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1

Lect-22-B

• Shock Waves and Expansion

– Normal Shocks

– Oblique Shocks

– Prandtl–Meyer Expansion Waves

• Duct Flow with Heat Transfer and

Negligible Friction (Rayleigh Flow)

– Property Relations for Rayleigh Flow

• Duct flow with friction without heat

transfer (Fanno flow)

2

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

Lect-22-B

Shock waves

• Sound waves are caused by infinitesimally

small pressure disturbances, and travel

through a medium at the speed of sound.

• Under certain flow conditions, abrupt

changes in fluid properties occur across a

very thin section: shock wave.

• Shock waves are characteristic of

supersonic flows, that is when the fluid

velocity is greater than the speed of sound.

• Flow across a shock is highly irreversible

and cannot be approximated as isentropic.

3

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

Lect-22-B

Pe

Throat

P0

Pb

P

Pb

A P

P0 B PA Subsonic flow at nozzle exit

B

C No shock

PC

P* D Subsonic flow at nozzle exit

PD Shock in nozzle

PE

Supersonic flow at nozzle exit

Sonic flow PF

No shock in nozzle

at throat PG

Inlet Throat Exit x

Shock in nozzle

M

Supersonic flow at nozzle exit

No shock in nozzle

1.0

D Subsonic flow at nozzle exit

C Shock in nozzle

Subsonic flow at nozzle exit

B

A No shock

x

4

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

Lect-22-B

Normal shocks

• Shock waves that occur in a plane normal

to the direction of flow: Normal shocks.

• A supersonic flow across a normal shock

becomes subsonic.

• Conservation of energy principle requires

that the enthalpy remains constant across

the shock.

h01 = h02

• For an ideal gas, h = h(T) and thus

T01 = T02

5

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

Lect-22-B

Normal shocks

Control

volume

V1 V2

M>1 P1 P2 M<1

h1 h2

ρ1 ρ2

s1 s2

Shock wave

6

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

Lect-22-B

Normal shocks

• Across the normal shock we apply the

governing equations of fluid motion:

• Mass: ρ1A1V1= ρ2A2V2

• Energy: h01 = h

• 02

• Momentum: A(P1 – P2)= m (V2 – V1)

• Entropy: s 2 – s1 ≥ 0

• If we combine mass and energy equations

and plot them on h-s diagram: Fanno line

• Similarly combining mass and momentum

gives: Rayleigh line

7

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

Lect-22-B

Normal shocks

V22/2

h01 h02

h01=h02 Subsonic flow

2 (M<1)

h2

b

a

V12/2 M=1 Fanno line

Rayleigh line

Shock wave

h1 Supersonic flow

1

(M>1)

s1 s2 s

8

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

Lect-22-B

Normal shocks

• To derive expressions before and after the

shock

T01 γ −1 2 T02 γ −1 2

= 1+ M 1 and = 1+ M 2

T1 2 T2 2

Since T01 = T02 , and simplifying,

P2 M 1 1 + M 12 (γ − 1) / 2

=

P1 M 2 1 + M 22 (γ − 1) / 2

gas with constant specific heats.

9

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

Lect-22-B

Normal shocks

• Similarly if we combine and simplify the

mass and momentum equations, we can

get an equation for Rayleigh line.

1 + 2 /(γ − 1)

2

M

M2 =

2

2 M 12 γ /(γ − 1) − 1

• This represents the intersections of the

Fanno and Rayleigh lines

• This equation relates the Mach number

upstream of the shock with that

downstream of the shock.

10

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

Lect-22-B

Normal shocks

P increases

P0 decreases

M>1 V decreases

M decreases

T increases

T0 remains constant

s increases

Normal shock

11

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

Lect-22-B

Oblique shocks

• Shock waves that are inclined to the flow at

an angle: oblique shocks.

• In a supersonic flow, information about

obstacles cannot flow upstream and the flow

takes an abrupt turn when it hits the obstacle.

• This abrupt turning takes place through shock

waves.

• The angle though which the fluid turns:

deflection angle or turning angle, θ.

• The inclination of the shock: shock angle or

wave angle, β.

12

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

Lect-22-B

Oblique shocks

Oblique shock

M1 > 1 θ

M2

β

δ

13

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

Lect-22-B

Oblique shocks

• Oblique shocks are possible only in supersonic

flows.

• However, the flow downstream of the shock

can be either supersonic, sonic or subsonic,

depending upon the upstream Mach number

and the turning angle.

• To analyse an oblique shock, we decompose

the velocity vectors upstream and

downstream of the shock into normal and

tangential components.

14

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

Lect-22-B

Oblique shocks

Oblique shock

P1

V1,t P2

V1,n

V1

V2

θ

Across the shock, the

tangential component

V2,t

V2,n of velocity does not

β

change, V1,t = V2,t

shock of shock angle β and deflection

angle θ.

15

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

Lect-22-B

Oblique shocks

P1 P2

M2,n <1

M1,n >1 β-θ M 1,n = M 1 sin β and M 2,n = M 2 sin (β − θ )

θ

V2 Where, M 1,n = V1,n / c1 and M 2,n = V2,n / c2

V1,n

V2,t If we use normal components

V1,t V2,n of velocity, all the equations,

β

tables etc. For a normal shock

V1

can be used for an oblique

Oblique shock shock as well.

16

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

Lect-22-B

Oblique shocks

θ–β–M relationship

17

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

Lect-22-B

Oblique shocks

• There are two possible values of β for θ<θmax.

• θ=θmax line: Weak oblique shocks occur to

the left of this line, while strong oblique

shocks are to the right of this line.

• M=1 line: Supersonic flow to the left and

subsonic flow to the right of this line.

• For a given value of upstream Mach number,

there are two shock angles.

• β=βmin represents the weakest possible

oblique shock at that Mach number, which is

called a Mach wave.

18

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

Lect-22-B

Prandtl-Meyer expansion waves

two-dimensional wedge, does not result in a

shock wave.

• There are infinite Mach waves forming an

expansion fan.

• These waves are called Prandtl-Meyer

expansion waves.

• The Mach number downstream of the

expansion increases (M2>M1), while

pressure, density, and temperature decrease.

19

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

Lect-22-B

Prandtl-Meyer expansion waves

Expansion waves

M1 > 1

M2

μ1 μ2

θ

δ

Oblique shock

20

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

Lect-22-B

Prandtl-Meyer expansion waves

• Prandtl–Meyer expansion waves are

inclined at the local Mach angle μ.

• The Mach angle of the first expansion wave

μ1 = sin-1(1/M1)

• Similarly, μ2 = sin-1(1/M2)

• Turning angle across an expansion fan is

θ = ν(M2) - ν(M1)

• ν(M) is called the Prandtl–Meyer function

γ + 1 −1 γ + 1 2

ν (M ) = tan ( M − 1) − tan −1 ( M 2 − 1)

γ −1 γ −1

21

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

Lect-22-B

Duct flow with heat transfer and

negligible friction

• Many engineering problems involve

compressible flow which involve chemical

reactions like combustion, may involve heat

transfer across the system boundaries.

• Such problems are usually analysed by

modelling combustion as a heat gain

process.

• The changes in chemical composition are

neglected.

22

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

Lect-22-B

Duct flow with heat transfer and

negligible friction

• 1-D flow of an ideal gas with constant

specific heats through a duct of constant

area with heat transfer and negligible

friction: Rayleigh flows.

•

Q

Control volume

23

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

Lect-22-B

Duct flow with heat transfer and

negligible friction

• For a gas whose inlet properties P1, T1, ρ1, V1

and s1 are known, the exit properties can be

calculated from the five governing equations:

• Mass, momentum, energy, entropy and

equation of state.

• The Rayleigh flow on T-s diagram is called

the Rayleigh line.

• The Rayleigh line is the locus of all physically

attainable downstream states corresponding

to an initial state.

24

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

Lect-22-B

Duct flow with heat transfer and

negligible friction

T Mb=1/√γ

Tmax

b

a Ma=1

Cooling

M 0

Heating

M 1 smax

Heating

M 1 Cooling

M ∞

s

T-s diagram for Rayleigh flow

25

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

Lect-22-B

Duct flow with heat transfer and

negligible friction

• The Mach number is M=1 at point a, which is

the point of maximum entropy.

• The states on the upper arm of the Rayleigh

line above point a are subsonic, and the

states on the lower arm below point a are

supersonic.

• Heating increases the Mach number for

subsonic flow, but decreases it for supersonic

flow.

• Mach number approaches unity in both cases

during heating.

26

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

Lect-22-B

Duct flow with heat transfer and

negligible friction

•

Q

T2>T1

T1, T01 Subsonic or T2<T1

flow T02>T01

•

Q

T1, T01 Supersonic T2>T1

flow T02>T01

27

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

Lect-22-B

Duct flow with friction and

negligible heat transfer

• An adiabatic flow with friction of an ideal gas

with constant specific heats: Fanno flow.

• Fanno line represents the states obtained by

solving the mass and energy equations.

• For adiabatic flow, the entropy must increase

in the flow direction.

• Mach number of a subsonic flow increases

due to friction.

• In a supersonic flow, frictions acts to

decrease the Mach number.

28

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

Lect-22-B

Duct flow with friction and

negligible heat transfer

h

M=1

s

h-s diagram for Fanno flow

29

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

Lect-22-B

Duct flow with friction and

negligible heat transfer

• The point where M=1 is called choking

point.

• If we consider a flow on the upper half of

the Fanno line, a subsonic flow accelerates

(due to friction) and reaches a maximum

Mach number of one when the flow chokes.

• Similarly, a supersonic flow decelerates

(due to friction) and in the limiting case,

reaches a Mach number of one.

30

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

Lect-22-B

• Shock Waves and Expansion

– Normal Shocks

– Oblique Shocks

– Prandtl–Meyer Expansion Waves

• Duct Flow with Heat Transfer and

Negligible Friction (Rayleigh Flow)

– Property Relations for Rayleigh Flow

• Duct flow with friction without heat

transfer (Fanno flow)

31

Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay

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