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PREVENTION OF

COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

Dr Soumar Dutta
CDMO
Guwahati Refinery Hospital
COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

An illness due to a specific infectious agent or


its toxic products capable of being directly or
indirectly transmitted from man to man,animal
to animal or from the environment
(air,dust,soil,water,food) to man or animal.
EPIDEMIOLOGY

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TRIAD
DYNAMICS OF DISEASE
TRANSMISSION
MODES OF TRANSMISSION
MODES OF TRANSMISSION

E. DIRECT TRANSMISSION
F. INDIRECT TRANSMISSION
MODES OF TRANSMISSION
DIRECT TRANSMISSION
MODES OF TRANSMISSION
DIRECT TRANSMISSION
• Direct Contact
MODES OF TRANSMISSION
DIRECT TRANSMISSION
• Direct Contact
• Skin to Skin.
• Mucosa to Mucosa.
• Mucosa to Skin.

Of the same person or different Person.

Eg-STD, AIDS, leprosy, skin and eye infections.


MODES OF TRANSMISSION
DIRECT TRANSMISSION
• Direct Contact
• Droplet Infection
MODES OF TRANSMISSION
DIRECT TRANSMISSION
• Direct Contact
• Droplet Infection

Direct Projection of a spray of droplets of


saliva and naso-pharyngeal secretions
during coughing, sneezing or speaking
to the surrounding atmosphere.
Eg: Respiratory infections, diphtheria,
whooping cough, TB, Meningococcal
meningitis.
Droplet Sprayed into the Air from a Sneeze
MODES OF TRANSMISSION
DIRECT TRANSMISSION
• Direct Contact
• Droplet Infection
• Contact with Soil

Eg: Hookworm larva, Tetanus.


MODES OF TRANSMISSION
DIRECT TRANSMISSION
• Direct Contact
• Droplet Infection
• Contact with Soil
• Inoculation into skin or mucosa

Eg: Rabies, infected needles.


MODES OF TRANSMISSION
DIRECT TRANSMISSION
• Direct Contact
• Droplet Infection
• Contact with Soil
• Inoculation into skin or mucosa
• Transplacental (vertical)

Eg: TORCH agents, syphilis, HBV, AIDS


INDIRECT TRANSMISSION

Traditionally 5F’s
 Flies
 Finger
 Fomite
 Food
 Fluids
INDIRECT TRANSMISSION
• Vehicle-borne.
 Water (MC)
 Food
 Ice
 Blood, Serum, Plasma
 Tissues and organs
INDIRECT TRANSMISSION
• Vehicle-borne.
• Vector-borne.
INDIRECT TRANSMISSION
• Vehicle-borne.
• Vector-borne.
• Air-borne.
INDIRECT TRANSMISSION
• Vehicle-borne.
• Vector-borne.
• Air-borne.
• Fomite-borne.
Inanimate article or substances other than water or
food contaminated by infectious agents
INDIRECT TRANSMISSION
• Vehicle-borne.
• Vector-borne.
• Air-borne.
• Fomite-borne.
• Unclean hand and finger.
COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
PREVALENT IN INDIA
Respiratory infections:
• Chicken pox. • Diphtheria.
• Measles. • Meningitis.
• Mumps. • Whooping Cough.
• Rubella. • ARI.
• Influenza . • TB.
COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
PREVALENT IN INDIA
Intestinal Infections:
• Poliomyelitis. • Food poisoning.
• Viral hepatitis. • Amoebiasis.
• Acute diarrhoeal • Taeniasis.
disease. • Ascarasis.
• Typhoid fever. • Hookworm infestation.
• Cholera.
COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
PREVALENT IN INDIA
Arthropod-borne Diseases
• Malaria
• Dengue.
• Filariasis.
Zoonosis:
Viral Bacterial
• Rabies. • Leptospirosis.
• JE. • Brucellosis.
• Avian flu. • Human salmonellosis.
COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
PREVALENT IN INDIA
Surface Infections:
• Trachoma
• Tetanus
• Leprosy
• AIDS
• STD
Hospital Acquired Infections.
Disease Prevention And Control

Decrease your risk of infectious diseases by


understanding how they spread and how
you can protect yourself.
Disease Prevention And Control
• Wash your hands often:
Disease Prevention And Control
• Wash your hands often:

This is especially important before and after


preparing food, before eating and after
using the toilet.
Disease Prevention And Control
• Wash your hands often.
• Get vaccinated.
Disease Prevention And Control
• Wash your hands often.
• Get vaccinated.

Immunization can drastically reduce the


chances of contracting many diseases.
Disease Prevention And Control
• Wash your hands often.
• Get vaccinated.
• Use antibiotics sensibly.
• Only take antibiotics when necessary.
• If they're prescribed, take them exactly as
directed — don't stop taking them early
because your symptoms have gone away.
Disease Prevention And Control
• Wash your hands often.
• Get vaccinated.
• Use antibiotics sensibly.
• Stay at home if you have signs and
symptoms of an infection.
Disease Prevention And Control
• Wash your hands often.
• Get vaccinated.
• Use antibiotics sensibly.
• Stay at home if you have signs and
symptoms of an infection.
• Be smart about food preparation.
Disease Prevention And Control
• Wash your hands often.
• Get vaccinated.
• Use antibiotics sensibly.
• Stay at home if you have signs and
symptoms of an infection.
• Be smart about food preparation.
• Pay special attention to cleaning the 'hot
zones' in your home.
Disease Prevention And Control
• Don't share personal items.
Disease Prevention And Control
• Don't share personal items.
Use your own
• Toothbrush
• Comb
• Razor blade.
• Avoid sharing drinking glasses or dining utensils.
Disease Prevention And Control
• Don't share personal items.
• Travel wisely.
Disease Prevention And Control
• Don't share personal items.
• Travel wisely.
• Keep your pets healthy.
ROLE OF DOCTORS IN PREVENTING
COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
a) Controlling the reservoir
a. Early Diagnosis
 Precise treatment
 Epidemiological Investigation- study time place & person
distribution of the disease and
 For institution of prevention and control measures.
b.Notification
c. Isolation
d. Quarantine
ROLE OF DOCTORS IN PREVENTING
COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
b) Interruption of transmission
“Breaking the chain of Transmission”
c) Susceptible Host
a. Active immunization.
b. Passive Immunization
c. Combined Active and passive immunization.
d) Non-specific measures
 Better housing, water-supply, sanitation. nutrition and
education.
 Legislative measures- to formulate and effective
implementation of measures.