Submitted By: Mayank Jain Roll No.410 B.B.A, LL.B (Hons.) December, 2007 – April, 2008 Submitted To: Prof. Y. Maheshwari, Faculty, Department of Management ASSIGNMENT 1


The subprime mortgage financial crisis is a phenomenon, nothing less than the global talk throwing a cold reception to 2008. The subprime mortgage is more like an international and trans continental crisis, but it’s origin could be traced from the domestic housing markets of the United States of America. This began initially with a sharp rise in home foreclosures the United States during the fall of 2006 and became a global financial crisis within a year. It is an over spilling talk in the newspapers and financial bogs referring to the Sub prime crisis in it’s common parlance as the crisis began with the bursting of the housing bubble in the U.S. Thus the origin of the subprime crisis could be traced through the ill regulated reality sector norms of the US. As a result of the same there were high default rates on subprime and other mortgage loans. The main fault took place essentially because the loans were extended primarily to higher-risk borrowers with lower income and lesser credit history than the prime borrowers. The housing prices in America had started to drop moderately in 2006-2007 in many parts of the U.S., refinancing became more difficult.

Defaults and foreclosure activity increased dramatically. The mortgage lenders who had retained the risk of payment default, which is commonly known as Credit Risk, were the first to be affected, as borrowers became unable or unwilling to make payments. Most of the blame for this should be pointed at the mortgage originators (lenders) for creating these problems. It was the lenders who ultimately lent funds to people with poor credit and a high risk of default. Many lenders and buyers in the markets were playing an extremely risky game by buying houses they could barely afford. They were able to make these purchases with non-traditional mortgages (such as 2/28 and interest-only mortgages) that offered low introductory rates and minimal initial costs such as "no down payment". Their hope lay in price appreciation, which would have allowed them to refinance at lower rates and take the equity out of the home for use in other spending. However, instead of continued appreciation, the housing bubble burst, and prices dropped rapidly. The combination of impacts due to credit risk and liquidity risk caused several major corporations and hedge funds to shut down or file for bankruptcy. Stock market declines among both depository and non-depository financial corporations were dramatic. Many hedge funds and other institutional investors holding MBS also incurred significant losses. The subprime crisis has resulted into something that places downward pressure on economic growth, because significant losses from subprime loans have reduced the willingness of banks to loan funds to other financial institutions and to consumers. Such loans increase investment by businesses and consumer spending, which drive the economy. A separate but related dynamic is the downturn in the housing market, where a surplus inventory of homes has resulted in a significant decline in new home construction and housing prices in many areas. Furthermore it is interesting to analyze the impact of the Subprime crisis on Indian economy. The US has been a major investor in Indian markets. The slowdown could mean decreased inflow of foreign funds in India, which has been responsible for the booming stock market. This could lead to a sharp correction in the market.

Many leading companies, particularly IT, BPO and exports, have flourished on the back of a robust US economy. They have contributed a lion’s share to India’s foreign exchange reserves. Any slowdown could mean a reduction in profitability in these sectors, which in turn can lead to companies closing down and unemployment. This could lead to a slowdown in the Indian economy as well. But the other side reflects that the Indian Companies are finding it increasingly difficult to raise funds overseas due to the subprime crisis in the US. The crisis triggered a sharp decline in overseas capital market offerings in August by domestic Companies using American depository receipts, global depository receipts and foreign currency convertible bonds. The widespread dispersion of credit risk and the unclear impact on large banks, MBS, CDO, and SIV caused banks to reduce their loans to each other or make them at higher interest rates. Similarly, the ability of corporations to obtain funds through the issuance of commercial paper was impacted. This aspect of the crisis is consistent with a credit crunch. The liquidity concerns drove central banks around the world to take action to provide funds to member banks to encourage the lending of funds to worthy borrowers and to re-invigorate the commercial paper markets. Statistics reveal that the Subprime mortgage originations grew from $173 billion in 2001 to a record level of $665 billion in 2005, which represented an increase of nearly 300%. There is a clear relationship between the liquidity following September 11, 2001, and subprime loan originations; lenders were clearly willing and able to provide borrowers with the necessary funds to purchase a home. In response to the crisis, central banks around the world tried to stimulate the economy. They have now created capital liquidity through a reduction in interest rates. In turn, investors sought higher returns through riskier investments. Lenders took on greater risks too, and approved subprime mortgage loans to borrowers with poor credit. The US subprime mortgage crisis is likely produce deeper problems than expected because not all market players have "come out clean" about their losses, as has also already so predicted by the International Monetary Fund. Most banks in the United States have not yet marked their assets to genuine transaction prices. A systematic program to limit or defer interest

rate adjustments was implemented to limit the impact of the crisis has been launched in the US . In addition, lenders and borrowers facing defaults have been encouraged to cooperate to enable borrowers to stay in their homes. Restrictions on lending practices are under consideration. Many lenders have stopped subprime lending or dramatically curtailed it. The global markets turmoil that erupted last year amid rising defaults on US subprime mortgages was in part due to a lack of appropriate measures to evaluate the risk of new financial products. Subprime mortgages -- home loans given to people with poor credit histories -- were packaged into structured securities such as collateralized debt obligations, of CDOs. Following the collapse of the US subprime market in mid-2007, market worries about the exposure of the structured securities to the subprime crisis caused a credit freeze that made many market players use valuation models that no longer worked in the meltdown. The Indian economy is likely to grow by a good 8.5 per cent, corporate earnings have been reasonably good and credit growth is at a good 20 per cent. This being a clear indication that consumption has not been drastically impacted. The stock markets have been very turbulent and asset prices have been under pressure. Thus as a result , there has been inflationary pressures forcing the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to hike indicative rates like cash reserve ratio and repo rate to reign in liquidity. India is relatively less exposed to the aftermath of the US subprime mortgage collapse crisis that has sent global stock markets into a tizzy. But if the crisis does continue and causes a general economic down turn, India will not remain insulated. The biggest worry then would be of a slowdown in the economy. The US subprime mortgage crisis is attributed largely to defaults arising out of loans made to customers with low creditworthiness and history of defaults. Because these mortgages are traded in the markets, it has a spillover effect on banks, hedge funds and institutional investors who participate in it. The root of the crisis started with lending of subprime mortgages. In contrast to prime mortgages in which the loan is given based on the income and credit of the borrower, subprime mortgages are issued based primarily on the value of the house with the income and credit of the borrower. As long as housing prices continued to increase, sub-prime borrowers were able to borrow more and more money with the ability to cash out these loans.

Furthermore the various kinds of investments like the Hedge funds, FIIs and other institutional investors, who have put money in mortgage-backed securities in the US, are usually invested in emerging markets as well. These funds offset the losses suffered due to the subprime loan crisis by divesting their portfolio in other markets.

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