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Agricultural Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications 7th

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Hill's "Philosophy of Achievement" was offered as a formula
for rags-to-riches success, published initially during 1928 in the
multi-volume study course The Law of Success,[23] a re-write of
a 1925 manuscript. Hill identified freedom, democracy,
capitalism, and harmony among the foundations of his
"Philosophy of Achievement". He asserted that without these
foundations, great personal achievements would not be

A "secret" of achievement was discussed in Think and Grow
Rich, but Hill insisted readers would benefit most if they
discovered it for themselves. Although he did not explicitly
identify this secret in the book, he offered, 20 pages into the
book: "If you truly desire money so keenly that your desire is an
obsession, you will have no difficulty in convincing yourself that
you will acquire it. The object is to want money, and to be so
determined to have it that you convince yourself that you will
have it... You may as well know, right here, that you can never
have riches in great quantities unless you work yourself into a
white heat of desire for money, and actually believe you will
possess it." In the introduction Hill states of the "secret" that
Andrew Carnegie 'carelessly tossed it into my mind', and that it
also inspired Manuel L. Quezon of the Philippine Islands to 'gain
freedom for his people, and went on to lead them as its first
president.' Although he mentions a 'burning desire for money'
repeatedly throughout the book, he also suggests it is not in
fact his "secret" at all. By contrast, at the end of his first
book, The Law of Success, nine years earlier, he identifies his
secret as The Golden Rule: Only by working harmoniously in co-
operation with other individuals or groups of individuals and
thus creating value and benefit for them will one create
sustainable achievement for oneself.

He presented the notion of a "Definite Major Purpose" as a
challenge to his readers to ask themselves, "In what do I truly
believe?" According to Hill, "98%" of people had few or no
strong beliefs, which made success unlikely.[24]
Hill used a story of his son, Blair, who he says was an inspiration
to him because although Blair was born without ears, and
though his doctor told Hill his son would neither be able to hear
nor speak, Blair grew up able to hear and speak almost
normally. Hill reports that his son, during his last year of
college, read chapter two of the manuscript of Think And Grow
Rich, discovered Hill's secret "for himself", and then inspired
"hundreds and thousands" of people who could not hear or

From 1952 to 1962, Hill taught his Philosophy of Personal
Achievement – Lectures on Science of Success in association
with W. Clement Stone.[26] During 1960, Hill and Stone co-
authored the book, Success Through A Positive Mental
Attitude. Norman Vincent Peale is quoted saying "These two
men [Hill and Stone] have the rare gift of inspiring and helping
people... In fact, I owe them both a personal debt of gratitude
for the helpful guidance I have received from their writings."[27]
It is listed in John C. Maxwell's A Lifetime "Must Read" Books
Hill claimed insight into racism, slavery, oppression, failure,
revolution, war and poverty, saying that overcoming these
difficulties using his "Philosophy of Achievement" was the
responsibility of every human.[24]
On 3 September 1864, a shed used for preparation of
nitroglycerin exploded at the factory in Heleneborg, Stockholm,
killing five people, including Nobel's younger
brother Emil.[5] Dogged and unfazed by more minor accidents,
Nobel went on to build further factories, focusing on improving
the stability of the explosives he was developing.[5] Nobel
invented dynamite in 1867, a substance easier and safer to
handle than the more unstable nitroglycerin. Dynamite was
patented in the US and the UK and was used extensively in
mining and the building of transport networks
internationally.[4] In 1875 Nobel invented gelignite, more stable
and powerful than dynamite, and in 1887 patented ballistite, a
predecessor of cordite.[4]

Nobel was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of
Sciences in 1884, the same institution that would later select
laureates for two of the Nobel prizes, and he received
an honorary doctorate from Uppsala University in 1893.

Nobel's brothers Ludvig and Robert exploited oilfields along
the Caspian Sea and became hugely rich in their own right.
Nobel invested in these and amassed great wealth through the
development of these new oil regions. During his life Nobel was
issued 355 patents internationally and by his death his business
had established more than 90 armaments factories, despite his
belief in pacifism.[12][4]

In 1888, the death of his brother Ludvig caused several
newspapers to publish obituaries of Alfred in error. One French
newspaper published an obituary titled "Le marchand de la
mort est mort" ("The merchant of death is dead"). Nobel read the
obituary and was appalled at the idea that he would be remembered in
this way. His decision to posthumously donate the majority of his
wealth to found the Nobel Prize has been credited at least in part to
him wanting to leave a behind a better legacy.[13][4]

Accused of “high treason against France” for selling Ballistite to Italy,
Nobel moved from Paris to Sanremo, Italy in 1891.[14][15] On December
10, 1896, Alfred Nobel succumbed to a lingering heart ailment, suffered
a stroke, and died.[15] Unbeknownst to his family, friends or colleagues,
he had left most of his wealth in trust, in order to fund the awards that
would become known as the Nobel Prizes.[4] He is buried in Norra
begravningsplatsen in Stockholm.

Through baptism and confirmation Alfred Nobel was Lutheran and
during his Paris years he regularly attended the Church of Sweden
Abroad, led by pastor Nathan Söderblom, who would in 1930 also be
the recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize.[16][17][clarification needed]However, he
became an agnostic at youth and was an atheist later in life.[18][19][20]

Nobel travelled for much of his business life, maintaining companies in
various countries in Europe and North America and keeping a
permanent home in Paris from 1873 to 1891.[5] He remained a solitary
character, given to periods of depression. [4][21] Though Nobel remained
unmarried, his biographers note that he had at least three loves.
Nobel's first love was in Russia with a girl named Alexandra, who
rejected his proposal. In 1876 Austro-Bohemian Countess Bertha
Kinsky became Alfred Nobel's secretary, but after only a brief stay she
left him to marry her previous lover, Baron Arthur Gundaccar von
Suttner. Though her personal contact with Alfred Nobel had been brief,
she corresponded with him until his death in 1896, and it is believed
that she was a major influence in his decision to include a peace prize
among those prizes provided in his will. Bertha von Suttner was
awarded the 1905 Nobel Peace prize, 'for her sincere peace
activities'.[citation needed]

Nobel's third and longest-lasting relationship was with Sofie Hess
from Vienna, whom he met in 1876.[5] The liaison lasted for 18
years.[5] After his death, according to his biographers Evlanoff, Fluor and
Fant, Nobel's letters were locked within the Nobel Institute in
Stockholm. They were released only in 1955, to be included with other
biographical data.[citation needed]
Despite the lack of formal secondary and tertiary level education, Nobel
gained proficiency in six languages: Swedish, French, Russian, English,
German and Italian. He also developed sufficient literary skill to write
poetry in English. His Nemesis, a prose tragedy in four acts
about Beatrice Cenci, partly inspired by Percy Bysshe Shelley's The
Cenci, was printed while he was dying. The entire stock except for three
copies was destroyed immediately after his death, being regarded as
scandalous and blasphemous. The first surviving edition (bilingual
Swedish–Esperanto) was published in Sweden in 2003. The play has
been translated into Slovenian via the Esperanto version and into
French.[22] In 2010 it was published in Russia in another bilingual
(Russian–Esperanto) edition.[citation needed]

Nobel found that when nitroglycerin was incorporated in an absorbent
inert substance like kieselguhr (diatomaceous earth) it became safer
and more convenient to handle, and this mixture he patented in 1867
as "dynamite".[23] Nobel demonstrated his explosive for the first time
that year, at a quarry in Redhill, Surrey, England. In order to help
reestablish his name and improve the image of his business from the
earlier controversies associated with the dangerous explosives, Nobel
had also considered naming the highly powerful substance "Nobel's
Safety Powder", but settled with Dynamite instead, referring to
the Greek word for "power" (δύναμις).
Nobel later combined nitroglycerin with various nitrocellulose
compounds, similar to collodion, but settled on a more efficient recipe
combining another nitrate explosive, and obtained a transparent, jelly-
like substance, which was a more powerful explosive than dynamite.
'Gelignite', or blasting gelatin, as it was named, was patented in 1876;
and was followed by a host of similar combinations, modified by the
addition of potassium nitrate and various other substances.[23] Gelignite
was more stable, transportable and conveniently formed to fit into
bored holes, like those used in drilling and mining, than the previously
used compounds and was adopted as the standard technology for
mining in the Age of Engineering bringing Nobel a great amount of
financial success, though at a significant cost to his health. An offshoot
of this research resulted in Nobel's invention of ballistite, the precursor
of many modern smokeless powder explosives and still used as a rocket

In 1888 Alfred's brother Ludvig died while visiting Cannes and
a French newspaper erroneously published Alfred's obituary.[4] It
condemned him for his invention of dynamite and is said to have
brought about his decision to leave a better legacy after his
death.[4][24] The obituary stated, Le marchand de la mort est mort ("The
merchant of death is dead")[4]and went on to say, "Dr. Alfred Nobel,
who became rich by finding ways to kill more people faster than ever
before, died yesterday."[25] Alfred (who never had a wife or children)
was disappointed with what he read and concerned with how he would
be remembered.[26]

On 27 November 1895, at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris, Nobel
signed his last will and testament and set aside the bulk of his estate to
establish the Nobel Prizes, to be awarded annually without distinction
of nationality.[23] After taxes and bequests to individuals, Nobel's will
allocated 94% of his total assets, 31,225,000 Swedish kronor, to
establish the five Nobel Prizes. This converted to £1,687,837 (GBP) at
the time.[27][28][29][30] In 2012, the capital was worth around SEK 3.1
billion (USD 472 million, EUR 337 million), which is almost twice the
amount of the initial capital, taking inflation into account.[28]

The first three of these prizes are awarded for eminence in physical
science, in chemistry and in medical science or physiology; the fourth
is for literary work "in an ideal direction" and the fifth prize is to be
given to the person or society that renders the greatest service to the
cause of international fraternity, in the suppression or reduction of
standing armies, or in the establishment or furtherance of peace

The formulation for the literary prize being given for a work "in an ideal
direction" (i idealisk riktning in Swedish), is cryptic and has caused
much confusion. For many years, the Swedish Academy interpreted
"ideal" as "idealistic" (idealistisk) and used it as a reason not to give the
prize to important but less romantic authors, such as Henrik
Ibsen and Leo Tolstoy. This interpretation has since been revised, and
the prize has been awarded to, for example, Dario Fo and José
Saramago, who do not belong to the camp of literary idealism.[citation

There was room for interpretation by the bodies he had named for
deciding on the physical sciences and chemistry prizes, given that he
had not consulted them before making the will. In his one-page
testament, he stipulated that the money go to discoveries or inventions
in the physical sciences and to discoveries or improvements in
chemistry. He had opened the door to technological awards, but had
not left instructions on how to deal with the distinction between
science and technology. Since the deciding bodies he had chosen were
more concerned with the former, the prizes went to scientists more
often than engineers, technicians or other inventors.[citation needed]

In 2001, Alfred Nobel's great-great-nephew, Peter Nobel (b. 1931),
asked the Bank of Sweden to differentiate its award to economists
given "in Alfred Nobel's memory" from the five other awards. This
request added to the controversy over whether the Bank of Sweden
Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel is actually a
legitimate "Nobel Prize".[31]
The Monument to Alfred Nobel (Russian: Памятник Альфреду
Нобелю, 59.960787°N 30.334905°E) in Saint Petersburg is located
along the Bolshaya Nevka River on Petrogradskaya

Embankment. It was dedicated in 1991 to mark the 90th anniversary of
the first Nobel Prize presentation. Diplomat Thomas Bertelman and
Professor Arkady Melua initiators of creation of the monument (1989).
Professor A. Melua has provided funds for the establishment of the
monument (J.S.Co. "Humanistica", 1990–1991). The abstract metal
sculpture was designed by local artists Sergey Alipov and Pavel
Shevchenko, and appears to be an explosion or branches of a
tree.[32] Petrogradskaya Embankment is the street where the Nobel's
family lived until 1859.[33]

Hill was born in a one-room cabin near the Appalachian town
of Pound in southwest Virginia.[5] His parents were James Monroe Hill
and Sarah Sylvania (Blair) and he was grandson of James Madison Hill
and Elizabeth (Jones). His grandfather came to the United States from
England and settled in southwestern Virginia during 1847.[6]

Hill's mother died when he was nine years old, and his father remarried
two years later to Martha. His stepmother was a good influence for
him: "Hill's stepmother, the widow of a school principal, civilized the
wild-child Napoleon, making him go to school and attend church."[7] At
the age of 13, Hill began writing as a "mountain reporter", initially for
his father's newspaper.[8] At the age of 15, he married a local girl who
had accused him of fathering her child; the girl recanted the claim, and
the marriage was annulled.[9]

At the age of 17, Hill graduated from high school and went to Tazewell,
Virginia to attend business school. During 1901, Hill accepted a job
working for the lawyer Rufus A. Ayers, a coal magnate and
former Virginia attorney general. The author Richard Lingeman said
that Hill received this job after arranging to keep confidential the death
of a black bellhop, whom the previous manager of the mine had
accidentally shot while drunk.[7]

Hill left his coal mine management job soon afterwards, and began law
school before withdrawing for lack of funds. Later in life, Hill would use
the title of "Attorney of Law," although Hill's official biography notes
that "there is no record of his having actually performed legal services
for anyone," [10]

Hill relocated to Mobile, Alabama in 1907 and co-founded the Acree-
Hill Lumber Company. In
October 1908, the newspaper The Pensacola Journal reported that the
company was liable to bankruptcy proceedings and charges of mail
fraud. The newspaper reported that Hill's lumber company had bought
lumber from outside Mobile, including other counties in Alabama and
even from Florida, before it sold the lumber "at a much lower price and
so far as known at this time have made no returns."[11]

During May 1909, Hill relocated to Washington D.C. and initiated the
"Automobile College of Washington," where he instructed students to
build, chauffeur and sell motor cars.[12] The college assembled cars for
the Carter Motor Corporation, which declared bankruptcy during early
1912. During April 1912, the automobile magazine Motor
World accused Hill's college of being a scam relying upon on misleading
marketing materials that would be "a joke to anyone of average
intelligence".[13] Hill's automobile college ended its business later that

During June 1910, while managing his automobile college, Hill married
his first wife, Florence Elizabeth Horner.[14] The couple had their first
child together, James, during 1911, a second child named Napoleon
Blair during 1912, and a third son, David, during 1918.[15] After his
automobile college ended, Hill relocated to Lumberport, West
Virginia with his wife's family. He later relocated to Chicago and
accepted a job with the LaSalle Extension University before co-initiating
a candy business that he named the Betsy Ross Candy Shop.[16]

During September 1915, Hill established and served as the dean of a
new school in Chicago, the "George Washington Institute of
Advertising," where he intended to teach the principles of success and
self-confidence. On June 4, 1918, the Chicago Tribune reported that the
state of Illinois had issued two warrants for the arrest of Hill, who was
charged with violating blue sky laws for fraudulently attempting to sell
shares of his school with a $100,000 capitalization, despite the school's
assets only being appraised at $1200.[17] The school ended soon

Later in his life, Hill would say that he spent the years of 1917-1918
advising president Woodrow Wilson amidst World War I. [18]

After the end of the George Washington Institute, Hill embarked on
various other business ventures. He initiated several personal
magazines, including Hill's Golden Rule and Napoleon Hill's Magazine.
During 1922, Hill also initiated the Intra-Wall Correspondence School, a
charitable foundation intended to provide educational materials to
prisoners in Ohio. The foundation was directed by, among others, the
check forger and former convict Butler Storke, who was later himself to
be sent back to prison during 1923. [19] According to Hill's official
biography, this period was also when hundreds of documents
associating Hill with various famous figures were destroyed in a Chicago
storage fire.[20]

During 1928, Hill relocated to Philadelphia and convinced
a Connecticut-based publisher to publish his eight-volume work The
Law of Success. The book was Hill's first major success, allowing Hill to
adopt an opulent lifestyle. By 1929, he had already bought a Rolls-
Royce and a six-hundred acre property in the Catskill Mountains, with
the aid of some lenders.[21]

The trio return to Hogwarts for the school year on the only
for dementors to suddenly board the train, searching for Sirius. One
enters the trio's compartment, causing Harry to pass out, but
new Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher Professor Lupin repels the
dementor with a Patronus Charm.

At Hogwarts, headmaster Albus Dumbledore announces that
dementors will be guarding the school while Sirius is at large. Hogwarts
groundskeeper Rubeus Hagrid is announced as the new Care of Magical
Creatures teacher; his first class goes awry when Draco
Malfoy deliberately provokes the hippogriff Buckbeak, who attacks him.
Draco exaggerates his injury, and his father Lucius Malfoy later has
Buckbeak sentenced to death.

The Fat Lady's portrait, which guards the Gryffindor quarters, is found
ruined and empty. Terrified and hiding in another painting, she tells
Dumbledore that Sirius has entered the castle. During a
stormy Quidditch match against Hufflepuff, dementors attack Harry,
causing him to fall off his broomstick.

At Hogsmeade, Harry is shocked to learn that not only had Sirius been
his father's best friend and apparently betrayed them to Voldemort,
but is also Harry's godfather. Lupin privately teaches Harry to defend
himself against dementors, using the Patronus Charm.
After Harry, Ron, and Hermione witness Buckbeak's execution, Ron's
pet rat Scabbers bites him and escapes. When Ron gives chase, a large
dog appears and drags both Ron and Scabbers into a hole at
the Whomping Willow's base. This leads the trio to an underground
passage of the , where they discover that the dog is actually Sirius, who
is an Animagus. Lupin arrives and embraces Sirius as an old friend.

He admits to being a werewolf, and explains that Sirius is innocent.
Sirius was falsely accused of betraying the Potters to Voldemort, as well
as murdering twelve Muggles and their mutual friend, Peter Pettigrew.
It is revealed that Scabbers is actually Pettigrew, an Animagus who
betrayed the Potters and committed the murders. After forcing him
back into human form, Lupin and Sirius prepare to kill him, but Harry
convinces them to turn Pettigrew over to the dementors.

As the group departs, the full moon rises and Lupin transforms into
a werewolf. Sirius transforms into his dog form to fight him off.

In the midst of the chaos, Pettigrew transforms back into a rat and
escapes. Harry and Sirius are attacked by dementors, and Harry sees a
figure in the distance save them by casting a powerful Patronus spell.
He believes the mysterious figure is his deceased father before passing
out. He awakens to discover that Sirius has been captured and
sentenced to the Dementor's Kiss.

Acting on Dumbledore's advice, Harry and Hermione travel back in time
with Hermione's Time Turner, and watch themselves and Ron repeat
the night's events. They save Buckbeak from execution and witness the
Dementors overpower Harry and Sirius. The present Harry realises that
it was actually him who conjured the Patronus, and does so again.

Harry and Hermione rescue Sirius, who escapes with Buckbeak.
Exposed as a werewolf, Lupin resigns from teaching to prevent an
uproar from parents. Sirius sends Harry a Firebolt broom, who happily
takes it for a ride.

Upon release, the film broke the record for biggest single day in the
United Kingdom's box office history making £5.3 million on a
Monday.[42] It went on to break records both with and without
previews, making £23.9 million including previews[43] and £9.3 million
excluding them.[44] Prisoner of Azkaban had the highest-opening
weekend at the UK's box office, until Spectre beat the record in 2015. It
went on to make a total of £45.6 million in the UK.
The film made $93.7 million during its opening weekend in the United
States and Canada at 3,855 theatres, achieving, at the time, the third
biggest-opening weekend of all time.[46] This opening also broke Hulk's
record ($62.1 million) for the highest-opening weekend for a film
released in June.[46] Prisoner of Azkaban held this record for five years
until Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen topped it in 2009 with $108.9
million.[47] The film was also No. 1 at the North American box office for
two consecutive weekends.[48]

Prisoner of Azkaban made a total of $796.7 million worldwide,[4] which
made it 2004's second-highest-grossing film worldwide behind Shrek
2.[49] In the U.S. and Canada, it was only the year's sixth-highest-
grossing film, making $249.5 million.[50] Everywhere else in the world,
however, it was the year's number one film, making $547 million
compared to Shrek 2's $478.6 million.[51] Despite its successful box
office run, Azkaban is the lowest-grossing Harry Potter film (all the
others have grossed more than $800 million worldwide) and the
lowest-grossing film of J.K. Rowling's Wizarding World Series.

Prisoner of Azkaban is often regarded by critics and fans as one of the
best films in the franchise. On the review aggregator Rotten
Tomatoes the film has an approval rating of 91% based on 250 reviews,
with an average rating of 7.9/10. The site's critical consensus reads,
"Under the assured direction of Alfonso Cuarón, Harry Potter and the
Prisoner of Azkaban triumphantly strikes a delicate balance between
technical wizardry and complex storytelling."[52] On Metacritic the film
has a score of 82 out of 100, based on 40 critics, indicating "universal
acclaim". On CinemaScore, audiences gave the film an average grade of
"A" on an A+ to F scale.[54]

Mick LaSalle of the San Francisco Chronicle lauded the film's more
mature tone and said it was "darker, more complex, rooted in
character." The Hollywood Reporter called the film "a deeper, darker,
visually arresting and more emotionally satisfying adaptation of the J.K.
Rowling literary phenomenon," especially compared to the first two

Peter Travers of Rolling Stone gave the film three-and-a-half out of
four stars: "Not only is this dazzler by far the best and most thrilling of
the three Harry Potter movies to date, it's a film that can stand on its
own even if you never heard of author J.K. Rowling and her young
wizard hero." Stephanie Zacharek of asserts it to be "one of
the greatest fantasy films of all time.
"Nicole Arthur of The Washington Post praised the film as "complex,
frightening, [and] nuanced." Roger Ebert gave the film three-and-a-half
out of four stars, saying that the film was not quite as good as the first
two, but still called it "delightful, amusing and sophisticated"Claudia
Puig from USA Today found the film to be "a visual delight," and added
that "Cuarón is not afraid to make a darker film and tackle painful
emotions." while Richard Roeper called the film "a creative
triumph." Sean Smith from Newsweek said: "The Prisoner of
Azkaban boasts a brand-new director and a bold new vision," he also
called the film "moving," praising the performances by the three main
leads,[63] while Entertainment Weekly praised the film for being more
mature than its predecessors.[64]

Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban was nominated for Best
Original Music Score (John Williams) and Best Visual Effects at the 77th
Academy Awards held in 2005.[65] This was the second film in the series
to be nominated for an Oscar.

The film also ranks at No. 471 in Empire magazine's 2008 list of the 500
greatest movies of all time. designated Prisoner of Azkaban as the fifth
best fantasy film.[67] Additionally, Moviefone designated the film as the
tenth best of the decade. In 2011, the film was voted Film of the
Decade at the First Light Awards by children aged 5–15.

With Prisoner of Azkaban, production of the Harry Potter films switched
to an eighteen-month cycle, which producer David Heyman explained
was "to give each [film] the time it required."[14] Chris Columbus, the
director of the previous two films, decided not to return to helm the
third instalment as he "hadn't seen [his] own kids for supper in the
week for about two and a half years."[24] Even so, he remained on as a
producer alongside Heyman.

However, the beginning of the Great Depression affected Hill's finances
adversely, forcing him to foreclose his Catskills property before the end
of 1929.[22]Hill's next published work, The Magic Ladder To Success,
proved to be a commercial failure. During the next few years, Hill
traveled through the country, returning to his habits from the prior
decade of initiating various short-lived business ventures.

During 1935, Hill's wife Florence filed for a divorce in Florida.

During 1937, Hill published the best-selling book Think and Grow Rich,
which became Hill's best-known work. Hill's new wife Rosa Lee Beeland
contributed substantially to the authoring and editing of Think and
Grow Rich. Hill's biographers would later say this book sold 20 million
copies during 50 years, although as Richard Lingeman remarks in his
brief biography, "Alice Payne Hackett's '70 Years of Best Sellers'
suggests the amount was considerably less."[7]

Wealthy once more, Hill re-initiated his lavish lifestyle and purchased a
new estate in Mount Dora, Florida. After a few years, the couple
divorced around 1940, with much of the wealth from the book going to
his wife Rosa Lee Hill, leaving Napoleon Hill to start his pursuit of
success once again.[15

JAKARTA, Indonesia — A brand-new Boeing Max 8 jet that crashed into
the Java Sea last week had problems with its airspeed indicator during
its final four flights, Indonesian investigators said on Monday.

Analyzing the contents of a flight data recorder that was recovered
from the seabed on Thursday, members of Indonesia’s National
Transportation Safety Committee, which is leading the investigation
into the crash of Lion Air Flight 610, found that inaccurate airspeed
readings continued for three days, despite the plane having been
repeatedly cleared for takeoff.
The Max 8, the latest model of Boeing’s workhorse 737, entered
commercial fleets only last year. The plane that crashed a week ago
was delivered to Lion Air, one of the world’s fastest-growing low-cost
carriers, in August.

“We think this is an issue that is important because there are more
than 200 Max planes around the world,” said Capt. Nurcahyo Utomo,
the transportation safety committee’s lead accident investigator.

While there have been no indications that the Max 8 has a systemic
problem with airspeed readings, the model’s newness means any
potential problem may not yet have manifested itself in other carriers’

Beyond a potential hardware problem — whether with computerized
sensors or with instruments that measure airspeed — investigators are
also looking at how the plane was repeatedly approved for flights when
it had experienced a consistent problem.

Subscribe to The Times today.

“We will investigate further what caused the damage and what repair
had been done,” Captain Nurcahyo said.
Lion Air has a troubling record of at least 15 major safety lapses, but
until last week the carrier, Indonesia’s largest, had not had a fatal
incident since 2004. The Indonesian Transportation Ministry is
conducting a special audit into the low-cost airline’s operations and
safety standards.

Officials displaying a flight recorder recovered from the wreckage of the
flight last week.CreditUlet Ifansasti/Getty Images

It is not clear whether unreliable airspeed readings caused the crash of
Lion Air Flight 610. But inconsistent airspeed readings can feed
incorrect data to automated systems, complicating takeoffs and
bewildering flight crews, especially when the plane is flying over water,
where it is harder to gauge how fast a jet is going by looking out the

While pilots should receive multiple airspeed readings from probes,
known as pitot tubes, mounted to the outside of the plane, they must
figure out which reading is wrong and adjust accordingly.

Previous crashes, like that of Air France Flight 447 in 2009 over the
Atlantic Ocean, have been traced to an initial problem with incorrect
airspeed readings catalyzing a fatal chain of events exacerbated by pilot
Lion Air Flight 610 took off from Jakarta, the Indonesian capital, on Oct.
29, bound for the small city of Pangkal Pinang. Less than 15 minutes
later, after an erratic, up-and-down flight path, the Max 8 plummeted
into the sea with 189 people on board.

The plane hit the water so fast that it fragmented, investigators said.
Divers have found no intact bodies.

By examining the maintenance log of the plane’s penultimate flight
from the day before the crash, aviation experts had already discovered
that the single-aisle jet had problems with unreliable airspeed readings.

But confirmation of exactly what precipitated last week’s crash will
come only with the further inspection of the so-called black boxes, the
devices that record a plane’s movements and data. The flight data
recorder that was recovered last Thursday measured the plane’s speed,
altitude, temperature, flight control and cockpit steering, among other

Soerjanto Tjahjojo, the chief of the transportation safety committee,
said on Monday that the device contained 69 hours of information from
19 flights. Nearly 1,800 parameters were recorded in the black box, he
A second black box, which recorded cockpit conversations, has not yet
been found, but Indonesian Navy divers have heard faint pings
emanating from an underwater beacon attached to the flight recorder.

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