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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA


PULAU PINANG LABORATORY MANUAL

COURSE HIGHWAY ENGINEERING


COURSE CODE ECG354
LEVEL OF OPENNESS 0
CATEGORY PARTIALLY OPEN
DEGREE OF OPEN-ENDED
100
(%)
PERIOD OF ACTIVITY 1 WEEK
EXPERIMENT AGGREGATE IMPACT TEST

PREAMBLE
Introduction
The traditional methods of conducting laboratory activities (assigned as
Level 0) will not be able to provide the avenue for students to enhance
independent learning activities and inculcate creativity and innovation. The
traditional method is fully prescriptive where the three elements namely
problem, ways & means and answers are provided/fully given to the
students. However, it is still necessary to be implemented as part of the
whole laboratory course activity especially to first and second year students.
In these laboratory activities, students are required to set-up an aggregate
tests in order to evaluate the strength (toughness and durability)
characteristic of aggregate. Students are encouraged to develop their
critical analysis skills by analyzing and presenting the experimental results
appropriately.

Objectives
The objectives of the tests are:
1. To determine the aggregates impact value (AIV) of aggregate

Learning Outcomes
At the end of the laboratory session, students should be able:
1. Identify the aggregate impact value (strength value of aggregate) of
road stone
2. Analyze the data correctly and present in typical format
3. Work in a group to produce a technical report

©FKA, UiTM PULAU PINANG Sept 2017


FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PULAU PINANG LABORATORY MANUAL

Theoretical Background
Aggregates play an important role in the design and construction of highway
and air-field pavements. They are also major part of rigid (concrete) and
flexible (asphalt) pavements. Aggregate is a combination of sand, gravel,
crushed aggregate or other materials of mineral composition. Aggregates
used in road construction should be strong enough to resist crushing and
abrasion action under traffic wheel loads. It should not wear and abrade too
easily. This applies in particular to aggregate present in wearing courses
and surface treatment. If the aggregate is weak, the stability of pavement
structure is likely to be adversely affected. The test will also determine the
strength quality of the aggregates. Toughness is the property of material to
resist impact. Due to the traffic loads, the road aggregates Is subjected to
the pounding action or impact and there is a possibility of aggregate
breaking into smaller pieces. The road aggregates should therefore be
tough enough to resist fracture under sudden impact and moving loads.

Pavement structure comprises of several layers, surfacing, base, sub-base


and sub-grade. The most important layer which has direct contact with
traffic is surfacing layer. The surfacing layer consists of aggregate and
PROBLEM binder. The aggregates must possess adequate strength and durability to
STATEMENT withstand moving and static load. Soft aggregates will be quickly ground to
dust while harder aggregates have higher resistance to abrasion and
grinding effects. Laboratory tests are carried out to determine the
characteristic of such aggregates.

Apparatus
WAYS & MEANS
i. Aggregate Impact Machine
ii. Steel cylinder moulds
iii. Tamping rod
iv. Sieves of sizes of 12.5 mm, 10.0 mm and 2.36 mm
v. Laboratory oven
vi. Metal trays
vii. Electronic balance of accuracy to 0.01g
viii. Fine haired brush (3 mm)

Procedures
i. Prepare the aggregates sample by first sieving the aggregate and obtain

©FKA, UiTM PULAU PINANG Sept 2017


FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PULAU PINANG LABORATORY MANUAL

the portion passing 14.0mm test sieve and retained on the 10.0mm test
sieve.
ii. Wash and then dry this aggregate portion in the laboratory oven at a
constant temperature of 100 to 110 OC for not more than four hours.
Cool the aggregate sample prepared to room temperature prior to test.
iii. Fill the aggregates into the smaller steel cylinder in three layers. Tamp
each layer of aggregate for 25 times using a tamping rod. The tamping
rod is adjusted to fall freely from about 50 mm above the aggregate
surface and it must be well uniformly spread over (MS 30: Part 10:
1995). Level the surface with the tamping rod as a straight edge to
prepare the sufficient amount of aggregate on the top layer.
iv. Put the aggregates into the bigger mould and apply 25 times tamping for
each layer.
v. Weight the cylinder plus aggregates and record such weight data.
vi. Assemble the sample in the apparatus and release the hammer to fall
freely on the aggregates from a fixed vertical height of 380  5 mm. The
sample is subjected to a total of manual-controlled 15 blows.
vii. Remove the aggregate sample tested from the mould and sieve through
2.36mm sieve openings.
viii.Weight the aggregate fraction passing the 2.36mm test sieve.
ix. Repeat twice the test for the same batch of aggregate sample.
RESULTS
Calculation of aggregate impact value (AIV):

An average is taken of the two tests and the result is recorded to


the nearest whole number as the Aggregate Impact Value.
The AIV is normally about 105 per cent of the Aggregate Crushing
Value and it can be used for the same purpose.

For weak aggregates, the required load for the first ten per cent
fines test can be estimated by means of the formula:

©FKA, UiTM PULAU PINANG Sept 2017


FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PULAU PINANG LABORATORY MANUAL

The group will be required to prepare the technical report of the laboratory
study highlighting the procedures adopted, data acquisition
process/analysis carried out and the relevancy of the parameters obtained
to address the problem given.
A technical report should be submitted one (1) week after the laboratory test
with the relevant results, analyses and application to civil engineering
projects.

©FKA, UiTM PULAU PINANG Sept 2017