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LITERATURE REVIEW

Apple is one of the fruit that widely as a based in many food productions. Based on
the study done by Domez, I. (2009), the worldwide production of apples was 63.8 million
tons in 2007 which stating the major producers include China, United States, Iran, Italy,
Turkey and Russian Federation. Therefore, there is various type of apple based food either it
fresh drink or in form of processed food which one of them is dried apple that also used in
baby food production. In food preservation, there are many methods that considered as
preserved food and drying is one of oldest preservation in food industry. This is because
drying had been practiced back then to preserve the fruits and vegetables even without any
equipment which only used direct sun. This process improves the food stability as it reduces
considerably the water and microbiological activity of the material and minimizes physical
and chemical changes during its storage (Hatamipour, M.S., et al. 2007).

The study done by Gottfried et al. (2006) is to determine the effect of thermal
treatment conditions on the enzymatic browning and cloud stability in apple juices, the
activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and pectinesterase (PE) and also the quality of juice.
The study believed that heat treatment can inactivate PE and PPO. PPO activity can cause
browning which catalyses the oxidation of phenolic compounds in various fruits. PE may
cause cloud destabilization process and the cloud loss. Usually, PE is added during
commercial apple juice processing in order to facilitate juice extraction and filtration as well
as to produce clear apple juice. Based on the result from the research, in order to ensure the
best stability of cloud and colour in relation to heat impact, heat treatment should be applied
in between 70 ℃ / 100 s and 80 ℃ / 20 s.

According to Slim et al. (2017), the study was done in order to investigate the effect
of thermal treatment used by beekeepers and packagers on hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)
content and diastase activity of Cretan honey. HMF content and diastase activity are
parameters that are heat-sensitive. Both of the parameters are increasing and decreasing
respectively according to the intensity of the heating process. These two parameters are
reliable to evaluate the freshness and overheating of honey. The effect of thermal treatment
is varying for different origin of honey. In processing honey, it is better to avoid the most
extreme heating procedures that are prolonged in time, since there are other quality that
should be taken into consideration such as colour, flavour, invertase activity and nutritive
value that re related to vitamins and minerals. Hence, the suitable thermal treatment
condition in processing honey is moderately at 45 ℃ for 24 hours.

There are several heat treatments used in the industrial processing of pasta
(Zardetto and Rosa, 2007). The purpose of the heat treatment is to maintain the quality and
the product hygiene. Normally, the product is pasteurised in order to kill mould spores and
spoilage microorganisms. However, the thermal process is affecting the quality of the pasta
due to the reciprocal interactions between proteins and starch. This interaction can be
detected by observed the colour changes, decrease in water activity, increase in starch
gelatinisation level, and change in quantity of water absorbed in the cooking phase. Thermal
treatment can also lead to a reduction in the nutritional value of the food as a result of
Maillard reaction, which makes the amino compounds biologically unavailable.

Wang et al. (2007) evaluated the hot air convective drying characteristics of thin layer
apple pomace in a laboratory scale dryer. The drying experiments were carried out at
different air temperatures. Different mathematical models were tested with the drying
behavior of apple pomace in the dryer. The results indicated that the Logarithmic model can
present better predictions for the moisture transfer than others. The drying time of apple
pomace decreases and the effective diffusivity increases as the drying temperature
increases. The whole drying process of apple pomace took place in a falling rate period.

Most of the studies examined the influence of temperature, velocity, moisture of the
drying air, shrinkage and pre-treatments on the drying kinetics. Only one of the studies
included the effect of the temperature, velocity and moisture of the drying air at the same
study. On that study (Kaya, et al. 2007), moisture content is ranging between 40% and 70%.
The objective of the study is to examine the effect of temperature and moisture of the drying
air on the drying kinetic of the apples.

Doymaz, I. (2009). An Experimental Study on Drying of Green Apples. Drying Technology.


Retrieved on 10th of November 2018 from https://sci-hub.tw/10.1080/07373930802686065
Hatamipour, M.S., Kazemi, H.H., Nooralivand, A., Nozarpoor, A. (2007). Drying
characteristics of six varieties of sweet potatoes in different dryers. Food and Bioproducts
Processing, 85 (C3), 171–177.
Gottfried K. et al. (2006). Effect of Thermal Treatment on the Quality of Cloudy Apple Juice.
Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 54, 5453 – 5460.
Slim B. et al. (2017). Effect of Thermal Treatment on the Quality of Honey Samples from
Crete. Advance in Food Science and Engineering, 1, 1 – 8.
Zardetto S. & Rosa M.D. (2007). Effect of Heat Treatment on the Mocrobiology and Quality
of Fresh Filled Pasta. ResearchGate.
Wang, Z., Sun, J., Liao, X., Chen, F., Zhao, G., Wu, J. (2007). Mathematical Modeling on hot
air drying of thin layer apple pomace. Food Research International 40:39-46.
Kaya, A., Aydın, O. and C. Demirtaş. 2007. Drying kinetics of red delicious apple.
Biosystems Engineering 96(4):517-524.