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Methanol as an alternative fuel in shipping

Maritimes Cluster Norddeutchland

Erik Lewenhaupt
Stena Line, June 7 2017
Stena Line at a glance

5,000+ 20 36 300
(since 2005)

1,3 2 1,5 7
Stena Line fleet*
Type Vessels Capacity Average age

Large RoPax 9 > 3,000 LM 12

300-1,500 PAX

Standard RoPax 13 1 500–2,250 LM 15

180–1,500 PAX

Ferry 7 1,000–2,300 LM 32
900–2,300 PAX

RoRo 7 1,600-2,200 LM 12
12 PAX

Fast craft 1 765 LM 20

900 PAX


*March 2017, excluding 4 newbuilding RoPax with dely 2019/20.

29 ships are owned.
Our network and the SECA regulation, January 2015
The methanol conversion project - summary
The world’s first pilot project to convert a ship to
methanol-diesel operation (DF)

2013 - Suitable vessel/route identified

EU support granted

2014 - Development/test of conversion kit by Wärtsilä

Supply agreement with Methanex
Risk analyses in the Ports of Kiel and Gothenburg
Rules in place for IMO IGF–code and Class (LR & DnV)

Built 2001 in Spain

2015 - Q1 shipyard conversion at Remontowa Length 240 m
Bunkering station built on quayside in Gothenburg Breadth 28,7 m
Draught 6,15 m
Cargo Capacity 4 000 lane meters
Passenger capacity 1 300
2015/16 - Engines convert to methanol one at a time Main engines 4 x Wärtsila 8ZAL40S, 6000 kW
Big interest and recognition from marine industry Conversion budget (ship) >€11 million
Why? Because we need to maintain shipping as the
‘greenest’ mode of transport

EEOI in gCO2 per



1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000
Average payload tonnes
CO2 levels of Methanol
Life cycle environmental impact
can be adjusted by
blending in BioMethanol


100% 102% 100% 100% 100%

100% 95% 95%

HFO (1%)
MGO (0,1%)
60% LNG
40% MeOH biomass

10% 10% 10% 10% 12%
5% 5% 5%
0% 0% 0%
Pilot vessel - Stena Germanica
Built 2001 at Astilleros Espanoles
(AESA), Puerto Real

LOA 240 m Capacity 1,300 pax

Beam 29 m 4,000 lane meters
Draft 6,1 m Heightened at Remontowa Shipyard,
Swedish flag
Crew 50 – 70 pax Gdansk 2010

3 x bow thrusters
Four Wärtsilä-Sulzer 4-stroke Extended 52 meters in Lloyd Werft,
main engines Bremerhaven 2007
23,000 kW
3+1+1 auxiliary engines Kiel – Gothenburg, 13 hour passage
2 x Controllable pitch propellers 21 knots steaming
365 trips/year
Preparation of the main propulsion machinery, 4 x Wärtsilä 8ZAL40S
was done at Remontowa shipyard in Gdansk during Q1 2015
Stena Germanica upgrade at Remontowa
SOLAS alternative design with risk Upgrading of fire
Bunkering system + analyses by Lloyds alarm system
New bunkering
facility on quay Inert Gas System with New high Safety and fire
two generators and pressure common education for safety
Upgraded engine control system and
nitrogen tank rail system crew
eight dual diesel/methanol injectors
per engine (Wärtsilä development)

Engine Fuel
room tank

Flame and gas detectors in engine Separate ventilation system

room in pump room with airlock.
New sensors for leakage Ballast tank in double bottom
Four additional (high converted to 500 cbm zink coated
pressure) fuel pumps methanol fuel tank with IGS
installed - and electrical New double walled piping
switchboard room. between pump room and
engine (60 m)
Engine before and after conversion
Dual fuel technology: Test results
 NOx 3-5 g/kWh (Low Tier II, no major conversion)
 CO (< 1 g/kWh)
 THC (< 1 g/kWh)
 PM only from MGO pilot (FSN ~ 0,1)
 SOx only from MGO pilot (99% reduction)
 Formaldehyde emissions (~ below TA-luft)
 No Formic acid detected in exhaust gases
 No reduction in output and load response unchanged, full fuel redundancy
 Higher efficiency (tests shows lower fuel consumption in methanol mode)

Methanol or diesel can be selected as source of energy in a fast and reliable way
without stopping the engines and without losses in engine speed and output.
METHANOL as marine fuel

Potential Challenges

• SOx & NOx less 90% and NOx less 60% in • Low flashpoint and viscosity
emissions. • Corrosive
• Easy to handle (liquid) with efficient • Volume/low energy content
infrastructure . (half compared with oil)
• Large commodity. Feedstock is natural • Regular bunker currently price
gas (LNG). competitive
• Green methanol development (Bio- and • Fossil
CO2 captured methanol). • Conversion less than LNG but
• Dissolves in water. still costly
Other projects in different sizes

Green pilot – Waterfront shipping and Metaship, Leanships

Swedish Maritime partners – new-building New-building designs
Administration of 7 dual fuel 50,000 dwt being developed of
converting a pilot MR tankers at Hyundai cruise ship, ferry etc.
boat to run on bio- Mipo and Minaminippon from Meyer Werft
methanol. during 2016. 2-stroke and others
MAN engines.
Our methanol project has been making waves
1. Swedish Maritime Day “Innovation Award
2. Green Ship Technology: “GST Ship-owner of the
3. The Swedish Confederation of Transport
Enterprises “2015 Pegasus award”
4. 2015 Global Business Excellence Awards UK
"Outstanding Green Initiative Award“
5. Shippax Awards 2015 – The Eco Award
6. European Marine Engineering Conference
Awards – Ship of the year 2016

• The Economist’s “Ocean Innovation Challenge “
• Seatrade Awards “Clean Shipping Award”
• Fathom Ship Efficiency Awards 2015 as
“Sustainable Ship Operator of the Year”
• Lloyds Global Awards 2015 “Environmental
Methanol – lessons learned so far

• Conversion project requires very • Approving a new fuel has taken

detailed planning as there is no
roadmap. long
• Shipyard conversion went according to • Important for ships crew to be
plan but planning a ship design from motivated as it is work intense.
scratch is easier. • Difficult to predict energy prices.
• A few incidents adjusting the safety- • We are satisfied so far – a
and injection valves to the fuel
pressure. New had to be manufactured technically sustainable
and changed which has caused some alternative over time.
Connecting Europe for a Sustainable future
Parallel projects - Containerized Energy Storage System
• First step in company long term battery plan.
• Installation 1H 2018 of containerized battery pack of about
1,000 kWh. The solution could fit any ship. No limit of deck area.
• Charging both by green electricity in both ports and by ships aux
• Vessels ESS system to be used as
• Power supply for two bow thrusters during maneuvering Stena Jutlandica - Built 1996 (RoPax)
Passenger capacity 1,500
• Peak shaver at normal seagoing operation (fluctuation in power need Lanemeters 2,750
covered by batteries) About 1,400 voyages / year SGF
• Safety back-up when maneuvering in narrow waters Aux engines 4*1,540 kW

• It will lower emission, noise and maintenance + added goodwill.

• Total investment 25 MSEK, saving abt 1,5 MSEK/year. Payback
about 10 years depending on bunker costs and external support.
• EU grants applied within the CEF program 30% of total
investment. Sjöfartsverket potentially 20% of total investment.
• First large plug-in hybrid RoPax in the world and first step
towards a fossil free ship Göteborg-Fredrikshavn 2030.