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Paguirigan, Lorenzo Jr. D.

BSCE 2-1

2017-00158-MN-0 Basic Mechanical Engineering

DEFINITION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

a branch of engineering concerned primarily with the industrial application of

mechanics and with the production of tools, machinery, and their products. the discipline

that applies engineering, physics, engineering mathematics, and materials science principles

to design, analyze, manufacture, and maintain mechanical systems

HISTORY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

The application of mechanical engineering can be seen in the archives of various ancient

and medieval societies. In ancient Greece, the works of Archimedes (287–212 BC) influenced

mechanics in the Western tradition and Heron of Alexandria (c. 10–70 AD) created the first steam

engine (Aeolipile). In China, Zhang Heng (78–139 AD) improved a water clock and invented

a seismometer, and Ma Jun (200–265 AD) invented a chariot with differential gears. The medieval

Chinese horologist and engineer Su Song (1020–1101 AD) incorporated

an escapement mechanism into his astronomical clock tower two centuries before escapement

devices were found in medieval European clocks. He also invented the world's first known endless

power-transmitting chain drive.

During the Islamic Golden Age (7th to 15th century), Muslim inventors made remarkable

contributions in the field of mechanical technology. Al-Jazari, who was one of them, wrote his

famous Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices in 1206 and presented many

mechanical designs. He is also considered to be the inventor of such mechanical devices which

now form the very basic of mechanisms, such as the crankshaft and camshaft.

During the 17th century, important breakthroughs in the foundations of mechanical engineering

occurred in England. Sir Isaac Newton formulated Newton's Laws of Motion and

developed Calculus, the mathematical basis of physics. Newton was reluctant to publish his works
for years, but he was finally persuaded to do so by his colleagues, such as Sir Edmond Halley,

much to the benefit of all mankind. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz is also credited with creating Calculus

during this time period.

During the early 19th century industrial revolution, machine tools were developed in

England, Germany, and Scotland. This allowed mechanical engineering to develop as a separate

field within engineering. They brought with them manufacturing machines and the engines to

power them. The first British professional society of mechanical engineers was formed in

1847 Institution of Mechanical Engineers, thirty years after the civil engineers formed the first such

professional society Institution of Civil Engineers. On the European continent, Johann von

Zimmermann (1820–1901) founded the first factory for grinding machines in Chemnitz, Germany

in 1848.

In the United States, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) was formed in 1880,

becoming the third such professional engineering society, after the American Society of Civil

Engineers (1852) and the American Institute of Mining Engineers (1871). The first schools in the

United States to offer an engineering education were the United States Military Academy in 1817,

an institution now known as Norwich Universityin 1819, and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in

1825. Education in mechanical engineering has historically been based on a strong foundati on in

mathematics and science.

BRANCHES OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

 Acoustical engineering: the manipulation and control of vibration in order to reduce

unwanted noise

 Manufacturing engineering: optimizing manufacturing techniques, developing processes as

well as machines, tools, and equipment for the manufacture of goods


 Thermal engineering: creating and maintaining comfortable and safe environments through

the control of heating and cooling systems

 Vehicle engineering: the design and manufacture of all manner of vehicles

 Aerospace engineering: vehicle engineering as specific to air and space travel

FAMOUS PEOPLE IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

 Al-Jazari (1136–1206) – polymath, numerous mechanical innovations

 Al-Muradi (11th century) – mechanical engineer, author of early texts on engineering,

inventor w/ Al-Zarqali of the universal astrolabe

 Al-Zarqali (1029–1087) – instrument maker, astrologer, and leading astronomers; inventor

w/ Al-Muradi of the universal astrolobe

 Archimedes (c. 287–212 BC) – polymath, inventor of the screw pump

 Richard Arkwright (1733–1792) – credited with inventing the spinning frame but most

notable for contributions to the modern factory system

 William George Armstrong, 1st Baron Armstrong (1810–1900) – hydraulic power pioneer,

founder of Armstrong Whitworth

 Charles Babbage (1791–1871) – creator of the difference engine

 George Herman Babcock (1832–1893) – co-invented an improved safety water tube steam

boiler, co-founder of Babcock & Wilcox

 Joseph Cyril Bamford (1916–2001) – founder of the JCB company, manufacturing heavy

plant, and especially backhoes

 Eugenio Barsanti (1821–1864) – early developer of internal combustion engine

 Karl Benz (1844–1929) – generally regarded as the inventor of the gasoline-

powered automobile, founder of Mercedes-Benz

 Henry Bessemer (1813–1898) – best known as the creator of the Bessemer Process
 John Blenkinsop (1783–1831) – steam locomotive pioneer, developed rack and pinion

railway system

 Thomas Bouch (1822–1880) – railway engineer, helped develop the roll-on/roll-off train

ferry

 Matthew Boulton (1728–1809) – steam engineer, associate of James Watt

 Joseph Bramah (1748–1814) – hydraulic power pioneer and inventor of the hydraulic press

 Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1805–1859) – design contributions include the Great Western

Railway and the SS Great Eastern

 William Brunton (1777–1851) – early steam power pioneer, inventor of the Brunton's

Mechanical Traveller

 Oliver Bulleid – railway engineer

 David Bushnell (1742–1824) – creator of the Turtle, credited as the first military submarine

 Gerolamo Cardano (1501–1576) – numerous mechanical inventions including

the combination lock, gimbal, Cardan shaft, and Cardan grille

 Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1796–1832) – physicist and military engineer

 Willis Carrier (1876–1950) – pioneered the design and manufacture of modern air

conditioning systems

 Edmund Cartwright (1743–1823) – inventor of the first commercial power loom

 George Cayley (1773–1857) – aerodynamics pioneer and founding member of the British

Association for the Advancement of Science

 Colin Chapman (1928–1982) – automotive engineer, founder of Lotus Cars

 André Citroën (1878–1935) – founder of Citroën automotive, known for application

of double-helical gears

 Joseph Clement (1779–1844) – best known as the maker of Babbage's difference engine

 Dugald Clerk (1854–1932) – inventor of the two-stroke engine

 Demetrius Comino (1902–1988) – inventor of Dexion slotted angle steel construction

system
 Peter Cooper (1791–1883) – designed and built the first American steam locomotive,

the Tom Thumb, and founded the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art

 William R. Cosentini (1911–1954) – founder of Cosentini Associates

 Thomas Russell Crampton (1816–1888) – inventor of the Crampton locomotive and an

early advocate of the Channel Tunnel

 Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot (1725–1804) – early developer of a self-propelled (steam) vehicle

 Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) – polymath

 Robbie Dickson - worked on optimizing the braking system of supercars

 Rudolf Diesel (1858–1913) – inventor of the diesel engine

 Bryan Donkin (1768–1855) – associated with paper making and printing machinery, tinned

food, beam engines, gas valves and the Babbage difference engine; employed on civil

engineering projects such as the Thames Tunnel, Chatham Docks and Caledonian Canal;

member of Royal Society of Arts, Institution of Civil Engineers, and the Smeatonian Society

of Civil Engineers; founder member of the Royal Astronomical Society

 Cornelius Drebbel (1572–1633) – inventor of the first navigable submarine

 Keith Duckworth (1933–2005) – designer of the Cosworth DFV

 Thomas Alva Edison (1847–1931) – inventor, entrepreneur

 John Ericsson (1803–1889) – steam engine design, propeller design, iron clad warships

(USS Monitor)

 Oliver Evans (1755–1819) – steam power pioneer and inventor, best known for his "Oruktor

Amphibolos"

 William Fairbairn (1789–1874) – steam power pioneer, developer of early high-pressure

boiler (Lancashire boiler)

 Harry Ferguson (1884–1960) – agricultural equipment engineer, founder of Ferguson

Company (later Massey Ferguson)

 Giovanni Fontana (ca. 1395 – ca. 1455) – fifteenth-century Venetian engineer


 Henry Ford (1863–1947) – automotive engineer and industrialist, founder of Ford Motor

Company

 Benoît Fourneyron (1802–1867) – pioneered early practical water turbine

 Robert Fulton (1765–1815) – credited with the development of the first

commercial steamboat

 Yuan-Cheng Fung – American bio-engineer, a founding figure of bioengineering, tissue

engineering, and the "founder of modern biomechanics"

 Emile Gagnan (1900–1979) – co-inventor (with Cousteau) of the diving regulator used in

SCUBA equipment

 Henry Laurence Gantt (1861–1919) – inventor of the Gantt chart

 Blasco de Garay (1500–1552) – early steam power pioneer and developer of paddle

wheels as a substitute for oars

 Herbert William Garratt (1864–1913) – inventor of the Garratt system of articulated

locomotives

 Daniel Gooch (1816–1889) – first chief mechanical engineer of the Great Western Railway

 John Viret Gooch (1812–1900) – locomotive superintendent of the London and South

Western Railway

 J.E. Gordon (1913–1998) – engineering author and developer of composite materials

 George B. Grant (1849-1917) - worked on improved calculators and gear industry pioneer

 Nigel Gresley (1876–1941) – steam locomotive engineer, developed Gresley conjugated

valve gear

 Ravi Grover (1949–) – Indian nuclear scientist and mechanical engineer; widely given credit

for building India's nuclear bomb

 John Josiah Guest (1785–1852) – manager of the Dowlais Ironworks, Wales

 Goldsworthy Gurney (1793–1875) – inventor and steam power pioneer, known for

his Gurney Steam Carriage


 Timothy Hackworth (1786–1850) – early steam locomotive designer, associate of William

Hedley and George Stephenson

 James Harrison (1816–1893) – pioneer in the field of mechanical refrigeration

 William Hedley (1779–1843) – railway pioneer, built the first practical steam

locomotive relying only on the adhesion of wheels to rails

 Beulah Louise Henry (1887–1973) – nicknamed "Lady Edison", patents included a bobbin-

free sewing machine and vacuum ice cream freezer

 Hero of Alexandria (c. 10–70 AD) – described many inventions including the aeolipile and

the windwheel

 August Horch (1868–1951) – automotive engineer, founder of Audi

 Jonathan Hornblower (1753–1815) – steam power pioneer, developed the first compound

steam engine

 Elias Howe (1819–1867) – refined Hunt's ideas, was granted the first U.S. patent for a

sewing machine using a lockstitch design

 Alec Issigonis (1906–1988) – automotive engineer associated with the development of

the Mini

 Joseph Marie Jacquard (1752–1834) – invented the Jacquard loom, forerunner of modern

digital computers (also see Basile Bouchon)

 György Jendrassik (1898–1954) – developed first working turboprop engine (the Jendrassik

Cs-1)

 Frederick Lanchester (1868–1946) – polymath with contributions in automotive and aviation

engineering, co-founder of Lanchester Motor Company

 Gustaf de Laval (1845–1913) – developer of the De Laval nozzle, contributions in steam

and dairy engineering, founder of Alfa Laval

 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716) – polymath who invented, among other things,

the Leibniz wheel


 Ma Jun – 3rd-century China, invented the south-pointing chariot,

mechanical puppet theaters, chain pumps, improved silk looms

 Felice Matteucci (1808–1887) – early developer of internal combustion engine

 Henry Maudslay (1771–1831) – considered a founding father of machine tool technology,

helped perfect the hydraulic press

 Elijah McCoy (1843–1929) – African Canadian inventor, contributions include automatic

lubricator for steam engines

 Andrew Meikle (1719–1811) – contributions include threshing machine and windmill sails

 Otto Metzger (1885-1961) – German/British engineer and inventor of impact extrusion of

containers

 Thomas Midgley, Jr. (1889–1944) – developed tetraethyllead (TEL)

and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

 Samuel Morey (1762–1843) – steamship and internal combustion engine pioneer

 James Morgan – Applied Materials CEO

 William Murdoch (1754–1839) – associate of Watt, improved steam engine (sun and planet

gearing), also developed gas lighting

 Gordon Murray – Formula One, Brabham BT46B, McLaren F1

 Matthew Murray (1765–1826) – steam engine designer, built one of the first commercially

viable steam locomotives (Salamanca)

 James Nasmyth (1808–1890) – inventor of the steam hammer and other important machine

tools

 Thomas Newcomen (1664–1729) – inventor of the first practical steam engine for pumping

water

 James Henry Northrop (1856–1940) – invented shuttle-charging mechanism which led to

the fully automatic Northrup Power Loom

 Nicolaus Otto (1832–1891) – developer of the first commercially viable four-stroke engine

 Denis Papin (1647–1712) – inventor of the steam digester, forerunner of the steam engine
 Charles Algernon Parsons (1854–1931) – steam and power engineer, inventor of

compound steam turbine

 Ferdinand Porsche (1875–1951) – automotive engineer, best known for creating

the Volkswagen Beetle

 Muhammad Hafeez Qureshi (1930–2007) – weapons scientist, aerodynamicist, rocket

engineer and missile technologist

 Agostino Ramelli (c. 1531–1600) – inventor of the bookwheel as well as various water-

powered inventions (clockwork, treadmill, pump)

 John Ramsbottom (1814–1897) – inventor of the tamper-proof spring safety valve and

the displacement lubricator

 William John Macquorn Rankine (1820–1872) – major contributor to thermodynamics, heat

engine theory and metal fatigue

 George Rennie (1791–1866) – among other developments, a pioneer in food processing

equipment (biscuit, corn, chocolate mills)

 Osbourne Reynolds (1842–1912) – major contributor to the science of fluid

dynamics and heat transfer

 Harry Ricardo (1885–1974) – internal combustion engine designer and researcher

 Richard Roberts (1789–1864) – developer of high-precision machine tools which helped

enable mass production

 Alfred H. Rzeppa (1885–1965) – developer of the constant-velocity joint

 Ralph Sarich (born 1938) – invented orbital engine

 Thomas Savery (c. 1650–1715) – early steam engine patent holder, author of A Miner's

Friend; or An Engine to Raise Water by Fire

 Per Georg Scheutz (1785–1873) – pioneer in computer technology (Scheutzian calculation

engine)

 Dan Shechtman (born 1941) – discovered Icosahedral Phase

 Carl Wilhelm Siemens (1823–1883) – inventor of the regenerative furnace


 Igor Sikorsky (1889–1972) – aviation engineer, inventor of the single-rotor helicopter,

founder of Sikorsky Aircraft Company

 Isaac Singer (1811–1875) – credited with improvements in lockstitch sewing machine,

founder of the Singer Sewing Machine Company

 John Smeaton (1724–1792) – principally a civil engineer, but made numerous

improvements to Newcomen's steam engine

 Edward Somerset, 2nd Marquess of Worcester, (c. 1601–1667) – Numerous mechanical

innovations as described in "Century of Inventions" (1663)

 Sir William Stanier – Chief Mechanical Engineer of the London, Midland and Scottish

Railway

 George Stephenson (1781–1848) – known as the "father of railways", founder of

the Institution of Mechanical Engineers

 Robert Stephenson (1803–1859) – railway engineer; son of George Stephenson

 Robert Stirling (1790–1878) – inventor of the Stirling engine

 Su Song (1020–1101) China – first to use an escapement mechanism (see Yi Xing below)

and chain drive to operate his astronomical clock tower

 Dr. Victor Szebehely – aerospace engineering and celestial mechanics

 Taqi al-Din (1526–1585) – polymath, numerous mechanical innovations

 Nikola Tesla (1856–1943) – Serbian electrical and mechanical engineer contributing to the

development of AC motors and power delivery

 Torine Torines (1876-1944) – pioneer Swedish sewing machine mechanic engineer

 John Tregoning (1840s-1920s) – American mechanical engineer, who wrote the first books

on factory management

 Richard Trevithick (1771–1833) – steam power pioneer, designer of early high-pressure

boiler (Cornish boiler) and "Puffing Devil" locomotive

 Jacques de Vaucanson (1709–1782) – credited with creating early robots (automata) as

well as the automated loom


 Richard Velazquez – automotive designer for Honda R&D Americas, Inc. and Porsche AG

 Sir M Vishweswarayya (1861–1962) – chief designer, flood protection systems, Hyderabad;

chief engineer, Krishna Raja Sagara dam, Mandya

 Wernher Von Braun (1912–1977); Mechanical Engineer. Space architect credited with

inventing the V-2 rocket for Nazi Germany and the Saturn V for the United States.

 Felix Wankel (1902–1988) – inventor of the Wankel Rotary Engine

 James Watt (1736–1819) – inventor of the Watt steam engine whose development helped

enable the Industrial Revolution

 Samuel T. Wellman (1847–1919) – inventor and industrialist responsible for numerous steel

industry innovations

 Eli Whitney (1765–1825) – inventor of the cotton gin

 Joseph Whitworth (1803–1887) – associated with standardizing thread pitch and

techniques enabling precision machining

 Martin Wiberg (1826–1905) – computer technology pioneer (logarithmic table machine)

 Walter Gordon Wilson (1874–1957) – inventor of the Wilson preselector gearbox

 Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889–1951) – aerospace engineer turned philosopher

 Nathaniel C. Wyeth (1911–1990) – developed polyethylene terephthalate (PET) beverage

container

 Yi Xing (618–907) China – first to use an escapement mechanism in operating a water-

powered armillary sphere

 Zhang Heng – 1st century-2nd century China, inventor of first hydraulic-powered armillary

sphere, and first seismometer


DEFINITION:

THERMODYNAMICS SYSTEM - is the material and radiative content of a macroscopic volume

in space, that can be adequately described by thermodynamic state variables such

as temperature, entropy, internal energy, and pressure. Usually, by default, a thermodynamic

system is taken to be in its own internal state of thermodynamic equilibrium, as opposed to a non-

equilibrium state. The thermodynamic system is always enclosed by wallsthat separate it from

its surroundings; these constrain the system. A thermodynamic system is subject to external

interventions called thermodynamic operations; these alter the system's walls or its surroundings;

as a result, the system undergoes thermodynamic processes according to the principles

of thermodynamics. (This account mainly refers to the simplest kind of thermodynamic system;

compositions of simple systems may also be considered.)

GAS LAWS

BOYLE’S LAW - The volume of a given mass of a gas is inversely related to pressure when the

temperature is constant.

CHARLES’ LAW - the volume (V) of a given mass of a gas, at constant pressure (Pa), is directly

proportional to its temperature (K). As a mathematical equation,

GAY-LUSSAC’S LAW - for a given mass and constant volume of an ideal gas, the pressure

exerted on the sides of its container is directly proportional to its absolute temperature.

AVOGADRO’S LAW - the volume occupied by an ideal gas is directly proportional to the number

of molecules of the gas present in the container.

COMBINED AND IDEAL GAS LAWS - or General Gas Equation is obtained by combining Boyle's

Law, Charles' Law, and Gay-Lussac's Law. It shows the relationship between the pressure,

volume, and temperature for a fixed mass (quantity) of gas:


THERMODYNAMICS PROPERTIES AND UNITS

Property Symbol Units Extensive? Intensive? Conjugate Potential?

Activity –

Particle
Chemical potential kJ/mol
number

Compressibility (adiabatic) Pa−1


,

Compressibility (isothermal) Pa−1


,

Cryoscopic constant [1] K·kg/mol

Density kg/m3

Ebullioscopic constant K·kg/mol

Enthalpy J

Specific enthalpy J/kg

Entropy J/K (entropic)


Temperature

Specific entropy J/(kg K)


Fugacity N/m²

Gibbs free energy J

Specific Gibbs free


J/(kg K)
entropy

Gibbs free entropy J/K (entropic)

Grand / Landau potential J

Heat capacity (constant


J/K
pressure)

Specific heat capacity


J/(kg·K)
(constant pressure)

Heat capacity (constant J/K


volume)

Specific heat capacity


J/(kg·K)
(constant volume)

Helmholtz free energy J


,

Helmholtz free entropy J/K (entropic)

Internal energy J

Specific internal energy J/kg

Internal pressure Pa
Mass kg

Chemical
Particle number –
potential

Pressure Pa
Volume

Temperature K
Entropy

Thermal conductivity W/(m·K)

Thermal diffusivity m²/s

Thermal expansion (linear) K−1

Thermal expansion (area) K−1

Thermal
K−1
expansion (volumetric)

Vapor quality[2] –

Volume m3
Pressure

Specific volume m3/kg


PRESSURE UNITS AND CONVERSIONS

Pressure units

 v Pascal Bar
Technical Standard
Torr
Pounds per
 t atmosphere atmosphere square inch
 e (Pa) (bar) (at) (atm) (Torr) (lbf/in 2)
0.000 145 037
1 Pa ≡ 1 N/m2 10−5 1.0197×10 −5 9.8692×10−6 7.5006×10 −3
737 730
≡ 100 kPa
14.503 773 773
1 bar 105 ≡ 1.0197 0.98692 750.06
022
106 dyn/cm2

0.967 841 105 735.559 240 14.223 343 307


1 at 98066.5 0.980665 ≡ 1 kgf/cm2
354 1 1 120 3
14.695 948 775
1 atm 101325 1.01325 1.0332 1 760
514 2
1 Torr
133.322 368 0.001 333 1/760 ≈ 0.001
1 Torr 0.001 359 51 0.019 336 775
421 224 315 789 ≈ 1 mmHg

6894.757 0.068 947 51.714 932


1 lbf/in2 0.070 306 958 0.068 045 964 ≡ 1 lbf /in2
293 168 573 572

HEAT TRANSFER MECHANISM

Conduction is the simplest heat transfer model in terms of being able to create a mathematical

explanation for what's happening. It is the movement of kinetic energy in materials from higher

temperature areas to lower temperature areas through a substance.[3] The molecules will simply

give their energy to adjacent molecules until an equilibrium is reached. Conduction models do not

deal with the movement of particles within the material.

Convection is heat transfer through fluid (like air or water) motion. The difference between

conduction and convection is the motion of a material carrier; convection is the movement of the

thermal energy by moving hot fluid (as opposed to making other material hot by wiggling atoms).

Usually this motion occurs as a result of differences in density. Warmer particles are less dense,

so particles with higher temperature will move to regions where the temperature is cooler and the

particles with lower temperature will move to areas of higher temperature. The fluid will remain in

motion until equilibrium is reached.


Heat transferred by radiation is called radiant heat. Like light, radiant heat is radiant energy, and

does not necessarily require a medium to carry it. This form of energy transfer is facilitated through

a type of electromagnetic radiation.[6] All moving charged particles emit electromagnetic radiation.

This emitted wave will travel until it hits another particle. The particle that receives this radiation

will receive it as kinetic energy. Particles will receive and emit radiation even after everything is at

the same temperature, but it's not noticed due to the fact that the material is at equilibrium at this

point.

This type of heat transfer is particularly important in the setting the temperature of Earth.

Radiation, as heat transfer, is how the Earth gets energy from the sun. Radiation is also important

for the greenhouse effect.

Evapotranspiration is the energy carried by phase changes, like evaporation or

sublimation.[8] Water takes a fair amount of energy to change phase, so this process

acknowledges that water vapour has a fair amount of energy associated with it. This type of

energy transfer mechanism is often not listed among the different types of transfer mechanism as

it's harder to understand.

KINDS OF ENERGY

Potential Energy = the energy that an object has as the result of its position or state. Some

examples of potential energy include: chemical, elastic, gravitational, magnetic…

Kinetic Energy = the energy that appears in the form of an object’s motion. KE = 1/2mv2. Some

examples of kinetic energy include: sound, electrical, light…

Mechanical Energy = kinetic and potential energy (of lifting, bending, stretching or twisting)

Thermal Energy = the total energy of the particles that make up a mass. Thermal energy is

internal.

Heat = is a transfer of energy from one part of a substance to another, or from one object to

another, because of a difference in temperature. Heat is a form of energy associated with the

motion of atoms or molecules and is capable of being transmitted through solid and fluid media by

conduction, through fluid media by convection, and through empty space by radiation. Heat is not

contained in a mass; an object contains thermal energy.


Light Energy = Sometimes called radiant energy and is visible to the human eye. It is emitted by

moving charged particles. Light sometimes behaves like particles, called photons, and at other

times like waves.

Chemical Energy = The potential energy held in the covalent bonds between atoms in

a molecule. Food is essentially stored potential energy.

Nuclear Energy = energy that is released when the nuclei of atoms are split (fission) or fused

together (fusion).

Electrical Energy = energy that runs our appliances etc…

LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

*Zeroth law of thermodynamics: If two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system,

they are in thermal equilibrium with each other. This law helps define the concept of temperature.

*First law of thermodynamics: When energy passes, as work, as heat, or with matter, into or out

from a system, the system's internal energy changes in accord with the law of conservation of

energy. Equivalently, perpetual motion machines of the first kind (machines that produce work with

no energy input) are impossible.

*Second law of thermodynamics: In a natural thermodynamic process, the sum of

the entropies of the interacting thermodynamic systems increases. Equivalently, perpetual motion

machines of the second kind (machines that spontaneously convert thermal energy into

mechanical work) are impossible.

*Third law of thermodynamics: The entropy of a system approaches a constant value as the

temperature approaches absolute zero.[2] With the exception of non-crystalline solids (glasses) the

entropy of a system at absolute zero is typically close to zero, and is equal to the natural

logarithm of the product of the quantum ground states.


CONVERSION OF UNITS