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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD)

International Open Access Journal |

ISSN No: 2456 - 6470 | Volume - 2 | Issue – 6 | Sep – Oct 2018

Enhancement of Strength Characteristics of Poorly Graded

Soil by Flyash aand Cement
Kammampati Laxman1, Ch. Damodhar Naidu2, Bothsa
othsa Kumari1
Student, 2Assistant Professor
Gokul Group oof Institutions, Bobbili, Andhra Pradesh, India

Fly Ash is the waste material, which is obtained after Keyword: Soil, Flyash, Cement (OPC
( 43 grade), CBR
burning coal in Thermal Power Plants. It can be used and UCS
as a stabilizer for soil due to its pozzolanic eeffect or
an inherent self-hardening
hardening property under favourable I. INTRODUCTION
conditions of moisture and compaction. This project Soil is the cheapest available material utilized for
aims at increasing the strength of poorly graded soils various construction-related
related purposes. In this
by using Fly Ash and cement as admixtures. Some connection, utilization of by-products
products like Fly Ash as
percentage of Fly Ash without any addit additives was suitable ingredients for geotechnical construction is
utilized so as to reduce the cost of construction and necessary. Soil improvement is necessary for local
this is a good method for disposal of it. Fly Ash was soils in many places. Soils with low bearing capacities
added in various percentages like 10, 20, 30 and 40 underlying heavy structures are always problematic
percentages (% by volume). Initially all basic from the geotechnical engineering point of view. It is
Geotechnical properties of the soil such as liquid essential to overcome this problem by strengthening
limit, plastic limit, shrinkage limit, Grain Size the soil. Precautions can be taken by modifying the
Analysis, Specific Gravity, Free Swell Index, local soils, which h can be achieved either by
Unconfined Compressive Strength, OMC and MDD mechanical or chemical stabilization.
were determined. Later on the stabilized mixes were
tested for CBR (California Bearing Ratio) which is aan There are many methods available for soil
indirect measurement of strength. After the detailed stabilization. For chemical stabilization of soils, there
experimental investigation it is observed that 30% are many additives available such as lime, cement,
addition of Fly Ash has shown maximum strengths, so gypsum and Fly Ash. Among all of them, Fly Ash is
that to obtain much more strengths cement was added the cheapest one. Soil stabilization by means of Fly
in 2, 5, 8 and 10 percentages to this optimum mix of Ash has environmental benefits in preventing
Fly Ash with soil. After that the soil mixes were pollution of water and air that can result from its mere
tested for CBR (California Bearing Ratio) to check disposal near thermal power plants. Most of the sub
it’s feasibility in Flexible Pavement constructions. grade soils can be stabilized by means
mean of admixtures.
The strengths were checked in both Unsoaked and Many research results have indicated that Fly Ash is
soaked conditions and at various curing periods like 7 an effective material and also has the potential
and 28 Days. Among all proportions 30% Fly Ash+8 application to stabilize soft sub-grade
sub soils. The effect
% of the cement has shown maximum strengths, so of Fly Ash is prominent essentially through the
that it was decided as optimum mix. Maximum reactivity, and the California bearing ratio (CBR) of
strengths were obtained at 28 days curing period for soil-Fly
Fly Ash mixes soil increases due to the
all proportions of mixes so that this period is decide
decided pozzolanic reaction. Unconfined compressive strength
as optimum curing period. Eventually this project (UCS) increases with curing periods for soil-Fly
soil Ash
work facilitates an economical, strong and durable mixtures, and this is primarily due to the pozzolanic
construction material for Flexible Pavements. reaction. The increase in percentage
rcentage content of Fly
Ash in Fly Ash-soil
soil mixtures leads to decrease in dry

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ | Volume – 2 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct

Oct 2018 Page: 1542
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
unit weight, which is attributed to the low specific 6. Free Swell Index
gravity of Fly Ash. The addition of a small percentage 7. Mini compaction.
of cement to soil-FlyFly Ash mixture increases the
unconfined compressive strength value. The influence CEMENT TEST
of cement on the behaviour of sandy soil has been 1. Specific Gravity of Cement
studied and it has been reported that the addition of 2. Initial and Final setting Time Test on Cement
cement increases the stiffness as well as peak 3. Standard Consistency Test
strength. Brittle behaviour is more marked in soil
Ash-cement mixes than in soil-fly-ash ash-fibre mixes III. RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS
with concurrent increase in UCS value. Fly Ash has PHYSICAL PROPERTIES:: the basic geotechnical
low dry unit weight and exerts less lateral earth parameters were determined for soil fly ash and
pressure. The use of class F Fly Ash amended soils as cement
highway base materials has been investigated. Some Property of the soil Value
researchers have suggested
ggested that the performance Colour Brown
analysis of Fly Ash should be based upon laboratory Specific Gravity 2.68
tests such as index properties, compaction, unconfined Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS)
compressive strength and CBR tests of a specific soil. 0.3
The strength approach can be applied to estimate the Liquid limit (%) 26.50
optimum mixture ure design. The literature review has Plastic limit (%) 22.60
indicated that the strength gain due to stabilization Shrinkage limit 13.4
depends upon several factors: Fly Ash content Plasticity index 3.90
mounding water content, compaction delay and curing California Bearing Ratio(CBR) 2.6
period. Grain Size Distribution
a) Coarse sand (%) 3.06
The use of Fly Ash in geotechnical engineering
b) Medium sand (%) 36.36
ns such as construction of highway
c) Fine Sand (%) 57.60
embankments, different layers of road pavement etc.
d) Silt& clays (%) 2.90
is increasing. In view of the above, the objective of
Free swell index 4.20%
this study was to investigate the strength properties of
soil-Fly Ash and soil-Fly Ash-cement
cement mixtures.
Property of the Fly Ash Value
II. MAJOR FORMAT GUIDELINES Appearance Powder form
Materials Used: Specific Gravity 2.3
Fly Ash: For the present study Fly Ash was collected Liquid limit (%) 26
from the National Thermal Power Corporation Plastic limit (%) Non plastic
(NTPC), which is located at paravada in Wet sieve analysis
Visakhapatnam. a) % of passing through 75 micron 65
b) Retained (%) 35
Cement: The cement used in this project work is Free swell index (%) 9
OPC43 grade (Nagarjuna cement)) which is collected
from the local construction site. S. PROPERTY OF THE
The following tests were conducted on poorly graded 2 NORMAL CONSISTENCY 31%
sand. The index and engineering properties of poorly 3 INTIAL SETTING TIME 40MIN
graded sand were determined. 4 FINAL SETTING TIME 160MIN
1. Grain Size Analysis
2. Atterberg Limits The Particle size Distribution of the soil sample is as
3. Specific Gravity shown below in the Figure
4. Unconfined Compressive
essive Strength Test
5. California Bearing Ratio Test

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ | Volume – 2 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

Co efficient of uniformity Cu = 1.375 VARIATION OF CBR WITH CHANGE IN % OF

Co efficient of Curvature Cc = 0.752 CEMENT AT 28 DAYS CURING IN BOTH
Soil Designation” Poorly Graded Sand (SP) “ SOAKED AND UN SOAKED CONDITIONS:
% OF % OF
The Index Properties of the Soil sample were tested % OF
and the results are as shown below CEMENT+30
NO 2.5 MM 2.5 MM
(US) (S)
The liquid Limit of the sample was determined using 1 2 16 9
Digital cone penetrometer apparatus
i.e Uppal’s Method the curve is as shown in the 2 5 24 15
Figure 3 8 38 23
4 10 40 25

Optimum Moisture Content & Maximum Dry IV. CONCLUSIONS
Density  It is observed from all experimental results that
The parameters like OMC (Optimum Moisture the certain proportions of Fly Ash added to the
Content) and MDD (maximum Dry Density) were soil improved the CBR values.
determined for the soil sample. The parameters were  The optimum content of the Fly Ash was 30% for
found by using MINI COMPACTION apparatus the soil at both Un soaked & soaked conditions.
which is suggested by Professor A. Sridharan and  The optimum content of the cement was decided
Professor P.V.Sivapullaiah off IISC Bangalore. as 8% for optimum mix of Fly Ash-soil
Ash at both un
soaked & soaked conditions.
VARIATION OF CBR WITH CHANGE IN % OF  Maximum strengths were obtained at 28 days
FLY ASH AT 7 DAYS CURING IN BOTH curing period for all proportions of mixes so that
SOAKED AND UN SOAKED CONDITIONS: this period is decided as optimum curing period
% OF % OF CBR AT  The percentage increase in Fly Ash increases
increas the
FLY 2.5 MM maximum dry density and decreases the optimum
NO AT 2.5 MM
ASH (SOAKED) moisture content.
1 10 8 3.5  The percentage increases in cement and optimum
2 20 9.6 4 percentage of Fly Ash (30%) combination leads to
3 30 11.2 4.8 the increase in maximum dry density and
4 40 9.6 4.6 decreases the moisture content.

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ | Volume – 2 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
REFERENCE Sand on Sub Grade Characteristics of Expansive
1. Dili Kumar, Ashish Gupta & Neetesh Kumar “ Soil”,
Some Geotechnical Properties of Coal Fly Ash 5. Ajanta Kalita “Experimental Study on Strength
and Sand Mixtures with Different Ratio using in
Behaviour of Cement Blended Soil-Fly
Soil Ash
Highway & Embankments” Mixes”.
2. K. Vaidya, Chore H. S, P. Kousitha, S. K.
6. Asce, 128(6): 462-472.
472. Kaniraj, S. R. And
Ukrande “Geotechnical
Geotechnical Characterization Cement -
Havanagi, V. G. (1999a). “Geotechnical
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Characteristics of Fly Ash-Soil
Ash Mixtures”,
3. K. Vaidya, Chore H. S, P. Kousitha, S. K. Geotechnical Engineering
neering Journal, 30(2):129-146.
Ukrande “Geotechnical
Geotechnical Characterization Cement - 7. Kaniraj, S. R. And Gayathri, V. (2003). “Factors
Fly Ash -Fibers Mix”.
Influencing The Strength Of Cement Fly Ash
4. Chayan Gupta ,Dr. Ravi Kumar Sharma Base Courses”, Journal Of Transportation
“Influence of Marble Dust, Fly Ash aand Beas Engineering, Asce, 129(5): 538-548.

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