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connecting the DVI ports on the computer and monitor and the underlying protocol used for the transmission of video signals from the computer to the monitor. In recent years the CRT monitor is being rapidly replaced by the LCD monitor. CRTs have analog inputs, a PC must take an additional step and convert the digital data, essentially a string of digital ones and zeros, into analog voltages before it can be transmitted to a CRT monitor. This is done through a digital to analog converter (RAMDAC) in the PC. LCD’s are inherently digital devices, and for the display on an LCD using the VGA port, the PC must convert the data to analog format, as is the case with a CRT monitor. Then, the LCD monitor must have an analog to digital converter (ADC) and associated logic to convert the signal back to digital ones and zeros before it can be shown on the display. This is as shown below.
LCD to VGA interface
This digital to analog conversion and subsequent analog to digital conversion results in signal degradation and delay during transmission and conversion
The implementation using DVI Standard is as shown below. ADD Card . as such DVI uses a TMDS transmitter on the computer and TMDS receiver on the monitor. The TMDS transmitter can be implemented – 1) On the motherboard directly 2) As an ADD card which plugs into the PCIe slot. LCD to DVI interface The underlying protocol used for DVI is TMDS or transition minimized differential signaling.
Multiplying all three we get 115200000 or 115. TMDS protocol is capable of transferring up to 225 Mhz while the DVI standard based on it can support up to 165 Mhz in a single-link configuration. whereas the add card just consists of the TMDS transmitter and is generally cheaper.3) As a graphics card which plugs into the PCIe slot. HDMI and many other digital standards. . The rest of the bandwidth is used for clock and associated signaling. The 165 MHz bandwidth can support a resolution of 1600x1200 at a 60 Hz refresh rate.2 Mhz. Graphics Card The difference between a graphics card and an add card is – the graphics card has graphics processor unit useful for application which require accelerated graphics like games. TMDS serves as the underlying protocol for the DVI.
three color components are required: Red. Transition minimization is achieved by carrying out an XNOR operation on the sequence and selecting the sequence which has minimum transitions.A single link DVI using TMDS protocol is as shown below. Single Link DVI To drive an LCD and light up a pixel. TMDS then uses an advanced encoding algorithm to minimize transitions and at the same time generate a DC Balanced Sequence. The graphics controller outputs 24 bits in parallel with 8 bits representing each color component to the TMDS transmitter. The TMDS transmitter converts 8 parallel bits representing a color component into 8serial bits. Properties of TMDS 1) Transition Minimization Transition Minimization is carried out to prevent the generation of radio frequencies (which may affect other electronic devices) due to frequent 1-0 and 0-1 transitions. A 9th bit is added to indicate whether an XNOR operation was carried out or not. Each color component has 8 bits that allow 256 different color shades to be selected. For example. Using a combination of 256 shades for each color (RGB) allows up to 16 million colors to be displayed. Green and Blue (RGB). consider the sequence – The first bit is retained as it is and is XNORed with the second bit to generate the transition minimized 2nd bit. This 2nd bit is again XNORed with the 3rd bit of the original .
The method used to overcome this is known as DC Balancing and involves inverting some of the bits in the sequence and marking them as inverted. The generated sequence is – A 9th bit is added as a 1 to indicate transition minimization encoding has been carried out. the charge on the cable tends to resist the subsequent change of data to the opposite state and will cause data errors.sequence to generate the 3rd transition minimized bit and so on. giving . Consider a long sequence of 1’s as shown below. resulting in the sequence- 2) Dc Balanced Sequence Transmitting a long series of 1’s or 0’s at high speeds results in the charging of the line. The 10th bit is set to indicate polarity reversal. We then pick one word (8 bits) from the series of words that have the same state and add the 9th bit as 0 as no transition minimization is required.
Differential Signaling uses two wires with the second wire transmitting the opposite value of the first as shown below.3) Differential Signaling TMDS also uses differential signaling for immunity to radio interference and other noise. At the receiver one signal is subtracted from the other cancelling out the noise. .
A dual link DVI can be implemented using 2 TMDS transmitters and 2 receivers providing a bandwidth upto 330 MHz. Dual Link DVI . This is as shown below.
and vertical and horizontal sync pins associated with it. The advantage of this is the same connector or port can be used for both DVI and VGA. and DVI-A. but the analog signals needs to supplied to the analog pins on the connector.DVI-D. A dual link DVI-I connector and its pins are as shown below. 2 for green and 2 for blue giving a dual link. ie DVI-I connector does not perform an digital to analog conversion. ie TMDS based DVI signals. but only one at a time. But the analog signals to the corresponding pins in the connector needs to be given by the board or computer. DVI-D connector provides support only for digital signals. There are 6 data channels associated with the connector ie 2 channels for red. ie it provides pins through which analog signals or VGA signals can be transmitted. Plug and display is another standard for transmission of digital data which is no longer being used because of its expensive . The connector can also be of type single link or dual link to support a single or dual link DVI.There are three basic types of DVI connectors. DVI-I connector provides support for digital as well as analog signals. DVI-A connector is rare and used to connect to a DVI-I socket so as to tap only the analog signals and map the signals onto a VGA port to support a CRT monitor. DVI-I. You also pins for transmitting analog data.
Signals for this standard can be passed through a DVI connector with Plug and Display connector at the other end. .connectors.