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Jinnah University For Women












is the human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication,

and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is

called linguistics. Any estimate of the precise number of languages in the world depends

on a partly arbitrary distinction between languages and dialects. However, estimates vary

between 6,000 and 7,000 languages in number. Natural languages are spoken or signed,

but any language can be encoded into secondary media using auditory, visual, or tactile

stimuli, for example, in graphic writing, Braille, or whistling. This is because human

language is modality-independent. When used as a general concept, "language" may refer

to the cognitive ability to learn and use systems of complex communication, or to describe

the set of rules that makes up these systems, or the set of utterances that can be

produced from those rules. All languages rely on the process of semiosis to relate signs

with particular meanings. Oral and sign languages contain a phonological system that

governs how symbols are used to form sequences known as words or morphemes, and a

syntactic system that governs how words and morphemes are combined to form phrases

and utterances.
Human language is unique because it has the properties of productivity, recursivity, and

displacement, and because it relies entirely on social convention and learning. Its complex

structure therefore affords a much wider range of possible expressions and uses than any

known system of animal communication. Language is thought to have originated when

early hominins started gradually changing their primate communication systems,

acquiring the ability to form a theory of other minds and a shared intentionality.


The purpose of this study is to examine the difference in language difference and disorder.

Language can be defined as the words, their pronunciation, and the methods of combining

them used and understood by a community. One is surrounded by language even prior to

birth. Language is universal, and is vital to communication. Language can define ones

personal style, and also a variation of one's culture. There are numerous languages, and

within each language there are numerous dialects as well.

A language disorder is a significant discrepancy in language skills compared to the

normative standards for a client’s age or developmental level. “A language difference is a

rule governed language style that deviates in some way from the standard usage of the

main stream culture”. A dialect refers to a variation in language that is characteristic of a

particular group of the language's speakers. According to Washington and

“misclassification based upon in appropriate interpretation of cultural interaction and

communication styles may contribute to difficulty with detection of true language

problems” The misdiagnosis of these language differences can have lasting effects.

Language differences greatly increase communication problems, even if the speakers have

some knowledge of the others' language. Language is so much more than words; It is also

a way of thinking and seeing and defining the world. As a result, accurate translation,

especially of abstract ideas, is very difficult. When this problem is added to all the other

problems with communication during conflicts, situations can get very difficult to manage,

and the chances for misunderstanding are extremely high.

There are many problems which are faced because of this language difference

system,other than communication and culture problems there is a problem of business-

trading sytem. If there is no understanding between the people of different languages so

definitely business will become more difficult and communication gap will increased.


Urdu, the national language of Pakistan, was created around the 1600’s in Central

Asia. The word ‘Urdu’ comes from the Turkish word ‘ordu’ meaning ‘camp’ or ‘army’. It

was used as a unifying communication tool between the Muslim soldiers during their
conquest of Ancient India (including Countries east until Myanmar) and Eastern

Persia. These soldiers were of Persian, Arab, or Turkish descent. The majority of the

soldiers, however, were of Persian origin. This directly affected the language to be used

between them. The language of the government and that which dominated earlier on

was Farsi, but eventually changed to Urdu to accommodate the other races. Despite the

fact, Urdu vocabulary contains approximately 70% Farsi and the rest being a mix of Arabic

and Turkish. The grammar takes some elements from Farsi and Arabic but also has

elements that are unique and different from all three of its mother tongues. In current

times, however, many Urdu speakers have adopted many English and Hindi terms

following the effects of globalization and the success of Bollywood, the Indian film

industry, in Pakistan.

Urdu has become localized wherever it is spoken, including in Pakistan itself. Urdu in

Pakistan has undergone changes and has lately incorporated and borrowed many words

from Pakistani languages like Pashto, Punjabi, Sindhi and Balti as well as former East

Pakistan (now Bangladesh) Bengali language, thus allowing speakers of the language in

Pakistan to distinguish themselves more easily and giving the language a decidedly

Pakistani flavour. Similarly, the Urdu spoken in India can also be distinguished into many

dialects like Dakhni (Deccan) of South India, and Khariboli of the Punjab region since

recent times. Because of Urdu's similarity to Hindi, speakers of the two languages can

easily understand one another if both sides refrain from using specialized vocabulary. The

syntax (grammar), morphology, and the core vocabulary are essentially identical. Thus

linguists usually count them as one single language and contend that they are considered

as two different languages for socio-political reasons. In Pakistan Urdu is mostly learned

as a second or a third language as nearly 93% of Pakistan's population has a mother

tongue other than Urdu. Despite this, Urdu was chosen as a token of unity and as a lingua

franca so as not to give any native Pakistani language preference over the other. Urdu is

therefore spoken and understood by the vast majority in some form or another, including

a majority of urban dwellers in such cities as Karachi, Lahore, Sialkot, Rawalpindi,

Islamabad, Multan, Faisalabad, Hyderabad, Peshawar, Quetta, Jhang, Sargodha and

Skardu. It is written, spoken and used in all provinces/territories of Pakistan despite the

fact that the people from differing provinces may have different indigenous languages, as

from the fact that it is the "base language" of the country. For this reason, it is also taught

as a compulsory subject up to higher secondary school in both English and Urdu medium

school systems. This has produced millions of Urdu speakers from people whose mother

tongue is one of the State languages of Pakistan such as Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Balochi,

Potwari, Hindko, Pahari, Saraiki, Balti, and Brahui who can read and write only Urdu. It is

absorbing many words from the regional languages of Pakistan. This variation of Urdu is

sometimes referred to as Pakistani Urdu. So while most of the population is conversant in

Urdu, it is the first language only of an estimated 7% of the population, mainly Muslim

immigrants (known as Muhajir in Pakistan) from different parts of the Indian subcontinent

(India, Burma, Bangladesh etc.)


Punjabi is the most widely spoken mother tongue in Pakistan. Punjabi is spoken as first

language by over 44.15% of Pakistanis. Punjabis comprise the largest ethnic group in the

country. They are dominant in key institutions such as business, agriculture, industry,

government, army, navy, air force, and police which are why about 70% of Pakistanis can

understand or speak Punjabi. Lahore, the historic capital of Punjab, is the largest Punjabi
speaking city in the world. 86% of the total population of Lahore is native Punjabis, and

Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan, has 71% Native Punjabis of its total population. The

Punjabi speakers in Pakistan are composed of various clans, based on a complex mixture

of social groups, castes and economic groups. Muslim Rajputs, Jat, Tarkhans, Dogars,

Gurjars, Gakhars, Khatri and Punjabi Sheikhs, Kambojs, and Arains, comprise the main

tribes in the north, while Awans, Gardezis, Syeds and Qureshis are found in the south

(Saraiki speaking area). There are Pashtun tribes like the Niazis and the lodhis, which are

very much integrated into Punjabi village life. People in major urban areas have diverse

origins, with many post-Islamic settlers tracing their origin to Afghanistan, Persia, Turkey,

Arabia, Indus Valley civilization (Harappa and Mohenjo Daro) and Central Asia.


Pashto is spoken as a first language by 15.5% (c. 29 million) of Pakistanis, mainly in Khyber

Pakhtunkhwa, Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and in northern Balochistan as

well as in ethnic Pashtun communities in the cities of Karachi, Islamabad, Rawalpindi and

Lahore. Karachi is one of the biggest Pashto speaking cities in the world although the

Pashto speakers constitute only about 25% of the city's population. Pashto is also widely

spoken in neighboring Afghanistan where it is has official language status.


Sindhi is spoken as a first language by 15.5% of Pakistanis, mostly in Sindh, parts of

Balochistan, Southern Punjab and Balochistan. It has a rich literature and is taught in

schools. It is an Indo-Aryan (Indo-European) language, derived from Sanskrit, and Arabic

languages. The Arabs ruled Sindh for more than 150 years after Muhammad bin Qasim

conquered it in 712 AD, remaining there for three years to set up Arab rule. Consequently,

the social fabric of Sindh contains elements of Arabic society. Sindhi is spoken by over 53.4

million people in Pakistan and some 5.8 million in India as well as some 2.6 million in

other parts of the world. It is the official language of Sindh province and is one of the

scheduled languages officially recognized by the federal government in India.


Balochi is spoken as a first language by about 4% of Pakistanis, mostly in Balochistan

province. It is believed that the language was brought to its present location in a series of

migrations from the Kurdistan region of northeastern Iraq and northwestern Iran.

Rakshani is the major dialect group in terms of numbers. Sarhaddi is a sub-dialect of

Rakshani. Other sub-dialects are Kalati (Qalati), Chagai-Kharani and Panjguri. Eastern Hill

Balochi or Northern Balochi is very different from the rest. Balochi language is very close

to the Persian itself. The name Balochi or Baluchi is not found before the 10th Century.

Rakshani is the major dialect group in terms of numbers. Sarhaddi is a sub dialect of

Rakshani. Other sub - dialects are Qalati, Chagai Kharani, and Makrani. The Eastern Hill

Balochi or Northern Balochi is distinct dialects. The Kethran language in North East

Balochistan is also a variant of Balochi. It is one of the 9 distinguished languages of

Pakistan. Since Balochi is a very poetic and rich language and have a certain degree of

affinity to Persian and Urdu.


The true origin of the language is still debated among the historians of the regions.
However, it is common to believe that Memoni language actually originated as a dialect of

Sindhi language. Within the language itself, there are currently many different dialects,

some having more influence of one language, and others having that of others. The

language has not been organized greatly, hence, neither having its alphabetical system of

reading and writing, nor having its literature and dictionary. This is one of the reasons the

disorientation among the speakers themselves for deciding which words are better for

what, as there is a wide variety of vocabulary available to.

The Memon community is generally divided into three major subgroups: Kathiawadi

Memons, Sindhi Memons (who speak the Sindhi language) and Kutchi Memons (who

speak Kutchi) the first categories (Memons originating in Kathiawar) are simply called

Memons, and they speak the Memon language, the subject of this article. These people

are mostly Muslims (and mostly Sunni, Hanafi), who migrated from Sindh to Kathiawar

several centuries ago. Sindhi and Kutchi are spoken by both Muslims and non-Muslims, in

contrast to the Memon language, which is exclusively spoken by Memons of Kathiawadi

origin, who are almost entirely Muslim.

In stress, intonation, and everyday speech, Memoni is very similar to Sindhi, but it

borrows extensively from Gujarati, Hindustani and lately English. Like most languages of

the Indian subcontinent the sentence structure of Memoni generally follows subject–

object–verb order. In Pakistan, Memoni has adopted many Urdu words and phrases. Even

between different villages of Kathiawar, variations arose. For example, in Ranavav, the

word for sugar is khand, while in Jodiya, it is chinni.


is a southern dialect of Lahnda (Western Punjabi) Language of the Indo-Aryan (Indic)

language family. It is spoken by 17 million people across the South Punjab, southern

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and border regions of North Sindh and Eastren Balochistan, with

some 20,000 migrants and their descendants in India who migrated as a result of the

partition of India, as well as overseas, especially in the Middle East. Saraiki is also spoken

by some Hindus in Afghanistan, though the number there is unknown.

Saraiki is a dialect of great antiquity in Pakistan. It served as lingua franca among the

people living in the Indus Valley for centuries. It also remained the dialect of commerce

and trade until recent times. Today, Millions of people from North Sindh, South Punjab,

South Khyber Pukhtunkhwa and Eastern Baluchistan province speak Saraiki dialect.


Bengali is an eastern Indo-Aryan language. It is native to the region of eastern South Asia

known as Bengal, which comprises present day Bangladesh. It is written using the Bengali

script. With about 193 million native and about 230 million total speakers, Bengali is one

of the most spoken languages (ranked sixth in the world.

Along with other Eastern Indo-Aryan languages, Bengali evolved circa 1000–1200 CE from

eastern Middle Indo-Aryan dialects such as the Magadhi Prakrit and Pali, which developed

from a dialect or group of dialects that were close, but not identical to, Vedic and Classical

Sanskrit. Literary Bengali saw borrowings from Classical Sanskrit, preserving spelling while

adapting pronunciation to that of Bengali, during the period of Middle Bengali and the

Bengali Renaissance. The modern literary form of Bengali was developed during the 19th
and early 20th centuries based on the dialect spoken in the Nadia region, a west-central

Bengali dialect.


There are many steps to overcome and solve these problems which are occurred by the

language difference among the people of one region:








Usage of Mother tongue


We should unite together to have a strong society so misunderstandings and

communication gaps can be decreased. Unity is the major step to overcome the

misunderstanding among the people due to less knowledge of our Mother tongue.
We should be faithful and loyal to our native language and our Mother tongue. Our

Mother tongue which is Urdu, it is the duty of all individual to respect our mother tongue

and to use this language frequently so the communication gaps can be maintained and

decreased and business-trading system can be increased due to the more and more

communication between the people of different languages.


The people of different languages should live together in a united society so love

among all people develops. All of the people should be honest and loyal to their mother

tongue so the problems such as misunderstanding, communication gap and business-

trading problem could be solved.

People should be patient to understand the opposite person’s requirement or

demand. We should elaborate our thinking and should try to understand other feelings

and problems by keeping ourselves calm and patient.


Usage of our Mother tongue in our society is very essential point by which our

language difference problems could be overcome. Urdu which is our Mother tongue

should be a common language among all people living in one society or a region so there

would be no issue of languages so we could understand each other easily.


Language is an essential source of identity of any nation or a group of people. By their

language people can be identified individually. As in Karachi there are vast communities

having different languages. So far, there are approx 10-15 languages communities are

living in Karachi. As different communities surviving in Karachi having many problems just

because of language difference.

As we talk about the problems earlier, we should also focus on their solutions because

we can easily discuss the problems but we don’t talk about their solutions. If we focus on

solutions, there are many steps which are unity, faith, discipline, honesty, loyalty, love,

and patience.