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Submitted by:
Roll no. 6315
B.Com Honors
4th Semester
Section C
Before discussing PAKISTAN’s geo strategic location and its resources in detail have a look at this brief introduction.

Name Islamic Republic of Pakistan

Capital Islamabad
33°40′N73°10′E / 33.667°N 73.167°E
Largest city Karachi
Official language(s) Urdu (national) / English
Recognized regional languages Balochi, Pashto, Punjabi, Saraiki, Sindhi
Demonym Pakistani
Founder Muhammad Ali Jinnah
President Asif Ali Zardari
Prime Minister Raja Pervaiz Ashraf
Chief Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry
Speaker of the House Fahmida Mirza
Leader of the House Nayyar Hussain Bukhari
Legislature Majlis‐e‐Shoora
Upper House Senate
Lower House National Assembly
Pakistan Declaration 28-Jan-33
Formation Pakistan Resolution 23-Mar-40
Independence from the United Kingdom
Declared 14-Aug-47
Islamic Republic 23-Mar-56
Total 796,095 km2 (36th)
Area 307,374 sq mi
Water (%) 3.1
2011 estimate 170.6 million (6th)
Population 1998 census 132,352,279
Density 214.3/km2 (55th)
GDP (PPP) $488.580 billion $2,787 per capita
GDP (nominal) $210.566 billion $1,201 per capita
Gini (2005) 31.2 (medium)
Human Development Index (HDI) (2010) 0.504[8] (low) (145th)
Currency Pakistani Rupee (Rs.) (PKR)
Time zone PST (UTC+5) PDT (UTC +6)
- Summer (DST)


Pakistan is located in South‐Asia and it lies between 61° to 76° East longitude and 24° to 37° North latitude. The area of Pakistan
including Azad Jammu and Kashmir is 881,891 (340,645 sq.miles). The country is divided into eight provinces/ regions,
namely; Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Gilgit Baltistan (GB), Federally Administrated Tribal Areas (FATA), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
(KPK), Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT), Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan.
Pakistan has mountain ranges of Hindukush, Karakorum, Deosai, Zaksor, Himalayas, Pir Panjal and Swalik in the North and Hindu Ras,
Safed Koh, Sulaiman, Kirther, Brahui on the West besides some smaller ranges in Balochistan. The mountainous area of the country
(excluding AJK & GB) is 414,655 (160,098 sq.miles) which is 52% of the total area of Pakistan.
Detail of the Indus Catchment Area shows that about 56 percent of the Indus Basin 528,908 (204,300 sq.miles) lies in
Pakistan and 43 percent of this area is upland and hilly area. Land Utilization Statistics of Pakistan shows that the area under forests
in Pakistan is 5.08 million hectare (Mha) (12.55 million acres), and the cultivated area is 21.45 Mha. (53.00 million acres). The
irrigated area in Pakistan is 19.49 Mha (48.2 million acres).



• The Indus basin covers more than 520,000 km², or 65 percent of the territory, comprising all the provinces of
Punjab, Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the eastern part of Balochistan. The Indus River has two main tributaries,
the Kabul on the right bank and the Panjnad on the left bank. The flow of the Panjnad results from five main rivers
(literally Punjab means ‘five waters’): the Jhelum and Chenab, known as the western rivers, and the Ravi, Beas and
Sutlej, known as the eastern rivers.
• The Karan desert in the west of Balochistan, western Pakistan, is an endorheic basin covering 18 percent of the
territory. The Mashkel and Marjen rivers are the principal source of water in the basin. The Marjen is a minor tributary
to the Mashkel. The water is discharged into the Hamun‐i‐Mashkel Lake in the southwest, on the border with the Islamic
Republic of Iran.
• The arid Makran coast, along the Arabian Sea, covers 17 percent of the territory in its southwestern part
(Balochistan province). The Hub, Porali, Hingol and Dasht are the principal rivers in this coastal zone.
The long‐term average annual precipitation for Pakistan is 494 mm, representing 393.3 km3. Precipitation in 2008 was
278 mm. internally produced surface water is 47.4 km3/year, whereas internally generated groundwater is
55.0 km3/year. Some of the groundwater drains directly into the sea, while the rest feeds the base flow of the river
system, which is an estimated 47.4 km³/year. Taking into account this overlap of 47.4 km3/year between surface water
and groundwater, the internal renewable water resources (IRWR) are estimated as 55 km3/year. Water Resources of the
country are given in Table 1.
Table 1: Water resources of Pakistan

Annual Water Flow

Surface Water Resources
Water available at canal heads 85
Rim station flow 147
Water diverted to canals 106
Water flow to the sea 32
Average losses in the river system 8.6
Ground Water Resources MAF
Recharge to groundwater 55
Recharge to groundwater with canal command 48
Groundwater pumping 39
Source: WAPDA (2010)


All cotton, rice, sugarcane, fodder, maize grain, fruits, vegetables, freshwater fisheries, dairy livestock are grown under
irrigated conditions, and 90 percent of the wheat area is irrigated. Coarse grains, pulses, groundnut, sorghum and
millets are normally rain fed or spate irrigated. Around 10 percent of the wheat area is rain fed, contributing only 5
percent of wheat production. Wheat, pulses and coarse grains are spate irrigated. Recession agriculture is also practiced
around the rivers and streams during floods, after receding of floodwater the crops are grown.
In 2008, the total harvested irrigated cropped area was about 21.45 million ha.
The major irrigated crops are wheat, rice, sugarcane, cotton and fodder. These crops are almost 78 percent of the total
harvested area and consume 82 percent of the total available water resources. The area under these crops is 16.60
million ha, of which
7.33; 2.52; 1.24; 3.05 and 2.46 million ha for wheat, rice, sugarcane, cotton and fodder, respectively (GOP, 2008a). The
average Agriculture Growth Rate for the country is shown in Table 2.
Full control irrigated agriculture provides 90 percent of wheat and small grains besides nearly 100 percent of sugarcane,
rice, cotton, fruits and vegetables, whereas the Barani (rain fed) and Sailaba (spate irrigation) areas contribute only 10
percent of wheat and a portion of small grains and pulses. It also provides milk, meat and fuel wood besides crops
(Ahmad, 2004a; Ahmad, 2004b; Ahmad, 2008a; GOP, 2008b). The average yield of irrigated wheat, rice, sugarcane,
cotton and fodder is 2.5, 2.2, 51.5, 0.65 and 22.4 tones/ha respectively (GOP, 2008a).
Table 2: Agriculture Growth Rate

Year Agriculture (%age)

2003‐04 2.4
2004‐05 6.5
2005‐06 6.3
2006‐07 4.1
2007‐08 1.0
2008‐09 4.0
2009‐10 2.0
Source: Federal Bureau of Statistics, Pakistan (2010)


Water is a federal subject, for which the following federal institutions are responsible:
• The Ministry of Water and Power is responsible for the development of water projects including
hydropower dams, main canals and inter‐provincial works. The Ministry is supported by the Office of the Chief
Engineering Advisor, the Chair of the Federal Flood Commission and the Chair of the Indus River System Authority
• The IRSA is responsible for the distribution of water among the provinces and assists provinces to share
shortages according to the Apportionment Accord of 1991.
• The Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA), created in 1958 as a semiautonomous body, is the
functional arm of the Ministry of Water and Power and is responsible for the development of hydropower and water
development projects.
• The Ministry of Food and Agriculture was responsible for water management at the watercourse
command level and farm level irrigation and water productivity. The Ministry is supported by the Federal Water
Management Cell, which coordinates the national projects and provides services to the provinces for planning,
evaluation and monitoring of Mega projects. This Cell also provides support to the provincial Departments of Agriculture
through the provincial On‐Farm Water Management (OFWM) Directorate Generals. These OFWMs implement the
programs and projects related to water management for agriculture and are involved in organizing water user
associations at the watercourse level and their federations at the distributaries’ canal command level. This ministry now
stands devolved to provinces.
• The Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) is a national apex research organization responsible for
research in agriculture, land, water, energy, environment and livestock.
• The Water Resources Research Institute of the National Agricultural Research Centre of PARC is a major
institution dealing with research related to water for agriculture.
• Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources is an organization under the Federal Ministry of Science and
Technology. The Council is also involved in some areas of water research related to agriculture, but has no formal link to
the Department of Agriculture in the provinces. Its activities are related to water for domestic use, water quality and
control of desertification.
Following are the important water legislations of the Pakistan:
1. Water Apportionment Act – 1991
2. Indus River System Authority (IRSA) Act – 1992

3. Provincial Irrigation and Drainage Authority (PIDAs) Act – 1997

4. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act – 1997

5. Canal and Drainage Act – 1873 (all provinces)

6. Soil Reclamation Act – 1952

7. Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) Act – 1958

 1.5: Water Sector Capacity Building and Advisory Services Project (WCAP)
The World Bank under umbrella of its "Water Sector Capacity Building & Advisory Services Project (WCAP–Credit No.
44370-PAK)" has agreed to extend a standard IDA technical assistance credit of US$ 38 Million to Government of
Pakistan to improve the management and investment planning of water resources on Indus River Basin.

 Objective
The main objective of the project is to support capacity development, analytical work and detail feasibility studies in
order to ensure effective management and development of the Indus River system in the context of significant
economic, social and environmental change and need for infrastructure.

 Period of Implementation 5 Years (September, 2008 to 2013)

Approval Date | November 06, 2008
Project Approved by | ECNEC
Effectiveness Date | September 22, 2008
Credit Closing Date | February 14, 2014

 Implementation Agencies
Project Management & Policy Implementation Unit (PMPIU), Ministry of Water and Power (MoWP)
Water & Power Development Authority (WAPDA)
Indus River System Authority (IRSA)
Infrastructure Project Development Facility (IPDF)
Water Section of Planning & Development Division

 The Project Components and Cost (US$ Million)

A. Capacity Building of and Support to Federal Institutions in Water Resources
Planning and Management 17.0
B. Improvement in Water Resources Management and Development in WAPDA 17.0
C. Project Management, Coordination and Development, Strategic Studies &
Trainings 4.0
Total Cost 38.0 US $ million


Mining is an important industry in Pakistan. Pakistan has deposits of several minerals including coal, copper, gold,
chromites, mineral salt, bauxite and several other minerals. There are also a variety of precious and semi-precious
minerals that are also mined. These include peridot, aquamarine, topaz, ruby, emerald, rare-earth minerals bastnaesite
and xenotime, sphene, tourmaline, and many varieties and types of quartz. Swat Valley is rich of GOD gifted mineral
resources. Most of the minerals in swat belong to family 10 in periodic table. Therefore these minerals are valuable and
internationally recognized. They include Sulphides, oxides and Hydroxides, Nitrates, Carbonates and Borates, Silicates
and other unclassified minerals. The list having 18 entries in that 14 are valid minerals

The Pakistan Mineral Development Corporation (PMDC) is the responsible authority for the support and development
of the mining industry. Gemstones Corporation of Pakistan looks after the interests of stake holders in gem stone mining
and polishing as an official entity. Baluchistan is the richest province in terms of mineral resources available in Pakistan.
While recently Sindh discovered coal deposits in Thar. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is rich in terms of gems. Most of the mineral
gems found in Pakistan exist here. Apart from oil, gas and some mineral used in nuclear energy purposes which comes
directly under federal control mining of other minerals is provincial issue. Currently around 52 minerals are mined and
processed in Pakistan.

 Coal
 Mineral salt
 Copper and gold
 Iron ore
 Gems and other precious stones
 China Clay or Kaolin
 Marble
 Emerald Mines
 Lime stone
 Granite
 Feldspar
 Mica quartz
 Barite
 Pyroxene Group
 Garnet group
 Magnetite
 Tourmaline group
 Vermiculite
 Cyanide

Coal is found in very large quantities in Thar, Chamalang, Quetta and other sites. Thar reserves are estimated to be 850
Trillion Cubic Feet. There is enough coal in Pakistan's Thar area ( though a part of the coal is not of good quality) that it
can be used to generate power for the next 100 years without relying on other power sources i.e. hydro/oil resources. In
March 2010, Engro Chemical announced that the group is investing a large amount of money to develop coal fields in
Pakistan. The chemical company also announced to establish an energy park in UET Lahore, and start research on In-Situ
Coal gasification and high pressure transport gasifiers.

Mineral salt
Rock salt makes for some beautiful texture on the walls and the ceiling. Salt has been mined in the region since 320 BC.
The Khewra Salt Mines are among the world's oldest and biggest salt mines. Salt is mined at Khewra in an underground
area of about 110 square kilometers (42 sq mi). Khewra salt mine has an estimated total of 220 million tons of rock salt
deposits. The current production from the mine is 325,000 tons of salt per annum.

Copper and gold

In Reqo Diq, Baluchistan, deposits of copper and gold are present. Antofagasta, the company which possesses the Reqo
Diq field, is targeting an initial production of 170,000 metric tons of copper and 300,000 ounces of gold a year. The
project may produce more than 350,000 tons a year of copper and 900,000 ounces of gold. There are also copper
deposits in Daht -e- Kuhn, Nokundi, and Located in Chagi district.

Iron ore
Iron ore is found in various regions of Pakistan including Nokundi, Chinot and the largest one in Kalabagh (Less than 42%
quality), Harripur and other Northern Areas.

Gems and other precious stones

A number of precious stones are mined and polished for local as well as export purposes. The centre point of this
operation is Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. These include actinolite, hessonite, rodingite, agate, idocrase, rutile, aquamarine,
jadeite, ruby, amazonite, kunzite, serpentine, azurite, cyanide, spessartine (garnet), beryl, marganite, spinel, emerald,
moonstone, topaz, epidote, pargasite, tourmaline, garnet (alamandine), peridot, turquoise, grossular, quartz (citrine &
others) and vesuvianite. The export earned from these gems is more than 200 Million dollars.

China Clay or Kaolin:

China clay or kaolin is used for white ware and special type of cement and as paper and rubber filler. The largest mine of
China clay is found in a village called Shahderai, having the finest quality of China clay in Pakistan. The total reserves
were estimated 2.8 million tons.
The same type of China clay has also been found in Shahdin and Doshagram near Matta. But the important issue is the
ceramic factory is situated 200km away from these mines ( near Attok ). which is a matter fo disgus for local peoples,
decreasing the chances of jobs in Swat valley.

Natural stone (a crystalline form of calcium carbonate, CaCO3), which is, recrystalized limestone, which is both durable
and beautiful. Marble can stand heavy use but can be stained or scratched. It is also brittle and must be handles
carefully during installation. Dark marble is harder than light or white marble. More commonly used for fireplace
mantels, counter tops or as flooring, it can also be used on the exterior of a building.
In various part of the valley a good quality of white and green marble are found and mined for local base industries also
goes to the near by district. The reserves are located in Saidu sharif, Spal bandai , khadag, Ghaligai, Parrai, Malam Jabba
and Ghakhai Kandao.

Emerald Mines
Emerald is a variety of the mineral beryl, colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes iron. It is highly
prized as a gemstone and ounce for ounce is the most valuable gemstone in the world, often made more so by
inclusions. Beryl has a hardness of 8 on the 10-point Mohs scale of hardness. Emerald is the birthstone for May.
The mine is located in the outskirts of Mingora in Fizaghat. This is deep green color exceptional clarity and excellent
quality. The production of Gem grade emeralds made during 1978-1988 was 280671.96 carats. The reserves are
estimated to 13.2 millions cts. The finest quality is the best to export to the international markets. There is an export
potential of millions of dollars if is excavated and cut for international standards.

Dolomite/Lime stone
Dolomite and Limestone are sedimentary rock occur in regular bed, lime stone is calcium carbonate mix with impurities
and Dolomite having clay, sand other impurities both occurs in various colours and shades. They are used for
manufacturing cement and lime, used in bleaching powder, glass industry, soap, paint, also used filler and as ingredient
in chemical process etc. A number of lime stone deposits are found in swat valley. The deposits are located in Nawagai,
kot, Manyar, Panr, Serai, Ghaligai, Shagai, Salam pur, Marghuzar, Mingora and Saidu sharif.

A very hard, crystalline, plutonic rock, gray to pink in color, consisting of feldspar, quarts and smaller amounts of other
minerals, which is produced naturally under intense heat and pressure. Often used as floors in office buildings or as
kitchen and bathroom countertops in homes.
This is excavated from Cham, Khwar Mandaona, Nawe Kalai, Fatehe pur, Malakand and Utrar and Barikot. A valuable
green colour grinate is also mined from Saidu. The Malakand Granite is well known and located on the Malakand top
opposite to Gibraltar hill, the labours blasting and cutting in to blocks for coomercial use. Many of Govt buildings in
malakand are constructed by this stone.

It is also one of the important mineral. They generally composed of aluminum-silicate. Potassium, sodium and calcium.
They generally occur in white or light colours but also exhibit in other colours. This is used in specialized electrical
porcelain, scouring soaps, used in glass industry, pottery making, artificial teeth also used as filer and alkalis. This
mineral is obtained from Ramial, Gharai, Darmai, Azad banda, Tiligram, Chuprial, Spal Bandai, Asharban, Kabal, Chinklai,
Puronai, Kokari etc

A group of minerals consisting of hydrous silicates of aluminum or potassium which are common in igneous and
metamorphic rocks. Mica vary in color from pale brown or yellow to green or black and characteristically split into very
thin leaves. Sheets of mica used in insulation and electrical equipment because of their resistance to electricity. The
transparent forms are used in lanterns, the doors of stoves, etc.
The reserves of mica are found in various places of Mingora, Shaladar and Barbak Bands.

Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's crust. It has a hexagonal crystal structure made of trigonal
crystallized silica (silicon dioxide, SiO2), with a hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale. Density is 2.6g/cm³. The typical shape is
a six-sided prism that ends in six-sided pyramids, although these are often distorted, or so massive that only part of the
shape is apparent from a mined specimen.
The deposits or quartz are in Chuprial, Biakand and Ghari. Hornbelendite at Shakardara, Ball clay in Laikot and the
reserve of Serpentines are also mined in Swat valley.

Barite, a name that was derived from the Greek word "barus" (heavy), is the mineralogical name for barium sulfate. In
commerce, the mineral is sometimes referred to as "barites." The term "primary barite" refers to the first marketable
product, which includes crude barite (run of mine) and the products of simple beneficiation methods, such as washing,
jigging, heavy media separation, tabling, flotation, and magnetic separation.
Barite can be found in kabalgram, sabunai.

Pyroxene Group
The crystals of Pyroxene can be used as semi precious- to precious material in ornaments and jewelry. Enstatite is green
Varity of pyroxene, which are mined in different sited in swat valley.

Garnet Group
Naturally is consisting of primarily of great Varity Almandine. The mineral is abundant n deep color mostly used to
abrasive purposed but large grain having god luster and fractures can be used for gem purposes.

This mineral is used in iron and steel industry, rubber, paper used in animal feed and pharmaceutical industry, as
insulation as primarily alloying to aluminum. Manganese is found at Serai etc

Tourmaline group
This is a crystalline mineral it has prismatic or elongated hexagonal found in various colors but black variety is more
abundant. It has crystal can be used as precious material.
This found and mined in swat, mostly used in constructional lightweight concrete, fire proof coating, packing materials
as carried and extender for insecticide and herbicide, plastic and paint etc

The kyanatite and related mineral are used primarily in the manufacturing of high temperature refectories. Cyanide is
used as synthesizer in ceramics, tiles and sanitary wares to offset shrinkage and cracking after fifing, the mineral is also
used in nonferrous metallurgy and glass making industries.


Electricity in Pakistan is generated, transmitted, distributed and retail supplied by two vertically integrated public sector
utilities: Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) for all of Pakistan (except Karachi), and the Karachi Electric
Supply Corporation (KESC) for the City of Karachi and its surrounding areas. There are around 20 independent power
producers that contribute significantly in electricity generation in Pakistan.

For years, the matter of balancing Pakistan's supply against the demand for electricity has remained a largely unresolved
matter. Pakistan faces a significant challenge in revamping its network responsible for the supply of electricity.
While the government claims credit for overseeing a turnaround in the economy through a comprehensive recovery, it
has just failed to oversee a similar improvement in the quality of the network for electricity supply.
Some officials even go as far as claiming that the frequent power cuts across Pakistan today are indicative of an
emerging prosperity as there is fast rising demand for electricity. And yet, the failure to meet the demand is indeed
indicative of a challenge to that very prosperity. Pakistan's electricity producers are now seeking parity in returns for
both domestic and foreign investors which indicate it to be one of the key unresolved issues in overseeing a surge in
electricity generation when the country faces growing shortages.
Contrary to Pakistani government and expatriate claims, Pakistan suffers from a massive electricity shortage. Electricity
generation in Pakistan has shrunk by up to 50% in recent years due to an overreliance on Fossil Fuel. In 2008, availability
of power in Pakistan falls short of the population's needs by 15% Pakistan was hit by its worst power crisis in 2007, after
the assassination of Benazir Bhutto and the following riots. Production fell by 6000 Megawatts and massive blackouts
followed suit. The blame was laid on the then president, Pervez Musharraf, and was instrumental in his defeat. Load
Shedding (deliberate blackouts) and power blackouts have become severe in Pakistan in recent years.The main problem
with Pakistan's poor power generation is rising political instability, together with rising demands for power and lack of
With power shortages in Pakistan, Iran has been offering to export electricity to Pakistan at subsidized rates but the
government of Pakistan has not yet responded to the offers for unknown reasons.
 Installed capacity
 Electricity production
 Growing demand
 Popular habits
 Electricity consumption

Installed capacity
Electricity – total installed capacity: 19,505 MW (2007)
Electricity – Sources (2007)

Fossil fuel – 12,580 MW – 65% of total

Hydro – 6,463 MW – 33% of total

Nuclear – 462 MW – 2% of total

There are four major power producers in country: WAPDA (Water & Power Development Authority), KESC (Karachi
Electric Supply Company), IPPs (Independent Power Producers) and PAEC (Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission).

The break-up of the installed capacity of each of these power producers (as of Jan-2012) is as follows:

Tarbela 3478 MW
Mangla 1000 MW
Ghazi – Barotha 1450 MW
Warsak 243 MW
Chashma 184 MW
Dargai 20 MW
Rasul 22 MW
Shadi-Waal 18 MW
Nandi pur 14 MW
Kurram Garhi 4 MW
Renala 1 MW
Chitral 1 MW
Jagran (AK) 30 MW
Total Hydel ==> 6461 MW

WAPDA Thermal
Gas Turbine Power Station, Shahdra 59 MW
Steam Power Station, Faisalabad 132 MW
Gas Turbine Power Station, Faisalabad 244 MW
Gas Power Station, Multan 195 MW
Thermal Power Station, Muzaffargarh 1350 MW
Thermal Power Station, Guddu 1655 MW
Gas Turbine Power Station, Kotri 174 MW
Thermal Power Station, Jamshoro 850 MW
Thermal Power Station, Larkana 150 MW
Thermal Power Station, Quetta 35 MW
Gas Turbine Power Station, Panjgur 39 MW
Thermal Power Station, Pasni 17 MW

Total Thermal ===========> 4811 MW

WAPDA’s Total Hydel + Thermal capacity is ==> 11,272 MW
Karachi Electric Supply Company
Thermal Power Station, Korangi 316 MW
Gas Turbine Power Station, Korangi 80 MW
Gas Turbine Power Station, SITE 100 MW
Thermal Power Station, Bin Qasim 1260 MW

Total (KESC) ============> 1756 MW

Independent Power Producers (IPPs)

Hub Power Project 1292 MW
AES Lalpir Ltd, Mahmood Kot Muzaffargar 362 MW
AES Pak Gen, Mahmood Kot Muzaffargar 365 MW
Altern Energy Ltd, Attock 29 MW
Fauji Kabirwala Power Company, Khanewal 157 MW
Gul Ahmad Energy Ltd, Korangi 136 MW
Habibullah Coastal Power Limited 140 MW
Japan Power Generation, Lahore 120 MW
Kohenoor Energy Limited, Lahore 131 MW
Liberty Power Limited, Ghotki 232 MW
Rousch Power, Khanewal 412 MW
Saba Power Company, Sheikhupura 114 MW
Southern Electric Power Company Limited, Raiwind 135 MW
Tapal Energy Limited, Karachi 126 MW
Uch Power Limited, Dera Murad Jamali, Nasirabad 586 MW
Attock Gen Limited, Morgah Rawalpindi 165 MW
Atlas Power, Sheikhupura 225 MW
Engro Energy Limited, Karachi XXX
Kot Addu Power Company Limited (Privatized) 1638
Saif Power Plant Qadirabad, Sahiwal 225 MW
Sitara Energy 80 MW
Nishat Chunian Power 200 MW
Nishat Power Limited 200 MW

Total (IPPs) 7070 MW

Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission

Total (Nuclear) ===> 812 MW

Hydel electricity generated by WAPDA varies between two extremities, i.e., between minimum of 2,414 MW and
maximum of 6,761 MW depending upon the river flow.
Total Power Generation Capacity of Pakistan (including all sources) is 19,855 MW and the electricity demand (as of April
2010) is 14,500 MW and PEPCO is merely generating 10,000 MW.

Electricity production
Electricity – production: 88.42 kWh (2005)

Electricity – production by source (2003)

Fossil fuel: 63.7% of total

Hydro: 33.9% of total

Nuclear: 2.4% of total

Growing Demands their

Problems & Solutions
The current shortfall of electricity reaches 7500 Megawatts in PAKISTAN reported by (THE NEWS) June 2012.

We are the real ‘God gifted’ nation but have unfortunately failed to drag ourselves into the category of the developed
ones. It is us, who have 850 trillion cubic feet of coal in Sindh. It is worth 25 trillion US dollars, but only if exploited. The
question, which is really difficult to answer, is “why aren’t we exploiting our reserves?”
In the short run addressing difficult challenges such as the demand for a parity of treatment to both domestic and
foreign investors must make some difference by way of attracting investors across the board. Given the growing
demand for electricity, foreign investors must have a role in helping Pakistan meet this challenge.
But the challenges faced by Pakistan are by no means easy. It is indeed the case that the business of reforming the
electricity supply network is just not about short term and often incomplete measures of the kind that Pakistanis have
been accustomed to.
Even if Pakistan successfully set aside the vast funds which are necessary to finance such a turn-around, the time taken
to ensure the supply of all the technical ingredients must in itself make the task formidably challenging

Electricity consumption
Electricity – consumption: 74.62 KWh (2004)

Electricity – exports: 0%

Electricity – imports: 0%

Electricity Consumption per Capita = 430.183 kWh/capita (2006)