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# Fresh Water Allowance (FWA) is the number of millimetres by which the mean draught

changes when a ship passes from salt water to fresh water, or vice-versa, when the ship is loaded
to the Summer displacement. The FWA is found by the formula: TPCSW is the salt-water TPC
value for the summer load draught.

Dock water allowance (DWA). When a vessel moves from salt water to water of lower density
it will increase its draught and vice versa.
The amount of change is known as the “dock water allowance”. The dock water allowance
depends on the “Fresh water allowance” (“FWA”) which represents the change in draught when
moving between salt water (density 1.025 tonnes per cubic metre) and fresh water (1 tonne per
cubic metre). The DWA can be estimated from a formula:
DWA = FWA (1.025 - d)/(1.025 - 1.000)
or it may be expressed as:
DWA = FWA (1025 - d)/25
where d = the density of the water in which the ship floats.
SEA WATER DENSITY

Seawater has been the source of life It is where the first living and breathing organisms set fins
on planet Earth. Most of the Earth's surface, approximately 70%, is covered with seawater.
Scientists believed the Earth has been covered by water since shortly after the beginning of its
existence.

Two of the most important variables in seawater are temperature and salinity (the concentration
of dissolved salts). The two quantities work in conjunction to control the density of seawater.
Since the composition of seawater is affected mainly by the addition of dissolved salts brought to
it by the rivers, volcanic eruptions, erosion of rocks, and many other ways, the composition
differs from one region to the next.

## FRESH WATER DENSITY

Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean. On average, seawater in the world's
oceans has a salinity of about 3.5% (35 g/L, 599 mM). This means that every kilogram (roughly
one litre by volume) of seawater has approximately 35 grams (1.2 oz) of dissolved
salts (predominantly sodium (Na+)and chloride (Cl−) ions). Average density at the surface is
1.025 kg/L. Seawater is denser than both fresh water and pure water (density 1.0 kg/L at 4 °C
(39 °F)) because the dissolved salts increase the mass by a larger proportion than the volume.
The freezing point of seawater decreases as salt concentration increases. At typical salinity, it
freezes at about −2 °C (28 °F).The coldest seawater ever recorded (in a liquid state) was in 2010,
in a stream under an Antarctic glacier, and measured −2.6 °C (27.3 °F).Seawater pH is typically
limited to a range between 7.5 and 8.4.However, there is no universally accepted reference pH-
scale for seawater and the difference between measurements based on different reference scales
may be up to 0.14 units.

## DOCK WATER DENSITY

(DWA). When a vessel moves from salt water to water of lower density it will increase its
draught and vice versa. where d = the density of thewater in which the ship floats.

RELATIVE DENSITY

## or specific gravity, is the ratio of the density(mass of a unit volume) of a substance to

the density of a given reference material. Specific gravity usually means relative density with
respect to water. The term "relative density" is often preferred in scientific usage.

SPECIFIC DENSITY

is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance; equivalently, it
is the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of a reference substance for the same given
volume.

## DIFF. BETWEEN FRESH AND DOCK

In sea water, the underwater portion of the hull will be smaller, that is the vessel will not sink as
far as it will in fresh water, and the draft in sea water will be less than the draught in fresh
water. Thedifference between the two drafts is called the fresh water allowance (FWA).

## HOW TO OBTAIN CORRECT DOCK WATER DENSITY

Dock water allowance (DWA). When a vessel moves from salt water to water of lower density
it will increase its draught and vice versa.
The amount of change is known as the “dock water allowance”. The dock water allowance
depends on the “Fresh water allowance” (“FWA”) which represents the change in draught when
moving between salt water (density 1.025 tonnes per cubic metre) and fresh water (1 tonne per
cubic metre). The DWA can be estimated from a formula: