University of the Philippines Visayas Tacloban College Tacloban City


A Term Paper in Management 104 (Organizational Behavior)

Submitted to: Professor Anna A. Arroyo Mgt 104 Professor

Submitted by: Angelie Mae S. Hernandez BASS Economics 4

1st semester, AY 2010 - 2011

Job satisfaction has a positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) which is moderate in strength. job satisfaction is negatively related. an organization with more satisfied employees portrays greater productivity than those organizations with less satisfied workers. Satisfied workers will not. 2001). absenteeism and turnover.INTRODUCTION Job satisfaction is an individual¶s general attitude towards his/her job (Robbins. Employees can take maximize their sick leave just to have vacations from work even though they are satisfied enough. Satisfied workers are less likely to quit because they enjoy their jobs. as much as possible. Job satisfaction is also positively related to productivity. Satisfied employees would most likely be motivated to do things that are beyond the expectations of the job. 2001). evidence suggests that productivity is likely to lead to satisfaction (Robbins. But personally. Job satisfaction is when a person is happy with his work because it is something he wants to do and he is rewarded deservingly in that work. It is because they develop sympathy for the organization and they also want to help in its improvement. 2001). At the individual level. It has correlation with other dependent variables. 2001). However. 2003). I can say that if a person is satisfied. the strength of the absenteeism-satisfaction correlation is weak (Kreitner and Kinicki. Meanwhile. Turnover is the voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from work (Robbins. to the other dependent variables. The negative turnover ± satisfaction correlation is much stronger than the absenteeism ± satisfaction correlation. It shows how contented an employee with his work. Organizational citizenship behaviors consist of employee behaviors that are beyond the call of duty (Kreitner and Kinicki. Productivity is a performance measure that includes effectiveness and productivity. But it doesn¶t mean that happy workers to are more productive. 2001). The thing is. . Absenteeism is the failure to report to work (Robbins. he will be productive. Job satisfaction is an affective or emotional response towards various facets of one¶s job. incur avoidable absences.

emotions. He can meet beyond what his employers want him to do. . group-. They will be productive. Satisfaction depends on the degree to which individuals successfully match their personalities to an occupational environment (Robbins. They will be satisfied because there will no dissonance which hinders them to express themselves or compels them to act in contrast of what they really feel. then he will be more contented. For example. He also has OCB. organization-level variables. Because the employee is interested in talking to people. we should look into individual-. 2001). ability.Job satisfaction really has an effect in the over-all performance of the employee. Emotional dissonance is the inconsistency between what one really feels and what he needs to projects. much more to resign or be fired. There are also fewer chances for him to make absences. emotions also affect job satisfaction. in a magazine company where writers (employees) are free to express what they want to by writing articles in the magazine. If the employee is comfortable to show his true emotions in the workplace. According to the Affective Events Theory. So what determines job satisfaction? To answer this. For example. A good personality-job fit can lead to a higher job satisfaction. employees are productive because he loves his work. then he will be contented. He can identify with it. as well as the organization. decision-making. JOB SATISFACTION AND INDIVIDUAL-LEVEL VARIABLES Job satisfaction can be determined by individual level variables such as personality. If the job requires the type of personality the person has. He enjoys his work that he goes beyond what is expected from him. When there is a good personality-job fit. or he is free to do so. the person found a job that fits his personality. a person who is friendly and loves to mingle with people is hired as a sales representative. motivations. for that matter. or vice versa. Emotions are complex human reactions to personal achievements and setbacks that may be felt and displayed (Kreitner and Kinicki. he has greater chances to sell the products. There is a good personality-job fit. If the work does not give emotional dissonance. then there is job satisfaction. and perception. 2001).

There will be less absenteeism and turnover because with the job they had. Jobs make differing demands on people and people differ in the abilities they possess (Robbins. Perception is also linked to job satisfaction. Being satisfied depends on what an individual perceived as satisfactory. they will be motivated to be more competitive so that they will get the same prestige. 2001). there is greater job satisfaction. if he does not perceive it as such. and the like. Even though there is a good reward system in the organization or the people around him are encouraging colleagues. When the employees¶ ability (intellectual and physical ability) coincides with the job¶s ability. individual perception could affect it. And for other employees. His intellectual skills match the requirement of the very challenging job. An example of this is a genius chemist working on a novel project in laboratory of a chemical company. Motivation is the reason for the individual¶s persistence in achieving an objective. Employees will have a good general attitude toward their jobs if they can contribute to a number of decisions that affect them: setting work goals. rewards can be motivations. Motivation is positively related to job satisfaction.Ability has also had to do with job satisfaction. In organizations. Job satisfaction will be granted and the employees will be challenged to be more productive. For instance. . With ability-job fit. Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment (Robbins. the employees can exhaust their skills to their own satisfaction. choosing their own benefits packages. individuals will be satisfied whenever they are awarded because they know that their efforts are seen. 2001). Now let¶s come to the group-level variables. solving productivity and quality problems. Since job satisfaction is an attitude and is highly subjective. then he will not have job satisfaction. there will be a challenging work. Another is decision-making. Those are the individual-level variables that affect job satisfaction. in an organization which is giving a monthly award for the Best Employee of the Month with accompanying rewards.

Effective leaders elicit positive reaction from their subordinates. and information. as a social being. really interact with the people around him thus forming groups. leadership. It also depends on the individual orientation of the employee. Leadership also has an effect with job satisfaction. Communication in a group can lead to job satisfaction. size. 2001). But generally. But leadership may not always be important. A leader which has positive impression about himself and his job will make his employees also feel good about his job. norms. status. Leaders are most often the role model for their employees. and cohesiveness affect how employees feel about their jobs. These grouplevel variables are group structure. If the individual found a group in the organization where he identified himself. group behaviors also affect performance and job satisfaction. The functions of communication are control. the less the job satisfaction because there are great rooms for dysfunctional conflict in a big group. there are also group structures that have negative effects on job satisfaction. and he has access to information.JOB SATISFACTION AND GROUP-LEVEL VARIABLES Human. he will not choose to leave the organization. And in terms of size. This can give him an over-all . communication. He will be satisfied being there and will become productive. within a group. He has control over the things in his surroundings because he has the free-will to speak up his mind without any complex barriers. there is higher job satisfaction. There are times when job satisfaction can also be achieved when there is no leader to direct the employee. then he will not be contented with doing the job. these can be given to him. However. motivation. a person who can express his emotions and has motivations can have high job satisfaction. If the group displays high cohesiveness and high performance norms. trust. emotional expression. Effective communication in the group-level elicits higher job satisfaction. A leader with good leadership styles can influence the general attitude of the employees toward their own jobs. composition. Group structure has effects to job satisfaction. and conflict. Based on my analysis on the individual level variables. the more members of the group there are. Role conflict and size reduces job satisfaction (Kreitner and Kinicki. Roles. In the workplace. the leader is the most influential person in terms of employee attitudes. If the individual is torn between opposing roles. And with effective communication channels.

dysfunctional conflict does the reverse. First is the organizational culture. It encourages interest and curiosity. The greater the trust between individuals in an organization. It reduces job satisfaction because it targets personal relationship of the employees. Functional conflict leads to better group performance.good impression towards his work and urge him to be more productive. If the organizational culture coincides with the individual¶s own value. When employees trust the people he is working with. He can eventually be more productive and will have less chances of being tardy and going out of the company either voluntarily or otherwise. Furthermore. declining altogether absenteeism and turnover. It can improve the quality of the decisions made by the members. He will have a generally good attitude towards his work because he loves being at the office where the people he trusts are there. Functional conflict can therefore increase job satisfaction because it makes jobs flexible for changes that the employee wants depending on his discretion on how to do his work (Kreitner and Kinicki. specifically functional conflict can also contribute to job satisfaction. a system of shared meaning (Robbins. as a whole. It provides medium for problem solving and provides an environment for selfevaluation and change. conflict. also affect individual¶s attitudes. Job satisfaction and trust are positively related. Another group-level variable that has an effect on job satisfaction is trust. Here are the instances where the organization affects job satisfaction. On the other hand. 2001). 2001). then there is high job satisfaction among members of the . It is a common perception held by the organization¶s members. How about the wider organizational-level? Let us see how variables concerning the organization as a whole affect job satisfaction of employees. Job satisfaction being an important organizational attitude is greatly affected by the mechanisms of the organization itself. It stimulates creativity and innovation. the higher the job satisfaction. Those are the group-level variables that can affect the over-all attitude of an employee about his work or job satisfaction. he will be comfortable in the workplace. JOB SATISFACTION AND ORGANIZATIONAL-LEVEL VARIABLES The organization.

Work specialization makes the employees rigid. they will have positive attitude towards their jobs that will lead to greater productivity and OCB. If confronted with stress. Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity. Perceived stress actually has a strong negative relationship with job satisfaction (Kreitner and Kinicki. Lastly is stress management. Those are the effects of the organization to job satisfaction. he can easily adapt to changes thus making him flexible.organization. 2001). Being in an environment where all of you shares the same beliefs and value systems makes a person satisfied and at home. Work specialization contributes to higher employee productivity. there will come a point in time where stress can already be harmful for the employee. constraint. it gives them satisfaction because they feel that they really are an active part of it not just passive members who are just implementers of decisions made by the upper management. Job satisfaction is high when employees know that they are important to the organization. Participative decision making in decentralized organizations is positively related to job satisfaction. and lesser absenteeism and turnover. However. employees will be secured that their employers are doing something to help them. job satisfaction will be increased when organization can manage the stress of their employees of if they have certain actions being done to reduce stressful events for their employees. Stressful works can reduce the happiness of the employee towards his job. Stress can be helpful in an employee in a way because there is an increase in performance in order to reduce the stress. Second is the organizational structure and design. there are also design features that lower job satisfaction. However. Employees most often want to be free in the workplace. Based on this fact. . individual employees react differently. or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. thus. By doing this. The way job tasks are arranged in an organization also affect job satisfaction as well as the over-all performance of the employee. but it reduces job satisfaction. When employees have a say on the organization. If the employee has identified with the culture of the organization.

organizational citizenship behavior. job satisfaction is related to personality. trust. In the organizational-level. and stress management. and organizational level variables. and perception. it is related to the organizational culture. . motivations. decision-making. organizational structure and design. However.CONCLUSION Job satisfaction being the individual¶s general attitude towards work is affected by a wide range of individual. and conflict. absenteeism. In the group-level. it is related to the group structure. leadership. job satisfaction. The bottom-line here is that job satisfaction is higher where the individual is happiest in his job. ability. While it is negatively related to absenteeism and turnover. and turnover. Job satisfaction is highly related to other dependent variables which are productivity. being very subjective. is really hard to seize up and predict. group. In the individual level. It is positively related to productivity and OCB. emotions. communication.

10th ed. 9th ed. Singapore: Pearson Education. Singapore: Pearson Education.. Organizational Behavior.. Stephen P. Robert and Angelo Kinicki. 2001. Organizational Behavior. Robbins.REFERENCES Kreitner. 2001 Robbins. . Stephen P. Organizational Behavior. ... New York: Irwin/McGraw-Hill. 2003. 5th ed..

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