LUIS A.

CAFFARELLI

I

II

ALBERT ESCHENMOSER

MOLECULAR DIVERSITY

CONSTITUTIONAL

CONFIGURATIONAL

CONFORMATIONAL

CONSTELLATIONAL

Fig. 5. Four levels of describing the structure of biomolecules: Proteins.

Fig. 7. Buckminsterfullerene. A complex molecule that can assemble itself (courtesy Prof. F. Diederich, ETH).

ALBERT ESCHENMOSER

III

Constitutional self-assembly of complex molecules from simpler molecules (or elements) by transformation of covalent bonds.

Constellational self-assembly of supramolecular species by aggregation of molecules through non-covalent bonds

Fig. 8. Self-assembly of molecules and self-assembly of supramolecules.

Fig. 10. Medicinal natural products chemistry (courtesy of Prof. K. C. Nicolaou, TSRI).

IV

ALBERT ESCHENMOSER

Fig. 9. The structure of the Ribosome: a landmark in biological chemistry.

ALBERT ESCHENMOSER

V

Fig. 12. The principle of combinatorial synthesis illustrated (courtesy of Prof. G. Quinkert, Frankfurt).

VI

ALBERT ESCHENMOSER

Fig. 14. Materials science: combinatorial search for catalysts (courtesy of Prof. P. Schultz, La Jolla).

ALBERT ESCHENMOSER

VII

Fig. 15. The ribosome again.

VIII

ALBERT ESCHENMOSER

Fig. 17. Potentially natural nucleic acid alternatives studied experimentally so far.

Fig. 18. Pyranosyl-RNA, an example of an alternative nucleic acid that shows stronger Watson-Crick pairing that RNA itself (NMR-structure).

NICOLE M. LE DOUARIN

IX

Fig. 2.

A

B

Fig. 3.

X

NICOLE M. LE DOUARIN

A

B

Fig. 5.

VLADIMIR I. KEILIS-BOROK

XI

Figure 5. Successful advance prediction of the Southern Sumatera earthquake (4 June 2000, magnitude Ms = 8.0). The alarm areas in the first (M8 algorithm) and the second (MSc algorithm) approximations are highlighted by yellow and red respectively. [From the web site: http://www.mitp.ru].

Figure 7. Similarity of premonitory seismicity patterns in Aquaba gulf (panel b) and on neutron star (panel a). Top - sequence of events. Major ones are shown by a star: Aquaba earthquake, 1995, energy ~ 1023 erg and the starquake recorded in 1983, energy ~ 1041 erg. Other boxes show premonitory patterns used in earthquake prediction. S depicts the change in energy distribution, N – the rate of earthquake occurrence, L – its deviation from long term trend, Z – concentration of events in space, B – clustering in space and time. Dots show the values, exceeding a standard threshold. [After Kossobokov et al. 2000].

XII

VLADIMIR I. KEILIS-BOROK

Figure 8. Prediction of US recession by premonitory patterns of 6 macroeconomic indicators. a) Each index I(t) is replaced by its binary representation S(t). Here I(t) is the difference between the interest rate on short-term and long-term bonds. When I(t)>0 S(t)=1 (typical before recessions). When I(t) < 0, S(t) = 0. b) Performance of hypothetical prediction algorithm: an alarm is declared for 9 months when 4 or more indicators signal approach of a recession.

Figure 9. Prediction of fast acceleration of unemployment (FAU). Precursor is the steep rise of three national macroeconomic indicators. Red vertical lines – moments of FAU. Blue bars – periods of alarms. Green bars – false alarms. Gray areas on both sides – periods, for which the economic indicators were unavailable.

MINORU ODA

XIII

fig. 2

Muonic atoms produced by the muon beam
Fig. 4

XIV

VERA C. RUBIN

Figure 1. A near-infrared image of the Milky Way showing the central bulge and about 190 degrees of the galactic plane, taken by the COBE orbiting satellite. Most of the light in the disk and bulge comes from stars in the galactic plane. Credit: COBE/Goddard Space Flight Center/NASA.

Figure 2. The spiral galaxy NGC 4414. We believe that our Galaxy, seen from outside, would resemble this spiral galaxy. Credit: Hubble Space Telescope Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA).

VERA C. RUBIN

XV

Figure 3. A Hubble Telescope image of the Hourglass Nebulae, a planetary nebula. The filaments are red because of the radiation from the hydrogen gas. Credit: R. Sahai and J. Trauger, the WFPC2 Science Team and NASA.