuel is then determined by applying the principle of
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calorimetery i.e. Heat gained = Heat lost
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Bomb Calorimeter
Let weight of the fuel sample taken = x g
Weight of water in the calorimeter = W g
Water equivalent of the Calorimeter, stirrer, bomb,
thermometer = w g
Initial temperature of water = t1oC
Final temperature of water = t2oC
Higher or gross calorific value = C cal/g
Heat gained by water = W x Dt x specific heat of water
= W (t2-t1) x 1 cal
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Heat gained by Calorimeter = w (t2-t1) cal
Heat liberated by the fuel = x C cal
Heat liberated by the fuel = Heat gained by water and
x C = (W+w) (t2-t1) cal
C=(W+W)(t2-t1) cal/g

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Net Calorific value:
Let percentage of hydrogen in the fuel = H
Weight of water produced from 1 gm of the fuel =
9H/100 gm
Heat liberated during condensation of steam
= 0.09H  587 cal
Net (Lower calorific value) = GCV-Latent heat of
water formed
= C-0.09H  587 cal/gm
Corrections: For accurate results the following
45 are
Prof&Dr Zhongzhu Qiu also incorporated:
(a)Fuse wire correction: As Mg wire is used for
ignition, the heat generated by burning of Mg wire
is also included in the gross calorific value. Hence
this amount of heat has to be subtracted from the
total value.
(b)Acid Correction: During combustion, sulphur and
nitrogen present in the fuel are oxidized to their
corresponding acids under high pressure and
S  O  SO
2 2
2SO  O  2H O  2H SO DH = -144,000 Cal
2 2 2 2 4
2 N  5O  2H O  4HNO DH = -57,160 Cal
2 2
Prof&Dr Zhongzhu Qiu
2 3
The corrections must be made for the heat liberated
in the bomb by the formation of H2SO4 and HNO3.
The amount of H2SO4 and HNO3 is analyzed by
washings of the calorimeter.
For each ml of 0.1 N H2SO4 formed, 3.6 calories
should be subtracted.
For each ml of 0.01 HNO3 formed, 1.43 calories must
be subtracted.

(C) Cooling correction: As the temperature rises

above the room temperature, the loss of heat does

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occur due to radiation, and the highest temperature
recorded will be slightly less than that obtained. A
temperature correction is therefore necessary to get
the correct rise in temperature.
If the time taken for the water in the calorimeter to
cool down from the maximum temperature attained, to
the room temperature is x minutes and the rate of
cooling is dt/min, then the cooling correction = x  dt.
This should be added to the observed rise in
Therefore, Gross calorific value
C=(W+w)(t2-t1+Cooling correction)-[Acid+ fuse
corrections] / Mass of the fuel.
48 Prof&Dr Zhongzhu Qiu
 AIM :To determine calorific value of gaseous fuel by
Junkers gas calorimeter
 APPARATUS: The apparatus mainly consists of a
cylindrical shell with copper coil arranged in two
passage configuration with water inlet and outlet to
circulate through the copper coil, a pressure regulator, a
wet type gas flow meter & a gas Bunsen burner.
 DESCRIPTION: Determination of calorific value (heat
value) of combustible gases is essential to assess the
amount of heat given away by the gas while burning a
known amount of gas to heat a known amount of fluid
(water) in a closed chamber.

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 Install the equipment on a flat rigid platform near an
uninterrupted continuous water source of ½” size and a
drain pipe.
 Connect the gas source to the pressure regulator, gas
flow meter and the burner respectively in series
 Insert the thermometer / temperature sensors, into their
respective places to measure water inlet and outlet
temperatures and a thermometer to measure the flue
gas temperature at the flue gas outlet
 Start the water flow through the calorimeter at a study
constant flow rate and allow it to drain through over flow.
 Start the gas flow slowly and light the burner out side
the calorimeter
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Regulate the flow of gas at a steady rate to any
designed flow (Volume)
 Insert the burner into the calorimeter and allow the out let water
temperature to attain a steady state
 Swing the out let to a 1000 ml jar and start. The stop watch
simultaneously, record the initial gas flow meter reading at the same time
 Note down the time taken to fill 1000ml and at the same time the final
gas flow reading recorded by the gas flow meter
 Tabulate all the reading and calculate the calorific valve of the gas under
 Repeat the experiment by varying the water flow rate or gas flow for
different conditions.
 After the experiment is over stop the gas flow, water flow, and drain the
52 fromZhongzhu
the calorimeter,
Qiu keep the equipment clean & dry.
Theoretical calculation of Calorific value of a Fuel:
The calorific value of a fuel can be calculated if the
percentages of the constituent elements are known.

Substrate Calorific value

Carbon 8080

Hydrogen 34500

Sulphur 2240

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If oxygen is also present, it combines with hydrogen to
form H2O. Thus the hydrogen in the combined form is
not available for combustion and is called fixed
Amount of hydrogen available for combustion = Total
mass of hydrogen-hydrogen combined with oxygen.
H 2  O2  H 2O
1g 8g 9g
Fixed Hydrogen = Mass of oxygen in the fuel
Therefore, mass of hydrogen available for combustion
= Total mass of hydrogen-1/8 mass of oxygen in fuel
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Dulong’s formula for calculating the calorific value is
given as:
Gross calorific Value (HCV)
1 O
 [8080C  34,500( H  )  2,240S ]kcal / kg
100 8

Net Calorific value (LCV)

 [ HCV   587]kcal / kg
 [ HCV  0.09 H  587]kcal / kg

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