A Project Report On

A STUDY OF PRODUCT DESIGN OF HANDHELD AUDIO/VIDEO DEVICES
Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of BBA, LLB (Hons.) for the course

MARKETING MANAGEMENT

Submitted by:
Mayank Jain, Sem IV, Roll No: 410. Bannerjee

Submitted to:
Amit Faculty in Charge

FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY, JODHPUR 17th March 2008

1 | Page

Table of Contents

1.) An introduction to the 4P’s of Marketing………… …………………….3

History of Marketing Mix………………………………………………… ……………………….4

Various Facets of Marketing Mix………………………………………… ……………………5

2.) Product Design of The iPod……………………………… …………………….6

Market Dominance………………………………………………………… ……………………….7

Apple’s Obsession with Product Design……………………………… …………………..8

2 | Page

iPod Touch – Product design……………………………………………… …………………..9

iPod Classic – Product Design…………………………………………… ………………….14

iPod Nano – Product Design……………………………………………… …………………18

3.) Conclusion……………………………………………………… ………………….21 4.) Bibliography…………………………………………………… ………………….22

1.)

An Introduction to the 4P’s of Marketing.

3 | Page

The 4P’s, or the marketing mix, as it is better known; is the sole vehicle for creating and delivering customer value.1 The marketing mix is a set of tools that every Marketing Manager must follow to ensure that the customer receives the same value as was perceived by him; better known as Total Customer Value (TCV)2. Marketing decisions generally fall into the following four controllable categories3:

• • • •

Product Price Place (distribution) Promotion

It can be seen that all activities and programs, which a marketing manager designs and carries out in his effort at winning customers relates to one or the other of the above four elements.4 The 4P’s represent the seller’s view of the marketing tools available for influencing buyers. These techniques, even though decades old, still hold good in giving to the customer the product and also as regards delivering value.

1

V S Ramaswamy & S Namakumari, Marketing Management: Planning, Implementation &

Control, (3rd ed., Macmillan India Ltd., Reprint 2007), Pg. 19
2

It is the perceived monetary value of the bundle of economic, functional and psychological

benefits customers expect from a given market offering.
3

Philip Kotler & Kevin Lane Keller, Marketing Management, (12th ed., Prentice Hall, 2006), Pg.

19
4

V S Ramaswamy & S Namakumari, Marketing Management: Planning, Implementation &

Control, (3rd ed., Macmillan India Ltd., Reprint 2007)

4 | Page

History of Marketing Mix

The term "marketing mix" became popularized after Neil H. Borden published his 1964 article, The Concept of the Marketing Mix. Borden began using the term in his teaching in the late 1940's after James Culliton had described the marketing manager as a "mixer of ingredients". The ingredients in Borden's marketing mix included product planning, pricing, branding, distribution channels, personal selling, advertising, promotions, packaging, display, servicing, physical handling, and fact finding and analysis.5 E. Jerome McCarthy later grouped these ingredients into the four categories that today are known as the 4 P's of marketing, depicted below:

5

http://www.netmba.com/marketing/mix/

5 | Page

Source:

The

Marketing

Mix,

available

at

http://www.netmba.com/marketing/mix/mmix.jpeg These four P's are the parameters that the marketing manager can control, subject to the internal and external constraints of the marketing environment. The goal is to make decisions that center the four P's on the customers in the target market in order to create perceived value and generate a positive response.

• The Various facets in the Marketing Mix
The 4P’s as enlisted above6 are not absolute and that in each of these elements, there are several sub-elements.7 These sub-elements can be explained by means of a diagram:

6

Supra, Ft. 3 V S Ramaswamy & S Namakumari, Marketing Management: Planning, Implementation &

7

Control, (3rd ed., Macmillan India Ltd., Reprint 2007)

6 | Page

Marketing Mix

Product

Price

Place

Promotion

Variety, Quality, Design, Features, Brand name, Packaging, Sizes, Services, Warranties,

List Price, Discounts, Allowances, Payment Period, Credit Terms

Channels, Coverage, Assortments, Locations, Inventory, Transport,

Sales Promotion, Advertising, Sales Force, PR, Direct Marketing

Source: Philip Kotler & Kevin Lane Keller, Marketing Management, (12th ed., Prentice Hall, 2006)
2.)

Product Design of The iPod

In this section of this research paper, I shall delve into the world of Handheld Audio/Video devices. However, before we move on, one should understand what the phrase “Product Design” means: “Product design can be defined as the idea generation, concept development, of a testing physical and object manufacturing or service. or implementation Product

Designers conceptualize and evaluate ideas, making them tangible through products in a more systematic approach.”8 Marketing expert Philip Kotler defines product design as

8

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Product_design

7 | Page

“The totality of features that affect how a product looks and functions in terms of customer requirements.”9 Therefore, product design includes form, performance, durability, reliability, style and also any other aspect that may be present with respect to the nature of the product. In the present research paper, I shall try to analyze the product design of the most popular Personal Media Players (PMP’s) available, the ones from Apple’s Stable. They are:
• •

iPod Touch; iPod Classic; and iPod Nano

These three products can truly be termed as revolutionary and have changed the market and upped the barriers when they were launched. PC World, a renowned Technology Magazine, has quoted that "altered the landscape for portable audio players."10 More on this, in the later sections of this research paper.

• Market Dominance
The market dominance is also very much evident from a survey conducted by Research Firm Piper Jaffray 13th bi-annual teen survey revealed that of 500 teenagers surveyed the iPod market share grew from 79 percent in fall 2006 to 82 percent in spring 2007. Based on the survey results, the iPod is the preferred portable media player among teens. 78 percent of high school students own a portable media player, and of those 82 percent are

9

Philip Kotler & Kevin Lane Keller, Marketing Management, (12th ed., Prentice Hall, 2006) http://www.pcworld.com/article/id,123942-page,2/article.html

10

8 | Page

iPods. Sony comes in second at about 4 percent.11 “Apple's dominance in the portable media and online music markets is going largely unchecked,” said Piper Jaffray senior analyst Gene Munster.12

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Ipod_sales_2008_Q1.svg

• Apple’s Obsession with Product Design
Apple recently won eight iF (International Forum) Product Design Awards at the CeBIT13 2008 show in Hanover, Germany, out of nine products that were submitted for consideration. And if that does not hold, still Apple’s CEO, Steve Jobs is fanatical about Product Design.14 The interview says, “If you've ever read an interview with Steve Jobs, you're probably aware that Jobs is
11

http://www.macobserver.com/stockwatch/2007/04/10.1.shtml http://www.ipodnn.com/articles/07/04/09/ipod.iphone.interest/ CeBIT is the world's largest trade fair showcasing digital IT and telecommunications

12

13

solutions for home and work environments. The key target groups are users from industry, the wholesale/retail sector, skilled trades, banks, the services sector, government agencies, science and all users passionate about technology, c.f. http://www.cebit.de/profil_e

9 | Page

fanatical about product design. That commitment to design has netted Apple a number of accolades over the years, and has earned the company a reputation for thoughtful engineering.” The iPod touch, iPod Nano, and iPod classic all won gold design awards, as did the iPhone, iPhone Bluetooth Headset, both Apple keyboards, and the iMac. The iPod Nano armband won a product design award too, bringing the total number of products receiving awards to eight.15 Now, without wasting much ado, let us directly move to the product designs of the three PMP’s mentioned above.

14

http://arstechnica.com/journals/apple.ars/2008/03/10/apple-wins-eight-product-design-

awards-at-cebit
15

http://www.macnn.com/articles/08/03/08/apple.wins.8.if.awards/

10 | P a g e

Tech Specs:
Size and weight Height: 4.3 inches (110 mm) Width: 2.4 inches (61.8 mm) Depth: 0.31 inch (8 mm) Weight: 4.2 ounces (120 grams) Capacity 8GB, 16GB, or 32GB flash drive Holds up to 1,750, 3,500, or 7,000 songs in 128-Kbps AAC format Holds up to 10,000, 20,000, or 25,000 iPodviewable photos Holds up to 10 hours, 20 hours, or 40 hours of video Wireless Wi-Fi (802.11b/g) with built in mail application
Product summary The good: The Apple iPod Touch has a large, video-worthy screen, a cuttingedge interface, and Wi-Fi Internet, email, and music download capabilities. The bad: The iPod Touch may cost too much for you, depending on your needs. It has a small capacity for a portable video player.

• iPod

Touch

Product

Design

Price

(latest

price

taken

from

The bottom line: The iPod Touch is a beautiful product, inside and out. Unfortunately, its lean capacity keeps

www.apple.co.in): Rs. 17000/ 8GB Rs. 24000/ 16 GB

it from reigning as king of the iPods.

• Survey Results:
19 people in the age group of 1625 participated in this survey. And
11 | P a g e

the survey threw up predictable results. The results can be summed up as follows: 58% were extremely satisfied with the performance of the device and the rest 42% were satisfied. No user of the Touch complained about not being satisfied with the product. This shows that the consumers are happy with the product and that it is meeting to the standards required by the people. The design and interface were rated consistently high by the respondents, garnering a 78.95% and a 73.68% success rating. There were responses like, “the interface is novel”, to “browsing over the screen is beautiful and extremely simple.” The iPod touch is a beautiful photo browser, and makes life very simple. The accelerometer in the touch makes it as easy to just rotate the touch to go into landscape position. In fact, noted technology magazine, Digit calls the touch as the best PMP available in India right now.16 Respondents also liked the very fast and zoomy interface, without any sluggishness whatsoever, that also over extended periods of use. Respondents loved the Cover Flow function also. The words of PC Magazine concur with the findings.17

16

Pump Up the volume, Digit, Vol 8 issue 3, March 2008, Pg. 91 Cover Flow orders records alphabetically in a horizontal array, but visually, using album

17

art. Drag your finger through the display to move the covers, as if thumbing through a virtual vinyl collection, and click on the central cover to flip the graphic over and reveal a track list. From here, you can simply click on a song and start playing. This is the coolest way to navigate a music menu ever.

12 | P a g e

Respondents (nearly 95%) found the screen to be perfect for viewing videos and photographs. Almost all of the respondents loved the screen and said that it was the best amongst its class. With its gorgeous 3.5-inch widescreen display, iPod touch is perfect for watching movies and TV shows, as well as viewing photos and album art.18 Another feather in the cap of Apple has to be the inbuilt Wi-Fi browser Safari on the touch. Respondents (100%) said it worked seamlessly with all websites, displayed all content properly as compared to the other mobile browsers available right now. Browsing the Internet on the touch is a glorious experience. The "pinch and expand" motion for the multi touch screen was loved by the respondents as it quickly zooms in on the headline you want to read or photo you want to see in detail. Web sites can be viewed in vertical or horizontal mode, and the switch happens automatically when you turn the player sideways. Safari comes preloaded with a bunch of useful bookmarks, organized into sections such as Sports and News. Of course, you can easily add your own bookmarks or edit the ones that come with the player. The extra features on the Touch like notes, alarm clock, calculator etc. were liked by 37% of the respondents only. However, what needs to be seen is that almost 74% of the respondents found that using these extra features was very easy and did not require a ling learning curve. Another testament to the beautiful interface of the Touch. Audio quality of the touch was brilliant, as voted by nearly 98% of the respondents. They found it to be exceptionally clear and that every note, every beat and sounds were clearly audible. Clearly, the touch is a hit with the audiophiles. “The Touch incorporates excellent sound, with the kind of tonal neutrality that PMP’s can only dream of.”19
18

http://www.mobilityphones.com/mobiles/ipod/ Pump Up the volume, Digit, Vol 8 issue 3, March 2008, Pg. 91

19

13 | P a g e

• Problems
However, this does not mean that the touch does not have its share of problems. Respondents said that “the touchpad while typing is not accurate”, “No external buttons20”, “synchronization problems; i.e., respondents were unsatisfied with the iTunes synchronization ONLY”. The button problem deserves mention because these kinds of gadgets are usually used while jogging frequently. In case, one wants to shift to the next track or the previous one, one has to take out the entire instrument and then do it whereas, buttons on a PMP, after a period of use, are identified and can be pressed without even looking at them. Another major bone of contention that flows through all of Apple’s PMP’s is synchronization problems. A good 37% of the respondents were unsatisfied and another 5% were strongly dissatisfied with the procedure to add audio/video files. Respondents also found the synchronization to be slow and also, preferred the conventional “drag-ndrop” functionality to the present system. This was endorsed by nearly half of the respondents. Furthermore, pricing came to the limelight. Respondents were of the opinion that the pricing was a bit high for the Touch and for a PMP in general and that it should be placed a bit low. This view was endorsed by 25% of the respondents. Another problem was found, that of no equalizing options. This is a serious drawback and should be rectified by Apple as soon as possible. PMP’s less

20

According to the survey, 16% were dissatisfied with the layout and another 5 % were

neutral over it.

14 | P a g e

than Rs. 5000/- feature a manual equalizer, then why does a 17000 one can’t feature it? The sales of the Touch may be hit because of this. Also, some respondents (21%) rued the fact that the Touch has no FM capabilities. And also that it does not have Bluetooth headsets which would make it more convenient. These shortcomings are erroneous and if Apple wants to remain in the competition, then it should introduce these features in the very least.

• The Final verdict
This is one extremely functional yet beautiful device and though a bit expensive deserves all the accolades it deserves. It has been conceptualized exceptionally well and executed with the same panache and finesse that Apple is famous for. Meant only for the Upper Classes, the iPod Touch is one great buy. To put it tersely, “It’s one of those rare must have lifestyle products – one that is flashy and functional.”21 These are not cheap devices, especially considering the storage limitations. Still, when you factor in the slick interface, the elegant Web browser, the beautiful glass display, and the seamless integration of the Wi-Fi music store, the Apple iPod touch is worth the price. No portable media player has ever done this much so easily, or looked so good doing it.22

21

Pump Up the volume, Digit, Vol 8 issue 3, March 2008, http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2182748,00.asp

22

15 | P a g e

Display 2.5-inch (diagonal) color LCD with LED backlight 320-by-240-pixel resolution at 163 pixels per inch Size and weight 80GB model Height: 4.1 inches (103.5 mm) Width: 2.4 inches (61.8 mm) Depth: 0.41 inch (10.5 mm) Weight: 4.9 ounces (140 grams) 160GB model Height: 4.1 inches (103.5 mm) Width: 2.4 inches (61.8 mm) Depth: 0.53 inch (13.5 mm) Weight: 5.7 ounces (162 grams) 80 GB Battery Life Product Summary The good: The iPod Classic is just like the fifthgeneration iPod with video, only slimmer, tougher, and injected with a more visually rich graphical user interface. 160 GB Battery Life The bad: Video cable; output audio now quality requires has a not

• iPod Classic – Product Design

proprietary

improved; some older iPod video accessories may not be compatible; users are required to Price: 80GB – Rs. 13700 160GB – Rs. 19300 use the latest version of iTunes, which may not work on some older computer systems. The bottom line: The iPod Classic a is e a 16 | P g

refinement of the formula that put the iPod on the map. Few can match its combination of storage capacity, battery life, and advanced user

• Survey Results
67% were satisfied with the performance and features offered by the iPod Classic with the remaining being neutral and only 1 respondent being extremely dissatisfied. Design Cosmetically, the iPod Classic's improvements over its predecessors are minor. An anodized-aluminum faceplate now replaces the glossy, all-plastic facade found on the previous generation. Overall thickness has also improved, with the 80GB iPod Classic now measuring 2.4x4.1x.41 inches-just a fraction of an inch thinner than the 30GB Video iPod. The screen, however, is still made from scratch-prone plastic (unlike the iPhone's and iPod Touch's), and the chrome found on the back cover still begs for smudges. Smudge prone exterior was a major contention with the users and also asked for a leather cover or some protective covering being offered by them.23 The design philosophy is still minimalistic and simple, which is a hit with all of the respondents. The Classic's most impressive design improvement found by its users (nearly 90%) is its dramatically overhauled menu system. The PMP scored consistently high in the ratings on interface (71.43%) and design (76%). One of the most striking changes as reported is a split-screen main menu that displays the selections on the right half of the screen and a picture related to the selection on the left. This same effect accompanies menu items such as movies, podcasts, and photos. Some might write off this split-screen effect as pure novelty, but the end
23

Nearly 67% of the respondents found the exterior smudge and scratch prone.

17 | P a g e

result is quite beautiful. The Cover Flow system, for browsing your music collection with an emphasis on album artwork, finally makes its Classic debut, although Cover Flow does lose some appeal when not on a touch-screen device such as the iPod Touch. The respondents also found a noticeable amount of lag using Cover Flow. Users with large music collections to sort through will prefer browsing using the list mode or search function. That said, Cover Flow makes for a scenic and engaging, if slow, way to browse your music. A strong 77% found the layout of the buttons on the Classic to be good, kudos to Apple for providing the right aesthetics and functionality. Features The iPod Classic has very few new features to talk about. Support for video and music playback, as well as photos, podcasts, and video games, are virtually unchanged. Not all respondents were satisfied with the extra features on the Classic (a good 60%), 13% found the extra features to be useless and preferred having an iPod without the extra niggles. In this regard, it is also important to mention that a large percentage of users (48) had problems with the fact that the iPod had no input mechanism. Therefore, if one has to create a new contact or any typing function is required, it was not possible. There were a lot of requests to create some kind of an input mechanism available to the iPod. An answer to this could to use the ubiquitous clickwheel on the iPod. Rotating it should let decide the letter or input character and also the buttons could be used to move up and down the options. Respondents liked the huge storage capacity (nearly 86%) available and said that their entire music collection was in it. Digit goes on to say in their test on PMP’s that the iPod Classic have the lowest cost per GB. Performance The respondents found the audio quality of the Classic to be brilliant, a fact
24

24

Pump Up the volume, Digit, Vol 8 issue 3, March 2008

18 | P a g e

which was endorsed by nearly all of the users in the survey. Users do get more than 20 equalization presets to choose among--ranging from subtle enhancement to dramatic bass boosting. The sound quality leaves other PMP’s dreaming. The guys at PC World said in a review “The iPod remains among the best-sounding portable media players around.”25

Problems The Classic had a certain share of its own problems. Users reported the same problem as that in the Touch, the problem of syncing. A major chunk of the respondents (76%) found the process to be time-consuming and also nearly all preferred to have the drag-n-drop feature instead of using iTunes. Not only this, the screen was reported as being a bit small for viewing videos (27%). They wanted a horizontal screen rather than a vertical screen, something akin to that of the Cowon D2. The exterior being smudge prone and also scratch prone, invited a lot of criticism from the users (67%) wanting Apple to provide a protective covering of some sort. This deficiency can be easily cured by giving the exterior a matte finish. The issue of having no input option has already been mentioned. However, it is again said that no changes can be made to a contact and that it is not possible to create a new contact through the iPod itself. One has to use a computer to do so which can be painful. Furthermore, two more problems were highlighted by the respondents (nearly 34%). The first one being, though strange , absence of FM Radio, and the second one being, no Bluetooth headsets. These two deficiencies are serious and Apple Co. should seriously consider putting these features in.
25

http://www.pcworld.com/article/id,136936-page,2-c,mp3players/article.html

19 | P a g e

Display 2-inch (diagonal) liquid crystal display with blue-white LED The matter is convenience, and as the entire backlight competition is offering it, for Apple to stay in the 320-by-240-pixel resolution at Race, it is of paramount importance that it should 204 pixels per inc introduce these requirements. Size and weight Height: mm) 2.75 inches (69.8

Width: 2.06 inches (52.3 mm) Depth: 0.26 inch (6.5 mm) Weight: grams) 1.74 ounces (49.2

• iPod Nano – Product Design

Capacity 4GB or 8GB flash drive
1

Product Summary The good: The iPod Nano has a gorgeous, superslim design with a bright, photo-friendly screen. It is easy to operate and works seamlessly with iTunes and the iTunes Music Store, which has the world's largest selection of music. It boasts a nimble processor and system performance with no skipping, thanks to flash memory. The bad: The iPod Nano suffers from unspectacular battery life, and though the device is durable, it scratches easily; blemishes show up more drastically on the black version. The Nano is pricey in terms of gigabytes per dollar, and its 4GB maximum capacity is not a good fit for many power users. The player skips many sought-after extra features such as FM radio and A/V-out, and it doesn't work with Camera Connector. The USB power adapter ($29)g e not 20 | P a is included. The bottom line: Thanks to its limited capacity, the gorgeous iPod Nano isn't for everybody, but it sets

Holds up to 1,000 or 2,000 songs in 128-Kbps AAC 2 format Holds up to 3,500 or 7,000 iPod-viewable photos3 Holds up to 4 hours (4GB) or up to 8 hours (8GB) of video4 Stores data via USB flash drive

Price: 4 GB/ Rs. 8200 8 GB/ Rs. 10900

• Survey Results
The survey threw up quite interesting results. For once, 95% of the respondents were happy with the Nano. They also said that the Nano gave them exceptional performance. Design of Apple iPod Nano The respondents found the design of the Nano to be gorgeous (87%). The new Nano according to replies is small enough to sit in the tightest pockets without fuss. The design is awesome, coupled along with the number of color options; it makes a very good buy, especially with the fairer sex. “Other players look monstrous when compared to the Nano.”26 Unlike the bigger iPod, the iPod Nano has a thin layer of glossy acrylic on its face, much like the original iPod and the company's line of iBooks; thus, it's very susceptible to scratches and, for the black version, fingerprints (as endorsed by a large section of the readers). Scratches have a charming effect for some devices, but they take away from the Nano's luster. In fact, many users have complained about how easily the Nano scratches and how the blemishes--including tiny scratches and smudges typical of the iPod family--interfere with viewing text and graphics on the LCD. While scratches are typical for all iPods, the Nano's softer polycarbonate is especially fragile, so you'll need to get a case or a tattoolike skin; alternately, you shouldn't
26

http://reviews.cnet.com/mp3-players/apple-ipod-nano-4gb/4505-6490_7-31515637.html

21 | P a g e

carry it in a pocket full of keys or change. Blemishes are also more noticeable on the black Nano, though both models' screens are the same, of course. In terms of the software interface, the iPod Nano's has mostly the same look and feel. A customizable main menu with Music, Photos, Extras, Settings, Shuffle Songs, and Now Playing fields are standard. New menu additions include a stopwatch and screen lock. Though the iPod GUI is famous for being user-friendly, it's garnered complaints, including dependency on the Now Playing screen for volume and other player controls, no quick access to Equalizer settings, or the minor hassle of just turning off the unit. Still, with a bunch of handy interface items such as audiobooks and podcasts, a color screen, and an awesome Click Wheel, the iPod Nano continues the iPod tradition of ease of use. Performance The Apple iPod Nano is one of the faster players in terms of navigation speed. Generally, MP3 players, especially hard drive-based players, pause for buffering every few songs; it's the norm, even on iPods. Selecting or forwarding through songs or browsing the music library is mostly instantaneous. Photo thumbnails can take a second to load, but again, browsing through photos is quick and painless. Data transfers to the USB 2.0enabled Nano are swift, at about 5.3MB per second. As far as sound is concerned, the Nano gets loud but not overly so when using the included decent-sounding earbuds. The overall sound quality is excellent, with imperceptible hiss, though the respondents heard a bit better in terms of brightness and bass from the likes of Cowon and Sony. Surprisingly, the iPod's multitude of equalizer settings can make a difference for the positive. “Audio Quality is class leading, and that Nano is within a hair’s breadth of the Touch, which for us was the best sounding PMP.”27 “In my tests the sound was very good, too, even
27

Pump Up the volume, Digit, Vol 8 issue 3, March 2008

22 | P a g e

over the included earbuds.”28 This is a clear coherence in the two surveys. But as good as the display is, one shouldn't get too excited about the Nano's ability to display photos: The shots viewed by the respondents looked dark, and even high-quality photos did not look so great when they are shrunk down to 1.5 inches across; as reported by the respondents. Even though the Nano is of a miniscule size, the signature Apple has taken its signature scroll wheel and shrunk it to Nano-size proportions. This initially concerned a few users, however since there has been no trouble navigating the Nano.

3.) Conclusion
I really enjoyed working for this research paper. The intricacies of Product Design were really interesting and I learnt a lot. Also, looking at how Apple have been innovating their products over time (the iPod was launched in 2001), it seems that Apple further increase its share in the PMP market. This has been predicted in my survey also, wherein 86% of the respondents who did own a PMP and planned to buy one in the next 6 months, said that they shall go for Apple. A research by Firm Piper Jaffray also came with the same result. “When asked whether they planned to purchase an MP3 player within the next year, 73 percent said they would purchase some form of iPod. Just 11 percent of students surveyed said they would purchase a Sony player. “ Therefore, one can only wait and see what shall happen to this dynamic market. However, one thing remains sure, that the product is integral to this
28

http://www.pcworld.com/article/id,122666-page,1/article.html

23 | P a g e

market and shall keep on affecting it. As regards Apple, they have this reputation of coming up with wild stuff that change the rules of the game, the iPod Touch being the most recent one. However, certain deficiencies in their iPods need to be removed, only then will they have the market under them.

4.) Bibliography

a.) Books referred to:
o V S Ramaswamy & S Namakumari, Marketing Management: Planning, Implementation & Control, (3rd ed., Macmillan India Ltd., Reprint 2007) o Philip Kotler & Kevin Lane Keller, Marketing Management, (12th ed., Prentice Hall, 2006)

b.) Article referred to: o Pump Up the volume, Digit, Vol 8 issue 3, March 2008 24 | P a g e

c.) Websites Referred to:
o

http://www.netmba.com/marketing/mix/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Product_design http://www.pcworld.com/article/id,123942-page,2/article.html http://www.macobserver.com/stockwatch/2007/04/10.1.shtml http://www.ipodnn.com/articles/07/04/09/ipod.iphone.interest/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Ipod_sales_2008_Q1.svg http://arstechnica.com/journals/apple.ars/2008/03/10/apple-winseight-product-design-awards-at-cebit

o
o o o o o

o o o o

http://www.macnn.com/articles/08/03/08/apple.wins.8.if.awards/ http://www.mobilityphones.com/mobiles/ipod/ http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2182748,00.asp http://www.pcworld.com/article/id,136936-page,2c,mp3players/article.html

o

http://reviews.cnet.com/mp3-players/apple-ipod-nano-4gb/45056490_7-31515637.html

25 | P a g e