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A02 ARTICLE 5

T-510 Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102


T-520 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
T-521 Basic Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
T-522 Written Procedure Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
T-530 Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
T-531 Instrument. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
T-532 Search Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
T-533 Couplant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
T-534 Calibration Block Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
T-560 Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
T-561 Instrument Linearity Checks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
T-562 General Calibration Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
T-563 Calibration Confirmation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
T-564 Casting Calibration for Supplementary Angle Beam Examinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
T-570 Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
T-571 Examination of Product Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
T-572 Examination of Pumps and Valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
T-573 Inservice Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
T-574 Thickness Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
T-580 Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
T-590 Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
T-591 Recording Indications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
T-592 Examination Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
T-593 Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

Figures
T-534.2.1 Basic Calibration Block. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
T-534.3 Straight Beam Calibration Blocks for Bolting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

Table
T-522 Variables of an Ultrasonic Examination Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

Mandatory Appendices
Appendix I Ultrasonic Examination of Pumps and Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
I-510 Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
I-530 Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
I-560 Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
I-570 Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Appendix II Inservice Examination of Nozzle Inside Corner Radius and Inner Corner Regions . 109
II-510 Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
II-530 Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
II-560 Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

100
II-570 Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Appendix III Glossary of Terms for Ultrasonic Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
III-510 Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
III-520 General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
III-540 Miscellaneous Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Appendix IV Inservice Examination of Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
IV-510 Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
IV-530 Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
IV-560 Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
IV-570 Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

101
ARTICLE 5
ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION
METHODS FOR MATERIALS

T-510 SCOPE T-530 EQUIPMENT


This Article provides or references requirements, T-531 Instrument
which are to be used in selecting and developing
A pulse-echo type of ultrasonic instrument shall be
ultrasonic examination procedures for parts, compo-
used. The instrument shall be capable of operation at
nents, materials, and all thickness determinations. Defi-
frequencies over the range of at least 1 MHz to 5
nitions of terms used in this Article are contained in
MHz, and shall be equipped with a stepped gain control
Mandatory Appendix III of this article. When SA, SB,
in units of 2.0 dB or less. If the instrument has a
and SE documents are referenced, they are located in
damping control, it may be used if it does not reduce
Article 23.
the sensitivity of the examination. The reject control
shall be in the “off” position for all examinations unless
it can be demonstrated that it does not affect the
linearity of the examination.
T-520 GENERAL
T-521 Basic Requirements
T-532 Search Units
The requirements of this article shall be used together
The nominal frequency shall be from 1 MHz to 5
with Article 1, General Requirements.
MHz unless variables such as production material grain
structure require the use of other frequencies to assure
adequate penetration or better resolution. Search units
T-522 Written Procedure Requirements with contoured contact wedges may be used to aid
ultrasonic coupling.
T-522.1 Requirements. Ultrasonic examination shall
be performed in accordance with a written procedure,
which shall, as a minimum, contain the requirements T-533 Couplant
listed in Table T-522. The written procedure shall
establish a single value, or range of values, for each T-533.1 General. The couplant, including additives,
requirement. shall not be detrimental to the material being examined.

T-522.2 Procedure Qualification. When procedure T-533.2 Control of Contaminants


qualification is specified, a change of a requirement in (a) Couplants used on nickel base alloys shall not
Table T-522 identified as an essential variable from contain more than 250 ppm of sulfur.
the specified value, or range of values, shall require (b) Couplants used on austenitic stainless steel or
requalification of the written procedure. A change of titanium shall not contain more than 250 ppm of halides
a requirement identified as a nonessential variable from (chlorides plus fluorides).
the specified value, or range of values, does not require
requalification of the written procedure. All changes
T-534 Calibration Block Requirements
of essential or nonessential variables from the value,
or range of values, specified by the written procedure The material from which the block is fabricated shall
shall require revision of, or an addendum to, the written be of the same product form, material specification or
procedure. equivalent P-Number grouping, and heat treatment as

102
T-534 ARTICLE 5 — ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION METHODS FOR MATERIALS T-562.2

TABLE T-522
VARIABLES OF AN ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION PROCEDURE
Essential Nonessential
Requirement Variable Variable

Material types and configurations to be examined, including thickness


dimensions and product form (castings, forgings, plate, etc.) X
Personnel qualification requirements X
Personnel performance requirements, when required X
The surfaces from which the examination shall be performed X
Surface condition (examination surface, calibration block) X
Couplant: brand name or type X
Technique(s) (straight beam, angle beam, contact, and/or immersion) X
Angle(s) and mode(s) of wave propagation in the material X
Search unit type(s), frequency(ies), and element size(s) shape(s) X
Special search units, wedges, shoes, or saddles, when used X
Ultrasonic instrument(s) X
Calibration [calibration block(s) and technique(s)] X
Directions and extent of scanning X
Automatic alarm and/or recording equipment, when applicable X
Scanning (manual vs. automatic) X
Method for sizing indications X
Computer enhanced data acquisition, when used X
Records, including minimum calibration data to be recorded (e.g., instrument
settings) X
Scan overlap (decrease only) X

the material being examined. For the purposes of this T-560 CALIBRATION
paragraph, P-Nos. 1, 3, 4, and 5 materials are considered
T-561 Instrument Linearity Checks
equivalent. The finish on the scanning surface of the
block shall be representative of the scanning surface The requirements of T-561.1 and T-561.2 shall be
finish on the material to be examined. met at intervals not to exceed three months or prior
to first use thereafter.
T-534.1 Tubular Product Calibration Blocks
(a) The calibration reflectors shall be longitudinal T-561.1 Screen Height Linearity. The ultrasonic
(axial) notches and shall have a length not to exceed instrument’s (excludes instruments used for thickness
1 in. (25 mm), a width not to exceed 1⁄16 in. (1.6 mm), measurement) screen height linearity shall be evaluated
and depth not to exceed 0.004 in. (0.10 mm) or 5% in accordance with Mandatory Appendix I of Article 4.
of the nominal wall thickness, whichever is larger.
(b) The calibration block shall be long enough to T-561.2 Amplitude Control Linearity. The ultra-
simulate the handling of the product being examined sonic instrument’s (excludes instruments used for thick-
through the examination equipment. ness measurement) amplitude control linearity shall be
evaluated in accordance with Mandatory Appendix II
T-534.2 Casting Calibration Blocks. Calibration
of Article 4.
blocks shall be the same thickness ±25% as the casting
to be examined.
T-534.3 Bolting1 Material Calibration Blocks and T-562 General Calibration Requirements
Examination Techniques. Calibration blocks in accord-
ance with Fig. T-534.3 shall be used for straight beam T-562.1 Ultrasonic System. Calibrations shall in-
examination. clude the complete ultrasonic system and shall be
performed prior to use of the system in the thickness
1
range under examination.
“Bolting” as used in this Article is an all-inclusive term for any
type of threaded fastener that may be used in a pressure boundary
bolted flange joint assembly such as a bolt, stud, studbolt, cap T-562.2 Calibration Surface. Calibrations shall be
screw, etc. performed from the surface (clad or unclad; convex or

103
Fig. T-534.2.1 2001 SECTION V

3 T min.

T/2 T/4
T/2

3 T/4

2 in. (51 mm) T/2

T/2

T/2
T
T/2 6 in. (152 mm) min.

2 in. (51 mm)

Clad if present

Basic Calibration Hole


Block Thickness, T, Diameter,
Weld thickness, t, in. (mm) in. (mm) in. (mm) Notch Size, in. (mm)

3 3
1 or less (25 or less) ⁄4 or t (19 or t) ⁄32(2.4) Width p 1⁄8 to 1⁄4 (3.2 to 6.4)
Over 1 through 2 (25 through 51) 11⁄2 or t (38 or t) 1
⁄8(3.2)
3
Over 2 through 4 (51 through 102) 3 or t (76 or t) ⁄16(4.8) Depth p 2% T or 0.04 whichever is greater, into
1
Over 4 through 6 (102 through 152) 5 or t (127 or t) ⁄4(6.4) the base metal (2% T or 0.1, whichever
5
Over 6 through 8 (152 through 203) 7 or t (178 or t) ⁄16(7.9) is greater, into the base metal.)
3
Over 8 through 10 (203 through 254) 9 or t (230 or t) ⁄8(9.5)
Over 10 (254) t ± 1 (t ± 25) [Note (1)] Length p 2 min. (51 min.)

GENERAL NOTES:
(a) Holes shall be drilled and reamed a minimum of 11⁄2 in. (38 mm) deep, essentially parallel to the examination surface.
(b) Alternatively, the block may be constructed as shown in Article 4, Appendix J, Fig. J-431.
(c) Curved surfaces: for curved surfaces, two curved blocks, one for each representative curvature; or two sets of calibration reflectors
oriented 90 deg. from each other shall be used.
(d) Notches may be provided as required.
(e) The tolerance for hole diameter shall be ± 1⁄32 in. The tolerance on notch depth shall be + 10 and − 20%. The tolerance on hole
location through the thickness shall be ± 1⁄8 in. (3.2 mm).

NOTE:
(1) For each increase in weld thickness of 2 in. (51 mm) or fraction thereof over 10 in. (254 mm), the hole diameter shall increase 1⁄16
in. (1.6 mm).

FIG. T-534.2.1 BASIC CALIBRATION BLOCK

104
ARTICLE 5 — ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION METHODS FOR MATERIALS Fig. T-534.3

(a) Block A Nomenclature


d = bolt diameter
D = calibration block diameter
Dh = flat-bottom hole diameter
D/
4
l = bolt length
L = calibration block length
l/ Lh = flat-bottom hole length
8

“bolt” refers to the material


L to be examined (bolting)
(typ)
(b) Block B

D l/
(typ) 4

Lh
(typ)

(c) Block C

Dh
(typ) l/
2

Calibration Calibration Flat-Bottom


Diameter of Bolting Material to be Block Diameter Flat-Bottom Hole Block Hole Depth
Examined (d ) (D ) Diameter (Dh ) Designation (Lh )

Up to 1 in. (25 mm) d ±d⁄4 1


⁄16 in. (1.6 mm) A 1.5 in. (38 mm)
Over 1 in. (25 mm) to 2 in. (51 mm) d ±d⁄4 1
⁄8 in. (3.2 mm) B 0.5 in. (13 mm)
Over 2 in. (51 mm) to 3 in. (76 mm) d ±d⁄4 3
⁄16 in. (4.8 mm) C 0.5 in.
Over 3 in. (76 mm) to 4 in. (102 mm) d ±d⁄4 5
⁄16 in. (7.9 mm)
3
Over 4in. (102 mm) d ± 1 in. (25 mm) ⁄8 in. (9.5 mm)

GENERAL NOTE: A tolerance of ±5% may be applied.

FIG. T-534.3 STRAIGHT BEAM CALIBRATION BLOCKS FOR BOLTING

105
T-562.2 2001 SECTION V T-571.2

concave) corresponding to the surface of the material T-563.3 Confirmation Acceptance Values
from which the examination will be performed.
T-563.3.1 Distance Range Points. If any distance
T-562.3 Couplant. The same couplant to be used range point has moved on the sweep line by more
during the examination shall be used for calibration. than 10% of the distance reading or 5% of full sweep
(whichever is greater), correct the distance range calibra-
T-562.4 Contact Wedges. The same contact wedges
tion and note the correction in the examination record.
to be used during the examination shall be used for
All recorded indications since the last valid calibration
calibration.
or calibration check shall be reexamined and their
T-562.5 Instrument Controls. Any control, which values shall be changed on the data sheets or re-
affects instrument linearity (e.g., filters, reject, or clip- recorded.
ping), shall be in the same position for calibration,
T-563.3.2 Sensitivity Settings. If any sensitivity
calibration checks, instrument linearity checks, and ex-
setting has changed by more than 20% or 2 dB of its
amination.
amplitude, correct the sensitivity calibration and note
T-562.6 Temperature. For contact examination, the the correction in the examination record. If the sensitiv-
temperature differential between the calibration block ity setting has decreased, all data sheets since the last
and examination surfaces shall be within 25°F (14°C). valid calibration or calibration check shall be marked
For immersion examination, the couplant temperature void and the area covered by the voided data shall be
for calibration shall be within 25°F (14°C) of the reexamined. If the sensitivity setting has increased,
couplant temperature for examination. all recorded indications since the last valid calibration
or calibration check shall be reexamined and their
values shall be changed on the data sheets or re-
T-563 Calibration Confirmation
recorded.
T-563.1 System Changes. When any part of the
examination system is changed, a calibration check
shall be made on the calibration block to verify that T-564 Casting Calibration for
distance range points and sensitivity setting(s) satisfy Supplementary Angle Beam
the requirements of T-563.3. Examinations

T-563.2 Periodic Examination Checks. A calibra- For supplementary angle-beam examinations, the in-
tion check on at least one of the reflectors in the strument gain shall be adjusted during calibration such
calibration block or a check using a simulator shall be that the indication from the side-drilled hole producing
made at the finish of each examination or series of the highest amplitude is 80% ±5% of full screen height.
similar examinations, every 4 hr during the examination, This shall be the primary reference level.
and when examination personnel (except for automated
equipment) are changed. The distance range points and
sensitivity setting(s) recorded shall satisfy the require- T-570 EXAMINATION
ments of T-563.3. T-571 Examination of Product Forms
T-563.2.1 Simulator Checks. Any simulator T-571.1 Plate. Plate shall be examined in accordance
checks that are used shall be correlated with the original with SA-435/SA-435M, SA-577/SA-577M, SA-578/SA-
calibration on the calibration block during the original 578M, or SB-548, as applicable, except as amended
calibration. The simulator checks may use different by the requirements elsewhere in this Article.
types of calibration reflectors or blocks (such as IIW)
and/or electronic simulation. However, the simulation T-571.2 Forgings and Bars
used shall be identifiable on the calibration sheet(s). The (a) Forgings and bars shall be examined in accord-
simulator check shall be made on the entire examination ance with SA-388/SA-388M or SA-745/SA-745M, as
system. The entire system does not have to be checked applicable, except as amended by the requirements
in one operation; however, for its check, the search elsewhere in this Article.
unit shall be connected to the ultrasonic instrument (b) All forgings and bars shall be examined by the
and checked against a calibration reflector. Accuracy straight-beam examination technique.
of the simulator checks shall be confirmed, using the (c) In addition to (b) above, ring forgings and other
calibration block, every three months or prior to first hollow forgings shall also be examined by the angle-
use thereafter. beam examination technique in two circumferential

106
T-571.2 ARTICLE 5 — ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION METHODS FOR MATERIALS T-591.2

directions, unless wall thickness or geometric configura- necessary to adjust the highest indication amplitude for
tion makes angle-beam examination impractical. each DAC to 80% ±5% FSH.
(d) In addition to (b) and (c) above, ring forgings (c) Immersion techniques may be used.
made to fine grain melting practices and used for vessel
shell sections shall be also examined by the angle-
beam examination technique in two axial directions. T-572 Examination of Pumps and Valves
(e) Immersion techniques may be used. Ultrasonic examination of pumps and valves shall
be in accordance with Mandatory Appendix I.
T-571.3 Tubular Products. Tubular products shall
be examined in accordance with SE-213 or SE-273,
as applicable, except as amended by the requirements
T-573 Inservice Examination
elsewhere in this Article.
T-573.1 Nozzle Inner Radius and Inner Corner
T-571.4 Castings. Castings shall be examined in Region. Inservice examination of nozzle inner radii
accordance with SA-609/SA-609M, except as amended and inner corner regions shall be in accordance with
by the requirements elsewhere in this Article. Mandatory Appendix II.
(a) For straight-beam examinations, the sensitivity
compensation in paragraph 8.3 of SA-609/SA-609M T-573.2 Inservice Examination of Bolting. Inservice
shall not be used. examination of bolting shall be in accordance with
(b) A supplementary angle-beam examination shall Mandatory Appendix IV.
be performed on castings or areas of castings where T-573.3 Inservice Examination of Cladding. Inser-
a back reflection cannot be maintained during straight- vice examination of cladding, excluding weld metal
beam examination, or where the angle between the overlay cladding, shall be in accordance with SA-578/
front and back surfaces of the casting exceeds 15 deg. SA-578M.
T-571.5 Bolting Material. Bolting material shall be
examined in accordance with SA-388/SA-388M, except T-574 Thickness Measurement
as amended by the requirements elsewhere in this
Article. Thickness measurement shall be performed in accord-
(a) Bolting material shall be examined radially prior ance with SE-797, except as amended by the require-
to threading. Sensitivity shall be established using the ments elsewhere in this Article.
indication from the side of the hole in calibration block
A at radial metal paths of D⁄4 and 3D⁄4. The instrument
gain shall be adjusted such that the indication from T-580 EVALUATION
the D⁄4 or 3D⁄4 hole (whichever has the highest indication
amplitude) is 80% ±5% of full screen height (FSH). For examinations using DAC calibrations, any imper-
This shall be the primary reference level. A distance- fection with an indication amplitude in excess of 20%
amplitude correction (DAC) curve shall be established of DAC shall be investigated to the extent that it can
using the indications from the D⁄4 and 3D⁄4 holes and be evaluated in terms of the acceptance criteria of the
shall be extended to cover the full diameter of the referencing Code Section.
material being examined.
(b) Bolting material shall be examined axially from
both end surfaces, either before or after threading. The T-590 DOCUMENTATION
instrument gain shall be adjusted such that the indication
from the flat-bottom hole producing the highest indica- T-591 Recording Indications
tion amplitude, is 80% ±5% FSH. This shall be the T-591.1 Non-Rejectable Indications. Non-rejectable
primary reference level. A DAC curve shall be estab- indications shall be recorded as specified by the referenc-
lished using the indications from the three flat-bottom ing Code Section.
holes and shall be extended to cover the full length
of the material being examined. If any flat-bottom hole T-591.2 Rejectable Indications. Rejectable indica-
indication amplitude is less than 20% FSH, construct tions shall be recorded. As a minimum, the type of
two DAC lines using calibration blocks A and B, and indication (i.e., crack, lamination, inclusion, etc.), loca-
calibration blocks B and C and record the gain setting tion, and extent (i.e., length) shall be recorded.

107
T-592 2001 SECTION V T-593

T-592 Examination Records (l) calibration data [including reference reflector(s),


indication amplitude(s), and distance reading(s)];
For each ultrasonic examination, the following infor-
(m) data correlating simulation block(s) and electronic
mation shall be recorded:
simulator(s), when used, with initial calibration;
(a) procedure identification and revision; (n) identification of material or volume scanned;
(b) ultrasonic instrument identification (including (o) surface(s) from which examination was con-
manufacturer’s serial number); ducted, including surface condition;
(c) search unit(s) identification (including manufac- (p) map or record of rejectable indications detected
turer’s serial number, frequency, and size); or areas cleared;
(d) beam angle(s) used; (q) areas of restricted access or inaccessible areas;
(e) couplant used, brand name or type; (r) examination personnel identity and, when re-
(f) search unit cable(s) used, type and length; quired by referencing Code Section, qualification level;
(g) special equipment, when used (search units, (s) date and time examinations were performed.
wedges, shoes, automatic scanning equipment, recording Items (b) through (m) may be included in a separate
equipment, etc.); calibration record provided the calibration record identi-
(h) computerized program identification and revision, fication is included in the examination record.
when used;
(i) calibration block identification; T-593 Report
(j) simulation block(s) and electronic simulator(s) A report of the examinations shall be made. The
identification, when used; report shall include those records indicated in T-591
(k) instrument reference level gain and, if used, and T-592. The report shall be filed and maintained
damping and reject setting(s); in accordance with the referencing Code Section.

108
ARTICLE 5
MANDATORY APPENDICES

APPENDIX I — ULTRASONIC II-530 EQUIPMENT


EXAMINATION OF PUMPS AND II-531 Calibration Blocks
VALVES
Calibration blocks shall be full-scale or partial-section
I-510 SCOPE (mockup) nozzles, which are sufficient to contain the
This Appendix describes supplementary requirements maximum sound beam path, examination volume, and
to Article 5 for ultrasonic examination of welds or calibration reflectors.
base material repairs, or both, in pumps and valves. II-531.1 General. The general calibration block re-
quirements of Article 4, T-434.1 shall apply.
II-531.2 Mockups. If sound beams only pass through
I-530 EQUIPMENT nozzle forgings during examinations, nozzle mockups
may be nozzle forgings, or segments of forgings, fixed
I-531 Calibration Blocks
in structures as required to simulate adjacent vessel
Calibration blocks for pumps and valves shall be in surfaces. If sound beams pass through nozzle-to-shell
accordance with Article 4, Nonmandatory Appendix J. welds during examinations, nozzle mockups shall con-
tain nozzle welds and shell components of sufficient
size to permit calibration.

I-560 CALIBRATION II-531.3 Thickness. The calibration block shall equal


or exceed the maximum component thickness to be
I-561 System Calibration examined.
System calibration shall be in accordance with Article II-531.4 Reflectors. The calibration block shall con-
4, T-463 exclusive of T-463.1.1. tain a minimum of three notches within the examination
volume. Alternatively, induced or embedded cracks may
be used in lieu of notches, which may also be employed
for demonstration of sizing capabilities when required
I-570 EXAMINATION
by the referencing Code Section. Notches or cracks
The examination shall be in accordance with Article shall meet the following requirements:
4, T-470. (a) Notches or cracks shall be distributed radially
in two zones with at least one notch or crack in each
zone. Zone 1 ranges between 0 deg and 180 deg (±45
deg) and Zone 2 is the remaining two quadrants,
APPENDIX II — INSERVICE centered on the nozzle’s axis.
EXAMINATION OF NOZZLE INSIDE (b) Axial and circumferential notches or cracks shall
CORNER RADIUS AND INNER be placed with the nozzle inner radii examination
CORNER REGIONS volume; the orientation tolerance ±2 deg.
(c) Notch or crack lengths shall be 1 in. (25 mm)
II-510 SCOPE
maximum. Nominal notch widths shall be 1⁄16 in.
This Appendix describes supplementary requirements (1.6 mm).
to Article 5 for inservice examination of nozzle inside (d) Notch or crack depths, measured from the nozzle
corner radius and inner corner regions. inside surface, shall be:

109
II-531.4 2001 SECTION V III-540

(1) Reflector No. 1 – 0.20 in. to 0.35 in. (5 mm amplitude response curve; dual search unit; echo;
to 9 mm) examination system; frequency (inspection); frequency
(2) Reflector No. 2 – 0.35 in. to 0.55 in. (9 mm (pulse repetition); holography (acoustic); immersion
to 14 mm) testing; indication; initial pulse; interface; linearity (am-
(3) Reflector No. 3 – 0.55 in. to 0.75 in. (14 mm plitude); linearity (time or distance); longitudinal wave;
to 19 mm) loss of back reflection; mode; noise; pulse; pulse echo
method; pulse repetition rate; range; reference block;
reflector; reject (suppression); resolution; scanning;
II-560 CALIBRATION search unit; sensitivity; shear wave; signal-to-noise ratio;
II-561 System Calibration straight beam; sweep; test surface; through transmission
technique; transducer; ultrasonic; vee path; video presen-
System calibration shall be in accordance with Article tation; wedge.
4, T-463 exclusive of T-463.1.1. (b) The following Code terms are used in conjunction
with this Article:
axial direction — direction of sound beam parallel
II-570 EXAMINATION
to component’s major axis
The general examination requirements of Article 4, calibration — correlation of the ultrasonic system
T-471 shall apply. response(s) with calibration reflector(s)
calibration reflector — a reflector with a dimensioned
surface which is used to provide an accurately reproduc-
APPENDIX III — GLOSSARY OF ible reference level
TERMS FOR ULTRASONIC circumferential direction — direction of sound beam
EXAMINATION perpendicular to (cylindrical) component’s major axis
clipping — see reject
III-510 SCOPE
computerized imaging — computer processed display
This Mandatory Appendix is used for the purpose or analysis and display of ultrasonic data to provide
of establishing standard terms and definition of terms two- or three-dimensional images of reflectors
related to Ultrasonic Examination. CRT — cathode ray tube
Distance Amplitude Correction (DAC) curve — see
distance amplitude response curve
01 III-520 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS D-scan — an ultrasonic data presentation which
(a) The Standard Terminology for Nondestructive provides an end view of the specimen indicating the
Examinations (ASTM E 1316) has been adopted by approximate width (as detected per scan) of reflectors
the Committee as SE-1316. and their relative positions
(b) SE-1316 Section I provides the definitions of dynamic calibration — calibration that is conducted
terms listed in III-530(a). with the search unit in motion, usually at the same
(c) For general terms, such as Interpretation, Flaw, speed and direction of the actual test examination
Discontinuity, Evaluation, etc., refer to Article 1, Man- electric simulator — an electronic device that enables
datory Appendix I. correlation of ultrasonic system response initially ob-
(d) Paragraph III-530(b) provides a list of terms and tained employing the basic calibration block
definitions, which are in addition to SE-1316 and are multiple back reflections — in ultrasonic straight
Code specific. beam examination, successive reflections from the back
and front surfaces of the material
piezoelectric element — crystal or polycrystal materi-
A03 III-540 MISCELLANEOUS als which when mechanically deformed, produce electri-
REQUIREMENTS cal charges, and conversely, when intermittently
(a) The following SE-1316 terms are used in conjunc- charged, will deform and produce mechanical vibrations
tion with this Article: A-scan; amplitude; angle beam; primary reference response (level) — the ultrasonic
attenuation; attenuator; B-scan presentation; back reflec- response from the basic calibration reflector at the
tion; base line; beam spread; C-scan; contact testing; specified sound path distance, electronically adjusted
couplant; damping, search unit; decibel (dB); distance to a specified percentage of the full screen height

110
III-540 ARTICLE 5 — MANDATORY APPENDIX IV-571

refraction — the angular change in direction of the IV-530 EQUIPMENT


ultrasonic beam as it passes obliquely from one medium
IV-531 Calibration Blocks
to another, in which the waves have a different velocity
ringing time — the time that the mechanical vibrations Calibration blocks shall be full-scale or partial-section
of a piezoelectric element continue after the electrical bolts, which are sufficient to contain the maximum
pulse has stopped sound beam path and area of interest, and to demonstrate
scanning surface — see test surface the scanning technique.
simulation block — a reference block or other item
in addition to the basic calibration block that enables IV-531.1 Material. The calibration block shall be
correlation of ultrasonic system response initially ob- of the same material specification, product form, and
tained when using the basic calibration block surface finish as the bolt(s) to examined.
SAFT-UT — Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique IV-531.2 Reflectors. Calibration reflectors shall be
for ultrasonic testing straight-cut notches. A minimum of two nothces shall
static calibration — calibration for examination be machined in the calibration standard, located at the
wherein the search unit is positioned on a calibration minimum and maximum metal paths, except that notches
block so that the pertinent reflectors can be identified need not be located closer than one bolt diameter from
and the instrumentation adjusted accordingly either end. Notch depths shall be as follows:
(c) The following definitions are used in conjunction
with Article 4, Appendix L: Bolt Size Notch Depth*
acoustic pulse — the duration of time between the Less than 2 in. (51 mm) 1 thread depth
5
start and end of the signal when the amplitude reaches 2 in. (51 mm) and greater, but ⁄64 in. (2.0 mm)
10% of the maximum amplitude less than 3 in. (76 mm)
3
3 in. (76 mm) and greater ⁄32 in. (2.4 mm)
B-scan (parallel scan) — scan that shows the data
collected when scanning the transducer pair in the *
Measured from bottom of thread root to bottom of notch.
direction of the sound beam transversely across a weld
back-wall signal — sound wave that travels between As an alternative to straight-cut notches, other notches
the two transducers with a longitudinal velocity that (e.g., circular cut) may be used provided the area of
reflects off the materials back surface the notch does not exceed the area of the applicable
D-scan (non-parallel scan) — scan that shows the straight-cut notches required by this paragraph.
data collected when scanning the transducer pair perpen-
dicular to the direction of the sound beam along a weld
diffracted signals — diffracted waves from the upper IV-560 CALIBRATION
and lower tips of flaws resulting from its interaction
with the incident sound wave IV-561 DAC Calibration
free-run — recording a set of data without moving A DAC curve shall be established using the calibra-
the search-units tion reflectors in IV-531.2. The angle beam shall be
lateral wave — sound wave that travels directly directed toward the calibration reflector that yields the
between the transducers with a longitudinal velocity maximum response, and the instrument shall be set to
just below the surface of the material obtain an 80% of full screen height indication. This
time-of-flight — the time it takes for a sound wave shall be the primary reference level. The search unit
to travel from the transmitting transducer to the flaw, shall then be manipulated, without changing instrument
and then to the receiving transducer settings, to obtain the maximum responses from the
other calibration reflector(s) to generate a DAC curve.
The calibration shall establish both the sweep range
calibration and the distance amplitude correction.

APPENDIX IV — INSERVICE
EXAMINATION OF BOLTS IV-570 EXAMINATION
IV-510 SCOPE IV-571 General Examination Requirements
This Appendix describes supplementary requirements The general examination requirements of Article 4,
to Article 5 for inservice examination of bolts. T-471 shall apply.

111–120