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Descriptive Statistics

LEARNING ACTIVITY 1.1

What are the mean, median, and mode of the following scores you got in the
FCE exam?

14 16 34 42 50
24 78 78 66 35
80 55 44 55 77

MEAN
14 16 24 34 35 42
44 50
55 55 66 77 78 78
80
∑𝒙
𝝁=
𝒏

𝟏𝟒 + 𝟏𝟔 + 𝟐𝟒 + 𝟑𝟒 + 𝟑𝟓 + 𝟒𝟐 + 𝟒𝟒 + 𝟓𝟎 + 𝟓𝟓 + 𝟓𝟓 + 𝟔𝟔 + 𝟕𝟕 + 𝟕𝟖 + 𝟕𝟖 + 𝟖𝟎
𝝁=
𝟏𝟓
𝟕𝟒𝟖
𝝁=
𝟏𝟓

𝝁 = 𝟒𝟗. 𝟖𝟕

The mean of FCE scores is: 49.87

MEDIAN
14 16 24 34 35 42
44 50
55 55 66 77 78 78
80
The median of scores (grades) is: 50

MODE
Class Frequency
14 1
16 1
24 1
34 1
35 1
42 1
44 1
50 1
55 2
66 1
77 1

Wendy Vanessa Ortega Bello


Descriptive Statistics
78 2
80 1

Frecuencia
2.5

1.5

Frecuencia
1

0.5

0
14 16 24 34 35 42 44 50 55 66 77 78 80

Mode = 55 and 78

LEARNING ACTIVITY 1.2

The monthly salaries of teachers of English in the public sector are $ 830, $
700, $ 1010, $ 1280, $ 940, $ 970, $ 1120, $ 870. For these eight salaries,
find: (a) the mean (b) the median (c) the mode.

MEAN
∑𝒙
𝝁=
𝒏
𝟕𝟎𝟎 + 𝟖𝟑𝟎 + 𝟖𝟕𝟎 + 𝟗𝟒𝟎 + 𝟗𝟕𝟎 + 𝟏𝟎𝟏𝟎 + 𝟏𝟏𝟐𝟎 + 𝟏𝟐𝟖𝟎
𝝁=
𝟖
𝟕𝟕𝟐𝟎
𝝁=
𝟖

𝝁 = 𝟗𝟔𝟓

The mean of teachers’ salaries is $ 965

Wendy Vanessa Ortega Bello


Descriptive Statistics
MEDIAN
$ 700 $ 830 $ 870 $ 940 $ 970 $ 1010 $ 1120
$ 1280

The mean is $ 965


After averaging 4th and 5th scores, we obtain a median of $ 955

MODE
$ 700 $ 830 $ 870 $ 940 $ 970 $ 1010 $ 1120
$ 1280
This exercise doesn’t have mode

LEARNING ACTIVITY 1.3

In January of 2010, your family moved to a tropical climate. For the year
that followed, you recorded the number of rainy days that occurred each
month. Your data contained 4, 8 10, 11, 7, 10, 11, 5, 10, 12, 9, 9.
a. Find the mean, mode, median and range for your data set of rainy days.
b. If the number of rainy days doubles each month in the year 2011, what will
be
the mean, mode, median and range for the 2011 data?
c. If, instead, there are three more rainy days per month in the year 211,
what will
be the mean, mode, median and range for the 2011 data?

MEAN
4 5 7 8 9 9 10 10 10 11 11
12
∑𝒙
𝝁=
𝒏

𝟒 + 𝟓 + 𝟕 + 𝟖 + 𝟗 + 𝟗 + 𝟏𝟎 + 𝟏𝟎 + 𝟏𝟎 + 𝟏𝟏 + 𝟏𝟏 + 𝟏𝟐
𝝁=
𝟏𝟐
𝟏𝟎𝟔
𝝁=
𝟏𝟐

𝝁 = 𝟖. 𝟖𝟑

The average of rainy days per months is: 8.83

MEDIAN
4 5 7 8 9 9 10 10 10 11 11
12
The median of rainy days is 9.5

Wendy Vanessa Ortega Bello


Descriptive Statistics
MODE
Class Frequency
4 1
5 1
7 1
8 1
9 2
10 3
11 2
12 1

Histogram
4

0
4 5 7 8 9 10 11 12

Frecuencia

the mode is 10 rainy days

RANGE
The range is the data set which is defined by the difference maximum value
and the minimum value. Range = 12 – 4 = 8
The dispersion range between the month which has more rainy days and the one
that has less rainy is: 8 days

EXERCISE B
If the number of rainy days doubles each month in the year 2011, what will
be
the mean, mode, median and range for the 2011 data?
8 10 14 16 18 18 20 20 20 22
22 24
MEAN
∑𝒙
𝝁=
𝒏
𝟖 + 𝟏𝟎 + 𝟏𝟒 + 𝟏𝟔 + 𝟏𝟖 + 𝟏𝟖 + 𝟐𝟎 + 𝟐𝟎 + 𝟐𝟎 + 𝟐𝟐 + 𝟐𝟐 + 𝟐𝟒
𝝁=
𝟏𝟐

Wendy Vanessa Ortega Bello


Descriptive Statistics

𝟐𝟏𝟐
𝝁=
𝟏𝟐

𝝁 = 𝟏𝟕. 𝟔𝟔

The mean of rainy days per month is 17.66

MEDIAN
8 10 14 16 18 18 20 20 20 22
22 24
The median of rainy days is 19

MODE
Class Frecuency

8 1

10 1

14 1

16 1

18 2

20 3

22 2

24 1

Histogram
4

0
7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15

Frecuencia

the mode is: 13 rainy days

Wendy Vanessa Ortega Bello


Descriptive Statistics
RANGE
The range of data set is defined by the difference between the maximum value
and the minimum value.

Range = 15 – 7 = 8

The range of dispersion between the month that has more rainy days and the
one that has minimum rainy days is: 8 days.
Conclusion
We observe that the mean, the median and the mode are affected in the same
way in all the exercises. In the second exercise, the median and the mode
are repeated. In number three, extra days are affected. About the range,
when days are duplicated, range is duplicated too.

LEARNING ACTIVITY 1.4

Read the second chapter of your text; take notes of the main ideas and make
a graphic organizer of the “Measures of dispersion”.

Wendy Vanessa Ortega Bello


Descriptive Statistics
LEARNING ACTIVITY 1.5

Do the following exercises

Find the range, variance, and standard deviation for the following sets of
numbers: (calculate to two decimal places)

a. 17.50, 10.80, 26.20, -12.50, 10.00, 15.50, 12.50, 13.20, 14.10

b. 14.10, 20.20, 13.50, 13.20, 11.50, 20.90, -08.13, 16, 12.00

Exercise A
RANGE
-12.50 10.00 10.80 12.50 13.20 14.10
15.50 17.50 26.20

Range = 26.20 – (-12.50) = 38.7

Data dispersion rate is: 38.7


VARIANCE
𝒔𝒖𝒎 𝒐𝒇 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒔𝒒𝒖𝒂𝒓𝒆𝒅 𝒅𝒆𝒗𝒊𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏𝒔
𝑽𝒂𝒓𝒊𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒆 = = 𝝈𝟐
𝒏𝒖𝒎𝒃𝒆𝒓 𝒐𝒇 𝒐𝒃𝒔𝒆𝒓𝒗𝒂𝒕𝒐𝒏𝒔

̅ )𝟐 + (𝑿𝟐 − 𝑿
(𝑿𝟏 − 𝑿 ̅ )𝟐 + … + (𝑿𝒏 − 𝑿
̅ )𝟐
𝟐
𝝈 =
𝒏

∑𝒏𝒊= 𝟏(𝑿𝒊 − 𝑿
̅ )𝟐
𝝈𝟐 =
𝒏

𝑿̅ = 𝒎𝒆𝒂𝒏
𝒏 = 𝒔𝒂𝒎𝒑𝒍𝒆 𝒔𝒊𝒛𝒆
𝑿𝒊 = 𝒊𝒕𝒉 𝒗𝒂𝒍𝒖𝒆 𝒐𝒇 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒗𝒂𝒓𝒊𝒂𝒃𝒍𝒆 𝑿

−𝟏𝟐. 𝟓𝟎 + 𝟏𝟎. 𝟎𝟎 + 𝟏𝟎. 𝟖𝟎 + 𝟏𝟐. 𝟓𝟎 + 𝟏𝟑. 𝟐𝟎 + 𝟏𝟒. 𝟏𝟎 + 𝟏𝟓. 𝟓𝟎 + 𝟏𝟕. 𝟓𝟎 + 𝟐𝟔. 𝟐𝟎


̅=
𝑿
𝟗
𝟏𝟎𝟕. 𝟑𝟎
̅=
𝑿
𝟗
̅ = 𝟏𝟏. 𝟗𝟐
𝑿

𝑿𝟏 = (−𝟏𝟐. 𝟓𝟎 − 𝟏𝟏. 𝟗𝟐)𝟐 = 𝟓𝟗𝟔. 𝟑𝟑


𝑿𝟐 = (𝟏𝟎. 𝟎𝟎 − 𝟏𝟏. 𝟗𝟐)𝟐 = 𝟑. 𝟔𝟗
𝑿𝟑 = (𝟏𝟎. 𝟖𝟎 − 𝟏𝟏. 𝟗𝟐)𝟐 = 𝟏. 𝟐𝟓
𝑿𝟒 = (𝟏𝟐. 𝟓𝟎 − 𝟏𝟏. 𝟗𝟐)𝟐 = 𝟎. 𝟑𝟒
𝑿𝟓 = (𝟏𝟑. 𝟐𝟎 − 𝟏𝟏. 𝟗𝟐)𝟐 = 𝟏. 𝟐𝟖
𝑿𝟔 = (𝟏𝟒. 𝟏𝟎 − 𝟏𝟏. 𝟗𝟐)𝟐 = 𝟒. 𝟕𝟓
𝑿𝟕 = (𝟏𝟓. 𝟓𝟎 − 𝟏𝟏. 𝟗𝟐)𝟐 = 𝟏𝟐. 𝟖𝟐

Wendy Vanessa Ortega Bello


Descriptive Statistics
𝑿𝟖 = (𝟏𝟕. 𝟓𝟎 − 𝟏𝟏. 𝟗𝟐)𝟐 = 𝟑𝟏. 𝟏𝟒
𝑿𝟗 = (𝟐𝟔. 𝟐𝟎 − 𝟏𝟏. 𝟗𝟐)𝟐 = 𝟐𝟎𝟑. 𝟗𝟐

𝟓𝟗𝟔. 𝟑𝟑 + 𝟑. 𝟔𝟗 + 𝟏. 𝟐𝟓 + 𝟎. 𝟑𝟒 + 𝟏. 𝟐𝟖 + 𝟒. 𝟕𝟓 + 𝟏𝟐. 𝟖𝟐 + 𝟑𝟏. 𝟏𝟒 + 𝟐𝟎𝟑. 𝟗𝟐


𝝈𝟐 =
𝟗

𝟖𝟓𝟓. 𝟓𝟐
𝝈𝟐 = = 𝟗𝟓. 𝟎𝟔
𝟗
The variance is: 95.06
STANDARD DEVIATION
𝑺𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒅𝒂𝒓𝒅 𝑫𝒆𝒗𝒊𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 = √𝑽𝒂𝒓𝒊𝒂𝒏𝒛𝒂 = √𝝈𝟐 = 𝝈

𝝈 = √𝟗𝟓. 𝟎𝟔

𝝈 = 𝟗. 𝟕𝟓

The standard deviation is : 9.75

EXERCISE B
-08.13 11.50 12.00 13.20 13.50 14.10
16.00 20.20 20.90
RANGE
Range = 20.90 – (-8.13) = 29.03

The range of data dispersion is: 29.03


VARIANCE
𝒔𝒖𝒎 𝒐𝒇 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒔𝒒𝒖𝒂𝒓𝒆𝒅 𝒅𝒆𝒗𝒊𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏𝒔
𝑽𝒂𝒓𝒊𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒆 = = 𝝈𝟐
𝒏𝒖𝒎𝒃𝒆𝒓 𝒐𝒇 𝒐𝒃𝒔𝒆𝒓𝒗𝒂𝒕𝒐𝒏𝒔

̅ )𝟐 + (𝑿𝟐 − 𝑿
(𝑿𝟏 − 𝑿 ̅ )𝟐 + … + (𝑿𝒏 − 𝑿
̅ )𝟐
𝝈𝟐 =
𝒏

∑𝒏𝒊= 𝟏(𝑿𝒊 − 𝑿
̅ )𝟐
𝝈𝟐 =
𝒏

𝑿̅ = 𝒎𝒆𝒂𝒏
𝒏 = 𝒔𝒂𝒎𝒑𝒍𝒆 𝒔𝒊𝒛𝒆
𝑿𝒊 = 𝒊𝒕𝒉 𝒗𝒂𝒍𝒖𝒆 𝒐𝒇 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒗𝒂𝒓𝒊𝒂𝒃𝒍𝒆 𝑿

−𝟎𝟖. 𝟏𝟑 + 𝟏𝟏. 𝟓𝟎 + 𝟏𝟐. 𝟎𝟎 + 𝟏𝟑. 𝟐𝟎 + 𝟏𝟑. 𝟓𝟎 + 𝟏𝟒. 𝟏𝟎 + 𝟏𝟔. 𝟎𝟎 + 𝟐𝟎. 𝟐𝟎 + 𝟐𝟎. 𝟗𝟎


̅=
𝑿
𝟗
𝟏𝟏𝟑. 𝟐𝟕
̅=
𝑿
𝟗
̅ = 𝟏𝟐. 𝟓𝟗
𝑿

Wendy Vanessa Ortega Bello


Descriptive Statistics

𝑿𝟏 = (−𝟎𝟖. 𝟏𝟑 − 𝟏𝟐. 𝟓𝟗)𝟐 = 𝟒𝟐𝟗. 𝟑𝟐


𝑿𝟐 = (𝟏𝟏. 𝟓𝟎 − 𝟏𝟐. 𝟓𝟗)𝟐 = 𝟏. 𝟏𝟗
𝑿𝟑 = (𝟏𝟐. 𝟎𝟎 − 𝟏𝟐. 𝟓𝟗)𝟐 = 𝟎. 𝟑𝟓
𝑿𝟒 = (𝟏𝟑. 𝟐𝟎 − 𝟏𝟐. 𝟓𝟗)𝟐 = 𝟎. 𝟑𝟕
𝑿𝟓 = (𝟏𝟑. 𝟓𝟎 − 𝟏𝟐. 𝟓𝟗)𝟐 = 𝟎. 𝟖𝟑
𝑿𝟔 = (𝟏𝟒. 𝟏𝟎 − 𝟏𝟐. 𝟓𝟗)𝟐 = 𝟐. 𝟐𝟖
𝑿𝟕 = (𝟏𝟔. 𝟎𝟎 − 𝟏𝟐. 𝟓𝟗)𝟐 = 𝟏𝟏. 𝟔𝟑
𝑿𝟖 = (𝟐𝟎. 𝟐𝟎 − 𝟏𝟐. 𝟓𝟗)𝟐 = 𝟓𝟕. 𝟗𝟐
𝑿𝟗 = (𝟐𝟎. 𝟗𝟎 − 𝟏𝟐. 𝟓𝟗)𝟐 = 𝟔𝟗. 𝟎𝟗

𝟒𝟐𝟗. 𝟑𝟐 + 𝟏. 𝟏𝟗 + 𝟎. 𝟑𝟓 + 𝟎. 𝟑𝟕 + 𝟎. 𝟖𝟑 + 𝟐. 𝟐𝟖 + 𝟏𝟏. 𝟔𝟑 + 𝟓𝟕. 𝟗𝟐 + 𝟔𝟗. 𝟎𝟗


𝝈𝟐 =
𝟗

𝟓𝟕𝟐. 𝟗𝟐
𝝈𝟐 = = 𝟔𝟑. 𝟔𝟔
𝟗

The variance is: 63.66


STANDARD DEVIATION
𝑺𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒅𝒂𝒓𝒅 𝑫𝒆𝒗𝒊𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 = √𝑽𝒂𝒓𝒊𝒂𝒏𝒛𝒂 = √𝝈𝟐 = 𝝈

𝝈 = √𝟔𝟑. 𝟔𝟔

𝝈 = 𝟕. 𝟗𝟖

The standard deviation of data set is: 7.98

LEARNING ACTIVITY 1.6

For the following data set, compute the IQR (interquartile range) for the
sample of n=15 runners.

12 15 20 18 23 27 10 15 29 20 15 16 18
17 10

10 10 12 15 15 15 16 17 18 18 20
20 23 27 29
MEDIAN
10 10 12 15 15 15 16 17 18 18 20 20
23 27 29

The median is 17
FIRST QUARTILE
10 10 12 15 15 15 16

The first quartile is 15

Wendy Vanessa Ortega Bello


Descriptive Statistics
THIRD QUARTILE
18 18 20 20 23 27 29

The third quartile is 20


RESULTS
The quartiles divide the set into four subsets

10 10 12 15 15 15 16 17 18 18 20 20
23 27 29

𝑄1 𝑄2 𝑄3
𝑀𝑒𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑛
INTERQUARTILE RANGE
𝐼𝑅𝑄 = 𝑄3 − 𝑄1
𝐼𝑅𝑄 = 20 − 15
𝐼𝑅𝑄 = 5

Wendy Vanessa Ortega Bello