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Procedia Manufacturing 00 (2018) 000–000
Procedia Manufacturing 00 (2018) 000–000

Procedia Manufacturing 17 (2018) 783–790
Procedia Manufacturing 00 (2017) 000–000
28th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing
28th International ConferenceJune
(FAIM2018), on Flexible Automation
11-14, 2018, and OH,
Columbus, Intelligent
USA Manufacturing
(FAIM2018), June 11-14, 2018, Columbus, OH, USA
A Structural Literature Review of the Single Minute Exchange of
A Structural
Manufacturing Literature
Engineering Review
Society of the
International Single2017,
Conference Minute
MESICExchange of
2017, 28-30 June
2017, The(Pontevedra),
Vigo Latest Trends
Die: The Latest Trends
a b c b
Costing Radu
Godinaa, Carina Pimentelb, F. J. G. Silvac, João C. O. Matiasb
models for, capacity
Godina optimization
Carina Pimentel , F. J. G. Silva in ,Industry
João C. O. 4.0: Trade-off
C-MAST, University of Beira Interior, Portugal

between usedGOVCOPP,
University of Beiraoperational
of Aveiro,
a Portugal efficiency
ISEP – School of Engineering, Polytechnic
GOVCOPP, of Porto,
Dr. António Bernardino
of Aveiro, de Almeida, 431,4200 Porto, Portugal
ISEP – School of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, Rua a,*
Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 431,4200 Porto, Portugal
A. Santana , P. Afonso , A. Zanin , R. Wernke
a b b

Abstract a
University of Minho, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal
Abstract b
Unochapecó, 89809-000 Chapecó, SC, Brazil
Nowadays, the manufacturing industry is increasingly globalized and competitive, where the quality, cost, variety and fulfillment
Nowadays, the manufacturing
of delivery deadlines industry factors
are fundamental is increasingly globalizedTherefore,
for the customer. and competitive,
to betterwhere
meet the quality,
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demands variety andneed
to find
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strategies make their areprocesses
flexible forand
the modern to industrial
better meet these demands
environments the companies
eliminationneed to find
of waste in
strategies to make their
order to concentrate
Abstract processes
as much more flexible
as possible and efficient.
on value-added In theoften
activities modern leadsindustrial environments
to a reduction the elimination
in the downtime of waste In
of equipment. in
order to concentrate
addition, as much as and
product diversification possible
reducedon orders
value-added activities often
lead companies to have leads to a reduction
to optimize in the
their setup downtime
processes on of
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Under product
the conceptdiversification
different required and reduced
of "Industry ordersthe
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production companies
setups faster istoto
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reduction with
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capacity time converging
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goes need the
beyond to decrease
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of capacity operations.
goal in One way
this paper
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of 2007
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are utilized management
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which are utilized to enrich the content and to offer a practical and simple presentation. strategies towards the maximization of organization’s
© 2018The trade-offPublished
The Authors. capacitybymaximization
Elsevier B.V. vs operational efficiency is highlighted and it is shown that capacity
©© 2018
This The
is an Authors.
open Published
article by
by Elsevier
under Elsevier
the CC B.V.
BY-NC-ND license (
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
© is an
2017 The
Peer-review open access
under article under
responsibility by CC BY-NC-ND
ofElsevier B.V. committee
the scientific license (
of the 28th Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing
Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the 28th Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing
(FAIM2018) under
under responsibility
(FAIM2018) Conference. of
of the
the scientific
scientific committee
committee of
of the
the 28th Flexible Automation
Manufacturing Engineeringand Intelligent
Society Manufacturing
International Conference
(FAIM2018) Conference.
Keywords: Type your keywords here, separated by semicolons ;
Keywords: Cost
Keywords: TypeModels;
your keywords here, separated
ABC; TDABC; byManagement;
Capacity semicolons ; Idle Capacity; Operational Efficiency

2351-9789 © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

1. Introduction
This is an open
2351-9789 access
© 2018 Thearticle under
Authors. the CC BY-NC-ND
Published license (
by Elsevier B.V.
Peer-review under
This is an open responsibility
access of the scientific
article under CC BY-NC-NDcommittee of the
license 28th Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing (FAIM2018)
The costunder
Peer-review of idle capacityofisthe
responsibility a fundamental information
scientific committee of the 28thfor companies
Flexible andand
Automation their management
Intelligent of extreme
Manufacturing importance
in modern
Conference. production systems. In general, it is defined as unused capacity or production potential and can be measured
in several ways: tons of production, available hours of manufacturing, etc. The management of the idle capacity
* Paulo Afonso. Tel.: +351 253 510 761; fax: +351 253 604 741
E-mail address:

Authors. Published by Elsevier
Published B.V. B.V.
by Elsevier
Peer-review underaccess
This is an open responsibility
article of the scientific
under committee oflicense
the CC BY-NC-ND the Manufacturing Engineering Society International Conference 2017.
Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the 28th Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing
(FAIM2018) Conference.
784 Radu Godina et al. / Procedia Manufacturing 17 (2018) 783–790
2 Author name / Procedia Manufacturing 00 (2018) 000–000

1. Introduction

In the current era the key factor of competitiveness between companies is differentiation. This differentiation can
be achieved in a number of ways, either through innovation at the level of innovative products or through innovation
in production processes [1]. In some sectors of the industrial environment, one of the critical points in the production
process is the adaptation to change, since these operations do not add value to the product, but are indispensable to
production. Depending on the production and the quantity of products produced, adaptation to change can be
decisive for the success or failure of a company [2].
In order to survive in this type of market any industrial unit has to reduce costs and simultaneously produce
quality products. The best way to reduce costs will be through implementing improvements in your production
process [3]. In this way, the company intends to introduce improvements at the level of the change of format, in
order to minimize downtime and thus achieve its objectives. One of the best manners to achieve this goal is through
Lean manufacturing [4].
The basic principle of Lean manufacturing is to increase the competitiveness of companies by reducing costs.
This philosophy seeks to get as close to the optimum as possible, that is, to spend only what is indispensable of what
adds value to the product. In this sense the Lean manufacturing simply intends to remove all the possible waste. The
principles of Lean are all focused on process improvement, which ultimately leads to improved efficiency and this
leads to higher profitability. One of the building blocks of Lean relates to the rapid setup [5]. The faster the setup
times, the less equipment downtime since waiting is part of the seven Muda (waste) of a production environment [6].
One of the tools of Lean manufacturing to achieve waste reductions is SMED – an acronym for “Single Minute
Exchange of Die”, which can be translated as "quick tool change". In practice, SMED is a set of techniques
belonging to Lean manufacturing that aim to reduce the setup time of a machine. When properly applied, it allows
machines to take less time to attach, giving more flexibility to the line [7].
The increasing interest in the SMED methodology in the research community over the past years is reflected in
the recent publications. The aim of this paper is to carry out a brief literature review regarding the SMED
methodology. The SMED methodology is addressed throughout several scientific fields, but most often in scientific
publications in the field of engineering and management. As a result, a widespread number of research papers from
distinct authors are utilized to reach the objectives of the current study. Journal, conference proceedings and book
chapter papers are taken into account in this study from 2007 till 2018. A descriptive analysis of the results is then
made with tools such as charts and tables which are utilized to enrich the content and to offer a practical and simple
This paper is structured as follows. In Section 2 the overall state of the art is carried out. In Section 3 the
methodology of the review is shown. The descriptive analysis of the results can be observed in Section 4. Finally in
Section 5 the conclusions are presented.

2. State of the Art

Production time and product diversity make rapid tooling a critical economic factor for the company's
profitability. The frequent interruption of a process proves to be an obstacle to an efficient production. A rapid tool
changeover is the complete process of changing the process of a production machine from producing one product to
another. The tool changeover time is the time elapsed between the last conforming produced product from the
previous series, at the normal rate of the line, to the first conforming produced product of the next series, at the
maximum rate of the line [8].
The fastest system is one that achieves these five goals in each phase of rapid tool change: transporting,
positioning and fixing the tool. SMED solutions could cover the entire tooling change program. This tool is
optimized for the purpose of acting in compliance for the end result in order to make the rapid change of tooling
process more fluid and efficient [9]. In the modern manufacturing industry, it's important to know how to make
changes or adjustments in record time. A quick change of tools is at the heart of SMED technology. Each step is an
improvement. Rapid tool change or SMED is a simple process. It applies to all changes of die or tooling. It works in
Radu Godina et al. / Procedia Manufacturing 17 (2018) 783–790 785
Author name / Procedia Manufacturing 00 (2018) 000–000 3

all languages and companies around the world can use it to achieve better product quality and increased productivity
The SMED methodology can be translated as quick tool change in a single minute digit, which means that the
setups should be carried out in less than 10 minutes until the possible time to be reached from the rationalization of
the tasks performed by the machine operator [11]. The 5 steps of the SMED [8] are as follows:
• Observing and Recording.
• Separation between internal and external tasks.
o Internal tasks: activities performed during the change operation while the machine is in downtime.
o External Tasks: activities performed before the change operation, not made in the downtime period.
• Converting the maximum number of internal tasks into external tasks.
• Streamlining all the possible tasks.
• Documenting internal and external procedures.
In order to create a broad base of support for the SMED project, the full spectrum of associated employees should
be included in the selection process and consensus should be reached within the team as to the choice of target
equipment. Once the target equipment has been selected, a record of the time should be made that is the baseline for
the project. The changeover time should be measured as the time between the production of the last good part (at the
maximum speed) and the production of the first good part (at maximum speed) [8].
The SMED change systems delivers rapid tool change solutions that can enhance every element of any given
manufacturing process by drastically reducing downtime and increasing the overall efficiency of the equipment.
SMED offers a detailed solution by helping to calculate which quick tool change system will give the highest return
on investment. On the other hand, a holistic approach is ideal: through SMED is possible to make the most of the
manufacturing facilities since it is a practice that allows the flow of various products thus also aiding in the reduction
of the inventory [9].

3. Methodology

By analyzing the documents for this study the authors seek to collect the existing research and then the authors
pursue the formation of the overall landscape in this field of study. The goal of the analysis made in this study is to
strengthen the further advances in the use of this methodology.
The proposed review encompasses the existing research through the identification of themes and patterns.
Additionally, this study could strengthen the field by allowing the further advances in the use of this methodology.
The research process was made by taking the following steps:
• The collected material is defined and delimitated.
• A detailed analysis is made of the recognized characteristics of the material.
• The collected papers are categorized according to various labels.
• All papers are analyzed according to the content qualitatively. This type of analysis allows the
identification of relevant themes and interpretation of results.

3.1. Research delimitations

Setting clear boundaries is a natural requirement of a thorough literature review which allows establishing clear
limits to the review. In this paper three assumptions were made. The first assumption is that this review considers
journal, conference proceedings and book chapter papers in order to make it as broad as possible. The second
assumption is that only papers written in English were considered for this study. Finally, the third assumption is that
the search was confined to the last ten years, in this case the present year was also considered, thus resulting in the
time interval from (both including) 2007 to 2018.
The search of papers for this research was accomplished with a structured keyword search, keywords such as
“SMED”, “Single Minute Exchange of Die”, “Setup time reduction” and “Rapid tool changeover” and/or its
786 Radu Godina et al. / Procedia Manufacturing 17 (2018) 783–790
4 Author name / Procedia Manufacturing 00 (2018) 000–000

variations. For this research all the most relevant databases in the present time have been utilized to look for the
papers. The databases utilized for searching all the publications in the given time interval are:
• Sciencedirect
• IEEE Xplore.
• Springer Link
• Emerald Insight
• Taylor & Francis Online
• Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
• Inderscience Publishers
• Wiley Online Library
• De Gruyter Online
• Growing Science
• Others

A total of 70 publications were found after establishing clear limits to the searching process. With the purpose of
classifying these publications, a detailed analysis was made with the intent to categorize and qualify them. First, the
identification of the year of publication of each paper was made. Second, a categorization is made of each
publication in three categories journal, conference proceedings and book chapter. Third, the classification of the
content of each paper according to the type of research methodology and type of industry in which SMED was
applied. All this information is organized and made available in a table.

4. Descriptive analysis

After the compilation and categorization of all the publications several conclusions can be reached. Even though
that this research was confined to the last ten years, with the purpose of identifying the recent trends in this field, a
large number of publications are found during this time interval, generally in the period between 2012 and 2017.
The year with the most publications concerning SMED is 2016 as can be observed in Fig. 1. From this figure it can
be deduced that the topic has been attracting more attention recently, especially since the year 2018 already has 3
publications. Articles from previous years can be found in [12].
By analyzing the content of each publication it is possible to classify them according to the type of industry in
which the SMED methodology was applied. The results have shown that the case studies are the most common type
of published paper as can be observe in Table 1.

Fig. 1. Distribution of all the considered publications across the defined time interval.
Radu Godina et al. / Procedia Manufacturing 17 (2018) 783–790 787
Author name / Procedia Manufacturing 00 (2018) 000–000 5

By analyzing Table 1 it can be deduced that case study publications represent 72.8% of the total of articles
considered for this study. Publications focusing on surveys and interviews in several manufacturing enterprises come
in second but with only 12.8% of the total. Theoretical analysis papers cover 10% of the studied publications and
simulation studies cover only 8.5%. Some publications, however, cover more than one research method.
Since case studies are the research method that shows more often, a classification was made according to each
type of industry in which SMED is applied. This classification can be observed in Table 2. The results show that
21.6% of all the considered case studies are applied in automotive industry, roughly a fifth of the total. Food, textile
and plastic injection molding come in second with 5.8% of the total. The remaining articles are scattered across a
variety of industry and industrial processes, each with one or occasionally two publications.

Table 1. Type of research method employed in the publication.

Type of Publication References
Case Study [12]–[62]
Simulation [63]–[68]
Surveys and/or Interviews [69]–[77]
Theoretical Analysis [9], [34], [48], [57], [78]–[80]

Table 2. Type of industry in which SMED was applied.

Type of Industry References
Food [13], [31], [47]
Cardboard [14], [42]
Furniture [15]
Non-Ferrous Piston Foundry [17]
Foundry of Dies and Tooling [16]
Plastic Bottle Labeler [18]
Plastic Injection [19]
Wooden Frames [20]
Semiconductor [21], [25]
Garment or Textile [22], [24], [30]
[37], [38], [41], [43],
Automotive [46], [49], [52], [53],
[58], [61], [64]
Fiberboard, Hardboard And Softboard [12], [23]
Flat Glass Processing [26]
Mold [27]
Plastic Injection Molding [28], [59], [60]
Roller Bearing [29]
Pharmaceutical [33]
Foundry [32]
Maquiladora [72]
Self-adhesive Resin Labels [34]
Tube Manufacturing [35], [39]
Air-conditioning coil manufacturing [36]
Styrofoam Manufacturing [40]
Metal Barrel Manufacturing [45]
Flexographic Printing [44]
Silk Screen Printing [48]
Packaging [50]
Printed Circuit Board [51]
Bath and Kitchen Taps [54]
Advanced Composite Manufacturing [55]
Mechanical Components [56]
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) [57]
Low-Voltage Circuit Breaker [62]
Motorcycle Components [76]
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5. Conclusions

While for the classical mass production manufacturing the minimization of production losses was pursued by
decreasing the changeover frequency, nowadays the more flexible processes require a high changeover frequency.
However, in order for the small lot productions to be profitable, the tool changeover has to be the shortest possible.
One way to reduce the changeover time is through SMED. In this paper a brief literature review regarding the
SMED methodology was performed. Accordingly, an extensive number of research papers from distinct authors
were gathered to achieve the objectives of the study. The time range for this study was from 2007 till 2018 and the
selection included journal, conference proceedings and book chapters. Subsequently, a descriptive analysis of the
results was made through charts and tables. The overall results indicated that the SMED has been gaining more
attention in the research community in the recent years. The results have shown that the majority of publications
occurred between 2012 and 2017 and that case studies represent 72.8% of the total. The results have also shown that
21.6% of all the considered case studies target the automotive industry.


This work has been supported by the project Centro-01-0145-FEDER-000017 - EMaDeS - Energy, Materials and
Sustainable Development, co-financed by the Portugal 2020 Program (PT 2020), within the Regional Operational
Program of the Centre (CENTRO 2020) and the European Union through the European Regional Development Fund
(ERDF). The authors wish to thank the opportunity and financial support that permitted to carry on this project.


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