DESIGN AND TESTING OF A STRATIFIED WATER HYACINTH GASIFIER

By: Aggrey Ogola

A Research proposal submitted to Graduate School in partial fulfillment for the requirement Masters of Science in Engineering Systems and Management of Egerton University.

Department of Industrial and Energy Engineering

EGERTON UNIVERSITY

2008

Declaration I hereby declare that this my original work and has not been presented or published before.

Recommendation I declare that this work has been presented to me i. Prof. S. F. O Owido.

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Abstract Biomass constitutes the biggest source of energy in rural areas in Africa. However, its utilization in the domestic sector is mostly inefficient and polluting, resulting in resource wastage, indoor and environmental air pollution. Use of energy sources such as electricity and liquefiable petroleum gas (LPG) to eliminate air pollution and increase cooking efficiency has failed due to sharp increase their prices, which is not affordable to many families in rural areas. This project aims at designing and determining the performance characteristics of a stratified gasifier that will use water hyacinth that is an environmental problem as its source of fuel. The fabrication of the gasifier will be carried out in Eldoret Polytechnic Engineering workshop. Determination of energy conversion efficiency to be done using Water-boiling test (WBT). The data obtained from WBT will be recorded in a standard data and calculation form from which burning rate, thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, firepower and turn down ratio will be determined. The overall results obtained thereafter will then be presented in a seminar.

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Table of content DECLARATION......................................................................................................II RECOMMENDATION.............................................................................................II ABSTRACT...........................................................................................................III TABLE OF CONTENT..........................................................................................IV LIST OF TABLES.................................................................................................VI LIST OF FIGURES...............................................................................................VII LIST OF SYMBOLS............................................................................................VIII CHAPTER ONE......................................................................................................1
1.0 Introduction...............................................................................................................................................1 1.1 Background of the problem.....................................................................................................................1 1.2 Problem Statement...................................................................................................................................3 1.3 Objectives of the Study.............................................................................................................................6 1.3.1 Main objective....................................................................................................................................6 1.3.2 Specific objectives..............................................................................................................................6 1.4 Research Hypothesis.................................................................................................................................6 1.5 Significance of the Study..........................................................................................................................6 1.6 Research Justification..............................................................................................................................7 1.7 Scope of the study.....................................................................................................................................7 1.8 Limitations.................................................................................................................................................8 1.9 Assumptions..............................................................................................................................................9 2.0 Literature Review...................................................................................................................................10 2.1Introduction .............................................................................................................................................10 2.2Current Biomass Situation......................................................................................................................10 2.2.1 Environmental Impact.......................................................................................................................11 2.2.2 Biomass processing...........................................................................................................................11 2.2.3 Global Biomass Energy....................................................................................................................11

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..............................................15 Construction Materials...................................................................26 Specific objective two: Determination of energy conversion efficiency........................................................ SAMPLE TEST DATA SHEET .................................................................13 Methodology ...............3 Test parameters..........................25 Expected Results...................................................................................................................................1............3 Performance of Compressed Hyacinth of Up Draft and Down Draft Furnaces............................26 CHAPTER FOUR.........17 Experimental Procedure...........................................1........................................................................................................................................................16 Fabrication procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................15 Experimental location..................................................................................................................................................................................................12 2...........2......................................................................................................................................................39 v ............13 2...............4 Stratified water hyacinth gasifier...........................36 APPENDIX 1.........................................................21 Specific objective two: Determination of emission characteristics......4 Data collection .....1 Water Boiling Test (WBT)...............................................................................................27 BUDGET......................................................................................................................................................................................19 3..........................15 Research Materials and Equipment...............................................................................................................................................................27 WORK PLAN...................................................1.....................................................................23 3...................................................................................................................................................................... (CCT)....................36 APPENDIX 2................15 Functional parts of the gasifier...............................................19 Water Boiling Test procedure:....23 3............................................................................................29 APPENDICES ................................................................................... PARTS OF THE GASIFIER....................................................................2 Controlled Cooking Test..........................................18 3............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1.28 REFERENCES.....2...4 Direct Combustion of biomass.........

...............................39 vi ............................................39 TABLE 5 DESIGN DETAILS OF THE GASIFIER.......................................................................16 TABLE 2: OPERATING TEST RESULTS OF THE STRATIFIED WATER HYACINTH GASIFIER.........................26 TABLE 4 DESIGN DETAILS OF THE GASIFIER......List of tables TABLE 1 LIST OF MATERIALS NEEDED FABRICATING SIX UNITS OF WATER HYACINTH GASIFIER..............................................................................25 TABLE 3 OPERATING PERFORMANCE OF THE STRATIFIED GASIFIER........

........................List of figures FIGURE 1: PROPOSED STRATIFIED GASIFIER......................................................39 vii ...14 FIGURE 2: PART OF THE GASIFIER REACTOR NOT DRAWN TO SCALE......................36 FIGURE 3: DETAIL OF THE CHAR CHAMBER NOT DRAWN TO SCALE (ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MM)................................................................................................... ALL DIMENSIONS IN MM...........

Effective calorific value P .Net calorific value (dry hyacinth) m – Hyacinth moisture content (% .Gasification efficiency (η) List of Abbreviations/Definitions SGR .Mass of dry fuel in kg w C -calorific value of dry fuel KJ/kg w viii .Fuel Consumption Rate ER .Firepower PHU .Equivalence Ratio TDR .Percent Heat Utilized M .Water Boiling Test CCT .Specific Gasification Rate FCR .Controlled Cooking Test LPG – Liquefiable Petroleum Gas KPT .Local boiling point of water Rcd – Burning rate Fcd – Dry hyacinth consumed t ci – Time at start of test (min) t cf – Time at end of test (min) SCc .List of symbols η .Kitchen Performance Test HHV .Turn-Down ratio WBT .Weight of empty container for char Tb .Gross calorific value (dry hyacinth) LHV .Dry weight of empty Pot (grams) k .wet basis) C eff .Specific fuel consumption f act – Equivalent dry hyacinth consumed P cf – Weight of pot with water after test (g) P – Weight of pot (g) FPc .

Methane HiTAG – high temperature agent gasification ix .Temperature of water in 0C at start i T f .Temperature of water in 0C at finish H 2 S .M -Net weight of charcoal remaining in kg c Cc -Calorific value of charcoal in KJ/kg W .Hydrogen sulphite CH 4 .Mass of water used in kg at start i W f - Mass of water in kg at finish T .

who spend the most time near the domestic hearth. fuel. and less than 1% uses it for cooking. crop residues or charcoal) to meet their most basic domestic energy needs. indoor smoke can exceed acceptable levels for small particles in outdoor air. Every year. In many of these households. it has recently been argued that the greatest global burden of air pollution exposure occurs not outdoors in the cities of the developed world. (WHO 2005) The use of polluting fuels thus poses a major burden on the health of poor families in developing countries. (Pisces 2008) More than 80% of Kenya rural populations depend on biomass (dung. 2004) Exposure is particularly high among women and children. wood.1 Background of the problem More than 50% of the world’s populations rely on dung. every day of the year. is burnt indoors on open fires or poorly functioning stoves. 2005). 2005) Cooking and heating with such solid fuels on open fires or stoves without chimneys leads to indoor air pollution. Consequently. crop waste or charcoal to meet their most basic energy needs. very large numbers of women and young children are exposed to high levels of air pollution. dung. often with no means of ventilation or smoke extraction. (WHO. wood. The survey carried out in Western Kenya. This indoor smoke contains a range of health-damaging pollutants including small soot or dust particles that are able to penetrate deep into the lungs. charcoal. It is currently estimated that around two-thirds of all households in the developing countries still rely primarily on unprocessed biomass fuels (wood. (UNDP. indoor air 1 . Cooking and heating with such solid fuels on open fires or stoves without chimneys leads to indoor air pollution. (WHO 2005) Access to electricity in Kenya is only up to 15% of the households in urban areas and 4% in rural areas.CHAPTER ONE 1. but indoors in poor rural communities (WHO 1997). crop residues) for their daily cooking and heating needs (World Resources Institute. (WHO/UNDP.0 Introduction 1. Nyanza and Kajiado revealed that women and children suffer from illnesses resulting from indoor air pollution and this has lead subsequent death. 2005). In poorly ventilated dwellings. The remaining households rely on traditional fuels for cooking and heating. Indeed.

or biomass. and around 4% of the global burden of disease (Bruce. Biomass gasification is a process that converts carbonaceous materials. infant and prenatal mortality. the reliance on biomass fuels appears to be growing because of population growth and the unavailability of or increases in the price of alternatives such as kerosene and liquid petroleum gas. hydrogen (H2) and traces of methane(CH4) by reacting the raw material at high temperatures with a controlled amount of oxygen and/or steam. Although the risks are poorly quantified. (WHO. The resulting gas mixture is called synthesis gas (syngas) or producer gas and is itself a fuel. compares its energy conversion efficiency and emission characteristics with those of the traditional woodstove (three-stone fire). charcoal stove (jiko) and paraffin stove. Gasification is a very efficient method for extracting energy from many different types of organic materials. and has applications as a clean waste disposal technique. the health impacts of exposure to indoor air pollution have yet to become a central focus of research development aid and policy-making. 2003) This research aims at designing and testing a water hyacinth gasifier. (WHO.6 million people i.pollution is responsible for the death of 1. petroleum. and crop residue. indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly two million excess deaths in Least Developed Countries (LDCs). Despite the magnitude of this growing problem. the most important cause of death of children below five years in Kenya and there is association with birth weight. one death every 20 seconds. 2005) Rural Kenya has been the site of various applied research projects to determine the intensity of emissions that commonly occur from use of biomass fuels. 2 . pulmonary tuberculosis and some forms of cancer. (Kammen. particularly wood. 2005) This research focuses on the elimination of biomass fuel that causes indoor air pollution with a cleaner technology using the process of gasification. Perez-Padilla. 2000). In Kenya. charcoal. 2003) There is now consistent evidence that indoor air pollution (IAP) increases the risk of childhood acute respiratory infections. dung.e. into carbon monoxide (CO). Albalak. (Bhattacharya et al. Smoke is the result of the incomplete combustion of solid fuel which women and children are exposed to up to seven hours each day in closed environments. such as coal.

The smoke also contains various poisonous gases such as carbon monoxide (CO). (WHO. higher than outdoor levels. 2002). (Ezzati et al. wind. 2005) There is mounting evidence that the resulting indoor air pollution (IAP) increases common serious health problems. 2005) Kenya’s pre-dominant energy source is biomass. Previous attempts to reduce this have often failed due to lack of community involvement in developing appropriate sustainable solutions which depend on biomass (wood. dung.1. as a causal agent of several diseases. with varying degrees of evidence. biogas.2 Problem Statement An overview of the energy sector in Kenya shows that wood fuel is the largest form of energy consumed in Kenya accounting for about 68% followed by Petroleum and then electricity accounting for 22% and 9% respectively. crop residues) for domestic energy. liquefiable petroleum gas and electricity) are not easily accessible to many communities in the rural areas in Kenya due to the increase in their prices while the increasing scarce wood fuel resources are 3 . one kilogram of burning wood produces tiny particles of soot. Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are the leading causes of disease and death from exposure to smoke. The current conventional energy sources (kerosene.( Mbuthi. Various studies show that people spend 65 to 90 percent of their time indoors. nitrogen oxides. Field studies of human exposure to air pollutants indicate that indoor air levels of many pollutants may be two to five times. 65 percent of that time is spent at home. providing more than 90 per cent of rural household energy needs. (UNDP. and on some occasion more than one hundred times. sulphur dioxides and benzene. (Pisces 2008) Exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) from combustion of solid fuels has been implicated. including childhood pneumonia and chronic lung disease. which can clog and irritate the bronchial pathways. bagasse and micro-hydropower together accounting for the remaining 1 %. about one-third in the form of charcoal and the rest from firewood. 2005) Because many Kenyan women in the rural areas utilize a three-stone fire. Indoor air pollution is the presence of one or more contaminants indoors that carry a certain degree of human health risk. This has led to indoor air pollution (IAP). Other sources of energy including solar.

09 20.37 Phlegm Cough & phlegm .70 Kisumu No. (Source) Table 2.32 27.05 26.1 Source: Based on the UNDP/DESA/WEC World Energy Assessment Records from a survey taken from Kisumu and Kajiado reflect the impact of kitchen smoke on the health of women and their children.combusted in traditional devices (stoves) that are characterized by low efficiency and emission of pollutants.7 Allowable standards (mg/m3) 10 0.69 26.84 13.43 5.59 21.64 18. phlegm most days for up to 3 months a year In last three years. cough most days for up to 3 months a year i)From chest in the morning during cold/wet season ii)During day (or at night in wettest coldest season) If 'yes' to i) or ii). of records 97 76 26 102 87 44 98 % with Problem 16. (Bhattacharya et al.3 0.0003 0.002 0. 2003) The table below shows the amount of pollutants found in one kilogram of wood per hour in mg/m3 emitted from kitchen from a survey carried out in western Kenya using firewood Table 1: Pollutants Carbon dioxide Particles Benzene Sulphur dioxide NOx Emissions (mg/m3) 150 3. Health problems identified by the cooks Problem Cough Complication i) First thing in the morning ii)During day (or at night in wettest coldest season) If 'yes' to i) or ii).92 20.88 13.55 21.49 21.1 0. and is intended to give an overview of the smoke-related health problems experienced in each community. cough and phlegm together lasting 3 weeks or more 4 Kajiado No. Table 2 below is a summary of the health problems reported by the cooks in the questionnaires.002 0. of records 74 65 23 73 70 17 73 % with Problem 24.8 0.

51 10.78 28.66 12. sometimes or much of time 74 73 74 74 47 47 47 47 47 13. sometimes or much of time Swollen.79 79 90 78 98 67 66 66 64 67 24.81 Source: Reducing indoor air pollution in rural households in Kenya: 5 .64 10.77 61.21 4.31 38. sometimes or much of time Vision impaired. sometimes or much of time Affected by light.96 17.08 17.91 13.05 27.Wheezing Wheezing or whistling in chest in last 12 months Woken up last 12mths at night with shortness of breath Chest illness During past 3 years preventing usual activities for as much as a week TB Ever been told by a doctor that suffering from tuberculosis Eyes Red.00 55.57 0.61 20.32 27.70 29. watering eyes sometimes or much of time Sore.

2005) The use of Liquefiable Petroleum Gas (LPG) and electricity which are clean and efficient sources of energy have 6 .1. The use of biomass to generate energy for heating and cooking processes in traditional devices (stoves) are characterized low efficiency and emission of pollutants leading indoor air pollution that has affected the health of women and children who spend hours cooking indoors. (Woodstove.3.3.5 Significance of the Study In developing countries. 2005). and paraffin stove) 1.3 Objectives of the Study 1. (Young-Zhi Ren. To determine the emission characteristic of the stratified water hyacinth gasifier and compare with those of the traditional woodstove (three-stone fire).4 Research Hypothesis HO1: The conversion efficiency of stratified water hyacinth gasifier varies significantly compared with other stoves. 1. charcoal stove. charcoal stove (jiko) and paraffin stove. (Kucuk et al 1997.1 Main objective The general objective of this research will be to design and test a stratified water hyacinth gasifier. 1. Specific objectives Compare energy conversion efficiency of the stratified water hyacinth gasifier with those of the traditional woodstove (three-stone fire). charcoal stove. charcoal stove (jiko) and paraffin stove. ii. biomass is the predominant form of energy and accounts for about 38 % of their primary energy consumption and in rural areas 90 % of their total energy supplies. Sims 2003 and Pathak. and paraffin stove) H02: The emission characteristics of the stratified water hyacinth varies significantly compared to other stoves (woodstove.2 i.

Water hyacinth has caused problems to the people leaving along the lakeside such as hindrance to water transport. and hindrance to fishing. 1. fabricating and testing a stratified water hyacinth gasifier. biomass energy provided close to 77% of Kenya’s national energy requirements. 1. The emission characteristics of the gases produced by the gasifier 7 . In 1980. charcoal stove (jiko) and paraffin stove using three method namely water boiling test.2% (Watubengo. 2004) iii.their prices increasing by 20% and 28% respectively every year thus becoming unaffordable to people leaving in the rural areas (Ramirez et al. Production of renewable energy particularly biomass based energy. The use of water hyacinth would reduce the dependency on wood fuel as a source of renewable energy. 2007) A well-designed gasifier that produces clean gas for heating and cooking processes will solve the energy crisis and health problems of the people leaving along the lake side where water hyacinth to be used as fuel is equally an environmental problem. would save the foreign exchange earnings due to high rising cost of oil. clogging of intake of irrigation. petroleum fuels provided close to 20% and electricity 1. The testing will comprise of a series of experiments to compare the energy conversion efficiency of the designed gasifier with the traditional woodstove (three stone fire). This will reduce the wide spread and overexploitation of deforestation and desertification that are potentially very serious in the long term.6 Research Justification The domestic use of water hyacinth as source energy in Kenya would provide the following advantages: i. Affordable renewable source of energy would improve both domestic and industrial growth and this translates into reduction of commodity prices. This research work aims at designing.7 Scope of the study The proposed study will focus stratified gasifier to use water hyacinth as its source of fuel. ii. controlled cooking test and kitchen performance test. Domestic users of water hyacinth as a fuel would be less vulnerable to price manipulations or unexpected disruption of supplies of fossil of fuel.

Due to lack of availability of funds. charcoal stove and paraffin stove. These effluents include particles entrained from the gasifier that is low and high molecular mass organic compounds (tars). this research will carry out test on the composition of individual gases in the producer gas by percentages and not impurities. (Stahlberg et al 1998).will be analyzed and compared by those wood stove. One of the most important and difficult analytical tasks is to characterize the emission from the gasifier. 1. The equipment for carrying out the analysis of the pollutant emission from biomass gasification is very expensive and is not available locally. 8 . hydrogen sulphite (H2S) and other nitrogen containing impurities. which are formed during gasification process.8 Limitations Reliable sampling and analysis of products from biomass gasification are essential for the successful process development and economical operation of a gasifier.

1.9 Assumptions This research project work will be carried out based on the following assumptions 1) The combustion properties of water hyacinth are the same as those of other fuels. 2) The bio-waste gasifier will operate at the optimal operation point where just enough oxygen is added to avoid solid carbon formation 9 .

Current consumption in industrialized countries is low. (Hall and Overland). household and industrial wastes are in many cases being deposited in landfills at a considerable financial and environmental cost. mainly due to population growth in the rural economies but also because of environmental concern for fossils in the industrialized world. Biomass fuels include urban refuse. Kenya and Congo rely on this type of fuel for 80-90% of all energy needs. 2. Ethiopia. industrial waste. In particular. derived energy was about 930 million tones oil equivalent virtually all from the direct combustion. Biomass represents similar proportions in the poorest Indian sub-continent for example Napal and Bangladesh (Atkins et al. its share of the world energy market has declined since the nineteenth century. Its share is now on the increase again.CHAPTER TWO 2 2. Ironically. biomass supplied all the energy for all both industrial and domestic activities. agricultural waste animal waste and sewage sludge.1 Introduction Bio-energy is the energy recovered from biomass that is initially stored as chemical by plants. Before the discovery of fossil fuels. In the 1995 biomass. whereas some African countries for example Angola. 1996) 10 . In addition to the benefits of power generation. energy from waste plants can dramatically reduce the volume of waste to be disposed off in the landfill sites. although actual quantities consumed have increased.2 Current Biomass Situation.0 Literature Review 2. Wood is still the most significant fuel source in developing countries accounting for 35% of their demand. This is about 14% of consumption.

e. Biomass energy is carbon dioxide neutral with the alternate reduction (fixation) and oxidation (release) of carbon and thus the benefits from biomass is as a replacement for fossil fuel.2 Biomass processing The water content of the biomass is also a basic to the choice of fuel produced e.3 Global Biomass Energy Biomass was the first fuel used for major energy by humanity and has predominated through history as a major resource. clean burn and other renewable. However. the rise in the global consumption of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution has seen a decline in the use of biomass as primary source in the developed world. 1996) 2.g. dry homogenous biomass will be mostly efficiently converted into energy by direct combustion or co-combustion with fossil fuel.2. This often resembles an accelerated fossilization process using hot flushing without oxygen to avoid combustion i.2. (Mulder E. There will also be strong completion from improved energy efficiency. the conversion of sludge gas is only 50% efficient and achieves a lower degree of pasteurization than the alternative incineration that generates a toxic ash residue. 1996) Biogas generation has similar problems. biomass has two major problems: one is the high water requirement and content. 1997) 2. Hydrocarbons content of biomass can be enriched and modified to produce premium bio-fuels such as oils and gases.1 Environmental Impact Biomass energy source is now strongly linked to environmental impact. However. Food growth in developing and bioconversion of habitat in industrialized countries will create alternative demands on agricultural land. The use of biomass is 11 . (ENDS Report 257. the other is the slow growth and yield from photosynthesis (about 1% efficient). pyrolysis. biomass conversion to liquid fuel such as gasohol and bio diesel may be negative and create problems such effluent to side stream (Atkinson et al.2.2. Fundamentally.

About 70% of domestic energy in developing countries is derived from biomass. It has been estimated that improvements in energy efficiency of biomass energy production could save 326 million tones of biomass fuel per year from residential and commercial activities. in China half of biomass use comes from agricultural residue and South Asia animal dung and crop residue accounts for half the biomass.2. (IEA. This type of biomass depends upon availability and cultural values e. this can be over 90% of the fuel available for heating and an estimated 2. Because of the dominance biomass in the developing countries. 2000) 2. In sub-Sahara. calorific value of dry matter. wealth and population of a country living in urban and rural areas. it would be appropriate to develop technologies to improve the efficiency of energy production. but also food from agricultural land. This would include 152 million tone of residential wood fuel.4 billion people rely on non-commercial biomass for fuel.dependent of a number of factors. which include. 12 .g. Whereas in South America and sub-Sahara the majority of biomass used is wood fuel or charcoal.4 Direct Combustion of biomass The combustion process for biomass fuel is consisting of three main stages namely drying. as the growing population does not only need biomass energy. This is important. The effect of each stage on the overall efficiency of the combustion process will depend on the fuel moisture content. pyrolysis and oxidation. ash content. content of volatile matter and particle size and size variation.

(Klaimukh 2007) 2. Open top ensures uniform access of air or oxygen to the flaming pyrolysis zone and permits the fuel to be fed more easily.4 Stratified water hyacinth gasifier This research work aims at using stratified downdraft gasifier because of several advantages over the others.76 kJ/Nm3 at the air flow rate 3.33 x. Stratified downdraft gasifiers consist of cylindrical vessel with a hearth at the bottom.31 x m3/s should be utilized as it provided highest heating value. The cylindrical construction is easy to fabricate and permits continues flow for otherwise troublesome fuels without causing bridging or channeling. The uppermost layer is composed of unreacted biomass fuel through which air enters. The results were compared to investigate tile optimum heat condition by using gas chromatography. down-flow gasifier 2. and energy content of the fuel. The experimental results showed that the up flow gasifier provided high heating value 4545. Airflow rates in each gasifier were adjusted in three levels as follow: up-flow gasifier 3. 4.2. Water hyacinth as biomass has proved to have a considerable high heating value of 13 . the various strata are more accessible for measuring compositions and temperatures within the bed so that it is possible to compare modeling results with empirical observation. Finally.42 x and 4.3 Performance of Compressed Hyacinth of Up Draft and Down Draft Furnaces This research is to study the production of producer gas from up-flow and downflow gasifier using compressed water hyacinth as fuel.66 x m3/s.03 x m3/s.59 x. air and biomass pass uniformly through four zones hence the name stratified. (Citation) The choice for a given design of gasifier depends on several factors such as the type of biomass. the moisture content. 3. During the operation of a stratified downdraft gasifier. The uniform passage of air and fuel down the gasifier keeps local temperatures from becoming either too high or too low while the average temperature is high.9 kJ/Nm3 at the air flow rate 4.42 x m3/s.31 x m3/s and down-flow gasifier provided high heating value 2135. It also allows easy access for instruments to measure conditions within the bed.31 x and 5. It could be concluded that the producer gas from up-flow gasifier at airflow rate 4.

while the other possibility (in my opinion) is that we can design more efficient biomass stoves so that the smoke (a combustible gas in most cases) is burned inside the stove to extract the maximum energy from the fuel.9KJ/Nm3 at flow rate 4.4545. Entry point They reach this conclusion it seems after deciding that chimneys just divert smoke so that now it pollutes the overall environment. after several prototypes were tested in both updraft and downdraft gasifiers (Klaimukh 2007) . A central problem not addressed by WHO is that modern fuels need to be purchased (and petroleum based ones are non-renewable). while the people using wood stoves tend to do so because the fuel is free or available at a low cost. P rim a ry A ir an d H yacith F u el G as O u t R eactor (S ta in less steel) M ild Steel T h erm ocou ples In su la tion Sp ace O u ter cylin d er (M ild steel) A sh lev er assem bly G rate A sh C ha m b er D oo r A sh C h am ber A ssem bly S ta nd Figure 1: Proposed Stratified gasifier 14 .31m3/s.

the stronger the power output of the stove. Research Materials and Equipment Approximately 10m3 of dried Water hyacinth will be required to carry out the experiment. This will be harvested from shores of Lake Victoria and will be dried in the sun until it attains a moisture content of approximately 14%. Controlled Cooking Test (CCT) and Kitchen Performance Test (KPT) will be used to record date collected during the performance of the experiment.CHAPTER THREE 3.0 Methodology Experimental location This research will be carried in the Department of Industrial and energy Engineering laboratory. Controlled Cooking Test (CCT) and Kitchen Performance Test (KPT) will carried out in several homestead along the shores Lake Victoria in Kisumu. The stratified gasifier will be used to analyze the combustion characteristics of water hyacinth under different condition. Water Boiling Test (WBT) will to be used in determination of energy conversion efficiency and will be carried out at the Eldoret Polytechnic in the department of Chemical Engineering. which is recommended for the performance. b) Char chamber 15 . a) Reactor This is the compartment in which water hyacinths is gasified. The dried water hyacinth then is chopped to approximately 10mm in size. Standard sheets for Water Boiling Test (WBT). The analysis of the producer gas will be done at Moi University in the department of Environmental and Natural resources. CH4. NOX). Functional parts of the gasifier. Uniform gasification can be achieved when the reactor is designed in circular rather than in square or in rectangular cross section. A gas analyzer will be use to analyze the composition of the producer gas (CO. The wider the crosssectional area of the reactor. CO2.

It is located beneath the reactor to easily catch the char that is falling from the reactor. Support legs with rubber caps are provided beneath for the chamber to support the entire gasifier. minimizing excessive loss of draft in the system in gasifying the fuel. Moreover. The size and the number of holes in the burner affect the amount of gas generated by the stove. c) Burner The burner design affects the quality of burning gas in the stove.The char chamber serves as the storage for char produced after each operation. Secondary air should also be provided for the combustible gas to improve the combustion of the fuel. The char chamber is tightly fitted in all sides to prevent the air given off by the fan from escaping the chamber hence. the gap between the pot hole and the burner should not be too narrow in order to avoid quenching of the combustion of fuel neither should it be too wide in order to limit the heat released from the stove d) Support legs. Construction Materials The Water hyacinth gasifier will require the following materials for its fabrication: Table 1 List of materials needed fabricating six units of Water hyacinth gasifier Quantity 3 1 2 2 2 2 4 2 4 4 Unit Sheets Piece Length Length Pieces Feet Pieces Pieces Pairs Pieces 16 Description. This chamber is provided with a door that can be opened for easy disposal of char and it must be kept always closed when operating the gasifier. at about 1/8 inch distance. The holes should be closer as possible. Mild Steel gauge 13 Stainless Steel Plate gauge 22 Mild Steel pipe ½ inch Mild steel rod 5/16 inch Mild steel rod 3/16 inch Stainless Steel rod ¼ inch Thermocouples Switches Hinges Lock . to allow proper burning of gas in the burner.

The outer surface of the gasifier will then be painted. Oxyacetylene welding unit is advisable for welding thinner metal sheets. Mild steel sheet will be used for the construction of the reactor and the char chamber. particularly in forming the inner reactor and the burner assembly where proper sealing is required. The pot support. switches. The metal sheet will be cut according to the dimension specified in the layout using a tin snip.2 12 6 2 Liter Pieces Pieces Sacks Enamel Paint Rubber shoes Hooks Water hyacinth As shown. Welding will be done to all parts that need to be joined together. 17 . use of bench snip cutter will facilitate cutting of the metal sheet. Metal sheets will be rolled with a rolling machine in forming the inner and the outer cylinders of the reactor. char chamber. which is directly in contact with the flammable gases. the surface of the welded parts will be smoothened using a portable electric grinder. Fabrication procedure Layout of each of the different components of the gasifier will be made on a metal sheet. and standard materials such as hinges. support legs. as well as the cylindrical parts of the burner assembly. requires stainless steel because of its good resistance to heat. For thicker materials. the part of the burner. After all the different parts are properly welded and constructed to the desired form. and grate lever will be welded using the arc-welding machine. The outer reactor. door lock. The inner cylinder. and rubber shoes. two mild steel sheets and a sheet of stainless steel are needed. For the burner assembly the outer cylinder will be made by mild steel sheet material with the same gauge as that of the reactor. the list of materials may include materials to be fabricated such as metal sheets and bars. For six units of the stove. pot holder. char frame. the handle of the burner assembly including the frame for the char grate and the lever will be made of mild steel rod for better durability.

fuel consumption. The controlled cooking test (CCT) is designed to assess the performance of the improved stove relative to the common or traditional stoves that the improved model is meant to replace. Burning rate Efficiency Specific fuel consumption Turn-Down ratio (TDR) In this protocol. the following are identified as indicators of gasifier performance: i. The goal in this test is to measure fuel consumption and time to boil water under a variety of conditions. Controlled Cooking Test (CCT). This is a laboratory based test which provides four (4) of the six (6) indicators of stove performance i.e. thermal efficiency. Stoves are compared as they perform a standard cooking task that is closer to the actual cooking that local people do every day. However. the tests are designed in a way that minimizes the influence of other factors and allows the test conditions to be reproduced. high power hot start. The goal in this test is to measure fuel consumption and time to cook a typical meal. ii. iv. Water Boiling Test (WBT). Each water-boiling test consists of three parts: high power cold start. 18 . low power (simmer). In this protocol. It is similar to a lab-controlled test and it is used to compare stoves performing the task of cooking the same meal. ii. turn down ratio and speed of cooking.Experimental Procedure Standard testing protocol series (2003) developed by University of California at Berkeley will be used to determine the energy conversion efficiencies of the stratified water hyacinth gasifier. the following three stove performance tests are recommended to evaluate the indicators of performance i. iii.

This type of testing. The Kitchen Performance Test (KPT) is the principal field–based procedure to demonstrate the effect of stove interventions on household fuel consumption. To meet these aims. 7) Low Power Phase: The heat will then be reduced so that water remains at boiling point and remaining fuel used until it is all used up and the time recorded. 3. species and sizes) of fuel will be used in each type of stove. 3) The pots will be filled with a constant amount of water. amount of fuel used and time to boil will be recorded.1 Water Boiling Test (WBT) Water Boiling Test procedure: 1) Same pot will be used in all tests (to be carried out indoor) for all types of stoves. when conducted carefully. 4) Water temperature T1 will then be determined and fire started in a reproducible manner.iii. the KPT includes quantitative surveys of fuel consumption and qualitative surveys of stove performance and acceptability.1. There are two main goals of the KPT: (1) to assess qualitative aspects of stove performance through household surveys and (2) to compare the impact of improved stove(s) on fuel consumption in the kitchens of real households. the pot removed from the stove and the remaining water measured. Kitchen Performance Test (KPT). 6) When the water boils. 5) High Power Phase: Stoves will be started at room temperature and water temperature recorded every five minutes as water is brought as rapidly as possible to a boil without being wasteful of heat. 2) A constant uniform amount (same weight. 19 . is the best way to understand the stove’s impact on fuel use and on general household characteristics and behaviors because it occurs in the homes of stove users. 8) The flame is then extinguished. The amount of charcoal left will then be weighed.

Gross calorific value (dry hyacinth) (MJ/kg) LHV . v.3 Pcf − P Where f cd – Equivalent dry hyacinth consumed Pf c – Weight of pot with water after test (g) P – Weight of pot (g) 20 .Weight of empty container for char (grams) Tb . i.wet basis) Ceff . iii.Dry weight of empty Pot (grams) k . It is calculated by dividing the equivalent dry hyacinth consumed by the time of the test. ii.Net calorific value (dry hyacinth) (MJ/kg) m – Hyacinth moisture content (14 % . 10) In this test. it is a measure of the amount of hyacinth required to produce one liter (or a kilo) of boiling water starting with cold stove SCc = f cd − − − − − − − − − −3. vii. iv. below: Burning rate Rcb: This is a measure of the rate of hyacinth consumption while bringing water to a boil.9) A minimum of three trials will be necessary for each loading capacity.e.2 t ci − t cf HHV . the following variables are considered constant throughout each phase. Rcb = Fcd − − − − − − − − − 3. vi.Effective calorific value (accounting for moisture content of hyacinth) P .Local boiling point of water (deg C) The following indicators will then be calculated using the formulae as shown Where Rcd – burning rate (Kg/min) Fcd – Dry hyacinth consumed (Kg) t ci – Time at start of test (min) t cf – Time at end of test (min) S Specific fuel consumption C c : This is the fuel required to produce a unit output i.

It tells the average power output of the stove (in Watts) during the high-power test.g. The first step in conducting the CCT is to consult with people in the location where the gasifier is going to be introduced in order to choose an appropriate cooking task.P Firepower F c : This is a ratio of the wood energy consumed by the stove per unit time. After deciding on a cooking task.186KJ/kg0C = specific heat capacity of water 2260KJ/kg = latent heat of vaporization of water 3.1. This should be done well ahead of time.5 M wC w − M c Cc   M w = mass of dry fuel in kg C w = calorific value of dry fuel KJ/kg M c = net weight of charcoal remaining in kg C c = calorific value of charcoal in KJ/kg Wi = mass of water used in kg at start Wf = mass of water in kg at finish Ti = temperature of water in 0C at start Tf = temperature of water in 0C at finish 4. If possible.2 Test procedure i. ii.186Wi(T f − Ti ) = 2260(Wi − W f )  PHU =   × 100% − − − − − − − − − −3. to boil water) to that of energy in fuel used and is given by:  4. include an objective measure of Controlled Cooking Test. to ensure that sufficient food can be obtained to conduct all of the necessary tests. the procedure should be described in as much detail as possible and recorded in a way that both stove users and testers can understand and follow.4 60 × (t ci − t cf ) Percent Heat Utilized (PHU) is a measure of the energy conversion efficiency. This is important to ensure that the cooking task is performed identically on each stove. (CCT) 21 . FPc = f cd × LHV − − − − − − − − − −3. It is the ratio of energy into a cooking task (e.

viii. In addition. each cook should test each stove the same number of times. the tests should be conducted in a controllable setting such as a lab or workshop rather than in a private home. vii. iv. 22 . Record local conditions as instructed on the Data and Calculation form. it is preferable to define the end of the cooking task by an observable factor like “the skins come off the beans” rather than a subjective measure like “the sauce tastes right After sufficient ingredients and fuel have been obtained and the steps of the cooking task are written up and well understood by all participants. difficulties that they encounter. v. smoke. excessive heat. vi. some training will probably be required before conducting the actual tests. if more than one cook is used. for non-perishable food. etc). iii. Remove the pot(s) of food from the stove and weigh each pot with its food on the balance. Record the weight in grams on the Data and Calculation form. Starting with a cool stove. to ensure that the testers have control over the testing environment. instability of the stove or pot. While the cook performs the cooking task. in order to remove the cook as a potential source of bias in the tests. the preparation can be done in bulk. record any relevant observations and comments that the cook makes (for example. so that food for all of the tests is prepared at once. ix. The cooking itself should be done by a local person who is familiar with both the meal that is being cooked and the operation of the stove to be tested. record the time in the Data and Calculation form (see the comments on determining when the task is complete in step 2 above). Weigh the predetermined ingredients and do all of the preparations (washing. Record the weight in the appropriate place on the Data and Calculation form.when the meal is “done”. To save time. the actual testing can begin. If the stove is a new design that differs significantly from traditional cooking practices. In other words. cutting. When the task is finished. When comparing stoves with the CCT. Start the timer and record the time on the Data and Calculation form. Start with a pre-weighed bundle of fuel that is roughly double the amount that local people consider necessary to complete the cooking task. allow the cook(s) to light the fire in a way that reflects local practices. etc). peeling.

Knock the charcoal from the ends of the unburned wood. Total Operating Time (T3) – This is the duration from the time water hyacinth is ignited. Fuel Consumption Rate (FCR) – This is the amount of water hyacinth fuel used in operating the stove divided by the operating time. Place all of the charcoal in the designated tray and weigh this too.3 Test parameters The following parameters are used in evaluating the performance of the gasifier 1. The test is now complete – you may now enjoy the food that was cooked or proceed by testing the next stove – each stove should be tested at least 3 times.x. Record both measurements on the Data and Calculation form. 23 . It is the sum of the startup time and the operating time of the gasifier. Weigh the unburned wood from the stove with the remaining wood from the original bundle. Specific Gasification Rate (SGR) – This is the amount of water hyacinth fuel used per unit time per unit area of the reactor. This is calculated using the weight of dry water hyacinth gasified for a run. Specific objective two: Determination of emission characteristics. net operating period and cross sectional area of the reactor. Remove the unburned wood from the fire and extinguish it. T3 = T1 + T2 − − − − − − − − − −3. This parameter is measured from the time the burning pieces of paper are introduced to the fuel in the reactor until combustible gas is produced at the burner. until no more combustible gas is produced in the stove. Operating Time (T2) – This is the duration from the time the gasifier produces a combustible gas until no more gas is obtained from the burning water hyacinth. This is computed using the formula.6 4. Start-Up Time (T1) – This is the time required to ignite the water hyacinth and consequently to produce combustible gas.7 Operating time (hr ) 5.1. 3. 2. 3. This is computed using the formula. xi. FCR = weight of fuel used ( kg ) − − − − − − − − − −3.

Gasification efficiency (η) This the percentage of energy of the water hyacinth converted into cold producer gas (free from tar).9 Amount of stoichiome tric air in the run 7. η Amount of gas produced × LCV of the gas − − − − − − − − − −3.8 Re actor area ( m 2 ) × Operating time (hr ) 6.10 Quantity of water hyacinth × LCV of hyacinth 24 . The expression below is used to compute gasification efficiency. Equivalence Ratio (ER) This is the actual air used in a run to stiochiometric air requirement for the run. ER = Amount of air used in one run − − − − − − − − − −3.SGR = Weight of fuel used (kg ) − − − − − − − − − −3. This is computed the formula.

three quarter load and half load. on full load.4 Data collection Determination gasifier performance in the laboratory Results of the performance testing of the gasifier will be carried out in laboratory.3. In each mode three trials will be recorded as shown in table 2 below Table 2: Operating test results of the stratified water hyacinth gasifier Loading Capacity Weight Of Fuel (Kg) Fuel Start Up Time (Min) Gas Ignition Time (Sec) Total Operating Time (Min) Full Load Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average ¾ Load Trial 1 Trail 2 Trial 3 Average ½ Load Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average 25 .1. This will be done in three modes that is.

Loading Capacity Full Load ¾ Load ½ Load Expected Results 1) Determination of the amount of energy that can be produced by water hyacinth would lead to the use of water hyacinth as an alterative source of renewable energy in Kenya. Specific objective two: Determination of energy conversion efficiency Power Input (kW) Thermal Efficiency (%) Power output (kW) 26 . 5) Commercialization of water hyacinth will generate additional income to farmers living along the lake region. 3) Utilization of water hyacinth as a source of energy will reduce the dependency on wood-biomass as a source of energy in Kenya.Table 3 Operating performance of the stratified gasifier Loading capacity Full Load ¾ Load ½ Load Fuel consumption rate. 4) Savings from reduced important of fuel can be used to expand enterprises that would create employment opportunities in Kenya. (kg/hr) Char produced (%) Specific gasification rate (Kg/hr-m2 ) Table 4: Power Output and efficiency of the stove. 2) Determination of emission characteristics of water hyacinth for the formation of pollutant gases will allow for the safe use of water hyacinth without polluting the environment.

CHAPTER FOUR 4.0 WORK PLAN Year Month Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Problem Definition Literature Review Methodology Work plan Budget Design of Gasifier Fabrication Testing of Gasifier Analysis & Evaluation Conclusion Presentation 2008 N D 1 2 2009 J F 3 4 M 5 A 6 M 7 J 8 J 9 A 1 0 S 1 1 O 12 N 13 27 .

Construction of prototype Construction of materials Tools and equipment Labour Sub total 5. Testing and analysis Testing equipment Total 6.BUDGET Description 1.100 28 .000 10.000 8.000 25.000 81.000 20. 10. Contingency (10% of total) Grand total Cost in Ksh. Traveling 4.000 3. Communication E mail and internet browsing Internet modem Phone Sub total 2.000 1.100 89.000 1.000 5.000 14.000 38.000 5.000 3.000 1.000 8.000 9. Stationary Flash disk Printer cartridge Printing papers Binding Sub total 3.

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All dimensions in mm 36 .Appendices Appendix 1. Parts of the gasifier Mild steel Sheet 200 150 Stainless Steel Sheet Mild steel Sheet Metal Sheet Flange 5 Outer Cylinder Insulation Material Welded to the ash chamber Intermediate Cylinder Inner Cylinder Figure 2: Part of the gasifier reactor not drawn to scale.

37 .

200 Ash Lever Fuel Grate Hinge Top View Cover Lock 38 .

160 Front View 300 Rubber Shoes Figure 3: Detail of the char chamber not drawn to scale (All dimensions are in mm) Appendix 2. kg Final. kg 39 Run 2 Run 3 Average . Sample test data sheet Water boiling test Date : Place : Tester : Table 4 Design details of the gasifier Stove model Fuel reactor diameter (mm) Fuel reactor height (mm) Kind and Thickness of insulation Table 5 Design details of the gasifier Run 1 Type of test Ambient condition Temperature (0C) Fuel Weight Initial.

Time operated Started Finished Volume of water Initial (liters) Final (liters) Water temperature Initial (0C) Final (0C) Boiling time (min) Summering time (min) 40 .

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