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Internal Combustion Engine

- is an engine where the generation of heat is effected

inside the work producing unit. The combustor and the work
producing unit are the same and the products of combustion
eventually become the working fluid.
A. Otto Cycle (Gasoline Engine)
- the ideal or air-standard cycle for spark-ignition engine,
commonly known as gasoline engine. All spark ignition engines are
designed for gasoline fuels. This cycle is a constant volume
combustion cycle named after Nicolas A. Otto (1832-1891).
Analysis of Otto cycle:
a. heat added, QA

b. work net, Wnet

c. cycle efficiency, e

d. compression ratio, rk
e. heat rejected, QR

f. Alternate formula for efficiency, e

g. percentage clearance, c

h. volume displacement, VD
i. clearance volume, Vc

j. mean effective pressure, Pm

1. An Otto Engine has a clearance volume of 4. The efficiency of an Otto engine is 55%
7%. It produces 300 kW of power. What is and the stroke volume is 35 liters. If the
the amount of heat rejected in kW? heat added at the beginning of the
a. 170 c. 152 combustion of the combustion is 12.6 kJ,
b. 160 d. 145 calculate the mean effective pressure.
2. In an air standard OTTO cycle, the a. 194 kPa c. 198 kPa
clearance volume is 18% of the b. 188 kPa d. 184 kPa
displacement volume. Find the thermal 5. Gas is compressed in an internal
efficiency. combustion engine according to the law
a. 0.52 c. 0.53 PV1.36 = C. If the final temperature of the
b. 0.55 d. 0.60 gas are 30oC and 382oC respectively,
calculate the compression ratio.
3. The efficiency of an ideal Otto cycle is 40
%. What is the hot-air value of k, if the a. 5.51 c. 7.51
compression ratio is 6.2? b. 6.51 d. 8.51
a. 1.28 c. 1.25
b. 1.38 d. 1.35
6. An Otto cycle operates 1 kg of air from 8. The compression ratio of an engine
101.325 kPa and 25 oC at the beginning of working on the constant volume cycle is
compression. If the clearance is 15%, find 9.3 to 1. At the beginning of compression
the temperature at the end of compression. the temperature is 31 oC and the end of
a. 300 oC c. 450.01 oC combustion the temperature is 1205 oC.
Taking the compression and expansion to
b. 400 oC d. 350.01 oC be adiabatic and the value of k as 1.4.
Calculate the theoretical thermal
7. An Otto cycle operates a 0.5 lb/s of air
from 15 psia and 150 oF, at the beginning of a. 59.02 % c. 58.02 %
compression ratio is 4.3; hot air standard k b. 54.02 % d. 56.02 %
= 1.3. Determine the volume at the end of
a. 2.75 cfs c. 3.75 cfs
b. 1.75 cfs d. 4.75 cfs
B. Diesel Cycle
- is an ideal or air-standard cycle for compression-ignition
engine (Diesel Engine). This cycle is a constant pressure combustion
cycle named after Rudolf Diesel (1858-1913).
Analysis of Otto cycle:
a. Heat added, QA

b. heat rejected, QR
c. Work net, Wnet

d. cycle efficiency, e
e. cycle efficiency (Aternate Formula), e

f. compression ratio, rk
g. cut-off ratio, rc

h. volume displacement, VD
i. mean effective pressure, Pm

j. expansion ratio, re
k. percentage clearance, c

l. clearance volume, Vc

m. relation between rk, rc, and re:

1. What is the efficiency of Diesel Engine if 3. The compression ratio and the cut-off
the heat added during the constant ratio of an ideal diesel cycle are 13 and 3
pressure combustion is 19 Btu and the heat respectively. What is the cycle efficiency for
rejected is 9 Btu. a cold-air standard value of k.
a. 42.63% c. 55.66% a. 53.20% c. 55.21%
b. 52.63% d. 45.66% b. 43.20% d. 45.21%
4. If the volumes at the end of compression
2. The compression ratio in a Diesel engine and at the beginning of expansion in an
is 13 to 1 and the ratio of expansion is 6.5 actual Diesel engine are 0.015 m3 and 0.04
to 1. At the beginning of compression the m3 respectively. What is the cut-off ratio?
temperature is 32 oC. Assuming adiabatic a. 1.67 c. 2.54
compression and expansion calculate the b. 2.67 d. 1.54
ideal thermal efficiency taking the specific
heats and constant pressure and volume as 5. If the compression ratio and the cut-off
1.005 kJ/kg.K and 0.718 kJ/kg.K ratio of a Diesel engine are 15 and 3
respectively. respectively, what is the expansion ratio?
a. 54% c. 58% a. 4 c. 6
b. 56% d. 52% b. 5 d. 7
6. A diesel engine takes in air at 105 kPa
and 26 oC subjected to a compression
ratio of 19. What is the operating
clearance in percent?
A. 5.56 % C. 4.56 %
B. 6.66 % D. 7.56 %

7. The ratio of compression in a Diesel

engine is 16 to 1 and the temperature of
the air at the beginning of the compression
is 49oC. Calculate the temperature at the
end of compression assuming it follows the
law PV1.34 = C.
a. 826.53 oC c. 453.43 oC
b. 553.53 oC d. 653.53 oC
C. Dual Combustion Cycle
- is a constant volume and constant pressure combustion
cycle. It is also called as limited-pressure cycle.
Analysis for dual cycle:
a. Heat Added, QA

b. heat rejected, QR
c. Work net, Wnet

d. Cycle efficiency, e
e. alternate formula for efficiency, e
e. compression ratio, rk

f. cut-off ratio, rc
g. percent clearance, c

h. clearance volume, Vc
i. expansion ratio, re

j. pressure ratio, rp
k. volume displacement, VD

l. mean effective pressure, Pm

An ideal dual combustion cycle operates on 0.60 kg of air. Find
the cycle efficiency if the compression ratio is 12, pressure ratio is 1.6,
cut-off ratio is 1.5 and k = 1.3?
a. 40.71%
b. 60.71%
c. 45.71%
d. 50.71%