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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. Background of Study

Language is the communication tool used in society, which is transmitter of

each language and pour some ideas, thoughts, and ideas on the partner said. Every

idea they convey according to specific goals and interests of partners in order to catch

some clearly said. The purpose of submission of these languages depends on the

speakers, the owner of the first idea. Then it came from a wide variety of languages

due the background, purpose, goals, and different messages. As Chaer and Agustina

said about the language was varied. Even if a language has certain rules or patterns

are similar, but due to a social background and habits are different, then it becomes a

variety of languages, both from the level of phonological, syntactic, and at the level

of the lexicon.

Language born of an individual to another individual. Then the two

individuals forming a group (community) has to hold communication. In

communications, the language is influence of local accent and her social everyday.

And if it is calculated not just one or two groups, they are following the use of the

same language. Back to each community they can not be separated by language

background and habits in which they originated.

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Translation is the transfer in writing a text message from a language into

another language text.1 Understanding the content level is not only related to the basic

meaning (meaning of material), an idea or concept contained in the content, but all

the information in the text SL, ie., all the norms of language, such as lexical meaning,

grammatical meaning, nuance stylistic / expressive nuance. In other words, the

translation is an assessment of the lexicon, grammatical structure, communication

situation, and cultural contacts between the two languages are done through the

analysis to determine the meaning.

The definition of the translation above refers to the importance of disclosure

of meaning or the message intended in the original discourse. In translation, the

author of the message should be maintained and communicated to the reader the

translation, the contents of the SL should be the same as the TL to the message

intended by the SL can be understood in a reader TL although its form may differ.

Thus, equivalent in this case does not mean the same, but contain the same message.

From the description above, it can be argued that the translation is not

something simple, not limited to transliterate from one language into another

language and not anyone can do without studied. As stated in Simatupang Luther2

that "Translation is not everybody's art". Translate, for Luther, is an art that can not

simply belong to every person. This suggests that translating is not easy. He requires

1
Hoed,Proses tentangpenerjemahan, (Jakarta : PusatPembinaandanPengembanganBahasa, 2006 ) ,p.51
2
Simatupang Luther, Proses Pengantarteoriterjemahan, ( Jakarta : Ditjen. Dikti,
DepartemenPendidikanNasional, 2000 ), p.3-5

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a complex skill. As an art, as well as art music, visual arts, dance, translating intuitive

therefore unlikely to be developed without the knowledge, training and experience.

The opinion above, Hidayat suggested that developing proficiency may not

translate into professional skills without the knowledge of translation techniques,

intensive training and experience that a lot.3In line with what was raised suggests that

translation is a series of learning process that moves continuously through three

phases, namely the instinct, experience and habits.4 These three stages are actually

thinking an American philosopher and inventor of the science of semiotics; Charles

Sanders Peirce is simplified by Robinson as a foundation in translating. Peirce states

that the relationship between experience and habits of a triad framework that stems

from instinct through experience and eventually become a habit. In this process,

instinct (instinct) or a general readiness unfocused ranks first; second is the

experience (experience) which is based on events and activities that affect the lives of

individuals from the outside; and third, custom (habit) is more important than the

differences between general readiness and experience from outside because it

combines the precision of both the process actions in particular to act in certain ways

under certain conditions which are formed by experience, for example translating

certain texts in certain ways. The accuracy of this action is by Piaget referred to as

intelligence. According to Piaget, intelligence is what we use when we do not know

3
Rahayu. S. Hidayat, PengatarPenerjemahan, (Depok : LembagaPenelitianUniversitas Indonesia,
2000), p. 35
4
Ibid, p.163-164

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what to do. If someone managed to find the right answer to a problem of living with

many possible answers, he is a clever man. But there is more that needed to be a

creative aspect that is smart as a means to discover something new.

Indonesian vocabulary words are enriched by absorption of various foreign

languages, for example from English, German, Dutch, French, and Arabic. Uptake

words entered into the Indonesian language through the ways the word was adopted,

namely the adoption, adaptation, translation and creation. How to adoption occurs

when the language user to take shape and meaning of foreign words being absorbed

as a whole, like supermarkets, plaza, mall, hotdog is an example of how the

absorption of adoption. Way of adaptation occurs when the language user simply

takes the meaning of Source Language (English language) being absorbed and

spelling or the way of writing customized by Target Language (bahasa). Such as

scarecrow, Neighborhoods watch scheme, food on the ground, and presents an

example of uptake word Cultural adaptation.

Therefore, the writer interested in analysis the adaptation that occurs in

Kingdom of Heaven movies in two languages between English and Indonesian. For

determine the culture equivalent between two situations that can be accepted or

understood by the reader and the message in the source language and can be instantly

understandable.

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So, which is the analyzed in this research there is a change in adaptation when

translating a source language into target language in. “Kingdom of Heaven movie” in

two languages between English and bahasa.

B. Focus of the Study


In order to limit this research, the writer only focuses on the adaptation

occurred in the translation “Kingdom of Heaven Movie” in two languages

English as the source language and Bahasa as the target language.

C. The Research Question


The questions in this research are:

1. How does change of meaning in adaptation from English into Indonesian

language in “Kingdom of heaven movie”?

2. What are the differences of meaning adaptation between English and bahasa

in the Kingdom of heaven movie?

D. Objective of the Research


Based on the research questions above, the writer has several objectives of the

research as following:

1. To know change of meaning in adaptation from English into Indonesian language

in “Kingdom of heaven movie”.

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2. To know what meaning change in adaptation from English into Indonesian

language in “Kingdom of Heaven movie”

E. Benefit of the Research

The benefit of this research is to increase knowledge about the adaptation of

translation that a translator can be more aware of the change some language to be

adapted to the meanings that exist in the target language. To know the language

element transferred from one culture to another, which may often, as in this case,

involve translation, and which, as mentioned earlier, has been ignored in many

studies on adaptations.

F. Research Methodology

1. The Method of Research


In this research the writer use the qualitative descriptive method, the writer

tries to describe the adaptation in translation “in the Kingdom of Heaven movie” in

two languages between English and Indonesian.

2. Data Analysis
The Analyze data are collected by using qualitative, among others;

1. The writer read Kingdom of heaven movies in two languages between English

and Bahasa. Then, search for a words using the adaptation from the text

Kingdom Of Heaven

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2. The writer read the English and Indonesian text, and then search for text

which includes adaptation. After that, the writer marked and recorded on a

small note.

3. The Technique of Data Collecting

The technique of data collecting by the writer take advantage of the research’s

own self as the main instrument to obtain the required data. First, the writer reads the

theory of translation from various sources; book, internet, etc. second, the writer

reading Kingdom of Heaven between English as a source language and Bahasa as a

target language and choose which contains the adaptation of translation by using

adaptation.

4. The Unit of Analysis

This unit of analysis in this research is Kingdom of Heaven movie between


English and Bahasa.

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CHAPTER II

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

A. The Meaning of Translation

Translation is the communication process in how you communicate to each

other even in cross culture, it provides access to something, some message, that

already exist, than it always therefore a secondary communication. Normally, a

communicative event happens just once. With translation communication easier

reduplicated for people originally and preventing miscommunication to each

other and appreciating the original event. And translation is the replacement of

an original text with another text

1. Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language


text by means of an equivalent target-language text.5 Whereas interpreting
undoubtedly antedates writing, translation began only after the appearance
of written literature; there exist partial translations of the Sumerian Epic of
Gilgamesh (ca. 2000 BC) into Southwest Asian languages of the second
millennium BCE.6

2. Translators always risk inappropriate spill-over of source-language idiom


and usage into the target-language translation. On the other hand, spill-

5
Tom McArthur, The Oxford Companion to the English Language,( Oxford: Pergamon Press ed.,
1992), p.54.
6
J.M. Cohen, "Translation", (New York: Encyclopedia Americana, 1986), vol. 27, p. 12.

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overs have imported useful source-language calques and loanwords that
have enriched the target languages. Indeed, translators have helped
substantially to shape the languages into which they have translated.7
3. The word translation derives from the Latin translatio (which itself comes
from trans- and fero, together meaning "to carry across" or "to bring
across"). The modern Romance languages use words for translation
derived from that source and from the alternative Latin traduco ("to lead
across"). The Germanic and Slavic languages likewise use calques based
on these Latin sources.8
4. Translation can be defined as an act of interpretation of the meaning of a
content and consequent re-production of equivalent content. The content
or the text that is required to be translated is called "Source Text" and the
language in which the source text is to be translated is known as "Target
Text". In simple language, translation is also described as a
communication written in second language having the identical meaning
as written in a first language.

B. The Meaning Adaptation in Translation

Adaptation may be understood as a set of translate operations which result in

a text that is not accepted as a translation but is nevertheless recognized as

representing a source text of about the same length. As such, the term may

embrace numerous vague notions such as imitation, rewriting, and so on. Strictly

speaking, the concept of adaptation requires recognition of translation as non-

7
Christopher Kasparek, The Translator's Endless Toil,( The Polish Review, vol. XXVIII, no. 2, 1983),
p. 84-87.
8
Ibid, p. 83.

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adaptation, as a somehow more constrained mode of transfer. For this reason, the

history of adaptation is parasitic on historical concepts of translation.

The initial divide between adaptation and translation might be dated from

CICERO and Horace, both of whom referred to the interpret (translator) as

working word-for-word and distinguished this method from what they saw as

freer but entirely legitimate results of transfer operations. The different

interpretations given to the Horatian verse, Nee verbum

verboeurabisredderefidusinterpres (' and you will not render word-for-word [like

a] faithful translator') - irrespective of whether they were for or against the word-

for-word precept - effectively reproduced the logic by which adaptations could

be recognized.9

The golden age of adaptation was in the seventeenth and eighteenth

centuries, the epoch of the bellesinfideles, which started in France and then

spread to the rest of the world. In the 1970s, the formalist theorist tried to define

Translation as a communicative act while a knowledge the domestic values that

come into play the target norms that constrain communication10. The very free

translations carried out during this period were justified in terms of the need for

foreign texts to be adapted to the tastes and habits of the target culture, regardless

of the damage done to the original. The nineteenth century witnessed a reaction

9
John Milton, Research Model In Translation Studies, (Brazil: Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil
2011),p.1-2
10
Lawrence Venuti, The Translation Studies Reader ( London: Routledge 2000 ),p.483

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to this 'infidelity', but adaptations continued to predominate in the theatre. In the

twentieth century, the proliferation of technical, scientific and commercial

documents has given rise to a preference for transparency in translation, with an

emphasis on efficient communication; this could be seen as licensing a form of

adaptation which involves rewriting a text for a new readership.

Generally speaking, historians and scholars of translation take a negative

view of adaptation, dismissing the phenomenon as distortion, falsification or

censorship, but it is rare to find clear definitions of the terminology used in

discussing this controversial concept.

C. Distinction Adaptation in Translation.

Sometime it’s very difficult to say that Adaptation is part of Translation while

it is true that in certain situations, a so-called "straight" translation is not appropriate

it is not true that all good translations are in fact adaptations. In reality, a good

translation is not an adaptation. A truly good translation must remain faithful to the

full context of the source text in terms of meaning as well as style, appearance,

register and message. The words used to convey it are as important as the message,

and while of course one must make allowances for what the reader will or will not

understand in the target language, the translator should be understand “neighborhood

watch scheme” if it is targeted to a particular text and is written in a particular

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register in the source language, it must be targeted to the corresponding text and

written in the corresponding register of the target language.

An adaptation, on the other hand, takes the ideas of the source text and re-

writes them in a completely new way. The source text may be altered somewhat to

appeal more to a new text in some movie or it may be placed in a different setting.

Adaptations are more common in literary, poetic or advertising media, where you can

choose to, either media (form) or literal meaning in favor of conveying a particular

message or emotion, if one or the other is considered more important to the individual

situation. The same kind of decision can be made on whether to translate or to adapt a

piece of text. For example, "food on the table" in a translation meant “ makanan di

atas meja but an adaptation that creates a new version of the same text, but with a

twist that is meant mencari nafkah, different from makanan diatas meja. Both,

however, are equally good but serve different purposes.

A related nation is that of localization. This is where this concept gets tricky,

because while localization often involves translation, it belongs to a very specific

modern reality. Localization is the process used to adjust a product or service (usually

software and websites but it can also include products that come with a lot of manuals

and accessory packages) to a particular language, culture, and desired local "look-

and-feel." In localizing a product, in addition to idiomatic language translation, such

details as time zones, currencies, national holidays, local color sensitivities, product

or service names, gender roles and geographic examples must all be considered. A

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successfully localized service or product is one that appears to have been developed

within the local culture. Basil Hatim and Ian Mason said when translating is looked

upon as an act of communication which attempt to relay, across cultural and linguistic

boundaries, another act of communication (which may have been intended for

different purpose and different readers/hearers).11Localized texts include texts that

may have to be produced several times in the same language, but adjusted for

dialectal and other cultural differences (mencari nafkah versus food on the table,

bertani versus food on the ground, etc.), or texts that specifically target one area

where that language is spoken. This is not, however, an adaptation, because the same

content and message are generally still expressed in the same way, and such products

are often designed to be easily localized without needing to alter the format, style or

imagery. Meanwhile, it is not only translations of scientific and legal texts that

require faithfulness to the text - often referred to as straight translations. Newspaper

articles must retain all the same facts and be addressed to a corresponding audience in

the target language community. Government documents, corporate literature, public

information booklets, travel guides, textbooks and many other types of texts have to

retain the same content, same register, same style and same format when translated

even while respecting the structure, grammar and cultural baggage of the target

language. Otherwise, you no longer have a translation but have moved into the area

of adaptation. Language is culturally embedded: it both expresses and shapes cultural

reality, and the meanings of linguistic item are used. For example, a simple

11
Basil Hatim, Ian Mason, The Translator as communicator,(London : Routledge 1997),p.1-2

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expression such as we had Dinner written in British cultural context cannot be

transposed into Arabic, German, Finnish or indeed an American English context

without considering the different cultural meaning this expression acquires in these

different context12

in order to concentrate now on what happens to the text world in translation

independently of situation of cultural hegemony, let us first consider an example

which the target language culture might be expected to share the cultural assumption,

beliefs and value systems discernible in the source language. a true translation must

be written in a manner that is natural and appropriate to the target language, but may

not diverge from the essence of the source text; nothing may be added, deleted or in

any other way altered from the source text.13 A true adaptation is a re-invention of the

message to suit a new audience, whether that be a new language or different age or

cultural group, modern vs. previous era, etc. Is an innovative translation agency that

provides diverse language solutions that include customized translation, editing,

revision and proofreading services to meet clients' communication needs.

D. Kind of Adaptation

A Theory of Adaptation presents a comprehensive and general theory of adaptations.

Adaptations are widespread and universal. They seem common and natural, but pose

12
Juliana House, Translation, ( Oxford: University press 2009 ),p.11-12
13
Op.cit.146

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curious problems in content, structure, and intertextual. The work here looks to

develop a theory of adaptations in general, not just with novels to film.

It is possible to classify definition of adaptation under specific themes (translation'

technique, genre, meta-language, faithfulness), though inevitably these definitions

tend to overlap. this is the freest form translation. It is used mainly for plays

(comedies) and poetry; the theme; characters, the SL culture converted to the TL

culture and text rewritten.14And then sometime adaptation can be untranslatable from

Source language into Target language it call Untranslatability is a property of a text,

or of any utterance, in one language, for which no equivalent text or utterance can be

found in another language when translated.

Terms are, however, neither exclusively translatable nor exclusively untranslatable;

rather, the degree of difficulty of translation depends on their nature, as well as on the

translator's knowledge of the languages in question.

No. Source Language Target Language

Dear Sir Dengan hormat


1.
Sincerely yours Hormat saya/kami
2.
Hormat saya/kami
3. Faithfully yours
Copy that Saya catat/ingat itu
4.

14
Peter Newmark, A Text Book of Translation(UK: Prentice hall International 1988),p.46

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5. Mayday Mayday

6. Proceed

7.

8.

9.

10.

E. Adaptation in Translation studies

As a translation technique, adaptation can be defined in a technical and

objective way. Translation never communicate in an untroubled fashion because

the translator negotiate the Linguistic and cultural differences of the foreign text

by reducing them and supply another set to differences, basically domestic, drawn

from the receiving language and culture to enable the foreign language to be

received there15who list adaptation as their seventh translation procedure:

adaptation is a procedure which can be used whenever the context referred to in

the original text does not exist in the culture of the target text, thereby

necessitating some form of re-creation. This widely accepted definition views

adaptation as a procedure employed to achieve an equivalence of situations

wherever cultural mismatches are encountered.

15
Loc cit,p.482

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Adaptation is, perhaps, most easily justified when the original text is of a

metalinguistic nature, that is, when the subject matter of the text is language itself.

This is especially so with didactic works on language generally, or on specific

languages.16 Points out that in these cases the adaptation has to be based on the

translator's judgment about readers' knowledge. Argues that this kind of adaptation

gives precedence to the function over the form, with a view to producing the same

effect as the original text. However, while such writers start from the principle that

nothing is untranslatable.

Definitions of adaptation reflect widely varying views about the concept the

issue of remaining 'faithful' to the original text. Some argue that adaptation is

necessary precisely in order to keep the message intact (at least on the global

level), while others see it as a betrayal of the original author. For the former, the

refusal to adapt confines the reader to an artificial world of foreignness; for the

latter, adaptation is tantamount to the destruction and violation of the original text.

Even those who recognize the need for adaptation in certain circumstances are

obliged to admit that, if remaining faithful to the text, then there is a point at

which adaptation ceases to be translation at all.

F. Definition of Adaptation in Translating Movie


Adaptation is defined as one specific, sometimes even quintessential, form of

intertextual activity, where a story is transposed from one text to another, usually

16
Peter Newmark, Approaches to Translation,(Oxford:Pergamon Press 1981), p.

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from one medium or signification system to another as well. Delineated as a form of

dialogic relation among texts, the problem of an adaptation is generally theorized as a

text-based issue, concerned with what happens to a text when it is transferred to

another medium. For example the problem of fidelity, the articulations of and

departures form the source text, the measure of structural changes between the source

text and adaptated text, when someone talking neighborhood watch scheme the so-

called adaptation of intertextuality as such and the function of adapted stories in

culture. Even the question of medium specificity – a perspective that assumes that

representational practices have individual material and formal structures that

distinguish and differentiate them from other practices or to put it more shortly that

every medium should develop its own unique language a perspective, that might, at

first glance, seem rather as a question of expressive material. 17 Adaptation is also

associated with the genres of advertising and subtitling. The emphasis here is on

preserving the character and function of the original text, in preference to preserving

the form or even the semantic meaning, especially where acoustic and/or visual

factors have to be taken into account. Other genres, such as children's literature,

require the re-creation of the message according to the sociolinguistic needs of a

different readership the main features of this type of adaptation are the use of

summarizing techniques, paraphrase and omission.

Corrigan, Timothy “Literature on Screen, a history: in the gap”. ( In Cartmell, Debora, Imelda
17

Whelehan (eds.) A Cambridge Companion to Literature on Screen 2007). p. 29-43

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.When we take broader perspective, the inter-relationship between the languages

of comic and film language is rather intriguing as a system of mediation. The birth of

a comic as sequential art coincides by and large with the birth of the cinema and as

cinema in the beginning, comic strips too struggled with the static and “theatrical”

point of view. Both consist of sequential arrangement of framed elements combined

to form a narrative, thus sharing many common problems and developments, at the

same time borrowing visual solutions from one another.18

Thus one hand the languages have a constant need to discover and develop

their specificity and uniqueness that differentiates them from other languages of

culture. On the other hand we have a constant process of hybridization and

creolization, languages influencing each other. And Lot man notes that many texts are

made in mixed languages but we do not notice that. Even the film languages can be

viewed as a mixture of the principles and elements of the language of silent cinema

and the language of sound cinema. Thus in the sphere of language, there are always

these two process of disintegration of languages on one hand and of integration of

languages on the other – that is part of cultural dynamics.19

When we approach the field of adaptation and translation with extended and yet

limited notion of language as semiotic resources any medium must have to be able to

produce texts, adaptations emerge as a meeting point of not only stories but languages

18
Lacassin, Francis, “The Comic Strip and Film Language“ ( Film Quarterly: Autumn 1972), Vol. 26,
p. 11-19
19
Lotman, Mihhail,Kultuurifenomen/ Phenomena of culture (Akademiaa :Sign System Studies 2002),
Vol. 30.2.,pp. 2644-2662

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as well – sphere of their interplay, mutual influences and hybridization. If text as

transposed from one language to another adapts to new means of expression, doesn’t

this text, being incompatible at first, trigger some changes or developments in

recipient language as well. What kind of literacy these intermedial and intersemiotic

relations require from a creator and a reader and what kind of new competences they

produce.

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