You are on page 1of 97

SESAM

Photovoltaic for Professionals


Contents
Monday:
- Energy supplies – today and in the future
- The sun’s limitless energy
- Photovoltaic effect – conversion of solar energy into electricity

Tuesday:
- Grid-tied photovoltaic systems – components and design

Wednesday:
- Stand-alone photovoltaic systems – components and design

Thursday:
- Installation and commissioning
- Open discussion and questions, preparation of the klausur
1. Energy supplies – today and in the future

• Today’s energy supplies: a cul-de-sac


• The potential of renewable energy
• Good environmental and economic grounds for using solar energy
• Example applications
Energy routes

Energy supplies – today and in the future 1-1


World energy system

Energy supplies – today and in the future 1-2


Hidden costs of fossil fuels

Price on the bill

Additional, hidden costs


Costs of war
Environmental damage
Air pollution
Clean-up costs
Security costs

Energy supplies – today and in the future 1-3


Emissions caused by burning fossil fuels

Energy supplies – today and in the future 1-4


Costs of climate change worldwide

US dollars (thousands of millions)

Economic damage

Insured proportion

Trend - economic damage

Trend - insured proportion

Energy supplies – today and in the future 1-5


PV module area to supply current global energy needs

Energy supplies – today and in the future 1-6


The potential of renewable energy

The power of the sun

Annual global
Geothermal Biomass energy requirement

Solar energy

Hydro-electricity/ Wind energy


wave power

Energy supplies – today and in the future 1-7


Photovoltaics provide power for remote buildings

Energy supplies – today and in the future 1-8


Solar power generation in a Japanese housing estate

Energy supplies – today and in the future 1-9


Photovoltaics – free-standing arrays or integrated into
buildings

Energy supplies – today and in the future 1-10


Solar-thermal power station in California

Energy supplies – today and in the future 1-11


Solar-thermal system for heating domestic water

Energy supplies – today and in the future 1-12


Active and passive use of solar energy in buildings

Energy supplies – today and in the future 1-13


Heat pumps use the heat from the surroundings to warm
buildings

Energy supplies – today and in the future 1-14


Wood and wood-pellet heating – use a replenishable
commodity

Energy supplies – today and in the future 1-15


Future energy supplies – decentralized and autonomous

Energy supplies – today and in the future 1-16


Global PV market growth
MWp

Year

Energy supplies – today and in the future 1-17


Main national markets for grid-tied PV

New installations (MW p)

year
Japan Germany USA
Total installed capacity Total installed capacity Total installed capacity
1100 MW (2004) 760 MW (2004) 270 MW (2003)

Energy supplies – today and in the future 1-18


2. The sun’s limitless energy

• The sun as a source of radiation


• Radiation levels
• Solar yield from photovoltaic systems
The sun as a source of energy

Temperature Equivalent to 5.777 K

Solar Constant
(Maximum Irradiation Outside Atmosphere)
1.367 W/m2

The sun’s limitless energy 2-1


Sun-Earth geometry

21 September 21 June

21 December 21 March

The sun’s limitless energy 2-2


Components of solar radiation

Diffusion by Air Molecules,


Diffusion From Aerosols

Direct Diffuse Irradiance


Irradiance

Irradiance Due
to Albedo

The sun’s limitless energy 2-3


Annual and daily path of the sun (Northern hemisphere)

Zenith
21 June

21 September
21 March

W
21 December
N

04:00 a.m.
S
06:20 a.m.
08:33 a.m.
E

The sun’s limitless energy 2-4


Irradiation dependence on weather

Cloudy Sky Clear Sky, Sun

Mainly Diffuse Radiation Mainly Direct Radiation

Irradiation W/m2

The sun’s limitless energy 2-5


Global annual solar radiation in kWh/m²

non - study area

The sun’s limitless energy 2-6


Average daily solar radiation per month

Annual June

Southerly tilted flat plate at latitude

The sun’s limitless energy 2-7


% Yield of a PV system over a year

Month Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb.
Propor- 7.9% 11.3% 13.4% 12.4% 13.6% 12.2% 9.2% 7.4% 3.2% 1.9% 2.9% 4.5%
tion of
yearly
output
Table: Output of PV array in Central Europe in monthly percentages of total output. Snow on the array for a few days in January does not
make much difference to the yearly yield

The sun’s limitless energy 2-8


Dependence of yield on direction and inclination
(Northern hemisphere)

Annual percentage
solar insolation (%)
North

West East

Angle of
inclination
W

E
Example South
S
Example: 30° / 45° South-west = 95 %

The sun’s limitless energy 2-9


PV arrays with differing inclinations

The sun’s limitless energy 2-10


3. Photovoltaic effect – conversion of solar energy into
electricity

• Structure of silicon
• Functioning of a crystalline solar cell
• Different cell types and their characteristics
• Solar modules and their characteristics
Conduction in n- and p- doped silicon

p-type semiconductor n-type semiconductor

Hole

Electron

Photovoltaic effect 3-1


Transition region at the p-n interface

p-Region Transition Region n-Region

Diffusion

Free Holes Free Electrons

Photovoltaic effect 3-2


Operation of silicon solar cells

Negative
electrode
n-type silicon

Junction
Positive electrode

p-type silicon

Photovoltaic effect 3-3


Characteristic curve of a crystalline solar cell

Short circuit current

Cell power output (W)


Cell current (A)

Open circuit

Cell voltage (V)

Photovoltaic effect 3-4


Assembly of a copper-indium-diselenide (CIS) solar cell

1 ZnO, 2 CdS, 3 CIS, 4 Metal back contact, 5 Glass face plate

Photovoltaic effect 3-5


Triple junction solar cells – each layer reacts to a
particular spectral range

Long Wavelength Light


Middle Wavelength Light
Short Wavelength Light

1 TCO, 2 Blue absorbent Layer, 3 Green absorbent Layer, 4 Red absorbent Layer, 5 Reflective
Layer, 6 Substrate

Photovoltaic effect 3-6


Efficiency of various solar cells
Current stage of
Type of cell Construction Cell Efficiency * Module Efficiency
development

Monocrystalline silicon Uniform crystalline 24,7 % 13 – 17 % Industrial production


structure – single crystal

Polycrystalline (multi- Multi-crystalline structure – 19,8 % 11 – 15 % Industrial production


crystalline) silicon different crystals visible

Hybrid HIT solar cell Combination of crystalline and 20,1 % 15 – 17,5 % Industrial production
thin-film cells

Amorphous silicon Atoms irregularly arranged. 13 % 5 – 8 %*** Industrial production


Thin film technology
Gallium-arsenide Crystalline cells 25 % ** Produced exclusively for
special applications (e.g.
space craft)
Gallium-arsenide, gallium- Tandem (multijunction) 25 – 31 % ** Research and
antimony & others cells, different layers development stage
sensitive to different light
wavelengths

Copper-indium-diselenide Thin film, various 18 % 10 – 12 % Industrial production


deposition methods

Cadmium-telluride & others Thin film technology 17 % 9 – 10 % Ready to go into


production
Organic solar cells Electrochemical principle 5–8% ** Research and
based development stage – not
commercially available
* Cell efficiency is based on laboratory samples, and is invariably higher than module efficiency. From the practical point of view of evaluating systems,
the module efficiency should be used.
** Not available in module form.
*** in stabilized form.

Photovoltaic effect 3-7


Surface area requirements according to cell type

Cell material Module efficiency Surface area need for 1 kWp

Monocrystalline silicon

Polycrystalline silicon (EFG)

Polycrystalline silicon

Thin film
copper-indium-diselenide

Amorphous silicon

Photovoltaic effect 3-8


Construction of a glass-glass module

1 Glass on front and rear sides, 2 Encapsulation in ethyl-vinyl-acetate (EVA), 3 Crystalline solar cell

Photovoltaic effect 3-9


Construction of a module in an aluminium frame

1 Aluminium frame, 2 Seal, 3 Glass, 4 Encapsulating EVA, 5 Crystalline cell, 6 Tedlar sheet

Photovoltaic effect 3-10


Monocrystalline module

Photovoltaic effect 3-11


Polycrystalline module

Photovoltaic effect 3-12


Flexible Uni-Solar multi-junction amorphous module roll

Photovoltaic effect 3-13


Effect of temperature on the operation of crystalline solar
modules
Module current (A)

UMPP voltage range


Module voltage (V)

Photovoltaic effect 3-14


Effect of irradiation on the operation of crystalline solar
modules
Module current (A)

UMPP voltage range


Module voltage (V)

Photovoltaic effect 3-15


Datasheet specifications of a module

Photovoltaic effect 3-16


Defects arising from quality assurance problems

Photovoltaic effect 3-17


4. Grid-tied photovoltaic systems – components and
design

• Principles of grid-tied photovoltaic systems


• Inverters
• PV combiner boxes
• Lightning protection
• Grid connection
• Steps in system sizing
• Shade
Principles of a grid-tied PV system

1 PV array, 2 PV array combiner/junction box, 3 Grid-tied inverter,


4 Import/export meter, 5 Connection to grid, 6 Loads.
Other configurations are possible

Grid-tied photovoltaic systems 4-1


Connection of PV modules in series

Series

Series

Grid-tied photovoltaic systems 4-2


Connection of PV modules in parallel

Parallel

Parallel

Grid-tied photovoltaic systems 4-3


Connection of PV modules in series-parallel

Series-Parallel

Grid-tied photovoltaic systems 4-4


Grid-tied PV systems using a central inverter or multiple
inverters

1 PV array, 1a/b Part PV arrays, 2 PV Combiner Box, 3 Inverter

Grid-tied photovoltaic systems 4-5


Use of central inverter in higher-voltage systems

1 PV array, 2 PV Combiner Box, 3 DC-Isolator, 4 Inverter, 5 Grid

Grid-tied photovoltaic systems 4-6


Use of central inverter in lower-voltage systems

1 PV array, 2 DC-Isolator, 3 Inverter, 4 Grid

Grid-tied photovoltaic systems 4-7


String inverters

1 PV array, 2 DC-Isolator, 3 Inverter, 4 Grid

Grid-tied photovoltaic systems 4-8


Use of inverters for invidual modules

1 PV array, 2 Inverter, 3 Grid

Grid-tied photovoltaic systems 4-9


Grid-side connection of multiple inverters

1 PV array, 2 DC plug-socket connectors, 3 PV combiner box, 4 Inverter

Grid-tied photovoltaic systems 4-10


The efficiency of an inverter

Grid-tied photovoltaic systems 4-11


PV combiner box

Grid-tied photovoltaic systems 4-12


Earthing PV systems in context of lightning protection
measures

Grid-tied photovoltaic systems 4-13


Surge protection for a grid-tied PV system

PV array PV array Main DC isolator


combiner/junction box

Main DC
cables Inverters Hot/live
Neutral

Ground/
earth

Surge protection

Grid-tied photovoltaic systems 4-14


Surge protection – use of proper cable bundling

Grid-tied photovoltaic systems 4-15


Lightning and surge damage to PV systems

Grid-tied photovoltaic systems 4-16


System components which always carry a voltage in
daylight

DC-Isolator AC-
(all poles) Isolator

Inverter Grid

Grid-tied photovoltaic systems 4-17


Shade hinders the generation of solar power

Grid-tied photovoltaic systems 4-18


The direction of shadow changes over the day

Grid-tied photovoltaic systems 4-19


Shade prediction using a solar-path indicator

Grid-tied photovoltaic systems 4-20


Shade prediction using solar-path diagrams (London)

Grid-tied photovoltaic systems 4-21


Arrangement of modules on roofs to avoid shade

Grid-tied photovoltaic systems 4-22


Avoiding self-shading of modules mounted free-standing
or on flat roofs

Distance
4 - 6 x height
Height

Grid-tied photovoltaic systems 4-23


Functioning of bypass diodes

Bypass diode Bypass diode

cell cell cell cell cell

Grid-tied photovoltaic systems 4-24


Reducing the effect of non-avoidable shade by suitable
module layout

Grid-tied photovoltaic systems 4-25


Planning and sizing of grid-tied PV systems:

1. Sizing the system


• Available budget
• Determine roof size, inclination and orientation, and the position of any roof
fixtures
• Check the extent of shade on the roof or location where the PV array is to
be mounted. If necessary, relocate arials and lightning rods

Grid-tied photovoltaic systems 4-26


Planning and sizing of grid-tied PV systems:

2. Choose the solar module


• Decide on module type (monocrystalline, polycrystalline or thin-film module)
• Determine number of modules: desired system size/roof area
• Establish module voltage at the normal operating temperature range
(-10°C bis 70°C)

Grid-tied photovoltaic systems 4-27


Planning and sizing of grid-tied PV systems:

3. Select the inverter


• Choice of inverter must match array peak output power, module voltage
and the feed-in current
• Take account of the manufacturer's warranty, guarantee and service
conditions
• Decide on inverter arrangement, with module isolators, corresponding to
the inverter MPP range

Grid-tied photovoltaic systems 4-28


5. Stand-alone PV systems – components and design

• Island systems – application areas for stand-alone PV systems


• Principles of stand-alone PV systems
• Specific components and their characteristics
• Steps in sizing
Solar-based power supplies for small equipment

Stand-alone PV systems 5-1


Stand-alone PV systems bring communication and light to
remote locations

Stand-alone PV systems 5-2


Mobile, thanks to solar power

Stand-alone PV systems 5-3


Principles of a stand-alone PV system

PV array

Inverter

Charge regulator

Battery

Stand-alone PV systems 5-4


Range of different system configurations

Stand-alone PV systems 5-5


Inverters for stand-alone systems and charge contollers

Stand-alone PV systems 5-6


Battery characteristics for directly-connected PV Systems

Discharge Current

Charging Current

Current in A
Akku

Loads

Voltage in V

PV array characteristic Battery characteristic Resistance characteristic


of load

Stand-alone PV systems 5-7


Range of batteries for stand-alone PV systems

Stand-alone PV systems 5-8


Voltage characteristic of lead-acid batteries when charged
and discharged at constant current
Charging Time in h

Charge

Upper charge voltage


Cell Voltage in V

Gassing voltage

Quiescent Voltage

Lower discharge voltage

Discharge

Discharge Time in h
Discharge at:

Stand-alone PV systems 5-9


Temperature dependance of fully-charged voltage
charged voltage in V
Fully-charged

Temperature in °C

Stand-alone PV systems 5-10


Relationship between discharge time and capacity
(flat plate lead-acid battery)
Useable capacity

Discharge time

Stand-alone PV systems 5-11


Life expectancy of lead-acid batteries

Depth of discharge (DOD) per cycle

End of battery life

Number of cycles
Modified SLI Gel cells, maintenance free

Flooded deep cycle Maintenance-free deep


cycle

Stand-alone PV systems 5-12


Properties of batteries for PV stand-alone systems

Usual type description Modified SLI Gel cells, Maintenance-free Flooded deep cycle
maintenance-free deep cycle
Construction Thicker plates than SLI Maintenance-free, Gel electrolyte, tubular Liquid electrolyte,
(automotive) sealed plates tubular plates,
transparent containers
Properties Moderate to low water No maintenance Low maintenance, can Low maintenance,
loss, low self-discharge withstand deep robust construction,
rate discharge charge well with low
currents, can withstand
deep discharge
Unit voltages 12 V 12 V 2V–6V 2V–6V
Capacity range in Ah 60 – 260 Ah 10 – 130 Ah 200 – 12,000 Ah 20 – 2,000 Ah
Self-discharge rate – 2–4% 3–4% <3% 2–4%
monthly
% DOD – cycle life 20 % – 1000 30 % – 800 30 % – 3000 30 % – 4500
(approximate) 40 % – 500 50 % – 300 80 % > 1000 80 % > 1200
(can be less)
Maintenance periods 3 months approx. None Monitoring & yearly 3 month approx.
cleaning

Stand-alone PV systems 5-13


Battery area – dry, cool and well-ventilated

Stand-alone PV systems 5-14


Battery configurations for 12 V and 24 V systems

Stand-alone PV systems 5-15


Determining the system cable lengths

PV array
500 W p

Controller
Fridge
50 W
Battery

Lamp
9W
Socket 120 W

Stand-alone PV systems 5-16


Recommended conductor sizes for 12 V systems
Power carried in W

Total conductor length : Supply and return conductors in m

Stand-alone PV systems 5-17