Dynamic Performance of H-bridge Cascaded Multilevel Inverter With Multiwinding Transformer

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Dynamic Performance of H-bridge Cascaded Multilevel Inverter With Multiwinding Transformer

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__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

(IJREI)

journal home page: http://www.ijrei.com

ISSN (Online): 2456-6934

_______________________________________________________________________________________

transformer

S. Sakthivel

Lecturer (Senior Grade), Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Sakthi Polytechnic College, Erode, Tamil Nadu, India

_______________________________________________________________________________________

Abstract

This paper deals with minimization of the particular harmonics in the output voltage of inverter. The concept of multilevel voltage

source inverters and their modulation topologies are to be analyzed. The concept of the Harmonic Stepped-Waveform with

optimization technique for a multilevel inverter is to be presented. By applying this concept, specific harmonics can be eliminated,

and the output voltage total harmonics distortion can be improved. A procedure to achieve the appropriate switching angles is to be

proposed. This project also proposes an isolated cascaded multilevel inverter employing low-frequency three-phase transformers

and a single dc input power source. The proposed circuit connection will reduce a number of transformers utilized when compared

with traditional three-phase multilevel inverters. © 2018 ijrei.com. All rights reserved

Keywords: Harmonics, H-bridge cascaded multilevel inverter (HCMLI), Pulse Width Modulation, Total Harmonics Distortion, MATLAB

________________________________________________________________________________________________________

1. Introduction

Most of the multilevel inverters are having switches, flexibility and robustness. The demerit is that the indepen-

capacitor voltage sources and can generate stepped output dent dc-link voltage requires H-bridge separately [6]. To

voltages with low harmonic distortions by controlling the reduce the number of independent dc sources, replacing of

switching devices properly. These multilevel inverters are reactors or capacitors method needs a minimum of three

broadly used in manufacturing factories and acquired public independent sources. Bidirectional switch method has been

recognition as one of the new power converter fields because proposed to make sure the galvanic isolation between the

they can overcome the disadvantages of traditional Pulse input and output, but it has been observed that the circuit

Width-Modulation (PWM) inverters [5]. Multilevel inverters configuration is complex due to the use of bidirectional

can be classified into diode clamped inverter, Flying switches.

capacitor inverter and cascaded H-bridge inverter with DC

sources. The diode-clamped multilevel inverter needs 2. Working Principle of HCMLI

complex PWM controls because more capacitors and diodes

are necessary for generating output levels and adjusting the Consider a cascaded multilevel inverter with two H-bridges

balance of each dc-link voltage of the capacitor [1]. Flying as shown in Fig.1 [2]. The H-bridge1 (H1) is energized by a

capacitor multilevel inverter circuit consists of relatively less battery source of output voltage Vdc, while the H-bridge2

elements. However, the volume of the system is enlarged for (H2) is supplied by a capacitor whose voltage is to be held at

the necessity of more capacitors. In the case of the cascaded VC. That is, the capacitor acts as a DC source.

H-bridge-type multilevel inverter, each low-voltage H- The output voltage of the first H-bridge is denoted by v1 and

bridge module has an independent dc-link voltage source the output of the second H-bridge is denoted by v2 so that the

[3,4]. The maximum number of output levels is only limited output voltage of cascaded multilevel inverter [3] is

by isolation constraints. The merits are easy to control, v(t) = v1(t) + v2(t)

Email Id: sakthivelsamulu@gmail.com 418

S. Sakthivel / International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 2, issue 4 (2018), 418-422

−Vdc/2, 0, Vdc/2, Vdc, 3Vdc/2 can be designed as shown in Fig.2,

when the capacitor’s voltage VC is chosen as Vdc/2. Table I

shows how a waveform can be generated using the topology of

Figure1: Single-phase topology of multilevel inverter Fig.1.

θ v1 v2 v = v1 + v2

0 ≤ θ < θ1 0 0 0

θ1 ≤ θ < θ 2 0 Vdc/2 Vdc/2

θ1 ≤ θ < θ 2 Vdc -Vdc/2 Vdc/2

θ2 ≤ θ < θ 3 Vdc 0 Vdc

θ1 ≤ θ < л/2 Vdc Vdc/2 3Vdc/2

θ2, v1 = Vdc and v2 = − Vdc/2 and how the waveform of Fig.2 is

generated if for θ1 ≤ θ < θ2, v1 = Vdc and v2= −Vdc/2 are chosen.

of inverter and to decrease the harmonic content in the output

voltage. The Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) techniques are

generally used for voltage control. These techniques are most

efficient and they control the drives of the switching devices.

The block diagram of PWM technique is shown in figure 4.

voltage v1 can be made equal to −Vdc, 0 or Vdc, while similarly

the output voltage of H2 can be made equal to –VC, 0 or VC by

opening and closing its switches appropriately. Therefore, the

output voltage of the inverter can have the values − (Vdc + VC),

−Vdc, −(Vdc – VC), −VC, 0, VC, (Vdc – VC), Vdc and (Vdc + VC)

which constitute nine possible output levels. Figure 4: Block Diagram of PWM

419

S. Sakthivel / International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 2, issue 4 (2018), 418-422

triangle wave and a sine wave in which the triangular signal is

the carrier/switching frequency of the inverter. The modulation Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) is a measurement of

generator makes a sine wave that determines the pulse width harmonic distortion present in a signal. It is defined as the ratio

as well as the RMS voltage output of the inverter. However, of sum of powers of all harmonic components to the power of

several PWM switching patterns to eliminate harmonics in the fundamental frequency.

output spectra of single-phase and three-phase inverters are Harmonic contents are the major problem in power quality

possible. Each one of these alternatives leads to a specific aspects in the power system network. Harmonics may be

advantage in single- and three phase inverters depending on the classified into voltage harmonics and current harmonics.

application. The superiority of the PWM techniques over the Current harmonics are generated by harmonics in supply

conventional carrier-modulated PWM's is established first. voltage which depends on the load. Both harmonics can be

Next, a critical evaluation of the mentioned PWM schemes on generated either by source or by the load. The sources are

the basis of application for single and three-phase inverters is power converters, arc-furnaces, gas discharge lighting devices,

provided, thereby providing the framework and guidelines for etc. Load harmonics may cause overheating of magnetic cores

the selection of the appropriate technique for each application in electrical equipments [7]. On the other side, source

area. Evaluation criteria include harmonic loss factor and total harmonics are generated by non-sinusoidal voltage waveform.

harmonic distortion factors defined at the input and output of Voltage and current harmonics involve in power losses,

the inverter terminals. Finally, a simple low cost solution for Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and pulsating torque in

obtaining the required PWM switching points is proposed. A AC motor drives [8].

PWM representation is shown in figure 5. By applying Fourier transformation, the harmonic components

can be extracted since any waveform must contain the

superposition of fundamental and harmonic components. The

frequency of each harmonic component is an integral multiple

of its fundamental [9, 10]. There are several methods to

indicate of the quantity of harmonics contents. The Total

Harmonics Distortion (THD) which is defined in terms of the

amplitudes of the harmonics Hn, at frequency nw0, where w0

is frequency of the fundamental component whose amplitude

of H1 and n is integer.

with Multiwinding Transformer

inverter for three-phase applications [11, 12]. It consists of one

single dc input source and several low-frequency three-phase

transformers. By using the three-phase transformers, the

Figure 5: PWM representation

number of transformers and the system volume may be

reduced [13]. The transformer primary terminal is connected

PWM schemes are widely classified as carrier-modulated sine

to an H-bridge module so as to produce Vdc, 0 and −Vdc. Every

PWM and pre-calculated programmed PWM schemes.

secondary of the transformer is connected in series to pile the

Programmed PWM techniques are used to obtain high-

output level up. Moreover, each phase terminal is delta

performance results such as obtaining minimum losses,

connected to restrain the third harmonic component.

reduced torque pulsations, selective harmonic elimination, etc.

Fig. 7 shows a predigested representation of Fig. 6 when it

It is interesting to note that the various objective functions

employs three three-phase transformers. As shown in Fig. 7,

chosen to generate a particular programmed PWM technique

the primary of each transformer is a three-phase one, and each

essentially constitutes the minimization of unwanted effects

secondary is a single-phase terminal. Three terminal outputs

due to the harmonics present in the inverter output spectra. In

are series connected to generate the voltage VAS. In this

view of this, little or no difference between each one of the

arrangement, each phase can be expressed independently and

programmed techniques is observed when significant numbers

called as isolated H-bridge cascaded multilevel inverter [14].

of low-order harmonics are eliminated. However, each one of

In Fig. 6, Vak, Vbk and Vck mean the output voltages of the H-

the programmed PWM techniques is associated with the

bridge inverter connected to the kth transformer. Here, VAk, VBk

difficult task of computing specific PWM switching instants to

and VCk are the output voltages of the transformers in each

optimize a particular objective function. This difficulty is

phase.

encountered at lower-output frequency range due to a large

number of switching instants.

420

S. Sakthivel / International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 2, issue 4 (2018), 418-422

model consists of three subsystems. Each subsystem block

contains the seven level CMLI. The voltage measurement of

the each subsystem is done by voltage measurement block. The

output reduced harmonics waveform is shown by the scope Figure 9: Subsystem model of HCMLI

block. The scope block displays its input with respect to

simulation time. The Scope block can have multiple axes (one The figure 9 shows the HCMLI model for the first subsystem.

per port); all axes have a common time range with independent The Pulse Generator block generates square wave pulses at

y-axis. In our project we use the x–axis parameter as time in regular intervals. The shape of the generated waveform

seconds and the y–axis parameter is phase voltage. depends on the parameters, Amplitude, Pulse Width, Period,

421

S. Sakthivel / International journal of research in engineering and innovation (IJREI), vol 2, issue 4 (2018), 418-422

and Phase Delay. The terminator block is used to limit blocks frequencies and are often above the bandwidth of regulators

for avoiding warning messages whose output ports are not used to control fundamental components. Therefore, the

connected to other blocks. The pulse duration for switches S1, “regular” control can only partially reduce their effects on the

S2, S3 and S4 is 83.4%. The pulse duration for switches S5, distortion of control variables. The hybrid cascaded multilevel

S6, S7 and S8 is 66.6%. The pulse duration for switches S9, inverter uses only one power source for each phase while

S10, S11 and S12 is 41.7%.The Fig. 10 shows the Output producing desired multilevel voltage waveforms. Cascaded

Wave form of H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter. The figure 11 multilevel inverter has been simulated using MATLAB. The

shows the Harmonic profile of the H-Bridge Cascaded output voltage of simulated three phase HCMLI and the

Multilevel Inverter. From the harmonic profile results, it can harmonic profile are obtained. From the harmonic profile

be observed that the Total Harmonic Distortion around 10.55% results, it can be shown that the THD is around 10.55% only.

only. The third order harmonics magnitude is only 2.8% and The third order harmonics magnitude is only 2.8% and fifth

fifth order harmonics is 2.9%. order harmonics is 2.9% only.

References

“Modeling and design of a neutral-point voltage regulator for a three-

level diode-clamped inverter using multiple-carrier modulation”, IEEE

Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 718-726, Jun. 2006.

[2] A. Chen and X. He, "Research on hybrid-clamped multilevel-inverter

topologies," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 1898-1907,

Dec. 2006.

[3] A. J. Watson, P. W. Wheeler, and J. C. Clare, "A complete harmonic

elimination approach to DC link voltage balancing for a cascaded multi-

level rectifier," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 2946-2953,

Dec. 2007.

[4] C. Rech and J. R. Pinheiro, "Hybrid multilevel converters: Unified analy-

sis and design considerations," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no.

2, pp. 1092-1104, Apr. 2007.

[5] D. Krug, S. Bernet, S. S. Fazel, K. Jalili, and M. Malinowski, "Com-

parison of 2.3-kV medium-voltage multilevel converters for industrial

medium-voltage drives," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 6, pp.

Figure 10: Output Wave form of H-Bridge Cascaded Multilevel 2979-2992, Dec. 2007.

Inverter [6] D. Soto, R. Pena, L. Reyes, and M. Vasquez, "A novel cascaded

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PESC, 2003, vol. 4, pp. 1627-1632.

[7] J. Rodriguez, P. W. Hammond, J. Pontt, R. Musalem, P. Lezana, and M.

J. Escobar, "Operation of a medium-voltage drive under faulty con-

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[8] J.Rodriguez, “Multilevel voltage- source-converter topologies for

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[9] J.Vassallo,Nov. 2–6, 2003 “A power-equalized harmonic elimination

scheme for utility-connected cascaded H-bridge multilevel converters”,

in Proc. IEEE Ind. Electron. Soc. Annu. Conf, pp. 1185–1190.

[10] J. R Wells., Jan. 2007Modulation-based harmonic elimination, IEEE

Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 336–340.

[11] M. Calais, V. G. Agelidis, L. J. Borle, and M.S.Dymond,

"A transformer- less five level cascaded inverter based single phase

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[12] S. Kouro, J. Rebolledo, and J. Rodriguez, "Reduced switching-

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IEEE Trans.Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 2894-2901, Oct. 2007.

[13] Sung Geun Song, Feel Soon Kang, and Sung-Jun Park, June

2009,“Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Employing Three-Phase

Transformers and Single DC Input”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial

Electronics, VOL. 56, NO. 6, JUNE 2009.

Figure 11: Harmonic profile of the H-Bridge Cascaded Multilevel [14] Y.Cheng, C. Qian, M. L. Crow, S. Pekarek, and Atcitty, "A comparison

Inverter of diode-clamped and cascaded multilevel converters for a statcom with

7. Conclusion energy storage," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 1512-

1521,Oct. 2006.

The disturbances in power electronics equipment are often

periodic and rich in higher harmonics. They have known

422

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