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It is located between Latitude 23032’ – 25013’ North and Longitude 74012’ – 75049’ East in the South East
part of Rajasthan State.

• The District takes its name from the town of Chittorgarh which appears to be derived from Chitrakot, the ancient
fort in the town.

• The district comprises of 12 Tehsils and has an area of 10856 Sq.Kms.


• The district is characterized by undulating Topography with scattered hills of the Aravalli ranges. The Western,
Southern and Northern parts of the district are generally plain .

The climate of Chittorgarh is quite dry and parched. The summer season extends from April to June and
is quite hot. The average temperature in summers falls between 43.8°C to 23.8° C. The winter season
lasts from October to February. Chittorgarh weather in the winters is pretty cool.

The temperature averages around 28.37° C to 11.6°C. The monsoon season falls during the months of
June to August. As far as climatic conditions of Chittorgarh, Rajasthan in monsoon are concerned, there
is only slight rainfall that averages around 60 cm to 80 cm. The best time to visit Chittorgarh is between
September to March.

• The District comprises of rocks of Bhilwara Supergroup, Vindyan Supergroup and Deccan Traps. • The
rock formations of Eastern Rajasthan and also Mandasaur district of Madhya Pradesh were studied by
Dr. A.M. Heron in 1936. He classified the limestone formations of this area under Nimbahera Limestone
belt which is equivalent to the Semri series (which is now called as Khorip group) of Lower Vindhyan of
Vindhyan Supergroup.

• The name Vindhyan has been derived from the Vindhyan Mountains in Central India. • The sickle
shaped great Vindhyan Basin comprising alternate members of Arenaceous, Argillaceous and
Carbonaceous units of 3200 m thickness and occupying in Central India, extends for about 26000 Sq.Km.
area to the South Eastern Rajasthan.

10.4 STONE


Limestone is a common, chemical sedimentary rock formed primarily from calcium carbonate. It is
generally light-colored and can also include fossils of calcium carbonate-containing organisms, like
corals. Limestone can be found all over the world and is the major type of rock found in karst features
(crystal cave systems found in bedrock).

Of all the sedimentary rocks found on Earth, almost ten percent of them are some form of limestone.
Because it is widely available, it has been used throughout the centuries for many uses, from building
materials to chemical additives. Two of the most famous limestone deposits are the islands of the Florida
Keys and Niagara Falls.
Properties of Limestone
There are two types of sedimentary rocks: chemical and clastic. Limestone is a chemical sedimentary
rock, which forms from the solidification of minerals out of solution into rock form. Because the chemicals
in limestone can be readily dissolved by acidic solutions and water, they are able to form karst

Karst topography forms when limestone bedrock chemically reacts with liquids to form unusual features,
like stalactites and stalagmites, which are the strange pointy features found in crystal caves around the
world and sinkholes. When calcium-rich minerals in limestone are dissolved into groundwater, it forms
what is referred to as hard water or water that has higher than normal pH and mineral content.

Depending on the conditions under which they formed, limestone can take on a number of structural
shapes, including granular (looking like mineral grains), massive (looking like an irregular blob), crystalline
(looking like individual, well-formed crystals), or clastic (looking like fragments of rock). When limestones
of any type undergo metamorphism, they re-crystallize as marble. Because all limestone contains calcium
carbonate, which reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce bubbles, acid testing is considered one of the
most reliable field tests for limestone and calcite mineral identification.

Types of Limestone
There are several different types of limestone, including travertine, oolitic, and fossiliferous. All types of
limestone form from a combination of calcium carbonate-containing minerals, primarily calcite and

 Travertine is a banded, rocky-looking form of limestone, typically forming near water bodies like
streams or springs.
 Oolitic limestone is an oozy-looking form of limestone in which individual grains of calcite or
aragonite form rounded blob-like masses.
 While all types of limestone contain some amount of fossilized marine organisms, fossiliferous
limestone is the variety that contains obviously visible fossil fragments. These fragments are
primarily corals and foraminifera (a type of aquatic amoeba).

In any type of limestone, any variations in the color from the typical light white to pale yellow are a result
of impurities, such as clay or sand grains, non-calcium organic remains, and irons.

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