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GEOGRAPHY CURRICULUM 2

ASSIGNMENT 2

ASSESSMENT HSC

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MOUNT PANORAMA
AGRICULTURAL HIGH SCHOOL
DIVIDE ET IMPERA

URBAN PLACES - REPORT

Task No. Date Issued Date due Weighting Grading


WRITTEN ORAL
Week 2, REPORT PRESENTATION
2 Term 2, Week 4, Week 3-6 30% Marks 0 – 30
4 May 2018 Term 2, 20 at the end of
May 2018 each lesson
Submission instructions
Your extended response must be submitted electronically through edmodo
(http://www.edmodo.com) by the due date.

TASK RATIONALE
This task is aimed at increasing the students’ ability to identify challenges posed by world’s
megacities and the strategies in response to those challenges as well as communicating their findings
both orally and in the written form.

OUTCOMES BEING ASSESSED

H3 Analyses contemporary urban dynamics and applies them in specific contexts.


H5 evaluates environmental management strategies in terms of ecological sustainability
H12 explains geographical patterns, processes and future trends through appropriate case studies
and illustrative examples
H13 communicates complex geographical information, ideas and issues effectively, using
appropriate written and/or oral, cartographic and graphic forms.

COURSE CONTENT
world cities urban dynamics
• the nature, character and spatial distribution of world cities • the urban dynamics of change: suburbanisation, exurbanisation,
• the role of world cities as powerful centres of economic and cultural counterurbanisation, decentralisation, consolidation, urban decay,
authority urban renewal, urban village, spatial exclusion
• the operation of global networks • the results of the urban dynamics in a large city selected from the
developed world including its
• the relationships of dominance and dependence between world cities
and other urban centres and the changing role of regional centres and – social structure and spatial patterns of advantage and
the demise of the small town. disadvantage, wealth and poverty, ethnicity
– changing economic character, nature and location of residential
mega cities land, commercial and industrial development
• the nature, character and spatial distribution of mega cities in the – culture of place as expressed in the architecture, streetscape,
developing world heritage architecture, noise, colour, street life, energy, vitality and
• the challenges of living in mega cities lifestyles.
• the responses to these challenges – growth, development, future trends and ecological sustainability.

* For the purpose of this task Mount Panorama Agricultural High 2


School is to be considered a selective school
ASSESSMENT TASK

Your task contains 2 components:

1. WRITTEN REPORT (800 words)


You are required to create a Geographical Report that investigates the challenges of a world
megacity and evaluates the ecological impacts on the environment and strategies implemented
in response. Your Geographical Report must include:
 An introduction; including the identification of your megacity of choice (50 Words)
 An Analysis of the factors causing the development of the chosen megacity and of the
consequences of such an urban concentration on the physical environment, liveability and
sustainability of places (200 words).
 An Evaluation of ONE management strategy adopted in the megacity of choice to alleviate the
consequences of such urban concentration by making a judgment as to whether this strategy will
be viable in 20 years; (200 words)
 An Analysis of the role of the megacity of choice as centre of economic authority (150 words)
 An Explanation of the role of the megacity of choice as centre of cultural authority (150 words)
 A Conclusion (50 words);
 Appendices and Bibliography.

2. ORAL PRESENTATION (5 minute oral presentation to the class – Approx. 200 words)
You must prepare a presentation to the class focussing on THREE (3) of the following points
with respect to one of your chosen megacity:
1. Define a megacity.
2. Explain the process of urbanisation.
3. Discuss the push and a pull factors relevant to your megacity of choice.
4. What makes a world city different to other cities?
5. Give an explanation of the location of world cities. Describe in geographical terms.
6. Identify the regions of the world where growth is being experienced in world cities.
7. Explain the concept of “cultural geography of world cities”.
8. Define the concepts of dominance and dependence, using a diagram to illustrate your answer.

You will be given 5 minutes to present your submissions orally to the class.

THIS IS NOT A TAKE-HOME EXAM. You will be allocated 4 lessons (Computer Lab) during class time
to write your report and prepare your presentation.

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MARKING CRITERIA FOR WRITTEN REPORT
- Provides an extensive explanation of the factors influencing megacities in
the world H3.
- Provides an extensive assessment of ONE management strategy for a
9-10 (A)
consequence of urban concentration. H5
- Successfully acquires, processes and employs (3) geographical sources to
support the positions contained in the report. H12
- Provides a thorough explanation of the factors influencing megacities in the
world H3.
- Provides thorough assessment of ONE management strategy for a 7-8
consequence of urban concentration. H5 (B)
- Adequately acquires, processes and employs (3) geographical sources to
support the positions contained in the report. H12
- Provides a sound explanation of the factors influencing megacities in the
world H3.
- Provides a correct assessment of ONE management strategy for a 5-6
consequence of urban concentration. H5 (C)
- Adequately acquires, processes and employs (2) geographical sources to
support the positions contained in the report. H12
- Provides a basic explanation of the factors influencing megacities in the
world. H3
- Provides a partially correct assessment of ONE management strategy for a 3-4
consequence of urban concentration. H5 (D)
- Adequately acquires, processes and employs (1) geographical source to
support the positions contained in the report. H12
- Fails to provide a basic explanation of the factors influencing megacities in
the world. H3
- Fails to provide a partially correct assessment of ONE management strategy 1-2
for a consequence of urban concentration. H5 (E)
- Fails to acquire, process and employ a geographical source to support the
positions contained in the report. H12
MARKING CRITERIA FOR ORAL PRESENTATION
Consistently communicates complex geographical information effectively, using
5 (A)
appropriate written and/or oral, cartographic and graphic forms. H13
Mostly communicates complex geographical information effectively, using
4 (B)
appropriate written and/or oral, cartographic and graphic forms. H13
Communicates some complex geographical information effectively, using
3 (C)
appropriate written and/or oral, cartographic and graphic forms. H13
Occasionally communicates geographical information effectively, using
2 (D)
appropriate written and/or oral, cartographic and graphic forms. H13
Fails to communicate geographical information effectively, using appropriate
1(E)
written and/or oral, cartographic and graphic forms. H13
Total Score: ____/ 15
Final Mark is total score x 2 ______/30
Comments:_______________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

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SCAFFOLD
Introduction Introduce your city and provide a brief description of the structure
(50 words) of your assignment.
An Analysis of the factors Developmental Factors include Consequences on the
causing the development of the  globalisation, environment include:
chosen megacity and of the  changes in  urban sprawl,
consequences of such an urban markets,  impacts on
concentration on the physical  deregulation, infrastructure,
environment, liveability and
 cost of labour  public transport,
sustainability of places.
 climate,  burden on natural
(200 words)
 topography, resources,
 transportation  ecological
Analyse: networks, footprint,
Identify components and the  land use,  poverty
relationship between them; draw  perception of
out and relate implications liveability.
Evaluate ONE Environmental
Management Strategy adopted  Identify the management strategies put in place to
in the megacity of choice to alleviate the consequences of the urban
alleviate the consequences of concentration of a mega city
such urban concentration;  Are these management strategies successful in
achieving their purpose?
Evaluate: Make a judgement  Will these strategies be viable in 20 years time?
based on criteria; determine the  Why or why not?
value of  What evidence do you bring to support your
judgment?
An Explanation of the role of
the megacity of choice as  command/control,
centre of economic authority  focus of advanced communication technologies,
(150 words)  major airports,
Explain: Relate cause and effect;  preferred location for finance
make the relationship between
things evident; provide why
and/or how
An Explanation of the role of
the megacity of choice as  being a host to many intellectual & cultural
centre of cultural authority in spectacles/Major sporting events,
terms of (150 words)  broadcasting of pop culture,
Explain: Relate cause and effect;  entertainment outlets with international reach.
make the relationship between
things evident; provide why
and/or how

Conclusion
50 words  Sum up key patterns, ideas and arguments.

Appendices and Bibliography  Include the specific sources (graphs, photos, maps,
tables, articles, flowcharts etc) that you used to
shape your arguments. You must refer to at least 4
resources throughout your report.

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APPENDIX 1
Resources to start your geographical investigation
Urbanisation
 https://www.theguardian.com/cities/urbanisation
 www.abc.net.au/ra/carvingout/issues/urbanisation.htm
Urbanisation in developing nations
 http://theconversation.com/urbanisation-in-developing-countries-a-completely-different-kettle-of-fish-
56165
UNICEF Urbanisation Map interactive
 https://www.unicef.org/sowc2012/urbanmap/
World Cities Map – skills
 https://www.mapsofworld.com/world-city-maps/
Push and pull factors
 http://www.globalization101.org/pull-factors/
Redefining global cities
 https://www.brookings.edu/research/redefining-global-cities/
All cities look the same?
 https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2016/jan/28/where-world-newest-cities-look-same
Travel times in cities
 https://www.theguardian.com/cities/gallery/2018/jan/10/daily-commute-travel-times-cities-world-
pictures-maps-uk-china-mali
Cities to watch in Asia
 https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/02/exploring-asia-s-most-enterprising-
cities?utm_content=buffer83e1f&utm_medium=social&utm_source=facebook.com&utm_campaign=b
uffer
Globalisation and new cities
 http://www.jll.com/Research/jll-new-world-of-cities-globalisation-and-competition-2015.pdf?5fdf8ca7-
bd22-4414-9730-784b932fb1aa
 http://thebusinessofcities.com/globalisation-and-cities/
 https://qz.com/80657/the-return-of-the-city-state/
Global Cities Report – 2016
 https://www.atkearney.com/global-cities
Deregulation and labour changes
 https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1016/j.polsoc.2008.07.007
Opinion – Global Cities must work together
 http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/entry/sadiq-khan-sxsw_uk_5a9d574ee4b0a0ba4ad62a24
Rise of Asian cities
 http://foreignpolicy.com/2018/03/12/chinas-global-dreams-are-giving-its-neighbors-nightmares/
Cities that run the world
 https://www.smh.com.au/business/the-economy/the-cities-that-run-the-world-20170623-gwx4y2.html
Changing face of the global city – size doesn’t matter
 http://www.newgeography.com/content/004461-size-not-answer-the-changing-face-global-city

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CRITICAL REFLECTION
“I am never guided by the possible assessment of my work”
(Vladimir Putin -The Putin Interviews)

Introduction

This reflection addresses assessment and feedback as instruments in the hands of teachers to assist
students’ learning process. Part of the focus is dedicated to the application of these instruments
within the writer’s teaching style. Different perspectives on the nature and role of assessment and
feedback are also considered.

Assessment

Assessment is pivotal to the learning process as well as for the student experience (Falchikov &
Thomson, 1996). Assessment is considered an important aspect of the learning experience where
formal and informal assessments have the role of informing future learning. In reality, the
presumption that all students can improve rests on the ability of teachers to deliver and apply
teaching processes and pedagogy individually tailored. The word assessment comes from the Latin
expression assidere, “To sit with” which would indicate sitting together to assist someone (Wiggins,
G. P., 1993). Regrettably, assessment ends up too often being a tool to measure evidence of
students’ achievement.

The pressure of grading senior classes in New South Wales secondary schools often pushes teachers
away from attempting to implement new ideas for the fear of not conforming to the numerous
protocols of internal and external quality control (APS, Syllabus, Curriculum, School Policies,
Departmental Policies, NESA’s guidelines etc). On the other hand, senior students not only suffer the
pressure of summative grading and ATAR scores but are also denied their chance to maximise their
learning. In this sense the aims and processes of western education systems have been recognised
as at times contradictory and capable to undermine the credibility and the capacity to develop of an
education system (Taras, M., 2010).

Assessment can be divided in three different categories, namely: assessment for learning,
assessment of learning and the third assessment as learning (Rowntree, D., 1987). This subdivision is
based on the purpose and time of assessments. Assessment for learning- often referred as formative
assessment - addresses how judgements about the quality of student responses (performance,
pieces, or works) can be used to shape and improve students’ competence by short-circuiting the
randomness and inefficiency of trial-and-error learning. (Sadler, 1989, p. 120). On the other hand

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assessment of learning -also described as summative assessment - is the formal style of assessment
that measures the students’ understanding against the outcomes being assessed. The role of
Assessment as learning is to help students evaluate and regulate themselves (Fleming, 2006;
Volante, 2010).

Standard 5 of the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers requires teachers to assess student
learning (5.1), provide feedback to students on their learning (5.2), Make consistent and comparable
judgments (5.3), interpret student data (5.4) and report on student achievement (5.5).

Designing planned assessment in human society and its environment (HSIE), and in particular in
Senior Geography courses requires particular focus on teaching and learning programs with planned
assessment opportunities connected to the outcomes and subject matter of the syllabus.

Feedback

One of the basic principles of learning is that students require feedback. Students need to know
what they are trying to accomplish, and then they need to know how close they are coming to the
goal (Cross, 1996, p. 4).

The importance of feedback is also recognised by the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers
( 5.2). The role of feedback has been and continues to be the source of great disagreement amongst
researchers. The unanimous position is that feedback has different functions which depend on the
learning environment, the needs of the learner, the purpose of the task, and the particular feedback
paradigm adopted (Knight & Yorke, 2003; Poulos & Mahony, 2008).

It is important for teachers to realise that in order for feedback to work active participation from
students is required. Students should have increased responsibility for seeking out and acting on
feedback (Sadler, 1989, p. 120). In other words, in order for feedback to really work it should not be
part of the so-called “knowledge of results” (teachers providing judgements on students’ work).

Information and Communication Technology

The drive towards a more technological society has had a deep impact on teaching in all learning
environments. Bonk and Cunningham (1998, p. 27) state “as the menu of technology choices in
schools and workplaces escalates, instructional decisions regarding how to communicate with
learners across these settings are becoming increasingly critical and complex”. This axiom can be
extended to the use of technology in both assessment and feedback stages of learning. According to

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Cole and Engestrom (1993) technology is a `cultural amplifier' that can change the nature of human
productivity and the approaches to learning and expectations of the teacher's role.

Internet based technologies have armed students with a previously unseen access to information
and learning resources. Web-based technology also provides the potential of many-to-many
communication, exposing students to many ideas and issues at once (Teles 1993; McLoughlin 1999).
In this new web driven environment, teachers’ new role is to assist students identify and access
reliable sources of information. Teachers use guidelines and scaffolds in both assessment and
during class to provide students with such guidance.

Being exposed to a vast range of ideas allows students to learn the value of multiple perspectives
(McLoughlin 1999) and develop critical awareness to independently build their own understanding
(Sugar & Bonk 1998), and in some cases to identify and move from their previous own (often
ethnocentric) ways of thinking (McConnell 2000).

Intellectual Quality in Assessment

Since about 2007 Quality Teaching model developed by Professor Gore and Dr Ladwig informed
teaching practices and processes throughout New South Wales (Ladwig, J. G., Smith, M., Gore, J. M.,
Amosa, W. A., & Griffiths, T., 2007). The application of the quality teaching model also covers the
planning and design of assessments in secondary schools.

Deep Knowledge can be introduced in assessment by designing a task in a way that requires
students to draw content together. Each subject in the HSC Geography syllabus lends itself to being
the object of an assessment where content from photos, maps, excel spreadsheets, journal articles
are drawn together.

Deep Understanding can be obtained through tasks where students are required to demonstrate
explicitly the link between concepts, ideas and facts and perspectives. HSC Geography syllabus is by
its very nature an exercise in linking concepts, ideas and facts and perspectives.

HSC Geography syllabus also provides teachers with several opportunities to engage students’
Problematic Knowledge. An example would be a task in which students are asked to provide
alternative solutions. This would occur if the task requires students to explore the assumptions
underpinning a variety of perspectives when presenting their reports or presentations.

All human society and its environment (HSIE) subjects (including Geography) provide a launch pad o
engage students in High Order Thinking. Geographical assessment should be drawn to encourage

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students to construct meaning from geographical information (by classifying, comparing,
summarising, inferring and explaining).

The acquisition of metalanguage is a keystone in the quality teaching model. As such assessments
should require and reward students’ use of a set of technical terms in their responses and/or essays.

Finally, High Expectations can be maintained within assessments by planning tasks where students
must take conceptual risks that might range from (eg moral dilemmas, management of
environmental issues)

Conclusion

It appears that grading and summative achievements tend to concern Teachers (and students) more
than learning. This aspect seems particularly relevant in the realm of feedback and assessment. In
order to re-adjust the balance between grading and learning, student participation in the
assessment process should be seriously considered by educators and teachers alike. Students should
be given an opportunity to go through teacher-guided review and feedback, peer and self-
assessment. Students should receive their grades from their teachers at a later stage.

This temporary gap would allow students to actively use the feedback from the teacher and peers to
identify their zone of proximal development (Black &Wiliam, 1998, p. 18). After reviewing much of
the literature referred in this reflection, the writer has come to the conclusion that in order for
assessments to be truly formative, teachers should initially separate assessment and feedback from
grading so that students can develop their own judgements with respect to their own work.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Assessment from NESA Policy & Practices

http://educationstandards.nsw.edu.au/wps/portal/nesa/11-12/Understanding-the-
curriculum/curriculum-development/st6-assessment

Reporting and Assessment Effective Practices


Marsh, C. (2010). Assessment and Reporting. In C. Marsh, McTighe, J. & O’Connor, K.
(2005) Seven practices for effective learning. Educational Leadership, 63(3), 10-17.

Matters, G. (2005). Designing Assessment tasks for Deep Thinking. Curriculum Corporation
Conference, Brisbane, 3 June.

Teacher Judgment
Sudkamp, A., Kaiser, J. & Moller, J. (2012). Accuracy of Teachers’ judgments of Student’s
academic Achievement: a meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology 104(3) 743-
762.

Assessment Practices
Orsmond, P., Merry, S. &Reiling, K. (2000) The use of student derived marking criteria in
peer and self-assessment, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 25 (1), pp. 21–38.

Rowntree, D. (1987) Assessing Students: how shall we know them? (London, Harper &
Row).

Cross, K. P. (1996) Improving teaching and learning through classroom assessment and
classroom research, in: G. GIBBS (Ed.) Improving Student Learning: using research to
improve student learning (Oxford, Oxford Centre for Staff Development), pp. 3–10.

Wiggins, G. P. (1993). The Jossey-Bass education series. Assessing student performance:


Exploring the purpose and limits of testing.San Francisco, CA, US: Jossey-Bass.

Fleming, M., 2006, “Evaluation and Assessment,” Intergovernmental Conference Languages


of Schooling: towards a Framework for Europe, Strasbourg, Language Policy Division,
Council of Europe.

Volante, L. and Beckett, D., 2011, “Formative assessment and the contemporary classroom:
Synergies and tensions between research and practice,” Canadian Journal of Education,
34(2), 239-255.

Ladwig, J. G., Smith, M., Gore, J. M., Amosa, W. A., & Griffiths, T. (2007). Quality of
pedagogy and student achievement: Multi-level replication of authentic pedagogy. Paper
presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education Annual Conference,
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Ayres, P., Sawyer, W. &Dinham (2004) Effective teaching in the context of a Grade 12 high-
stakes external examination in New South Wales, Australia. British Educational Research
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Preston, C. (2005). Creating quality assessment tasks and marking guidelines [online].
Culturescope, 78,37-40.
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Gobby, B. & Walker, R. (2017). Powers of Curriculum: Sociological Perspectives on


Education, Australia: Oxford University Press.

McLoughlin, Catherine(2001):Inclusivity and alignment: Principles of pedpagogy, task and


assessment design for effective cross-cultural online learning. Distance Education;
Melbourne Vol. 22, Iss. 1, 7-29.

Taras, M. (2002) Formative, summative and self-assessment : some theoretical


consideration s and practical applications

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