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ALL ABOUT COMPUTERS
Introduction to Computers The purpose of this course is to help you become competent with computer technology. Computer competency refers to acquiring computer-related skills. They include the effective use of popular application packages and the Internet. Today, computer competency is undoubtedly a prerequisite in all walks of life. To begin with, you must understand the impact of computers in the world today. Computers are affecting our lives is some way or the other. Airline and railway reservations, telephone and electricity bills, banking, medical diagnoses, weather forecasts… the list of services using computers is almost endless. A computer is a device that allows you to input data, process data quickly and efficiently, receive outputs and store data. Thus a computer consists of one or more input devices, output devices, storage devices and a processing unit.
WINDOWS BASICS What is an Operating System? Mac
Other Operating Systems Mac OS: “Mac OS” is the trademarked name for a series of graphical user interface-based operating systems developed by Apple Inc. for their Macintosh line of computer systems. The Macintosh user experience is credited with popularizing the graphical user interface. It is a powerful, easyto-use operating system that is popular with professional graphic designers, desktop publishers and many home users. One of the latest versions of the Macintosh operating system is “Mac OS X”, also known as “Tiger”. It provides powerful features such as “Spotlight” and “Dashboard Widgets”. Spotlight is an advanced search tool that can rapidly locate files, folders, e-mail messages, addresses and much more. Dashboard
Widgets are specialized programs that constantly update and display information. The next version of Mac OS, “Leopard” includes “Boot Camp” which allows appropriately equipped Apple computers to use both Mac OS and Windows XP. UNIX and Linux: UNIX is a powerful multitasking operating system that was developed in 1969. It was originally designed to run on minicomputers in network environments. Now, it is also used by powerful microcomputers and Web servers. Linux is a popular version of UNIX. It was initially created as a hobby in 1991 by a graduate student, Linus Torvalds, at the University of Helsinki in Finland. He allowed free distribution of the operating system code and encouraged others to modify and further develop the code. Introduction to Windows Vista Windows Vista has a more elegant and sophisticated looked than all previous versions of Windows. The new Vista interface is great to look at, with a lot of added functionality making working in Vista a really pleasant experience -and a more secure one. Windows Aero: This is the graphical user interface for Windows Vista. Its name is a contraction of the words Authentic, Energetic, Reflective and Open. It includes new transparencies, live thumbnails, live icons and animations which are visually very appealing. Glass window borders and surfaces make the interface both professional and beautiful. Windows Sidebar: This is a long, vertical bar that is displayed on the side of your desktop. It contains mini-programs called gadgets, which offer information at a glance and provide easy access to frequently used tools. To add a gadget, right-click on the side bar and select “Add Gadget”. Now simply drag a gadget from the Gadget gallery onto the sidebar. To remove a gadget from the sidebar, move your mouse over it and click on the “X” sign next to it. Additional gadgets can also be downloaded from the Microsoft Gadgets website by clicking on “Get more gadgets online”. Search Boxes: Search boxes are prominently integrated into Windows Explorer, the Start menu, Control Panel, Windows Internet Explorer and Help. So no matter where you are, you can always search for related files, folders or information. Two types of searches are supported: Regular search, where a search is performed when you click the “Search” button, and Instant search, where the results are displayed immediately as you type.
Click “Continue” in the “User Account Control” window. It helps to protect you from the effects of a disk failure. In the displayed window. 4| Page . Windows Vista has maintenance utilities such as “Disk Cleanup” and “Disk Defragmenter”. d) “Backup programs” that make copies of files to be used in the event of the originals being lost. There are various utility programs such as: a) “Troubleshooting” or “diagnostic programs” that recognize and correct problems before they become serious. specify the file types that you wish to backup and click “Next”. e) “File compression programs” that reduce the size of files for easy storage and transfer over the Internet. Specify the location where you wish to store the backup and click “Next”. you may use the “Back up files” button. Click “Change backup settings”. Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel”. To backup specific files. Disk Cleanup is used to remove unnecessary files on your hard disk to free up disk space and help your computer run faster. Specify how often and when you wish to take a backup. To enter settings regarding where the backup is to be stored and which files are to be backed up. The “Backup Status and Configuration” window is displayed. c) “Uninstall programs” that allow you to safely remove programs that you do not need from your hard disk. You may backup your entire computer by clicking “Back up computer”. and Disk Defragmenter is used to rearrange your files so that they are not broken up. click “Back up your computer”. click “Change settings”. Now click “Save settings and start backup” to begin the backup process. Backup “Backup” is a utility program included with Windows Vista that makes a copy of all or selected files that have been saved onto a disk. Under “System and Maintenance”. b) “Antivirus programs” that guard against programs that can damage your computer system.Utilities: “Utilities” are specialized programs designed to make computing easier.
After a period of time. In the displayed window specify whether all files or only your files are to be cleaned up. Each track is divided into wedge-shaped sections called sectors. the hard disk becomes highly fragmented and results in slower operations. A track is a concentric ring. The space that will be made free by the cleanup is calculated and the files suggested for cleanup are displayed. In the displayed window. click “Delete Files”. To start the defragmentation process. It runs automatically at a scheduled time by default. “Disk Cleanup” is a utility that eliminates such files and frees up valuable disk space and improves system performance. it is reconstructed from the fragments. The operating system tries to save a file on a single track across contiguous sectors i. To specify which partitions of your hard disk you wish to defragment. Whenever a file is retrieved. into small parts that are stored wherever space is available. You may modify the scheduled time for defragmentation by clicking “Modify schedule”. many nonessential files are saved on your hard disk. click “Defragment now” and click “OK” in the displayed window. Click “Continue” in the “User Account Control” window. Verify the files and click “OK”. sectors that are adjacent to each other. Then select the drive you want to clean up and click “OK”.Disk Cleanup When you surf the Web. Disk Defragmenter Files are stored and organized on a disk according to “tracks” and “sectors”. However. The disk cleanup process begins and the selected files are removed.e. “Disk Defragmenter” is a utility program that eliminates unnecessary fragments and rearranges files and unused disk space to optimize operations. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Accessories → System Tools → Disk Defragmenter”. 5| Page . this is not always possible and the file has to be broken up or fragmented. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Accessories → System Tools → Disk Cleanup”. click “Select volumes”.
These suites also include programs that protect your system from dangerous programs called computer “viruses”. These protection programs are loaded into memory and run continually in the background and monitor all operations looking for actions associated with viruses. Norton SystemWorks and V Communications.Utility Suites: A “Utility Program” performs a specific task. Viruses enter your computer in various ways such as opening e-mail attachments and downloading from the Internet. Device Drivers: “Device drivers” are specialized programs designed to allow particular input or output devices to communicate with the rest of the computer system. as well as clean up your hard disk. “Norton Utilities” is a collection of separate troubleshooting utilities that can be used to prevent and fix problems and improve system performance. it is known as a “Utility Suite”. Existing viruses are removed and the virus list is automatically updated so that your system is checked for the newest viruses. They also compress and make backups of programs. When a new device such as a mouse or a printer is added 6| Page . Virus protection programs set up a barrier to viruses attempting to enter a computer system. history files and cookies. “GoBack Personal Edition” can be used to restore system configurations. Three popular utility suites are McAfee Office. locate lost files and repair damaged files. “One Button Checkup” integrates several of the separate utilities. It is a quick evaluation that looks for typical PC problems and alerts you accordingly. They protect existing files from damage when new programs are installed. Norton SystemWorks The Norton SystemWorks utility suite includes the following: “Norton AntiVirus” is a collection of antivirus programs that can protect your system from different viruses. When several utility programs are combined into a single package. “Norton CleanSweep” is a collection of programs that help you to safely remove programs that you do not need. “Web CleanUp” is a collection of programs that remove unnecessary files from your computer such as temporary files. Buying the package is less expensive than buying the programs separately.
to a computer system, a new device driver must be installed before it can be used. Each time the computer system is started, the operating system loads all device drivers into memory. Windows supplies many device drivers which are automatically installed when a new device is connected. If a particular device driver is not included with the Windows systems software, it is supplied by the manufacturer of the product. When a device driver needs to be manually installed, wizards provided by Window assist you in the process. For example, the “Add Printer” wizard provides step-by-step guidance for installing a driver for a printer. Ex.: Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel”. Under “Hardware and Sound”, click “Printer”. Click the “Add a printer” button on the toolbar to display the “Add Printer” wizard. Follow the onscreen instructions to install the driver. Sometimes, when your computer behaves unpredictably, you could try reinstalling or updating your device drivers. Windows makes it easy to update your drivers using “Windows Update”. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Windows Update”. In the left pane, click “Check for updates”. To see if updated drivers are available, click “View available updates”. Windows Update will list any updated drivers that are available for devices installed in your computer. If updates are available, click the driver that you want to install, and then click “Install”. Some of the security and safety features of Windows Vista are as follows: Windows Defender: This is a software product which is a part of Windows Vista. It is designed to prevent and remove spyware. Spyware on your computer could result in information being transmitted from your computer without your knowledge. Windows Firewall: This helps in guarding your computer against many types of malicious software. User Account Control: This is an infrastructure that requires user consent before allowing any action that requires administrative privileges such as installing new software or changing system settings. Parental controls: An administrator can apply parental control restrictions to other users on the computer. Facilities include web content blocking,
restrictions on what kind of games may be played and what programs may be executed. Exploring the Desktop Desktop When your computer is booted up and ready to use, the screen you see is called the “Desktop”. It is the background for all programs and contains the commands needed for accessing those programs. The background graphic is called “Wallpaper”. The desktop can be customized to suit individual needs.
Icon Another important graphic feature that you find on the desktop is an “Icon”. Icons are small pictures that are linked to programs. Most icons and toolbar buttons display a “Tool Tip” containing a brief description of the item when you rest the mouse pointer on it. Double-clicking on the icon runs the program or accesses the file and rightclicking accesses a menu offering options, actions and properties. Icons can be moved around on the desktop by clicking and dragging them. Vista’s live icons graphically depict the content of files stored on your computer.
Recycle Bin The "Recycle Bin" on the desktop serves as a trash can. When you delete a file or folder, it goes into the Recycle Bin where it stays until the bin is emptied. Double-clicking on the icon opens a window that shows you its contents. If you delete something you shouldn't have, you can find it in the Recycle Bin and restore it to its proper place. When the Recycle Bin is emptied, everything in it is permanently deleted.
Taskbar At the bottom of the screen, you see a long, thin bar which is called the “Taskbar”. The currently active tasks are displayed in the form of buttons on
the taskbar. When you move your mouse over a button, a thumbnail image of the window is displayed. The taskbar has a circular button displaying the Windows logo at one end and a clock on the other. The button at the left end is the "Start" button which is used to start a program, open a document, get help, find information and change the system settings. If you click on the "Start" button, a box called a “Menu” appears. This menu contains several items. Some of them have sub-items which can be accessed by clicking on them. You may see icons on the taskbar, too. These are called "Quick Launch" icons that allow one-click access to frequently used programs. The right end of the taskbar is the “Notification” area. In the “Notification” area, to the left of the clock are several icons that indicate the tools that are automatically started when you turn on your computer and are running in the background, such as antivirus protection. This area also temporarily displays icons while a tool is in use, such as a printer when printing is in progress.
Personalize your Desktop You may set different display properties for your desktop. Right click on the desktop and select “Personalize”. Changing the Wallpaper: You can make your desktop as attractive and colorful as you wish by setting a wallpaper of your choice. For this, click on “Desktop Background”. In the “Picture Location” box, select the location of the picture. Now from the pictures displayed, make your choice by clicking on it. You may use the “Browse” button to search for a background picture from another location not in the list. Specify how you want the picture to be positioned and click on “Change background color” to select a color to fill the space not used by the picture. You may also save a picture from a Web site as your desktop background. Right-click the picture and then click “Set as Background”. Setting a Screen Saver: A screen saver is a program that displays an image, animation, or just a blank screen on a computer after no input has been received for a certain length of time. Screen savers were originally designed to prevent damages (called burn-in) to CRT screens. The screens manufactured nowadays are much more resistant to damages. To set a screen saver, click on “Screen Saver” in the “Personalization” window. Now
simply move your mouse or press any key. Changing the Display Settings: You may change various settings related to the display of your monitor. Now click “OK”. Under “Resolution”. but they are larger and easier to see. fewer items fit on the screen. Under “Resolution”. At higher resolutions. click “Settings”. At lower resolutions. select “See-saw”. At lower resolutions. Now select a different scheme from the “Scheme” list. so more items fit on the screen. items appear smaller. you can see the recommended resolution based on the size of the monitor. Click on “Mouse Pointers” in the “Personalization” window. you can see the way your mouse pointer will appear when different actions are performed. specify the number of minutes of idle time after which you want the screen saver to start. You may even specify a different pointer for a specific action. so more items fit on the screen. you may try using other screen savers and make changes to the related settings.select “3D Text” from the list. Click on one and then click “Open”. In the displayed figure. Screen resolution refers to the clarity of the text and images on your screen. Screen resolution refers to the clarity of the text and images on your screen. In the displayed figure. fewer items fit on the screen. Click “Preview” to see how the selected screen saver will appear on your monitor. move the slider to the resolution you want. In the “Custom Text” box enter some other text. To change the setting options for your screen saver. move the slider to the resolution you want. Changing the Display Settings: You may change various settings related to the display of your monitor. say “Good Morning!”. In the “Customize” box. Click “Preview” once again to see how the screen saver will look with the new settings. but they are larger and easier to see. Click “OK” to save your settings. Click “OK” to save your settings. Click on “Busy” in the “Customize” box and then click “Browse”. Click on “Display Settings” in the “Personalization” window. At higher resolutions. In the “Rotation Type” box. To clear the screen saver after it has started. items appear smaller. you can see the recommended resolution based on the size of the monitor. In this way. 10 | P a g e . You can see a variety of cursors displayed in the “Browse” window. In the “Wait” field. Click on “Display Settings” in the “Personalization” window. Changing the Mouse Pointer: You may choose a different mouse pointer and also change the way it appears during activities such as clicking and selecting.
The programs on the pinned items list remain there and are always available for you to click to start them. From within “Pictures”. graphics. Clicking an icon in the “Start” menu starts a program or accesses an item or feature immediately. Programs are added to the most frequently used programs list when you use them. To save your settings. a submenu with additional options is displayed. You can add programs to the pinned items list. When you point to an item with an arrowhead symbol. To use your computer. you may make a selection from the “Colors” box. as it is the starting point for most features on your computer. Click the “Monitor” tab and make a selection from the “Screen refresh rate” box and click “Apply”. A refresh rate of at least 75 hertz generally produces less flicker. Programs you have not recently used are removed from the list and replaced with the more recently used programs. If the refresh rate is too low. Pictures: The “Pictures” folder in Windows Vista offers a variety of options for viewing and managing your digital pictures. you 11 | P a g e . Windows colors and themes work best when you have your monitor set to 32-bit color. causing eye strain and headaches. Using Windows Vista The “Start” button is one of the most important features in Windows.To get the best color display from your monitor. It is a convenient place to store documents. click “OK” in the “Display Settings” window. Pointing to an item in the “Start” menu moves the selection cursor to the item and displays a pop-up description. Another consideration in getting the best possible display from your monitor is the screen refresh rate. you will find there are many ways to perform the same task. You may explore the various other options in the “Personalize” window to further personalize your Windows experience. the monitor can flicker. or other files you want to access quickly. Click “Advanced Settings”. As you learn more about Windows Vista. The list of programs on the Start menu is divided into two parts. Documents: “Documents” is your personal folder. Click “Yes” in the displayed window and then click “OK”. The first part is the “Pinned Items List”. you need to start application programs and access files you have created using these applications. The next part is the “Most frequently used programs list”.
On the “Date and Time” tab. and Region → Date and Time”. obtain troubleshooting information. click on “Change date and time”. and then click the arrows to increase or 12 | P a g e . simply double-click on it. double-click the hour. as well as settings for the monitor display and sound. such as a printer or shared folder. rotate them. Date and Time Settings The “System Date” and “System Time” are the date and time as maintained by the computer's internal clock. enter the correct time into the box under “Time”. Music: The “Music” folder is the place where Windows automatically saves all the audio clips you download from the Internet or save on your hard drive with Windows Media Player. To play a particular audio file that you have saved. and year under “Date” to set the date. Changing the date and time manually: To make changes to the system date and time. Windows uses these settings to identify when files are created or modified. click on the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Clock. Computer: This item in the “Start” menu is used to access drives. printers and other hardware. From the Control Panel. To set the time. the “Control Panel” and other system applications. print photos or copy photos to a CD. you can access many support applications that enable you to customize the appearance and functionality of your computer system. view a slide show. printers and modem. Control Panel: Using the Control panel. month. and other resources on the network. printers. Network: “Network” displays shortcuts to shared computers. Language. All Programs: Clicking “All Programs” opens a list of programs currently installed on your computer. receive support and more. The shortcuts are created automatically whenever you open a shared network resource. Now click the correct day. To change only the hour. mouse. you can access hardware settings for the keyboard. Help and Support: You can click “Help and Support” to learn how to use Windows Vista.can view photos at different sizes.
Enter the formats you require on the “Time” and “Date” tabs of the “Customize Regional Options” window. respectively Menu bar: This contains several items that that you can click to make choices in a program. For this. make sure you are connected to the Internet.decrease the value. Borders and corners: You can drag these with your mouse pointer to change the size of the window. click “Change time zone” on the “Date and Time” tab. Now click “OK”. Each program that you open is opened in its own window. Working with Windows A window is a rectangular section on the screen that is used to display information and other programs. To change your time zone. On the “Internet Time” tab. and Region → Regional and Language Options”. Language. click “Change Settings”. enlarge it to fill the whole screen. select your current format and then click “Customize this format”. seconds and the AM/PM indicator. Select your current time zone from the list and click “OK”. click on it. Minimize. Select the appropriate server and then click “Update Now”. Changing the date and time display: You may change the way in which your computer displays the date and time. and Close buttons: These buttons reduce the window to a button on the task bar. Maximize. Sizing and Moving Windows: To make the desktop more workable. Similarly you may change the value of the minutes. you can move and size windows. usually referred to as the local time. Using the buttons in the Title Bar you can 13 | P a g e . On the “Formats” tab. If the box against “Synchronize with an Internet time server” is empty. Select “Control Panel → Clock. Updating the Date and Time: You may also synchronize your computer clock by an Internet time server. and close it. Scroll bar: This lets you scroll the contents of the window to see information that is currently out of view. Most windows have the same basic parts:Title bar: This displays the name of the window which indicates which program is running. Changing the Time Zone: Time zones are areas of the Earth that have adopted the same standard time.
Arranging windows automatically: You can also have the windows on your desktop automatically arranged. Clicking the main part of the button performs a command. then choose one of the options “Cascade Windows”. right-click on an empty area of the taskbar. Dialog Boxes: A dialog box is a special type of window that asks you a question. or “Show Windows Side by Side”. maximize the window to its largest size. it is unavailable and cannot be clicked. list boxes. Split buttons: These buttons change into two parts when you point to them. Scrolling a Window: When there is more information in a window than can be viewed on the screen. Command buttons may also appear as small icons without any text. There are two types of scroll bars Vertical and Horizontal. Data may be entered using push buttons. 14 | P a g e . To choose a command listed in a menu. To choose an arrangement.minimize the window. option buttons. restore the window to the original size or close a window. Command buttons: A command button performs an action when you click it. Moving a Window: To move a window. text boxes. menus are hidden until you click their titles in the “menu bar”. or provides you with information. change settings. Windows Controls: Most windows have “controls” that allow you to select commands. Let us have a look at some of them. combo boxes and other such controls. Menus: To keep the screen free of unnecessary items. Changing the Size of the Window: You can change the size of the window by pointing to the border of the window with your mouse and dragging to make it smaller or bigger. point to the title bar and drag the window to the new location on the desktop. Dragging a corner changes the height and width simultaneously. click on it. allows you to select options to perform a task. or perform other actions related to the working of the window. Some menu controls are shown by an arrow next to a word or picture. check boxes. whereas clicking the arrow opens a menu with more options. scroll bars appear on the window. “Show Windows Stacked”. If a command is shown in gray. To scroll you can either click the arrow of the scroll bar or you can drag the scroll box to move the content within the window.
Under “Ask someone” you may click on the various links for additional assistance and support from friends. Here. Click on the magnifying glass or press “Enter” to display a list of related topics. information is displayed on multiple tabs. You may click on any topic under “Find an answer” to see help for that topic. you may search across multiple remote and online providers to get the most information for the topic that you are investigating. you may enter the keywords you wish to search on. You may perform tasks related to Security. Tabs: In some dialog boxes. 15 | P a g e . Maintenance and Troubleshooting by selecting appropriate options. You can switch to a different tab by clicking on it. Sliders: A slider enables you to adjust a setting along a range of values by dragging the slider toward the value that you want. This is the most commonly used windows control. A drop-down list shows only the currently selected option when it is closed. The other options are displayed when you click the control. Unlike a drop-down list. Windows communities or from Microsoft Customer Support online. List boxes: A list box displays a list of options that you can select from. Using Help With Windows Vista Help features. They are also called “radio buttons”. Click the “Start” button and then click “Help and Support” to display the “Windows Help and Support” window. Drop-down lists: These are similar to menus. Text boxes: A text box is used to type textual information.Option buttons: Option buttons enable you to make one choice among multiple options. In the “Search Help” text box. options are available for selection instead of commands to be executed. some or all of the options are displayed without having to open the list. The currently selected tab appears at the front. you can choose multiple options at the same time using check boxes. Check boxes: Check boxes enable you to select one or more independent a single option only.
This indicates that clicking this link will open the associated item on your computer. the Microsoft Word document named “Document1”. You can tell it is the active window because the taskbar button and title bar appear dark whereas those of the inactive windows are dimmed. When a new window is opened. then select an item to make it the active window. just click its taskbar button. This makes working with your computer more like you would actually work. the window currently in use. Working with Multiple Windows The capability to run multiple programs at the same time is called “Multitasking”. To switch to a specific program. As more windows are opened. You can see that each program is displayed in its own window. that is. Opening a New Window: Notice the “Document1” icon on the desktop. There are now three programs running at the same time. If the taskbar becomes too crowded with buttons. the taskbar buttons resize themselves automatically to fit in the taskbar.Under “Information from Microsoft” you will find guidance on various tasks which will make your experience of working with Windows Vista smooth and convenient. The “Document1” window is the active window. but only one window is active at a time. The newly opened window is automatically the active window and appears on top of other open windows on the desktop. 16 | P a g e . On the Start menu click “Computer” and then “Help and Support”. The window in which the program is running appears in front of the other windows. allowing you to switch easily between tasks without having to put one away before beginning the other. Click the button to see a menu of the items in the group. Double-click on it. in this case. then the buttons for the same program become grouped into a single button. “Windows Help and Support”. A new window opens on the desktop and the taskbar displays an additional button for this open window. This is now the “active” window. Switching between windows: Using the taskbar: Each running program has a corresponding button on the taskbar. it appears in the size in which it was last used and at any location on the desktop. Multiple windows can be open on the desktop at once. “Computer” and “Document1”.
Using ALT+TAB: You can cycle through all open windows and the desktop by holding down the “Alt” key and repeatedly pressing the “Tab” key. press the “Tab” key repeatedly or rotate the mouse wheel to cycle through open windows. shuts down Windows and restarts the computer once again. select “Log Off”. To turn off your computer. Organizing Your Work Files and Folders 17 | P a g e . click the “Start” button. While holding down the Windows logo key. Lock: This is used to lock the computer when you do not want anyone else to access your files. Shut Down: To shut down your computer completely. It saves all open documents and programs. Using Windows Flip 3D: This feature allows you to flip through a cascading stack of your open windows. You may also click on the “Switch between windows” icon on the taskbar to enable the “Windows Flip 3D” feature. you see various options. Log Off: If you share the computer with someone else. shuts down Windows and puts off your computer. Release the “Alt” key to show the selected window. It closes all open programs. Do not turn off the computer by pressing the power button as you may lose valuable data. Shutting down Windows Vista It is very important to shut down Windows Vista correctly. When you click the arrow next to the “Lock” button. This action puts your computer in “sleep” mode. and allows you to resume working within seconds. Sleep: Sleep is a power-saving state. Let us see what each of them does. Restart: This closes all open programs. Alternatively. This closes all your open programs but does not put the computer off. click any part of a window in the stack to display that window. use this option. and then click the “Power” button in the lower right part of the Start menu. Release the Windows logo key to display the window at the front. Switch User: This enables you to switch to another user without closing the programs of the current user.
At the top. This displays the “Folders list”. When you click a location in the Navigation pane. A “folder” is a container in which you can store files. A folder within a folder is known as a “Subfolder”. where you can click any folder to navigate directly to it. To close the Folders list.In a computer. click on the “Start” button and select “Computer”. and gain access to options in the Control Panel to modify your computer settings. It is a named area on a disk that is used to store related subfolders and files. The panel at the left is the Navigation pane. a Details Pane. and even songs. Click the resulting triangle to collapse the expanded list. Examples of files are text documents. CD-ROM drive. you see a small triangle next to each folder which has subfolders. You know that Windows has some common folders such as Documents. Some common file icons are displayed. Pictures. Your computer represents files with icons. hard disks. Click the “Organize” button to organize the contents of a folder. Click “Layout” to specify whether to display Menus. a “file” is an item that contains a collection of related information. A Folder System is also called a “Directory System”. folders created in the main folder appear indented below the main folder. This displays the “Windows Explorer” which shows you the contents of your floppy disk. the folder contents in the right panel change to display the contents of the location you clicked. When you move the mouse pointer into the area of the Folders list. Using Computer To open the “Computer” window. You can also search for and open files and folders. You can view additional folders by clicking “Folders” at the bottom of the Navigation pane. Arranging files into logical groups makes it easy to locate any particular file. spreadsheets. and network drives. In the Folder List. Music and others that you can use to organize your files. You can graphically view the content saved on your computer in ways that enable you to visualize what is inside a folder or file. Windows Vista offers “Live Icon” views of files and folders. digital pictures. commonly used folders are displayed under the heading “Favorite Links”. By looking at a file icon. Click the triangle to expand the folder. a Preview 18 | P a g e . click “Folders” again. Subfolders appear indented below their parent folders. So a “Folder System” is made up of folders and subfolders. you can tell what kind of file it is.
all the subfolders and files contained within the folder are removed. Using Windows Explorer. Folder and File Names: When a file or folder is created. Sorting and Grouping Files and Folders: You may click on any column heading to sort the files by that column. Medium Icons. Alternately. no matter which folder you are presently in. Deleting Folders: When you no longer need a folder you can delete it. You can use the context menu that appears on right-clicking the mouse to perform various functions. Confirm deletion by clicking “Yes” in the “Folder Delete” window. you may select the location where you wish to store your data files. These links let you open folders quickly. you may select the folder. Click the “Views” button to specify how you wish to view the contents of a folder. Renaming Folders: To rename a folder. Details and Tiles. Select the folder that you wish to delete. and then drag the file to another folder or drive.Pane. Small Icons. you can open a folder that contains a file you want to copy or move. and search for files and folders. it must be assigned a name. right-click and select “Rename”. View. you can copy. move. Large Icons. List. Edit. rename. and/or the Navigation Pane. Let us click on “Documents”. Working with Folders Creating Folders: Using the Folders list. Press the “Delete” key or select “File → Delete” from the menu bar. click on the folder name and select “File → Rename” from the menu bar. You can choose from the options: Extra Large Icons. The following characters cannot be used in a folder or file name: \ / : * ?><| If you think you will need to use a folder frequently. select “File → New → Folder” from the menu bar. You can now see a menu with the items File. To create a new folder. For example. A folder icon with “New Folder” written next to it is displayed. Working with Files 19 | P a g e . Tools and Help. Let us select “Menu Bar”. If you delete a folder containing subfolders and files. You may type a new name for this folder. Clicking again reverses the sort order from ascending to descending. drag it to the Favorite Links area.
you can use the Search box at the top to search the current folder. you can select these files to copy or move them at the same time. Type in the Search box. You may now drop the selection by releasing the mouse button. Drag and Drop: All Windows applications have the ability to copy or move selections using the “Drag and Drop” feature. Then. Moving a file: You may move a file from one location to another. click “Select All” on the “Edit” menu. First. such as part of its name.txt”. Type anything you can remember about the file. The file that was copied remains at the original location. Click on the folder you wish to copy it to. click on the file name and select “Edit → Move To Folder” from the menu bar. A copy of it is created at the new location. Now this file can be copied to one or more locations.docx”. A file can also be copied to a folder by selecting ““Edit → Copy To Folder” from the menu bar and clicking on the appropriate folder in the “Copy Items” window. you can use the Start menu to search instead. select the item to be copied or moved. To select all the files and folders in the window. Now select “Edit → Paste” from the menu bar. and then click a result to open it. while a document created using Notepad is stored with the extension “. Selecting Multiple Files: When you want to copy or move several files into the same folder. Keep the “Ctrl” key pressed and then select multiple files. Different types of files are stored with different extensions. The file is removed from the original location and placed at the new one. point the mouse to it and drag the pointer to the new location by keeping the mouse button pressed.The name of a file consists of two parts. If you do not know which folder to search. The “Move Items” window is displayed. 20 | P a g e . Finding Files: If you are looking for a specific file from a large number of files in a folder. Now click on the location you wish to move the file to and then click “Move”. the File Name and the Extension. Copying a file: You may make a copy of a file. For example. For this. Renaming and deleting a file: A file can be renamed or deleted in the same way as a folder by clicking on it and selecting “File → Rename” and “File → Delete” respectively. click on the file name and select “Edit → Copy” from the menu bar. For this. To quickly select adjacent files you may similarly use the “Shift” key. a document created using Microsoft Word 2007 is stored with the extension “.
Press “OK” to apply your selection to the complete text in your document. type your Name and then press “Enter”. Type your Address and press “Enter” again. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → Notepad”. If you fail to save the file. To create a shortcut to your folder. A shortcut icon with an arrow at the bottom left appears on the desktop. To start Notepad.Using Shortcuts You may need to use a particular file or folder stored on your computer frequently. For this. Take the mouse cursor to the beginning of your name and press “Enter” twice. re-size the “Notepad” window to an appropriate size. You may use this shortcut to quickly access your data file location again. right-click and select “Send To → Desktop (create shortcut)”. In the open Notepad. Point the mouse pointer to the folder name. select “Format → Font” from the menu bar. The default name of the shortcut is the same as your folder name followed by the word “Shortcut”. Press the “Up Arrow” key twice and then type the date. select the font along with the style and size you require. you may specify the location 21 | P a g e . In the “Font” window. Select “File → Save As”. Using Applications Using Notepad Some useful applications are available as a part of Windows Vista. you can create a shortcut icon for the location and place it on the desktop. Formatting a Document: You may wish to change the way your text appears. In the “Save As” window. locate the folder you have created to save your work. Editing a Document: One of the advantages of using a computer is that you can edit the contents of your file. When the application first opens. a blank workspace is ready for you to begin typing to create a new document. To access the location of this file quickly. Saving Files: A permanent copy of the work you have created using an application program is stored as a file on the disk only when you save it. Using Notepad: “Notepad” is a basic text editing program and it is most commonly used to view or edit text files. all the changes you have made will be lost. If necessary.
You may create. Because Notepad supports only very basic formatting.where you wish to save the file and the name of the file. you may want to print a copy of your document. open. The “View” menu is used to specify whether or not you want to display the toolbar. format bar. such as creating or saving a file. To start WordPad. Select “File → Print” from the menu bar. The “Edit” menu is used to perform tasks related to the content of your document such as entering and modifying your data. A new blank document is displayed. This is especially useful when creating HTML documents for a Web page because special characters or other formatting may not appear in your published Web page or may even cause errors.txt”. Menus: Let us have a brief look at the different menus available on the menu bar. Your file is stored with the extension “. A tab stop specifies the place that the cursor stops at when you press the “Tab” key. The “Insert” 22 | P a g e . WordPad includes many features and can be used to create and format large and complex text documents. status bar and the ruler. save and print your documents using this menu. Click “Save”. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → WordPad”. The “File” menu is used to perform tasks related to your document as a whole. The “Ruler” is used to set tab stops by clicking on it where you want a tab stop to appear. Printing a Document: Now. Toolbars: The buttons on the main “Toolbar” are shortcuts for common file management tasks. Each menu has different menu items. Make the appropriate selections from the “Print” window and click “Print”. The buttons on the “Format Bar” are used to change the format of text. A lightweight editor: Notepad is a basic text editor that you can use to create simple documents. You can delete tab stops by dragging them off the ruler. Another way is to do this is by directly pressing “Ctrl+P”. Using WordPad Using WordPad: “WordPad” is an application used to create rich text documents. you cannot accidentally save special formatting in documents that need to remain pure text. This method is called using a “Keyboard Shortcut”. The “Status Bar” provides additional information about the buttons and commands in WordPad.
The “Format” menu is used to enhance the appearance of your document content. The “Help” menu contains items through which you can get assistance whenever you require. A quicker way to select a word is to double-click on it. Press “Enter” twice and then use the “Up Arrow” key to move the insertion point up. drag from one end of the area of text to the other. Before you can apply the formatting effects. you will make the title text bold and apply a color to it. After looking over the text. 23 | P a g e .menu is used to insert the date and time and other objects in your document. To further enhance the appearance of the title. make the characters larger and display the characters in a color. the text automatically moves to the next line when it reaches the right edge of the margin. The first change you want to make to this document is to add a title. ready for you to begin entering text. Now enter the title and press “Enter”. This feature is called “Word Wrap”. You can also select the text you want to delete and then press “Delete” to remove it. Since you want to select the entire title. or the “Delete” key to remove characters to the right. The two most common means to remove text are to use the “Backspace” key to delete unwanted characters to the left of the insertion point. you may need to make some modifications. with a point equal to about 1/72 inch. You may use the “Center” button on the Format Bar to center the title. you can click in the left margin of the line to select the entire line quickly. you may decide to remove a word. To select text. Click the “Font Size” drop-down list button on the Format Bar and select the font size you wish. you would like to increase the font size. You want to center it between the margins. The insertion point is positioned at the top of the document. Click the “Color” button and select a color of your choice. This is called “Editing” text. Click at the beginning of your text. Finally. “Font size” refers to the height and width of printed characters. The title now appears in the selected color. you first need to select the text you want to format. Entering text: As you type. Formatting Text: You decide you want to improve the appearance of the title by applying various formatting effects to the text. Editing text: After you have entered your text. Font size is measured in points. which refers to the height of the character. Click the “Bold” button on the Format Bar to add a bold effect. Most documents use a font size of 10 or 12 point.
select “File → Save As…” from the menu. To save the document. If you plan to use this file again shortly. To copy text for writing to another location. If you want to replace that text with other text enter it in the “Replace with” field. Then click "Save" to save the file on the desktop. To paste text you have cut or copied. and then select “Edit → Copy” from the menu. WordPad in this case. You may click “Replace All” to replace all occurrences of the original text. Let us now see some additional features of WordPad.rtf”.Saving a file to the Desktop: If you like how the document looks then you may save the document. and then select “Edit → Paste” from the menu. This is because the file is actually stored in the desktop folder and the icon is not a shortcut to an object that is in another location. Notice that this icon does not display the arrow symbol that appears in shortcut icons. Copying and Deleting Text: To cut text that you want to move to another location. select the text. place the insertion point where you want to paste the text. The document icon for the WordPad file appears on the desktop. You may refine your search by checking the boxes against “Match whole word only” to find whole words matching your search criteria and “Match case” to make your search specific to capital and small alphabets. double-click on the file name on the desktop. Moving. Type the desired file name and select “Desktop” as the location to save the file. Creating a graphic using Paint 24 | P a g e . You may undo your actions by selecting “Edit → Undo” from the menu. Click “Replace” to replace the original text with the new text. and the file is opened and displayed in the workspace. select the text. and then select “Edit → Cut” from the menu. The file name is displayed in the title bar before the program name and the Windows taskbar displays a button for the open application. select “Edit → Find” or “Edit → Replace” from the menu and specify your search criteria in the “Find what” field. you can save the file on the desktop using a new file name for easy access. is started. The associated program. Your file is stored with the extension “. To open this file. Finding and Replacing Text: To find or replace specific characters. The “Save As” window appears on the screen.
you need to draw the plot of grass below the tree. To start Paint. similar to the one shown above. The “Save As” window is displayed. Paint has many of the same features. The mouse pointer appears as a pencil when this tool is selected and you are pointing to the drawing area. You may wish to create a blank file on the desktop. You can tell it is selected because it appears in a box. The toolbox buttons are used to draw shapes. The “Ellipse” tool creates an ellipse or circular shape. Your file is stored with the extension “. menu bar and status bar as you have seen in the other application programs. Since the file is blank. move the pointer to where you want the circle to begin. fill shapes with colors. a drawing program that can be used to create and modify graphic images. The tool you select is drawn when you drag or click in the drawing area. and then create and save the file. Specify the location as “Desktop” and then select the type of file you want to create from the “Save as type” list. which is the picture of a palm tree. When you move the mouse pointer into the drawing area.bmp”. Try to draw a picture of a palm tree. including a title bar. it changes to a plus (+). Displayed at the top of the window is the color box that is used to add color to the graphic. the desktop icon displays a blank square. The Paint program also includes a toolbar. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → Paint”. The Paint program is loaded with the blank file open. you are ready to open the file and create a graphic. Let us create a logo for your organization. you need to select this application by clicking on the icon on the desktop. First. Generally. The pre-selected icon is the “Pencil” button. A circle or 25 | P a g e .Another application that is included with Windows is “Paint”. when we create a file. we open the application first. To begin drawing. Now. The white area in the workspace is the drawing area where you may create the drawing. Select “File → Save”. that you can add to the document you previously created using WordPad. edit the drawing and so on. Since you want to use Paint to create the graphic. By default the toolbox is displayed on the left edge of the window. In this case you will create a blank file called “New” on the desktop using the “24 bit Bitmap” image file type. The text under the icon displays the default icon name "New". called a toolbox.
You may change the foreground color to brown. Using the “Brush” Tool: Next. while the inside of the shape is filled with the background color. You have created a simple oval shape with a black outside borderline and white interior. The second button draws an outline border and also fills the object with the selected fill color. You may do this by selecting colors from the color box. The Brush tool creates broad lines of color as you drag. The Airbrush sprays with the foreground color. you may create a custom color. Using the “Eraser”: You may make mistakes or to not like the appearance of your drawing. The brush applies the foreground color when you drag to create the shape. right-click in the color palette. called “fill-style” buttons. you want to create two tree trunks. the “select colors area” and the “color palette”. you can use the Eraser tool to delete the parts of the trunk you may not like. This tool also provides several "spray" shapes. Creating a Custom Color: Since the color selection of green colors on the palette is limited. To use the background color. The “Edit Colors” window contains a palette of basic colors. 26 | P a g e . You need to use the Brush tool to create the shape and apply the color at the same time. This is the default selection and the setting you have used. The last fill style creates an object without a border using the selected fill color. Using the “Airbrush” Tool: Finally. To set the background color. you want to create the palm fronds. The first button draws an ellipse with an outline border in the selected fill color without filling the object. the outline of the shape is created using the foreground color. Adding Color: You now want to fill the shape with a green color. You need to use the Airbrush tool for this purpose. drag with the right mouse button held down while spraying. Double-click on a color in the color box. Notice the three additional buttons. The eraser uses the background colors. displayed at the bottom of the toolbox. Using different shapes can add interest to the drawing.ellipse is created by dragging the mouse until the shape is displayed as you want it to appear. If you select colors before creating a shape. To clean up the drawing. For this you may need to erase sections of your drawings. You need to delete the oval and replace it with another that contains color. The color box consists of two areas.
Drawing a Polygon: In the toolbox. Drawing a Rectangle or Square: In the toolbox. Release the mouse button and repeat this step for a second arc. or click the “Rounded Rectangle” to create a round-cornered shape. Let us now see some additional features of Paint. automatically replacing the original contents with the new contents. click a line width. click the “Rectangle” icon to create a square-cornered shape. You can see a small picture of the graphic you created. This is a color matrix. click the “Curve” icon. To define a custom color. click the “Polygon” icon. Now you may apply this color to the fronds. hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer to draw a straight line. To draw the polygon. Drag the mouse to draw the line. Click on the page where you want one arc of the curve to be. At the bottom of the toolbox click a line width. such as hue and saturation. and then hold down the left mouse button to drag the pointer to adjust the curve. press the “Shift” key while dragging the pointer. At the bottom of the toolbox. The green color you selected is the selected color in the “Basic colors” palette. To draw a rectangle. Draw a straight line by dragging the pointer. 27 | P a g e . Now see the live icon representing your Paint document. Press the “Shift” key while dragging to get a straight line. click the “Line” icon. Your logo is now ready. The custom color automatically becomes the foreground color and replaces the originally selected green. You can only create two curves for each line. You can also use the slider on the color gradient bar at the right to change the elements.many of which are displayed in the color box. hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer diagonally in the direction you want. Drawing a Curved Line: In the toolbox. you may click anywhere on the matrix. The “Save” command saves the document as it appears onscreen to the same file name. Drawing a Straight Line: In the toolbox. At the bottom of the toolbox. click a fill style. Click “Define Custom Colors >>” to display the color area to the right. The box below the matrix displays the selected color. To draw a square. click a fill style. At the bottom of the toolbox. Click “Add to Custom Colors” and then click “OK”. associated with the selected color. Click on the page where you want each new line segment to appear. Repeat these steps and double-click when done.
On the text toolbar. Select “Edit → Paste”. It is surrounded by a box and eight solid squares called “handles”. hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer diagonally to the size you want. select “Image → Attributes” from the menu. The “Paste” and “Paste Special” commands on the “Edit” menu are used to insert a copy from the Clipboard into a document. The insertion point appears at the center of the blank line. Embedding an Object: You are now ready to insert the picture into the WordPad document. Click inside the text frame to type text. size and style you require. Copying between Applications Now you can insert the logo of your organization (the palm tree) into your WordPad document. To create a text frame. To do this. Since the drawing occupies almost the entire space. These indicate the object is selected and can be manipulated. Enter the dimensions you require. An object can be inserted into another document by pasting. Changing the Picture Size: To change the size of your picture. You will embed the palm tree object in the document. you may select the entire drawing area. linking or embedding it. click the font. You may also resize your picture by dragging the image resize handles that are located at the bottom right corner and along the sides of your picture. Now you are positioned in the document where you want the picture inserted. 28 | P a g e . This is because the “Center” feature was in effect for the line the insertion point was on when the two new lines were created. in this case the entire picture. You would like the palm tree picture that is stored in the Clipboard to be centered at the top of the document. You can select an item from an open document and copy it to another location in the same or another document. The graphic of the palm tree that was stored in the Clipboard is pasted into the document. A dotted line identifies the selected area. click the “Text” icon. You can copy the entire picture or any part of the drawing by selecting an area. You can adjust the size of any selected object by dragging the handles in the same manner as sizing windows. Contents of the selected area are copied to the Clipboard. you need to copy the graphic from Paint and insert it into the WordPad document.Typing and Formatting Text: In the toolbox.
When adding text. It shows the default type style and size that will be used when you type the text entry. you want to give a copy of the document to a friend to get feedback regarding the content and layout. you make the text frame transparent so that the background is visible. has not changed. the server application is opened within WordPad. WordPad is displayed again. you can open the object server by double-clicking on it. Select “File → Print Preview” from the menu. This allows you to edit the embedded graphic from within WordPad. containing the palm tree. The “Print Preview” feature displays each page of your document in a reduced size so you can check the layout. the text of your document is still displayed. you can also choose a color for the text. you are not prompted to save the file before it is closed. 29 | P a g e . called a text frame and then type the text inside it.Editing an Embedded Object: After looking at the inserted graphic. you may decide you want to add some text inside the graphic. it is always a good idea to preview on screen how your document will appear when printed. To edit an embedded object. because it was the last-used application. Previewing. You may verify that the original file created using Paint. You may want to increase the font size to 14 point. If you do not like how your text box looks. Since no changes were made to the file. To save time and unnecessary printing and paper waste. and the “Fonts” window is displayed. To make the background the same as the grass. you can always use “Edit → Undo” from the menu and try it again. Before typing the text. Paint. you first create a box. The color that is applied to the text is the foreground color. The Text tool is used to add text to a Paint object. Also notice that the title bar still displays "WordPad" and if you scroll down. Printing and Saving Although you still plan to make several formatting changes to the document. You may want to add the company name to the grass area of the graphic. You now have access to the Paint menu and toolbar so you can edit the object while you are still in the WordPad document. The text frame displays an insertion point. This indicates that the Paint program has not been opened a second time in its own application window. and the graphic appears in its own editing window. Notice that there is still only one Paint application button in the taskbar.
Then. such as logarithms and factorials. The desktop should be cleared of all icons you created and should appear the same as when you started. Cleaning up the desktop You have a few files stored on the desktop of your computer. Using Calculator Using Calculator: “Calculator” is an application which performs functions parallel to a handheld calculator. To start Calculator. or “/” to divide. 30 | P a g e . “-” to subtract. Type other operators and numbers in the same way. subtraction. Finally. type the next number in the calculation. Double-click the shortcut icon you created to your data location. The functions of the different buttons on the Calculator are as displayed. perform the following steps: First. This view allows you to check your page layout before printing. as well as functions found on a scientific calculator. Finally you will remove the shortcut icon. After that. To save the current document.The Preview window displays a reduced view of how the current page will appear when printed. The Preview window also includes its own toolbar. You can now see that the file icons are no longer on the desktop and are now located in the selected folder. It performs basic arithmetic. You can print the flyer directly from the Preview window using the “Print” button. The flyer looks good and does not appear to need any further modifications immediately. You may want to clear these from the desktop and move them to the folder where you store your data. Backspace --> Removes the last digit of the displayed number. multiplication or division. click the “Save” icon on the Toolbar. Choose “Move Here” from the shortcut menu. Performing a simple calculation: To perform a simple calculation involving addition. type the first number in the calculation. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → Calculator”. “*” to multiply. Select “View → Refresh” from the menu to refresh the display of the window. such as addition and subtraction. click “=” or press the “Enter” key to get your result. Open the folder where you save your files. Right-drag the selected icons to the right pane of the window. click “+” to add.
MR --> Recalls a number from the memory. Through a word processor you can create. printing etc. % --> Calculates percentages. Documents that you use often can be saved as templates. Octal and Binary. Word Processing Overview of Word Processing What is Word Processing? Typing text using a computer is commonly known as Word Processing. C --> Clears the entire calculation. store. Performing a scientific calculation: Your calculator can be made into a full-functioned scientific calculator. retrieve and print part or all of a document. move paragraphs and reprint your document.CE --> Clears the number displayed at that time. Microsoft Word and OpenOffice. modify. form letters. Decimal. In addition to handling simple calculations. Sqrt --> Calculates the square root of the number on the screen. For this. the Scientific Calculator has complete trigonometrical calculations. M+ --> Adds the displayed number to the memory. MC --> Clears the numbers in the memory. you can easily correct errors. 1/x --> Calculates the reciprocal of the displayed number. faxes and even professional manuals. Creating and Editing a Document 31 | P a g e . Word Processor Applications help you to create different types of written documents such as personal letters. The activity of word processing includes typing text using the keyboard and using various facilities of formatting. With a few keystrokes. an invoice form. for example. editing. programming calculations and statistical calculations for averages and standard deviation. MS --> Stores numbers in the memory. brochures.org Writer are a few of the popular Word Processors. select “View → Scientific” from the menu. You have a choice of four numbering systems: Hexadecimal.
In Word. you can create various indexes and tables in text documents. The Microsoft Office user interface is uniform across most of its components. and Redo. you can simply click on it when you need to create a new document. saving. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Word 2007”. even beyond page limits to create a newspaper format. integrated into it. The User Interface The User Interface is the way in which you interact with your computer. 32 | P a g e . Additionally. This contains commands for opening. printing. To add an additional command to the Quick Access toolbar. You can add an icon to the toolbar by just clicking on an icon name.Introduction to Microsoft Word Microsoft Word is a complete Word Processor Application. It is designed to put your most commonly used commands in a place where you can always find them. such as “New”. It consists of three main parts: 1) The Office Button 2) The Quick Access toolbar 3) The Ribbon The Office Button: This appears at the top-left corner of your screen. displaying icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. Microsoft Word contains numerous functions to assist you in creating perfectly styled documents. a file is called a “document”. Undo. from the menu that appears. graphics. Word comes with a variety of templates for almost every purpose. tables. Text can be formatted multi-columnar and have text frames. The Quick Access toolbar: This appears to the right of the Office Button near the top of the screen. You can also create your own templates. Once the “New” icon is added. click the arrow on the right. etc. To start the Microsoft Word application. You can define the structure and appearance of the indexes and tables according to your needs. and closing a file. Clicking the Office Button displays the “File” menu. Microsoft Word offers a wide variety of options to design documents. The text frames can be linked anywhere.
including footnotes. such as pictures. The following Ribbon tabs are displayed in Word: The “Home” tab has common formatting commands. and copy/paste. You can see that your chosen icons now appear on the Quick Access toolbar. the “Home” tab has the “Clipboard”. pages. For example. and spacing properties. The Ribbon: The Ribbon is a component of the Office Fluent user interface. This provides a detailed description of what the button does. Click “OK”. styles. orientation. Click an icon and then click the “Add” button. bullets.Now. clip art. click “More Commands”. table of contents. c) Command buttons in each group that carry out a command or display a menu of commands. The “Clipboard” group in turn has the “Paste”. and index. The “Page Layout” tab contains margin. “Copy” and “Format Painter” command buttons. The “Mailings” tab contains the items needed for a mail merge. The “View” tab contains the view options for the document and is the location of the Switch Windows command to move between files open in that application. 33 | P a g e . and text boxes. thesaurus. The “References” tab contains the most common items needed when generating a professional paper. right-click on it and select “Remove from Quick Access Toolbar”. Under “Choose commands from:” you can see a list of commands that you may add to your Quick Access toolbar. and track changes. “Font”. The “Review” tab contains spell check. b) Groups within each tab that break a task into subtasks. To remove an icon. You will gradually learn to use the commands on all the tabs. It consists of:a) Task-oriented tabs. “Paragraph”. The “Insert” tab contains all items that can be inserted into the file. a “Super-tooltip” is displayed. When you move your mouse over most command buttons. “Styles” and “Editing” groups. citations. “Cut”.
You may use them when you are more familiar with the commands. and command buttons change as you take on various activities. right-click anywhere on the Ribbon and choose “Minimize the Ribbon”. groups. how to include all such features into your document. you see a question mark symbol. When you first launch most of the Microsoft Office applications you’ll find yourself in the Ribbons Home tab. a new blank document is opened. commands. the Microsoft Office Button menu. which includes the most commonly-needed commands. When you first start Word. You then see little labels. right-click any tab and choose the “Minimize the Ribbon” command again. and other things that you see on the screen. or badges. It is like a blank piece of paper that has certain default settings which are the most commonly used settings. and the Quick Access Toolbar has an access key. the badges showing the Key Tips for the commands on that tab appear.Equivalent keyboard shortcuts are also displayed if applicable. 34 | P a g e . You first need to press the “Alt” key. Clicking this brings up the Help window related to the Office application that you are using. Every single command on the Ribbon. You want your document to be attractive and at the same time informative. and every access key is assigned a Key Tip. click the Office Button and select “New”. to create a new blank document. showing the Key Tips for all the tabs. After you press a key to activate a particular tab. Access keys: Access keys are another type of keyboard shortcut used to access the Ribbon. They relate directly to the tabs. Creating New Documents Let us now learn to effectively use Microsoft Word using the following simple Case Study. For this. To restore the Ribbon. At the right end of the Ribbon. You are working for Global Tours and Travels. The tabs. You are required to create a document listing the special offers of your company. You can hide the Ribbon if you wish to have more space to write. Now click “Create” in the “New Document” window. When an existing word document is open. You decide to create a document like the one displayed above. We shall now learn step-bystep.
Now type “Come to any of the offices”. Similarly. select it and then click on the “Bold” icon. Setting up the way a page of text will look by entering certain attributes is called “Formatting”. To insert a blank line. you may change the Font Size. You will be comfortable using it after you are more familiar with the Word application. Making text Bold: To enter text with a bold display. When text is selected. On the “Home” tab. let us use the command buttons on the Ribbon.A “Template” is a pre-designed document designed for common purposes such as a fax. Justifying Text: 35 | P a g e . click at the point you want to begin and drag your cursor to the right and release it when you have reached the end of the selection. To make the text appear in italics. click the “Italic” icon. Type "SPECIAL OFFERS". To make existing text bold. on the “Home” tab. Let us insert some more text. move your mouse over the different fonts displayed. Entering and Formatting Text Let us now enter text into a new document. It provides easy access to the most-used formatting commands. Click on the font you would like. The "Live Preview" feature allows you to have a preview of how the selected font would affect the appearance of the text. You may create a new document using standard templates provided by Word by clicking on a template name in the “New Document” window. without actually applying it. A “Font” is a design for a set of characters. select it and then click on the “Underline” icon in the “Font” group. press “Enter” once again. Changing the Font: Let us select the text “SPECIAL OFFERS” and change the font. click on the “Bold” icon in the “Font” group and begin text entry. You may choose other underline styles and colors by clicking on the arrow to the right of the “Underline” icon. For now. To change the color of the text click on the arrow next to the “Font Color” icon and select a color. Press "Enter" once to come to the next line. in the “Font” group. Selecting Text: To select a section of text. invoice or business letter. Underlining: To underline your text. It remains semi-transparent until you move your mouse pointer over it. from the drop-down menu. a "Mini Toolbar" is automatically displayed.
line breaks. navigate to the location of your document. There are three ways to save a document. Using the shortcut keys “Ctrl+S”. For this. Changing Line Spacing: Select the text you would like to change the line spacing for. Align Text Right or Justify. Saving. Click the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. you may click the Office Button and select “Open”. Enter the name.Select the text you would like to justify. click on this button once again. You may use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+O”.docx”. the “Save As” window is displayed. When you save a new file for the first time. 2. You may open a recently used document by clicking on the Office Button and then clicking a document name under the list of “Recent Documents” displayed on the right. you may click on the “X” shaped icon at the top right corner of the window or use the keyboard shortcut “Alt+F4” to exit the Word application. Closing a File: To close a file. 1. Click the Office Button and select “Save”. Moving through Text Moving through text using the Keyboard: You can use the arrow keys and other keys on the keyboard which are shown above to position the cursor at the location you want to type or modify text. In the “Paragraph” group. click the “Show/Hide” icon in the “Paragraph” group. Click the “Line spacing” icon in the “Paragraph” group and make your selection. Click on Center. tab stops and spaces. select the file and click “Open”. Opening Documents: There are many ways in which you can open a document. Alternatively. 3. Then. Center. 36 | P a g e . such as paragraph marks. Displaying formatting marks: You can display nonprinting characters in your text. you may select Align Text Left. To remove the display. Alternatively. click the Office Button and select “Close” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+W”. Closing and Opening files Saving Documents: Your file is stored with the extension “. folder and location for the file and then click “Save”.
enter a unique name for the building block in the “Name” field. Click where you want to insert a building block in the document. In the Create New Building Block window. On the “Insert” tab. 37 | P a g e . Click “Gallery” to sort by gallery. say “Global Tours Logo”. Click at the point where you wish to position the cursor. Using a Building Block: Let us insert this building block into another document. When you can use the mouse to move the insertion point. Now click “OK”. type enough so that the name is different from that of any other building block and then press “F3”. you can see that it is corrected. you may check the boxes against the options you require. click “Quick Parts”. These corrections are effected as you enter your text. Begin typing the unique name of the building block you created. Using Automatic Editing Features Using AutoCorrect: You may use the numerous features provided by Microsoft Word to automatically correct your document. Using AutoComplete: Another useful feature is “AutoComplete”. Now try typing the text “HAppy” with two initial capitals. When you type the digit “1” followed by the alphabets “s” and “t”. in the “Text” group. On the “Insert” tab. in the “Text” group. As it is typed. Creating a Reusable Building Block: Select the text or graphic that you want to store as a reusable building block. and then click “Building Blocks Organizer”. it is shaped as an I-beam. The building block is inserted. You can see that the “Correct TWo INitial CApitals” option is checked. and then click “Word Options”. Select “AutoText” from the “Gallery” drop-down list. You can even replace some text with alternate text as it is typed using the “Replace text as you type” option. Building Blocks: Building Blocks in Word are designed specifically for the addition of frequently used content to your documents. On the “AutoCorrect” tab. Now enter numeric “1st” in the “Replace” box and alphabetic “First” in the “With” box. Click on a building block name and then click “Insert”. click “Quick Parts”.Moving through text using the Mouse: You can use the mouse to move the insertion point to a specific location in a document. and then click “Save Selection to Quick Part Gallery”. Ensure that the box against the option is checked. they are replaced by the text “First”. Now click “Proofing” and then click the “AutoCorrect Options” button. Click the Office Button.
Automatic Spelling and Grammar checking: Click the Office Button. You may also use the “Page Up” and “Page Down” keys on your keyboard. Now enter the line number to which you wish to go and click the “Go To” button. 38 | P a g e . Now enter the sentence “Discounts are available on international tickets” with the word “Discounts” incorrectly spelled. such as “January”. it is underlined with a red wavy line. Once you correct the spelling. Use the “Ctrl+Home” keys to go to the beginning of the document and the “Ctrl+End” keys to go to the end. section. 2. 4. Click the “Home” tab and select “Find” in the “Editing” group. Click “Close” in the “Find and Replace” window. 3. a green wavy underline appears. Right and Left Arrow keys on your keyboard. and then click “Word Options”. Alternatively you may use the scrollbars on the right and bottom of your screen. Navigating a Document There are different ways you can move through your document. This time. footnote. Word automatically finishes the name. click the “Page Layout” tab and select “Line Numbers → Continuous” in the “Page Setup” group. On the “Go To” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. Some of them are as follows: 1. Your cursor moves to the specified line. using the “Go To” tab of the “Find and Replace” window.When you begin typing in the name of a month. Word brings up a little box above the incomplete word. Simply click “OK”. To display the line numbers in a document. Re-enter “Discounts”. Down. If you then press “Enter”. Let us leave the default settings. Now click “Proofing” and then check the boxes against the spelling and grammar checks you require. You can see that as soon as this word is entered. You may navigate to a specific item in your document. Let us move to a specific line number. This results in a grammatically incorrect sentence. endnote etc. The green wavy line disappears since the sentence is grammatically correct once again. click “Line” in the “Go to what” list. the wavy line is removed. Use the Up. Now remove the word “Discounts” from the sentence. These checks are enforced as you enter your text. You can also navigate to a specific page.
It is surrounded by eight boxes called “sizing handles”. click on the picture. click on that line and press “Delete”. you may select “Undo” from the Quick Access toolbar or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Z”. Sizing and Moving Graphics: You may change the graphic that you have inserted in respect of size. You can reverse your last action by using the “Undo” command. Now to undo this action. select “Redo” from the Quick Access Toolbar or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Y”. specify your picture and its location and click “Insert”. Select the entire line and press “Delete”. To delete a blank line. The picture now appears in your document.To remove the display of line numbers. The line is displayed once again. Working with graphics Inserting Graphics: You now wish to insert a picture of one of the buses of your company along with your company name. color etc. Point to a handle and drag with your mouse to the size you require. Let us first delete a line of text. you may also use "Ctrl+Delete" for words to the right of the insertion point or "Ctrl+Backspace" for words to the left. you would like to proof read it for accuracy and completeness and modify or edit the document as needed. you may press "Delete" for characters to the right of the insertion point and "Backspace" for characters to the left. The line that was displayed is now deleted. For this. You may select from the various options available in the “Illustrations” group on the “Insert” tab. location. To move your 39 | P a g e . click the “Page Layout” tab and select “Line Numbers → None” in the “Page Setup” group. You can also redo an action that has been undone. To delete an entire word. Let us insert a picture from an existing file on the hard disk. Undoing and Redoing Editing Changes: After making some changes. you may select it and press “Delete”. In the “Insert Picture” dialog box. Click the “Picture” icon. Click at the point where you wish to insert the picture. To change the size. To remove individual characters. you may decide they are not necessary after all. Editing a Document After entering the text of a document. Selecting and Deleting Text: In order to delete a section of text.
To display Multiple Pages. Previewing and Printing a Document Previewing a document: It is always a good practice to preview your document onscreen before you print it. Let us have a look at few of the basic options you might need to change. you may select the name of the printer on which you wish to print the document.picture. Use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+P”. To view a document in the Print Preview mode. click on the icon below the “Many pages” button and drag towards the right and down. In the “Number of copies” box. place the cursor on the picture and drag with your mouse to the new location. Drag the slider to the right or left as required. To specify the number of pages to view. 2. The Zoom level can be adjusted using the slider at the bottom right of the window. 40 | P a g e . The preview size will be adjusted accordingly. Under “Print Range”. The Print Preview tab appears when you view the current document in the Print Preview mode. click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. you may specify how many copies of the document you wish to print. click the “Zoom” icon and select “Many pages”. Printing a document: There are two ways to print a document: 1. One Page: Click this icon to display one page in the preview window. Default settings are displayed which are normally acceptable. Zoom: The “Zoom” icon can also be used to specify the zoom percentage. Shrink One Page: Click this icon to prevent the document from being printed on an additional page. The “Print” window is displayed. This is particularly useful for documents which have only a small amount of text on the last page. you may specify whether you wish to print the entire document or a specific part. Two Pages: Click this icon to display two pages in the preview window. In the “Name” field. Click the Office Button and select “Print” from the menu.
It lets you print a document with one click but does not offer the flexibility to specify whether to print all or just part of your document. 41 | P a g e . On the “Review” tab. number of copies and other such things. select “Thesaurus”. Some words. click “OK” to print the document. 2. 2.Under “Zoom”. you may specify how many pages of your document you want printed on a sheet of paper. 1. When the checking is completed. You can see that the incorrect spelling has been corrected. select “Spelling & Grammar”. When the spelling checker encounters a word it doesn’t recognize. Thesaurus: The “Thesaurus” is a dictionary of synonyms which you can use to find words that are synonymous with a term. Press “Shift+F7”. you are informed accordingly. with the most likely match highlighted. On the “Review” tab. After you have entered your options. Use the keyboard shortcut “F7”. such as proper nouns which are not really errors may be shown as spelling mistakes. REVISING AND REFINING A DOCUMENT Revising a Document Spelling and Grammar checking: There are two ways you can do this: 1. You may also select “Print→ Quick Print” from the Office Button menu. You may add these words to the dictionary by clicking the “Add to Dictionary” button. in the “Pages per sheet” box. There are two ways to start the thesaurus. They are no longer displayed as spelling mistakes. in the “Proofing” group. The “Spelling and Grammar” window appears only when a mistake is found. in the “Proofing” group. You may click “Options” in the “Spelling and Grammar” window to specify the spelling and grammar checks that you require. it determines which words in its dictionary are similarly spelled and displays a list of those words in the “Suggestions” box. Click on the correct spelling and then click “Change”.
Select “Copy” to copy the word which can be pasted to another location. say “Contact”. the “Copy-Paste” commands create a copy at the new location. On the “Home” tab. select “Cut”. You may choose from the options Insert. Press “Ctrl+C”. leaving the original location unchanged. but any existing clipboard contents are overwritten. The document itself does not change. 2. Click on the arrow to the right of the search box. On the other hand. Then press “Ctrl+V” to paste. You may use any of the following methods for cutting: 1. On the “Home” tab. On the “Home” tab. You may use any of the following methods: 1. You may use any of the following methods for pasting: 1.You now see a panel on the right. Press “Ctrl+X”. Select “Look Up” to look up further variations of the selected word. Moving and Copying Selections Using Copy: Let us select some text for copying to the clipboard. Any selected text or objects are replaced by the pasted contents. select “Paste”. For this select it and use “Cut” to move the selected section. Paste: This command is used to insert the contents of the clipboard into the document. Now move lower down in the document and click where you want to place your selection. The contents are inserted at the position of the cursor. 42 | P a g e .)” from the dropdown list below. You may point to a synonym of your choice and specify the action you wish to perform by viewing the drop-down list. A list of synonymous terms is displayed. 2. in the “Clipboard” group. The “Cut-Paste” commands involve deleting the section from the document. Copy and Look Up. When you select “Insert”. Using Cut and Paste: You may decide to move a section lower down in your document. Press “Ctrl+V”.S. enter your expression. Select “Thesaurus: English (U. 2. in the “Clipboard” group. in the “Clipboard” group. select “Copy”. the word is inserted at the current cursor position. In the “Search for:” text box. moving it to the clipboard and then pasting it to a location of your choice.
Click “Create” in the “New Document” window. Now open a second Word document by clicking “New” in the Office Button menu. Move to the new document by clicking on the taskbar. Working with Multiple Documents Opening a Second Document: Save the current document by clicking the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. 43 | P a g e . A blank document is displayed in a new window. This becomes the “active” program. Then. The previous document is the “dormant” program now. Click “Select” in the “Editing group on the “Home” tab. say “office” and click “Find Next”. Let us leave our graphic on the first page and display the other text on the next page. You may now drop the selection by releasing the mouse button. First. Click “Select All” from the menu displayed. To insert a Page Break. you may need to insert Page Breaks just before them so that they start on a new page. Copy the contents by clicking “Copy” in the “Clipboard” group. Make it active by clicking on the taskbar. Finding and Replacing text Finding Text: You may search for a word or phrase in a document. Copying between Documents: The dormant program appears dimmed on the taskbar. place the cursor at the point where you want a new page to begin and click “Page Break” in the “Pages” group of the “Insert” tab.Drag and Drop: All Windows applications have the ability to copy or move selections using the “Drag and Drop” feature. select the item to be copied or moved. Alternatively. Select “Find” from the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab or press “Ctrl+F” to display the “Find” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. Paste the contents by clicking on “Paste” in the “Clipboard” group of the “Home” tab. Click “Find Next” once again. point the mouse to it and drag the pointer to the new location by keeping the mouse button pressed. Let us now move the text back to its original location. Enter some text. The next occurrence of the specified term after the current cursor position is selected. Inserting Page Breaks To control document paging so that important titles and headlines appear on the top of the pages. A fixed page break is inserted and the cursor is now at the beginning of the new page. you may use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Enter”.
If you want the date to be automatically updated when the current date changes. Enter the text you wish to find in the “Find what” field and the text with which you wish to replace it. You may click on any of the available options or click “Custom Margins” to enter your own specifications. You can see that your document is displayed with wider side margins. You may click on any of the 44 | P a g e . Entering the Page Size: To set the Page Size. say “new office” in the “Replace with” field. select “Size” from the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. Modifying Page Layout Changing Margin Settings: To set margins. check the “Update automatically” box. Replace: You may click this button to replace the next occurrence of the search text by the specified new text. This updating is seen when you next open your document. A window appears showing the number of replacements made. you may enter your requirements in one or more of the fields. Click “Undo” on the Quick Access toolbar to revert to the original margins. This function provides many advanced options to help make your search as specific as necessary to find what you are looking for. Replace All: You may click this button to replace all occurrences of the search text by the specified new text.Finding and Replacing: You may search for a word or phrase in a document and replace it by some other text. Position the cursor above your text and select “Date & Time” from the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. Click “OK”. Select “Replace” from the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab or press “Ctrl+H” to display the “Replace” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. select “Margins” from the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. Select the format you require. Changing the Orientation: You may orient your document vertically or horizontally by clicking on “Orientation” from the “Page Setup” group of the “Page Layout” tab. More: You may click this button to specify additional search options. Let us change the left and right margins to 4 inches each. Select from the “Portrait” or “Landscape” options. Inserting the Current Date Let us now insert the current date into this document. On the “Margins” tab.
In the “Paragraph” group. You can also use your mouse to set the tab stops in the “Ruler”. For this use the “Spacing Before” and “Spacing After” boxes in the “Paragraph” group on the “Page Layout” tab. You can see on the ruler that each word appears at a distance of 2 cm from the other. pressing the “Tab” key after each word. You can quickly set tabs by clicking the ruler at the location you want your tab stop. Setting Tab Stops: A “Tab Stop” is the amount of spacing that is applied each time you press the “Tab” key. Press “Undo” twice on the Quick Access toolbar to remove these indents. Let us learn to set the position of a tab stop in a blank document. Character Formatting in detail 45 | P a g e . Now enter the text as shown. In the “Default tab stops” box. you may use the “Decrease Indent” and “Increase Indent” icons in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab for indenting your text. Spacing: You may specify the spacing between paragraphs by adding space above or below selected paragraphs. etc. Now enter the same text pressing the “Tab” key after each word. When more than a single space is required to be inserted between words. the distance between the words is as per the new tab stops specified. you may select the paper size from preset formats like A4. click on the arrow at the bottom right. In the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. You may also manually set the dimensions you require in the “Width” and “Height” fields. Alternatively. enter “2 cm” and click “OK”. If you do not see the horizontal ruler displayed just below the Ribbon. click “Tabs” to display the “Tabs” window.available options or click “More Paper Sizes” to enter your own specifications. Click “OK” to save your settings. Then click on the “Page Layout” tab. you may specify your indent requirements in the “Indent Left” and “Indent Right” boxes. from the drop-down list. On the “Indents & Spacing” tab. This brings up the “Paragraph” window. On the “Paper” tab. it is advisable to use tabs rather than spaces to avoid problems with text alignment. You can see that this time. Select a paragraph of text. Paragraph Formatting in detail Indents: Indentation determines the distance of the paragraph from either the left or the right margin. click the “View Ruler” button at the right corner. although this method is not as precise. A5.
You may specify effects for your text by checking the boxes against the effects you require on the “Font” tab. This brings up the “Font” window. Select the text “Time Table”. in the “Font” group. Now. Now. click on the “Change Case” icon from the “Font” group. You can see that your mouse pointer changes to a paint brush. Let us select “UPPERCASE”. select it and click on the “Format Painter” icon on the “Home” tab in the “Clipboard” group. Now to copy the formatting of this text. In that case. You may use a bulleted list or a numbered list. So you may use a “Hyperlink”. Numbered lists are normally used to convey a sequence of events. Format Painter: You can copy the formatting applied to a section of text to another section. click on the arrow next to the “Numbering” icon in the “Paragraph” group of the “Home” tab and select a numbering style. let us change the font color of a section of text. Also. the document will lose its clarity regarding the main information that it is meant to convey. Creating Lists You may want to display the information about the special offers that you have entered as an itemized list so that it stands out from the rest of the text. Effects: On the “Home tab. drag it over the text to which you wish to apply the same format. First. you may decide to go in for a numbered list. This means you may specify which parts you want in capital letters and small letters.Changing the capitalization of text: You may change a portion of text in respect of case. Simply right-click on the number and select from the options “Restart at”. Joining and Separating Numbering: You have the option to restart numbering. You may select an option from the menu displayed. Bulleted List: Select your text and then click on the arrow next to the “Bullets” icon in the “Paragraph” group of the “Home” tab and select a bullet style. click on the arrow at the bottom right. Bulleted lists are normally used to list logically related information. Using Hyperlinks Inserting Hyperlinks: You now want to give information related to the different routes and their timings. Numbered List: Alternatively. Giving all this information in a single document will crowd the document. Your text now appears as a bulleted list. “Continue Numbering” or “Set Numbering Value”. A hyperlink is a connection to a location in the current 46 | P a g e . Click on the arrow next to the “Text Highlight Color” icon in the “Font” group and select a color. You can see that your text is displayed with all capital letters. Highlighting: Select some text to highlight. continue numbering or even skip some numbers from the previous list used.
In this case. Click “OK”. we shall use the text “Time Table” as a hyperlink. click “Current Folder” and then click on “time_table. Place the cursor in your document at the point where you wish to insert the hyperlink.document. You may format the text by selecting it and using the mini toolbar displayed. make a selection from the “Shape Style” group. You now see that the hyperlink text is underlined. right-click on it and select “Remove Hyperlink”. The Print Preview tab appears when you view the current document in the Print Preview mode. 2. You may also drag to place the shape at another location. 47 | P a g e . Let us insert a hyperlink to another document called “time_table. click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. Right click on the banner and select “Add Text”. You may use the sizing handles to modify the size of the shape. Drag your mouse to create your shape of the size you wish. Click “Shapes” in the “Illustrations” group on the “Insert” tab to display the various shapes that you can use. To view a document in the Print Preview mode. Now enter your text. Use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+K”. A hyperlink may be in the form of text or a graphic. This document exists in the same folder as your document. Click the “Hyperlink” icon in the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. You now wish to insert a banner at the bottom of your document.docx”. Inserting Shapes Word offers many predefined shapes that you can insert into your document. When you press the “Ctrl” key and click on this text. Editing while previewing Now you will preview your document to see if any changes are required. There are two ways to insert a hyperlink: 1. Let us add some text to this banner. Because you wish to create a link to another document. Select this text. you can view the time table document. another document or to a Web site. Under “Stars and Banners” select the “Double Wave” banner. To make this banner more attractive. Removing Hyperlinks: To remove the hyperlink while retaining the text.docx” which contains the complete time table. Use any of them to display the “Insert Hyperlink” window.
Different items are indented to represent their level in a document’s structure. You may create a new object to insert or insert an existing one from a file. This indicates that you can now make changes to the text. click the “Multilevel List” icon and select a list style. Click “OK” in the “Object” window. Inserting Objects You may insert external objects such as pictures. It makes the hierarchy of items in a document very clear and easy to understand. Click “Browse” and navigate to the file you wish to insert. You may now save your changes. Check the box against “Link to file” if you want your document to be updated whenever the file containing the inserted object is edited. uncheck the box against the “Magnifier” button in the “Preview” group on the Print Preview tab. Creating a multilevel list: Click where you want to begin your list. Make your changes and then click “Close Print Preview” to close the preview window. You see that the object is now a part of your document Using Additional Word Features Creating Multilevel Lists A multilevel list shows the list items at different levels rather than at one level. video clips.When the mouse pointer moves over the document it is shaped as a magnifying glass with a plus sign. Let us insert an existing spreadsheet created using Microsoft Excel. Click on the page you wish to magnify to see it in normal size. On the “Home” tab. For this. Saving to a New Folder 48 | P a g e . When you wish to edit the document. The mouse pointer changes to an “I” beam. in the “Paragraph” group. You can easily change the level of an item in the hierarchy by simply increasing or decreasing the indent by using the “Tab” or “Backspace” keys respectively. You can edit the object later using the application which created the source file. Now click “Insert”. a spreadsheet or even another word document into your current document. In the “Object” window. click on the “Create from File” tab. Use the “Tab” key to go to the next level and “Shift+Tab” to move up one level. select “Object” from the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. Click again to see it in a compressed size. Now enter your list. Check the box against “Display as icon” if you want to display your object as an icon.
the I-beam pointer displays an icon indicating the formatting that will be applied when you double-click at that location. 2. 3. and then click “Word Options”. Click the Office Button. 49 | P a g e . The chart displayed in the figure lists the different pointer shapes and formatting that is applied. You can still run spelling and grammar checks manually by using functions like “Spelling & Grammar” on the “Review” tab at any time you wish. The new folder is created as a subfolder in the active directory.Next. Using Click and Type: On a new blank page. As you move the mouse pointer over different areas. The steps to save the file are: 1. Click “New Folder”. Press “Save” to save your file with the same name in the new folder. They are mostly for words that are not in the dictionary. Now click “Proofing”. Your document is now saved in the newly created folder. If you wish to change your file name. Hiding Spelling and Grammar When you go through a document. you sometimes notice that many spelling and grammar errors are indicated by red and green wavy lines. check the boxes against “Hide spelling errors in this document only” and “Hide grammar errors in this document only” and click “OK”. Formatting Documents Automatically There are two ways in which you can format your document automatically. Move the mouse pointer across the page and observe the change in it. At the bottom of the window. Type the name of the new folder in the “Name” field in the “New Folder” window and press “Enter”. You may turn off the display of these errors if you do not wish to be distracted as you work. The red and green wavy lines are no longer displayed. make appropriate changes in the “File name” field and then click “Save”. Click the Office button and select “Save As”. You will use this folder to hold related files. you will save the multilevel list you have created in a folder on your disk. You can create a new folder at the time you save a file. switch to the Print Layout view by selecting “Print Layout” from the “Document Views” group on the “View” tab. Enter the appropriate location where you wish to place the file in the “Save in” field.
Simply click “OK”. graphics or other items in a blank area of a document. select “Table of Contents”. To see the complete list of styles click on the arrow at the bottom of the “Styles” group. You may now press the “Ctrl” key and click on any heading to move to the related content in your document. For now. You may choose to update page numbers only or the entire table. Click “Insert Table of Contents” at the bottom of the window that comes up. Doubleclick at the center of the document. It shows you at a glance. Similarly. Creating a Table of Contents A Table of Contents is a listing of the topics that appear in a document with their associated page references. in the “Table of Contents” group. Click on a style to apply it to the selected text. you may apply styles “Heading2” and “Heading3” to subsequent heading levels. Your table of contents is ready. let us apply different styles to different heading levels. it is best to use the default settings. You would need to update your table of contents. avoiding the need to enter blank lines. In the document displayed. On the “References” tab.You can use this method to quickly insert text. Let us create a Table of Contents for the document you created in the previous assignment. You may enter your specifications here. in the “Table of Contents” group. Click on the “Table of Contents” tab. The “Table of Contents” window appears. select “Update Table”. the topics that are included in the document and makes it easier to locate information. Place the cursor at the beginning of the document. This makes your document attractive as well as clear. Formatting a Document Section 50 | P a g e . Select “Update entire table” and click “OK”. A particular style can be applied to a heading or any other text to improve its appearance or make it stand out clearly. You can now enter text which will be formatted as per the pointer shape. You can now see “Region 3” in the table of contents. On the “References” tab. Updating the Table of Contents Updating the Table of Contents: You may introduce new headings or move certain information to another page in your document at a later stage. Applying Styles: This is the second way in which you can format your document automatically. You can see in the displayed document that “Region 3” is not displayed in the table of contents. This style is now applied to your selected text. Select the main heading. in the “Styles” group select the “Heading1” style. The “Update Table of Contents” window is displayed. On the “Home” tab.
Under “Preview”. select the type of section break you wish. A reference mark is inserted at the point you selected and you are taken to the bottom of the page. meanings of difficult words are given in the form of footnotes.You may need to apply specific formatting to only a part of your document. Position your cursor before the first point. Click on the arrow at the bottom right of the “Page Setup” group. Deleting a Footnote or Endnote: When you want to delete a note. Endnotes: You may insert endnotes in the same way using the “Insert Endnote” button in the “Footnotes” group on the “References” tab. A footnote or an endnote consists of two linked parts — the note reference mark and the corresponding note text. Sometimes. Adding Bookmarks 51 | P a g e . “Continuous” creates the section at the cursor position. comment on. Footnotes appear at the end of each page and endnotes appear at the end of the document. ensure that “This section” is selected in the “Apply to” field. To do so. Under “Section Breaks”. select “Breaks” from the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. Type your footnote. Let us select “Continuous”. Select “Insert Footnote” from the “Footnotes” group on the “References” tab. you can create sections within the document and apply the formatting to the required section. In the “Page Setup” window. To insert a section in your document. or provide references for text in a document. You can see that the text in the section after the cursor position gets indented as per the new left margin. Inserting a Footnote: To insert a footnote. When you are done. You may make changes to your footnotes and endnotes in respect of numbering. change the left margin to “5”. Let us consider the document we had created earlier. right-click the footnote and select “Go to Footnote” to take you back to the insertion point in the main body so you can continue working on your document. Using Footnotes and Endnotes Footnotes or Endnotes are used to explain. Formatting a section: Let us now make some changes to the section that you have created. “Next Page” moves the section to the new page. position your cursor at the text you want the footnote to appear. location and format by clicking on the arrow at the bottom right of the “Footnotes” group. Deleting the text in the note does not delete the note. Click “OK”. simply delete the note reference mark in the document window. “Odd Page” or “Even Page” starts the section on the next odd or even numbered page.
It identifies a location in the document or a selection of text that you name for future reference. Moving to a specific bookmark: Select “Bookmark” from the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. you may need to change the position of a graphic. You can also set cross-references to the captions of charts and tables. in the “Arrange” group. check the box against “Show bookmarks” and click “OK”. In the “Bookmark” window. but not among multiple documents. on the “Format” tab. enter a name for your bookmark and click “Add”. You can define the wrapping style around an object. This caption will be used for reference. Click on the bookmark and then click “Delete”. You first must define a reference target for the cross-reference. In contrast to hyperlinks. Click on the figure you want to refer to. Changing the Object Position: Click on the picture. Select “Text Wrapping” in the “Arrange” group and choose a suitable option from the ones displayed. Select “Insert Caption” from 52 | P a g e . Move your mouse over the various options under “With Text Wrapping” and click on your choice. Your cursor now moves to the bookmark location. drawing or object in your document or type some text around it. select “Bookmark” from the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. You must now add a caption to this figure. Adding a Bookmark: You now wish to insert a bookmark before the text “Contact Us”. the bookmark appears in brackets on the screen. Formatting Picture Layout Sometimes. Deleting a Bookmark: To delete a bookmark. references allow you to move within a document. click on it and then click on the “Format” tab under “Picture Tools”. Click before this text. Showing Bookmarks: Click the Office Button. select “Position”. Under “Picture Tools”. Under “Show document content”. If you have assigned a bookmark to a location. Your text now appears by the side of the picture. If you have assigned a bookmark to an item. Now click “Advanced”. Then select “Bookmark” from the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. Click “Close” in the “Bookmark” window. Referencing Figures Setting References: A cross-reference is a reference from one part of a document to related information in another part. the bookmark appears as an Ibeam. Click on the bookmark and then click “Go To”. and then click “Word Options”.A Bookmark is used to mark a certain location in a document. Wrapping text around graphics: To change the way text wraps around the picture. Clicking on the reference takes you to the referred location in the document.
Position your cursor at an appropriate location. 53 | P a g e . place the cursor on the top left corner and drag with your mouse to the new location. Your table is displayed on the screen. Click “OK”. click in the table. Enter your text. see “. Moving a table: To move your table.This handle appears whenever the mouse pointer rests over the table. enter your caption. Select “Cross-reference” from the “Captions” group on the “References” tab. Shifting Cells: You may shift a few cells or a complete row or column. select “Shift Cells Right” and click “OK”.the “Captions” group on the “References” tab. Select some cells which you would like to shift. Now let us insert a cross-reference for this reference. Inserting additional rows and columns: To insert additional rows or columns at a later stage. This displays the caption near your text. To insert multiple rows or columns. select “Table” in the “Tables” group on the “Insert tab. In the “Rows & Columns” group. Under “For which caption:” click on the appropriate caption and then click “Insert”. Now click “Close”. select “Figure” as “Reference type” and “Entire Caption” as “Insert reference to” from the respective drop-down lists. Inserting a Table: To insert a table. Sizing a table: To quickly change the overall table size. You may drag with your mouse to specify the dimensions of the table or click “Insert Table”. Under “Table Tools”. click on the “Layout” tab. “Insert Left” inserts a column to the left and “Insert Right” inserts a column to the right. say “For your information. You may now press the “Ctrl” key and click on the caption to see the captioned picture. select “Insert Above” to insert a row above the current row. Select “Insert Below” to insert a row below the current row. In the “Insert Table” window. Similarly. select the same number of rows or columns required to be inserted and then click on the appropriate icon. In the “Caption” window. We have created a table with 2 rows and 5 columns. Click on the arrow at the bottom right of the “Rows & Columns” group. Entering data: Click on a cell and enter your data. enter the Table size in respect of number of rows and columns. In the “Insert Cells” window. Creating a Simple Table A table is used to organize information into an easy-to-read format of horizontal rows and vertical columns. In the “Cross-reference” window. drag the resize handle at the bottom right corner of the table to an appropriate location. select the position of the caption and press “OK”. You see that the data has been moved to the right and a new blank column has been inserted. Press “Tab” to move to the next cell.
click on your choice in the “Style” box. click “Sort”. Let us let the displayed field “Coach Number” remain as the field to sort by. borders and alignment settings. Inserting Headers and Footers Headers and footers provide information that typically appears at the top and bottom of each page in a document and helps the reader to locate information in a document. Click it to select the table. click “Select”. colors. data or numbers according to specified criteria in ascending or descending order. select the text and then click the “Sort” icon in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. The same header and footer can be used throughout the document or different ones can be used in different sections. you may select the options that you want. Move the pointer over the table until you see a four headed arrow at the top left corner. Simply click “OK” to see a sorted list. In the “Table Styles” group. patterns. Click in the table. under “Table Tools”. Let us center the text in the first column of the table displayed. you may make your selection. Select the first column and click the “Center” icon in the “Paragraph” group Borders: You may specify the border style for your table. You can see that the data in the table is now sorted by Coach Number. For this click on the arrow next to the “Borders” icon and select “No Border”. and use the different formatting options from the “Home” tab. You may select the cells. Under “Table Tools”. Under “Table Tools”. Now let us remove the borders of the table. and then click “Select Table”. In the “Sort” window. except that the formatting affects the selected cells only. For this. In the “Table” group. click the “Design” tab. Click “OK”. The available auto formats consist of a combination of fonts. Let us sort data contained in the time table document displayed. click the “Design” tab. In the window that comes up. on the “Layout” tab. Sorting Data Word can quickly sort text. Click in the table. click the Layout tab. In the “Table Styles” group. in the “Data” group. let us leave the default options in the “Sort Text” window unchanged. For now. 54 | P a g e . Inserting a Header: Let us now add a header to the document you created previously. click the arrow next to the “Borders” icon and select “Borders and Shading”. Under “Table Tools”. Now. Sorting a List: The “Sort” feature and various sorting options can also be used for non-tabled text. Using table Styles: A quicker way of applying formats to a table automatically is to use the Table Styles offered by Word.Formatting a table: This is similar to formatting a document.
If the Format Consistency Checker finds at least two instances of a scheme that are identical. check the boxes against “Keep track of formatting” and “Mark formatting inconsistencies” and then click “OK”. Click “Close Header and Footer” on the “Design” tab. This is because all three words have been entered by applying a specific style. Under “Editing options”. Checking the document After your document is ready. Inserting the Page Number: You may insert the page number and the total number of pages in your document on every page of your document at a position of your choice. You now see the page number and number of pages displayed at the bottom right of the page. Now click “Advanced”. You can see the words “East” and “West” highlighted as well. You may recall that you 55 | P a g e . right-click on it and select “Styles → Select Text with Similar Formatting”. The footer area becomes active. A list of header styles is displayed.Select “Header” in the “Header & Footer” group on the “Insert” tab. Word indicates formatting inconsistencies with a blue wavy underline. and then click “Word Options”. Now. Inserting a Footer: You may insert a “Footer” in the same way as the header. Similarly. click the Office Button. it offers you the opportunity to make all similar formatting schemes identical to the format scheme that occurs most frequently. special terms and abbreviations. For this. In the document displayed. From the list displayed. Checking Formatting Inconsistencies: To turn on this feature. Inserting the page number at the bottom of the page overwrites a previously inserted footer. select “Page Number” in the “Header & Footer” group on the “Insert” tab. if any. Click in the first placeholder and enter the word “Comfort”. Click on the first one. Click the “Spelling & Grammar” icon in the “Proofing” group on the “Review” tab. Now click “Close Header and Footer” on the “Design” tab and scroll down to see your footer. Select “Footer” in the “Header & Footer” group on the “Insert” tab and select the style “Blank (Three Columns)”. Now click “Close Header and Footer” on the “Design” tab under “Header & Footer Tools”. scroll down and click on “Bold Numbers 3”. Enter the words “Style” and “Economy” in the second and third placeholders in the same way. if any. inserting the page number at the top of the page overwrites a previously inserted header. Press the “Tab” key twice and enter the name of your company in the header area. Now click on “Bottom of Page”. you may like to check it in respect of spelling and grammar as well as formatting consistency. It identifies different formatting schemes that are very similar to each other. The header area becomes active. select the word “North”. Respond appropriately to any other located errors. Choose “Ignore All” for all proper names.
To print single pages. The default column style is one column across the full width of the page. Then. To print a range of pages. You may select other settings for the size and display of the columns under “Width and spacing”. You may click on the number of columns you require. In a newsletter. narrow columns help the reader read the articles more quickly. 11”. Pages: You may use this option to print only the pages that you specify in the “Pages” field. use the format “7. You may choose to ignore or remove the inconsistency from the different options displayed. To print only selected pages in your document. select “All” to print the entire document. Under “Print Range”. 9. you need to click the Office Button and select “Print” from the menu. Click “OK” to print your document. the word “South” has been entered using the size and font of an existing style without applying the style. Let us select “Two” as the number of columns under “Presets”. Click “More Columns” to display the “Columns” window. by using the format “3-6. Changing the Display of the Document Creating Newsletter Style Columns A newsletter is a common application for newspaper columns. select “Columns” in the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. 12”. use the format “3-6”. you may use either the “Current page” or “Pages” option under “Print Range”. Your text is displayed in columnar format. The “Print” window is displayed. Printing Selected Pages You know that to print a document. Click “OK”. In the document displayed. you can print a combination of page ranges and single pages. 8.learnt about applying styles in the assignment titled “Formatting Documents Automatically”. Selection: You may use this option to print only the selected areas or objects in the current document. If you want. You may apply these column settings to the whole or part of the document. 10. Right click on this underline to display formatting suggestions. Using Word Art 56 | P a g e . Select the text that you wish to display in columnar format.
Click on the “Format” tab under “WordArt Tools” to modify the WordArt as per your requirements. On the “Insert” tab. You may also specify the font and the distance of the drop cap from your text. covering several lines. You may change the font. typically a file of names and addresses with a document to create new documents. To select an effect. Spacing: To modify the spacing between the characters of the WordArt. Select the first letter “C” from the list of offers. click on the left side of the displayed box. Adding a Drop Cap Drop caps are the first character/s at the beginning of a paragraph that are enlarged. click “3-D Effects”. To change the direction of the 3-D effect. in the “Text” group. You can see that your text has been adjusted accordingly. Inserting Symbols To insert Symbols or Special Characters in your document. Let us use WordArt to enhance the heading of the document created. Select the text “Special Offers”. The “Edit WordArt Text” window is displayed. On the “Symbols” tab. 3-D Effects: You may apply 3-D effects to your WordArt text.WordArt is used to enhance your documents by changing the shape of text and adding special effects such as 3-D and shadows. Click on “Dropped” under “Position”. Click on a style. The names and 57 | P a g e . select “Symbol” in the “Symbols” group on the “Insert” tab. Leave them unchanged for now. The symbol is inserted at the current cursor position. In this way. select “WordArt”. Click “More Symbols” to display the “Symbol” window. you may enhance your WordArt text. Now select “Tight”. Then select “Drop Cap” in the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. click on “Spacing” in the “Text” group. Then set the “Lines to drop” field as “2”. Click “Drop Cap Options” to display the “Drop Cap” window. The “WordArt Gallery” is displayed. Then click “OK”. click on a symbol of your choice and click “Insert”. click “3-D Effects” once again and click the appropriate “Tilt” button on the right side of the displayed box. Using Mail Merge Using Mail Merge The Mail Merge feature combines a list of data. Let us use a drop cap in our document. Then click “Close”. Click “OK” to display the drop cap in your document. On the “Format” tab. font size and font style if you wish.
Printing Mailing Labels Now that your letters are ready. Printing or Editing Letters: You may now click "Print" to print your letters or click "Edit individual letters" to make changes to any letter. A wizard guides you and in a few steps. You may make your selections from the windows that are displayed. Click on Title. We are now ready to insert the field names.addresses are entered (merged) into the document in the blank spaces provided. Previewing Letters: You now see a preview of the letter to the first person on your list. Select "Type a new list" and then click "Create". The result is a personalized letter. Selecting the starting document: Now. You wish to mail your document about special offers to a large number of people. Similarly. you may add the items that you wish to be incorporated in it. Now click "Close". You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". Enter a space. Let us add the text at the beginning of our document as shown. Click "More items" to display the "Insert Merge Field" window. then on "Insert". click "OK". you want to create labels for the envelopes. Click "Next" to complete the merge. Enter your file name. your letters to everyone are ready. say "List1" and click "Save". Inserting Fields: Now. Make sure to insert a space between each field. Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. Starting the Wizard: Select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. Use the right and left arrows to preview letters to the others. select "Use the current document". Click after the word "Dear". Set the document type to "Letters" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. enter the fields First Name and Last Name. Now. 58 | P a g e . since you are ready with your letter. The "Save Address List" window appears. Click "OK" in the "Mail Merge Recipients" window. First Name and Last Name of the first person. After you are done. Enter the Title. A personal touch can be added by addressing each person by his individual name at the top of the document. This is very simple using Word’s Mail Merge feature. Click "New Entry" to add subsequent entries. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. Click "Next". The "New Address List" window is displayed. click "Next" Creating a List: Let us create a list of people we wish to send our document to. You see that the field names are now inserted in your document.
the type of label product. Printing or Editing Labels: You may now click "Print" to print your labels or click "Edit individual labels" to make changes to any label. Preparing and Printing Envelopes 59 | P a g e . Address Line 2 and City fields for all the people in the list. The "Label Options" window is displayed. You see that the field names are inserted in your document. Press “Enter” after the Last Name field to bring the Address Line 1 to the next line. The "Mail Merge Recipients" window is displayed. Then insert a space before each field in the first line. Here. Click on your list "List1" in the appropriate location and then click "Open". Select "Use an existing list" and then click "Browse". Enter the Address Line 1. then on "Insert". Address Line 2 and City. After you are done. For now. enter the fields First Name. select “Formtec” in the “Label vendors” box and "Formtec AT-7210" under Product Number and click "OK". Set the document type to "Labels" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. you may select the type of printer. Now click “Close”. Last Name. Replicating Labels: You may copy the layout of the first label to the other labels. Address Line 1. Click "Next". Click “Yes” to confirm the address details in the window that comes up. The default location is the sub folder “My Data Sources” in the “Documents” folder. Click "More items" to display the "Insert Merge Field" window. Click on the name of the list in the box at the bottom and then click "Edit". Use the right and left arrows to move between labels. Now click “OK” and then click "Next". Let us now include address details. Similarly. and the product number. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". you may add the names and address details on the labels. Now click "Label options". move the Address Line 2 and City fields to the following lines. In the "Select Data Source" window.Starting the Wizard: In a new blank Word document. Click "Next" to complete the merge. Selecting Recipients: You have a list of people you wish to send your document to. Click "Update all labels". Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. Arranging Fields: Let us now arrange the fields. Inserting Fields: Now. Similarly. click "OK". select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. Click on the Title field. Previewing Labels: You now see a preview of the labels. Then click "Next". navigate to the location of your list.
Starting the Wizard: In a new blank Word document. The "Envelope Options" window is displayed. select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. you make changes as required. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. Now click "Next". click "Next". Now. 60 | P a g e . Selecting Recipients: You already have a list of people. your system must include a compatible e-mail program. browse to the location of your list. This directly inserts all address fields on your envelope. click on "List1" and then click "Open". You may specify different settings related to the appearance and printing of the envelope on the "Envelope options" and "Printing options" tabs. You may use "More items" to insert any individual items you wish. simply click “OK”. In the "Select Data Source" window. Arranging your envelope: Let us use the "Address block" feature. Click “Next”. In the “Insert Address Block” window. such as Microsoft Outlook. Click "Next" to complete the merge. Starting the Wizard: Select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. Use the right and left arrows to preview other envelopes. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. Un-check the boxes in front of the names for which you do not want envelopes and then click "OK". For now.Sometimes. Click "Address block". Set the document type to " Envelopes" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. as you did for labels. select an appropriate Envelope size and click "OK". On the "Envelope options" tab. For this. Now click "Envelope options". Printing or Editing Envelopes: You may now click "Print" to print your envelopes or click "Edit individual envelopes" to make changes to any envelope. The "Mail Merge Recipients" window is displayed. Previewing Envelopes: You now see a preview of the first envelope. Select "Use an existing list" and then click "Browse". Merging for sending E-mails using Outlook You may also want to e-mail your document so as to reach out to a larger number of people. Let us make envelopes for some of them. You can use the Mail Merge task pane to create a group email distribution. Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. Set the document type to "E-mail messages" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. you may want to quickly address a single envelope instead of printing and pasting a label.
select the mail format you want to use. Click "More items" to display the "Insert Merge Field" window. under “Templates”. select "Use the current document". you may add the items that you wish to be incorporated in it. Sending mails: You may now click "Electronic Mail" to send your e-mails. 61 | P a g e . Brochures and Reports. browse to the location of your list. click on "List1" and then click "Open". Under "Send records”. page layout. Replace body text with your own text. In the "Mail format" field. Then. Click the Office Button and select “New” from the menu. Adding details: Just click on the parts marked in square brackets and enter your details. Using Standard Templates Using a Template from Word Every Microsoft Word document is based on a template. Select "Use an existing list" and then click "Browse". Inserting Fields: Now. In the "To" field. Just ensure that you have entered the e-mail addresses of the people on the list. The "Merge to E-mail" window is displayed. verify that "Email_Address" is displayed. Selecting Recipients: You already have a list of people. then on "Insert". Then click "OK". Let us create a new document based on an existing template. click "Next". Previewing your messages: You now see a preview of the first e-mail message. In the "Subject line" field. In the "Mail Merge Recipients" window. click "Next". type the subject line you want to use for all the messages. click “Installed Templates” to see a list of templates. Click after the word "Dear". Use the right and left arrows to preview other messages. Selecting the Template type: Click on the “Equity Letter” template and then press the “Create” button. Now click "Close". special formatting and styles. menus.Selecting the starting document: Now. Enter a space. A template determines the basic structure for a document and contains document settings such as fonts. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. A new document is displayed with pre-defined settings. Click on First Name. since you are ready with your message. You may make changes if required. In the right left panel. key assignments. You may use any of the standard templates provided by Microsoft Word for your document such as Resumes. Now click "Next". Now. In the "Select Data Source" window. select the records you want to merge. Click "Next" to complete the merge. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". Let us use this list. click "OK".
Check the box next to the first keyboard type and click “OK”. before you can start using some languages on your computer. Click “Add” to add a new language. You can see that your text appears in the new language. In the “General” tab of the “Text Services and Input Languages” window. Now start typing your text. you must configure Windows Vista to be able to use fonts specific to those languages. Click the Office Button and click on the arrow next to “Save As”. Click on the plus sign in front of “Arabic (Saudi Arabia)”. and Region” This displays the “Keyboards and Languages” tab of the “Regional and Language Options” window. Hence. If you see the “Classic View” displayed. Click on the “Start” button. click the Office Button and then click the “Exit Word” button at the bottom right. Now click “Word Document”. Now. Now. Then click “Control Panel”. Now click on the plus sign in front of the word “Keyboard” displayed below it. Language. let us add the Arabic language as an example. You can do this by configuring the language settings in the “Clock. you see a list of languages that Windows Vista has been configured to use. click “Control Panel Home”. enter “Special Package” in the “File name” field and click “Save”. Now click “Change keyboards”. Click on the “EN” icon on the taskbar. Finally. In the box at the bottom. and Region” option of the “Control Panel”. click “Apply” and then “OK” in the “Text Services and Input Languages” window. Currently the school records are maintained on paper 62 | P a g e .Saving the document: You may save this file just like a normal document. the box at the top displays the default input language. Language. SPREADSHEET Overview of Excel Introduction You have recently accepted a new job as an Administrative Assistant with All Saints High School. Click on the “Arabic” language in the window that comes up. Your document is created based on the template you selected. Word Processing in Other Languages Language Settings in Windows Vista Setting a language for the Windows Vista operating system: By default Windows Vista does not support entry in certain languages. Using a Configured Language in Word Start the Microsoft Word application. In the “Add Input Language” window. click “Change keyboards or other input methods” under “Clock. To exit the Word application. In the “Save As” window. click “OK” in the “Regional and Language Options” window.
update and delete data with a few keystrokes. Whenever a hard copy is required. Microsoft Excel is the world’s most widely-used spreadsheet program.It is a general purpose electronic spreadsheet used to organize.All data is stored in the computer. . A spreadsheet is like an accountant’s ledger.You can create charts to represent data more effectively. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Excel 2007”.You can create well-designed spreadsheets that produce accurate and professional-looking results. It is mainly used for different type of calculations varying from very simple to complex.forms and stored in file cabinets organized alphabetically. whole or part of the spreadsheet can be printed. therefore there is no paper used. You are responsible for maintaining the exam records of all students. calculate and analyze data.It is very easy to manage. new data can be added. . An electronic spreadsheet or worksheet is made up of rows and columns. This data can be edited. The User Interface The User Interface is the way in which you interact with your computer. . filled with numerical or textual data. The school has purchased new computers and it plans to computerize all administrative operations. since you can add. The Microsoft Office user interface is uniform across most of its components. consisting of rows and columns. You will prepare the Exam Record of students in Microsoft Excel 2007. It consists of three main parts: 1) The Office Button 2) The Quick Access toolbar 3) The Ribbon 63 | P a g e . Although the information is well organized. and is part of the Microsoft Office suite. . Features of Microsoft Excel 2007 Features of Microsoft Excel 2007: . To start the Microsoft Excel application. and unwanted data can be deleted. change. it still takes time to manually leaf through the folders to locate the information you need.
Clicking the Office Button displays the “File” menu. paper orientation. It also enables you to view several separate Excel spreadsheet files at the same time. The “Page Layout” tab helps you in getting your worksheet ready for the printer. and hyperlinks. printing. graphics. It also has buttons that let you add comments to a worksheet and manage revisions. This contains commands for opening. It is designed to put your most commonly used commands in a place where you can always find them. c) Command buttons in each group that carry out a command or display a menu of commands. The “Insert” tab lets you add special ingredients like tables. like sorting. You will gradually learn to use the commands on all the tabs. The “Review” tab contains proofing tools like spell check. and other page settings. The “Formulas” tab helps you build useful formulas that can resolve a great deal of problems. please refer to the following: Topic: Word Processing Lab: Creating and Editing a Document 64 | P a g e .The Office Button: This appears at the top-left corner of your screen. filtering. like those for cutting and pasting information. The Quick Access toolbar: This appears to the right of the Office Button near the top of the screen. and closing a file. Undo. You can specify margins. The “View” tab lets you select from a variety of viewing options. For more details on the Microsoft Office User Interface. and searching for important pieces of information with search tools. It consists of:a) Task-oriented tabs. and Redo. formatting your data. The following Ribbon tabs are displayed in Excel: The “Home” tab has some of the most commonly used buttons. It also includes tools for dealing with large amounts of information. b) Groups within each tab that break a task into subtasks. and grouping. saving. charts. The “Data” tab lets you get information from an outside source for analysis. The Ribbon: The Ribbon is a component of the Office Fluent user interface. displaying icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save.
Excel also calculates workbooks each time they are opened. up or down. Microsoft Office Excel 2007 supports up to 1 million rows and 16 thousand columns per worksheet. BB. chart sheets containing graphic pictures of your worksheet data. By default. The intersection of a row and a column is called a cell. To move among the worksheets in your workbook.The number of the third row is obviously 3 and the name of the fifth column is E. It contains a collection of one or more worksheets and. optionally. AB. Specifically.… XFD and the rows are numbered from one onwards. the Excel 2007 grid is 1. a single file or document is called a workbook. 65 | P a g e .576 rows by 16. Each cell has its own address called the cell address. C. Suppose you want to refer to a cell in the third row and fifth column.384 columns which works out to more than 17 billion cells. To enter data in a cell. At the bottom of the workbook window are tabs that give you instant access to other worksheets in the workbook. Navigating the Excel Worksheet There are several methods for navigating a worksheet. the address of that cell will be E3. As you move from one cell to another. The simplest way is to click the cell that you want to activate with the mouse. right. Microsoft Excel automatically recalculates formulas when the cells that the formula depends on have changed. A special feature of Excel is “AutoCalculate”. you need to click the worksheet tabs.… AA.Assignment: The User Interface Workbooks and Worksheets In Microsoft Excel 2007. To view the part of the worksheet that is currently not visible. The worksheet is divided into a grid of rows and columns.048. The columns are named as A. you must first move to the cell. BA. the reference or address of the active cell appears in the Name Box. Cell address: The address of a cell is made up of two parts – the column name and the row number. B. You can use the arrow keys to move left. There are some keyboard shortcuts to navigate within the worksheet. use the vertical scroll bar on the right edge of the window or horizontal scroll bar at the bottom of the window. …AZ. To enable you to explore massive amounts of data in worksheets. Each worksheet can be used to organize different types of related information.
you can enter data in it. drag your cursor and release it when you have reached the end of the selection. Balance Sheet. It is here that you will be entering the data. Now click “Create” in the “New Workbook” window.“Ctrl+End” to go to the cell in the last row and last column that contains data. To select a group of cells.xltx”. A template is a file that is provided by the application in a “ready to use” form. etc. move to a cell where you want to enter data and type the entry using the keyboard. a new blank Excel workbook is opened. Continue typing the data in column A as shown in the accompanying figure. click in the cell you want to begin. The cell pointer will move down one row.Use “Ctrl+Home” to go the cell A1 and . activate cell B1 and repeat the same procedure as you did for column A. the same default settings are used.. Click in cell A1 to activate it and type ‘Roll_No’ and press “Enter” to complete the entry.Use the Home key to move to column A of the current row . For example a Sales Report. To activate a particular cell. Template: You may also create a new workbook using a template. You can also design and create your own workbook templates. use the F5 function key or press “Ctrl+G”. Type the address of the cell you want to make active and click “OK”. There is another way to create a new blank worksheet. 66 | P a g e . When you finish entering data in one column. CREATING AND EDITING Creating a New Workbook When you first start Excel.Page Up and Page Down keys can be used to move up or down one screen . It includes predefined settings that can be used as a pattern to create many different types of workbooks. To enter data. Entering and Editing Data After you are presented with a blank worksheet. A template file has an extension “. Click the Office Button and select “New”. Expense Statement. Whenever you create a new workbook using a template.
column C. You can use the formula bar to enter and edit data. use the “Backspace” key on the keyboard to erase the wrong character typed and continue typing. Click the checkmark to confirm your entry. if you make a typing mistake. Below the Ribbon. Resizing the Formula or Name Box: To make it easier to view and edit a large amount of text in a cell. Place the mouse on the boundary between the columns. You may wish to change only a part of the text in a cell. We will see later on. Correcting typing mistakes: While entering the data. Now move the cursor to the point at which you want to edit the text. Double click on the boundary while the cursor is a double sided arrow. The shape of the cursor will change to a double sided arrow pointing to the right and left. double-click on the cell. how to adjust the column width. instead of editing directly in your worksheet. Leave it as it is for now. you can adjust the size of the formula box in the formula bar. you will see that the data overflows into the next column. you see the Name Box on the left and the Formula Bar on the right. Changing Column Width Now you will adjust the width of the column B. When the cursor 67 | P a g e .While entering the data in the “Name” column. a checkmark and an "X" icon appear just to the left of the box. To adjust the height of the formula box. or "X" to roll it back. To accommodate long names. You may make the changes you require. Move the mouse to the boundary between column B and column C in the bar where column names are given on top. This is particularly useful when a cell contains a large amount of information. You can also click and drag the mouse to adjust the width of the column. For this. move your mouse over the bottom of the formula box until the pointer changes to a vertical twoheaded arrow and then drag with your mouse to where you want it. To overwrite the contents of a cell simply make the cell active and type whatever you want to. To adjust the width of the name box move your mouse between the name box and the formula box until the pointer changes to a horizontal two-headed arrow and then drag with your mouse to where you want it. To remove individual characters. press "Delete" for characters to the right of the insertion point and "Backspace" for characters to the left. Enter data in all five columns as shown. you can also resize the name box. The “Delete” key on the keyboard can be used to clear the contents of a cell. When you start typing in the formula box. that is. The width of the column will be automatically adjusted to the maximum length of characters in the column.
To save a file.shape changes. Select all the data you have entered. Now close the file. click and drag the mouse to widen the column as much as needed. Moving Cells You now have to add a heading to the worksheet. The background color of the cells changes as you drag the mouse. to save it again. To open an existing workbook. you must make place on the worksheet. click the Office Button and select “Save” or use the keyboard shortcut. Saving. To close the file. The name of the workbook appears in the “Title Bar”. To do so. Select all the data you have entered.xlsx”. From the window that is displayed. you must save the file. Another way to save is file is. Your file is stored with the extension “. Enter the column width and press “OK”. Then click and drag the mouse up to the last cell containing data to be moved. It is a good practice to save a file often to prevent data loss due to unforeseen circumstances like power failure. Select the data from the cells to be moved and then select “Cut” in the “Clipboard” 68 | P a g e . You now have to add a heading to the worksheet. click the Office Button and select “Open” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+O”. Then click and drag the mouse up to the last cell containing data to be moved. to click the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. The background color of the cells changes as you drag the mouse. Release the mouse when you reach cell E11. To do so. you must make place on the worksheet. You may also use the “Cut” and “Paste” commands to move cells. Closing and Opening a Workbook Now that all the data has been entered. You can also specify the width of the column by clicking on a column and selecting “Format → Column Width” in the “Cells” group on the “Home” tab. by placing the mouse in cell A1. Once a file has been saved. save it. Keep saving it as you work. by placing the mouse in cell A1. browse to select the file you want to open. As soon as you have opened a new file. Now click “Open”. click the Office Button and select “Save As”. Then type ‘Exam Record’ in the box in front of the label “File name” and then click on the “Save” button. “Ctrl+S”. The height of a row can be changed in a similar manner. Release the mouse when you reach cell E11. click the Office Button and select “Close”.
as shown in the figure. Type ‘Total’ in cell F8. type ‘Marks’. 69 | P a g e . Click on the cell where you want to move your data and then click on the upper part of the “Paste” icon in the “Clipboard” group on the “Home” tab. To do this in Excel. You now have to calculate the total marks for each student.group on the “Home” tab. multiplication. Exam Record and Class VIII – B. Move the data for ‘Roll_No’ and ‘Name’ one row down. When you begin typing a formula. addition and subtraction. -. Using Formulas Formula: A formula is nothing but an expression that performs calculation on data contained in the worksheet. including a description of each item. As soon as you click on the icon. Do the same for the other headings – . *. a formula always begins with an equal sign (=) and uses arithmetic operators like +. The total of the marks for the three subjects is displayed in cell F10 as 248. all the selected cells are merged and the heading is centered. Let the text overflow into the neighboring cells. Formula AutoComplete: The Formula AutoComplete feature makes entering formulas very simple. Select cells starting with A1 to E1 and click on the “Merge & Center” icon in the “Alignment” group on the “Home” tab. subtraction. Total Marks secured = Marks of Subject 1 + Marks of Subject 2 + Marks of Subject 3. Centering and Merging Cells To merge and centre headings:Type the headings in appropriate cells as shown in the accompanying figure. Excel displays a drop-down list of matching items. you have to make use of a formula. Merge and center ‘Marks’ above the three subject marks as shown in the accompanying figure. and ^ to perform addition. multiplication and division. In Excel. press Tab to enter it into your formula. one heading at a time You have to now insert cells to make place so that we can give a combined heading for the three subjects. In regular Mathematics. You will soon see how to bring the heading to the center of the data. When you see the item you want. A moving border appears around the selection. %. Move the cursor down and type ‘=C10+D10+E10’ and press “Enter”. Select the cells C8 to E8 and right-click on the selection. division. Select “Insert” from the pop-up window and select “Shift cells down” from the “Insert” window. In the cell above Sub1. If a formula contains operators of the same precedence. they are evaluated from left to right. percent and exponentiation respectively. A formula is evaluated from left to right and in the following order: percent. /. exponentiation.
In the Formula Bar. The formula can be copied and pasted in the other cells. Type ‘Percent’ in cell G8. This is called “What-If Analysis”. Select all cells from F11 to G19. The Percent marks for the three subjects are displayed in cell G10 as 82. another workbook or in a totally different application. Move the cursor down and type ‘=F10 * (100/300)’ which is the formula to calculate percentage and then press “Enter”. another worksheet. all related formulas are recalculated automatically.You have now to calculate the percent marks for each student. The formula for adding marks and calculating percent is copied from cells F10 and G10 respectively and pasted into all selected cells. Let us change the marks of one student. Select “Paste” from the pop-up window. a range. Thus you can change the value in a cell and see the effect on other related cells. The cells in a range can be adjacent or non-adjacent. It shows “=C11+D11+E11”. The formula in cell F12 is “=C12+D12+E12”. press Esc key. can also be copied and pasted in a similar manner on the same worksheet. The row numbers have changed relative to the positions of the cells containing the formula. This indicates that the contents have been copied. This is called “Relative Cell Referencing”. What-If Analysis: If you change one or more numbers in your spreadsheet. Right-click anywhere in the selection Select “Copy” from the pop-up window. A moving border appears around the selection. An adjacent range is a block of adjoining cells. that is. Right click in anywhere in the selection. In regular Mathematics.to cancel the moving border. The contents of several continuous cells. A non-adjacent range is two or more cells or ranges that are not adjoining. Duplicating Cell Contents You have to calculate the ‘Total’ and ‘Percent’ marks for all students in the same way.66667. You may also use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+V” or select “Paste” from the “Clipboard” group on the “Home” tab. Alternatively. You can see that the value in the “Percent” field is changed automatically. Percentage = Marks secured multiplied by 100 and divided by the Maximum Marks. observe the formula you have pasted in cell F11. you may use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+C” or select “Copy” from the “Clipboard” group on the “Home” tab. Range: A range is a selection of two or more cells. Select cells F10 and G10. But you don’t have to type the formula every time. 70 | P a g e .
Let us select the range A11:A18 using the mouse. Click on the cell A11 and drag to the cell A18. IF(G10>=50. The result of the function is displayed in cell I10. In Excel. This means a new “IF” statement is started inside another “IF” statement. IF(G10>=75. "C"."PASS". The condition for a student to pass is that he must secure at least 35 percent marks. The grades for all students are displayed. B grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 50. A+ grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 75. The results for all students are displayed. you would write this condition as follows: If percentage is greater than or equal to 35. C grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 35. You will again use the “IF” function to do so. Press “Enter”. You now have to give Grades to the students according to their marks. “Copy” this function and “Paste” it in the cells from H11 to H19. an adjacent range is specified by giving the starting and ending cell addresses separated by a colon (:). In regular English. =IF(G10>=35. E9. the student will be declared “PASSED”. Now select C14:F21. you will use the “IF” function. This is called “nested IF”."Pass". "B". otherwise he would be declared “FAILED”. “Copy” this function and “Paste” it in the cells from I11 to I19. "A+". 71 | P a g e . "Fail"). C7. Pass grade All others fail. Type the heading ‘Grade’ in cell I8 and type the function as shown in cell I10. "FAIL"))))) Press “Enter”. A grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 60. =IF(G10>=80. It is possible to nest multiple IF functions within one Excel formula. IF(G10>=35. The grades will be given as follows: Percent marks greater than or equal to 80. Using Functions A “Function” is a prewritten formula that performs calculations automatically. Type the heading ‘Result’ in cell H8 and type the function as shown in cell H10. "A". You have to decide whether a student has passed or failed.) like A4. press the “Ctrl” key and then click on the next two cells. Let us learn to use a nested IF this time. A non-adjacent range is specified by giving the cell addresses separated by a comma (. Click on the first cell. The result of the function is displayed in cell H10. IF(G10>=60.In formulas.
and B24 respectively. Activate cell C23. The “Function Arguments” window is displayed. Observe the formula bar to see how the function is written. activate it. select “Statistical” from the “Or select a category” list. The Function Arguments window is displayed. Type ‘Maximum marks’. and type ‘=Average (F10:F19)’ in it. Here you can enter the numbers or the range from which you want to find the maximum number. Enter the numbers or the range from which you want to find the minimum number. minimum and average marks scored by the students. Type the range as ’F10:F19’ next to”Number1” and click “OK”. 72 | P a g e . click in the drop down box next to “Or select a category”. Activate cell C24. Select the “Statistical” category. The result is displayed in cell C24. From the window that opens. you have to use the “AVERAGE” function. ‘Minimum marks’ and ‘Average marks’ in cells B22. The minimum number in the range is displayed in cell C23. To find the average marks. B23.Now to find the maximum. you can make use of some statistical functions. Since the “MAX” function has been most recently used. You can type all the functions in the same manner whenever you want to use them. It is written for you by Excel as =MIN (F10:F19) There is another way of using functions. Type the range as ‘F10:F19’ next to “Number1” and click “OK”. Select “Insert Function” in the “Function Library” group on the “Formulas” tab. The maximum number in the range is displayed in cell C22 as 262. If the category is something else. You can simply type the function you want to use in the cell. select “MAX” from the alphabetical list of functions and click “OK”. Observe the formula bar to see how the function is written. From the “Select a function” list. Select “Insert Function” in the “Function Library” group on the “Formulas” tab. It is written for you by Excel as =MAX (F10:F19) Now. select “MIN” from the alphabetical list of functions and click “OK”. From the “Select a function” list. the “Statistical” category will already be selected. to find the minimum marks. you have to use “MIN” function. To insert a function in cell C22. Press “Enter” to complete the entry.
All the headings are centered. A5. While the headings are still selected. Changing the font color of the headings: Select all headings and click on the arrow next to the “Font Color” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. Select “Format” in the “Cells” group on the “Home tab. The font color of all headings is displayed with the color Blue. Select “Blue”. Hold down the Ctrl key and click in cells A4. font set. select them first. Decimal Places: The percent marks are displayed with many decimal places. 73 | P a g e . select range A8:H8 and range C9:E9. The accompanying figure shows an enhanced view of the worksheet. click on the “Center” icon in the “Alignment” group on the “Home” tab. With the Ctrl key still held down. Let us see how we can enhance our worksheet which looks quite plain. Select “Bodoni MT Black”. You want the percent marks to be displayed with only two decimal places. click on the “Number” tab. Select “Number” from the “Category” list and change “Decimal places” to 2. The font and the font size of the heading are changed. you can make them bold. To bring the headings to the center. A thick border is displayed around the entire range. A theme consists of a color palette. Now click on “Format Cells” and from the window that opens. click in cell A1. You may use the “Align Text Left” or “Align Text Right” icons to move the headings to the left or right if you wish. “Themes” are universal designs that unify all of the styles. and effects. Alignment: To bring the headings to the center. Now select “Thick Box Border” from the displayed list. Select the range of Percent marks. To select all headings. You can choose from a variety of predefined styles by selecting “Cell Styles” in the “Styles” group on the “Home” tab. You may access the theme gallery by selecting “Themes” in the “Themes” group on the “Page Layout” tab. If the headings are not selected. Then click on the “Font Size” list and select 14. A list of fonts is displayed.Formatting the Worksheet You can make your spreadsheet look more coordinated and professional by using Styles and Themes. “Styles” are individual designs that can be applied to different parts of the document. The numbers in the “Percent” range are displayed with two decimal places. you must first select all of them. then click on the “Bold” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. A window of colors is displayed. Changing the “Font” and “Font Size” of the headings: Select cell A1 and click on the “Font” list in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. Adding a thick border: Select the range of cells from A8 to H19 and click on the arrow next to the “Borders” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. Click “OK”.
Highlighting: To highlight the range of “Maximum, Minimum and Average Marks”, select the range B22:C24. Click on the “Fill Color” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. Select the color “Yellow”. The cell range is filled with the color Yellow. Indenting: To adjust the indenting of the contents of a cell, click on the cell. Then, in the “Alignment” group on the “Home” tab, click on the “Increase Indent” or “Decrease Indent” icon as required. Working with Graphics You now have to insert the logo of the School. To do so, activate cell G3 and select “Clip Art” in the “Illustrations” group on the “Insert” tab. In the “Clip Art” panel at the right, type ‘concepts’ in the “Search for:” box. Check in the boxes before “My Collections” and “Office Collections” in the drop down list of “Search in”. Click in the box before “Clip Art” in the drop down list of “Results should be” and click “Go”. Resizing the graphic image: Click on the “Bull’s Eye” image. It will be bigger in size. You have to resize it so that it occupies less space and looks proportionate to the rest of the data on the page. To resize it, click on the lower right corner handle of the image, and drag the mouse so that the image becomes smaller in size. Release the mouse when the image becomes the desired size. Entering the Date Inserting a row: Click on row number 7 on the left side. Right click and select “Insert”. One Row will be inserted. To insert multiple rows, select an equal number of rows. This means that when you select four rows, four more rows are inserted. Activate cell A7 and type ‘Date:’. Then place the cell pointer in cell B7 and select “Insert Function” in the “Function Library” group on the “Formulas” tab. Select “Date & Time” as category. Select “Date” as function and click “OK”. Type the “Year” as ‘2007’, “Month” as ‘02’ and “Day” as ‘21’ in the “Function Arguments” window. Click “OK”. The date is displayed as “2/21/2007” in cell B7. Formatting the date: To change the date format, right-click in cell B7 and select “Format cells”. The “Format Cells” window is displayed. Click on the “Number” tab. Select “Date” from the “Category” list and select the “Type” as “14-Mar-01”. The sample format is visible in the “Sample” box. Click “OK”. The date is displayed in the format 21-Feb-07. Previewing and Printing
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The worksheet is now ready. You can print it. Before getting a hard copy, you can preview the worksheet. If you do not like the way it looks, you can make more changes. To preview your worksheet, click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. The “Print Preview” tab appears when you view the worksheet in the Print Preview mode. Click “Close Print Preview” in the “Preview” group to close the preview. Everything seems to be OK. But the logo of the school needs to be moved up, in line with the school’s name. Moving the graphic image: Click and drag the “Bull’s Eye” image so that it is in line with the school’s name. Release the mouse when done. The image can also be moved by using the arrow keys on the keyboard by selecting it first. Click on the image to select it. Use the right arrow key to move the graphic image to the right, left arrow key to move it to the left and so on. Printing the worksheet: Click the Office Button and select “Print → Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. Select the printer name from the list in front of “Name”. Under “Print Range” enter “Pages From” as ‘1’ To ‘1’. Select “Active Sheet” under “Print what” and click “OK”. Sorting Data Excel can quickly sort text, data or numbers according to specified criteria in ascending or descending order. In the worksheet displayed you can see a list of people along with their ages. Let us sort this list according to the names. Click in any of the cells containing names and then click “Sort & Filter” in the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab. To sort the list in ascending order of names, click “Sort A to Z”. To sort it in descending order, click “Sort & Filter” and select “Sort Z to A”. Now, to sort this list according to the ages of the people, click in a cell containing an age and follow the same procedure. When you click the “Sort & Filter” icon, you see the options “Sort Smallest to Largest” and “Sort Largest to Smallest”. This is because previously it was an alphabetic list and now it is a list containing numbers that is being sorted. To sort the list in ascending order of ages, select “Sort Smallest to Largest”. Now if you had to sort the data in the worksheet containing student marks that you previously created in descending order of roll numbers, you would need to follow a slightly different procedure. This is because this worksheet contains headings and information other than simply data. First select all columns which contain data and then select “Sort & Filter → Sort Largest to Smallest” in the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab. Using Charts
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Learning about Charts
You have to present the exam results of the students of class VIII-B. The most easy and effective manner to do this would be to present it in the form of a chart. A chart is a visual representation of data and conveys the information in an easy to understand and attractive manner. There are different types of charts available in Microsoft Excel 2007 such as Column charts, Line charts, Bar charts, Area charts, Bubble charts and many more. You may select a suitable type depending on the data you want to chart and the emphasis you want the chart to impart. Here you will learn to make a single data series chart. Parts of a Chart: A chart has different parts as labeled in the accompanying image. Chart Title – The tile of the chart “Student Vs Marks”. Value Axis – The Y-axis on which the value is shown. Value Axis Title – The title “Marks”. Category Axis – The X-axis on which the category for which you have charted the values is shown. Category Axis Title – The title “Name” Chart Area – The entire area on which the chart is drawn. Legend – The legend, as in a map, shows which color is used to represent what: “Series 1” in this case. Creating a Chart To present the marks of all students as a chart, select the “Name” range (B11 to B20), hold down the “Ctrl” key and select the “Total” range (F11 to F20), without selecting the titles in cells B9 and F9. On the “Insert” tab, in the “Charts” group, select “Column”. Now select “Clustered Column”, the first image from the Chart sub-types displayed. You can now see the chart on your worksheet. You can make changes to your chart and enhance its appearance using various “Chart Tools”. If you do not see “Chart Tools” displayed on the Ribbon, click in the chart area to ensure that the chart is selected. Now, under “Chart Tools”, on the “Design” tab, select a suitable style from the “Chart Styles” group. Now let us add more details in our chart. For this we shall use the “Labels” group on the “Layout” tab under “Chart Tools”. Click “Chart Title” and select “Above Chart”. Now type the title ‘Student Vs Marks’. As you type, it appears
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Data Labels are used to label the elements of a chart with their actual data values. to enter the description for the X-axis. drag to a suitable size. select “Axis Titles → Primary Horizontal Axis Title → Title Below Axis”. To print only the chart. 77 | P a g e . Now click “OK”. You may explore the various other options on the “Format” tab to further enhance your chart. When the mouse pointer changes to a two-headed arrow. Similarly. Sizing the chart: Click on the center of any side of the chart or at a corner. Select “Bar” in the left pane of the “Change Chart Type” window and then click “Clustered Bar” in the right pane. select “Change Chart Type” in the “Type” group. You can now see the actual marks of each student. The chart title is displayed above your chart. After a chart has been created. you can even change the Chart Type. the spelling checker locates all misspelled words and proposes the correct spelling. Now click “Select Data” in the “Data” group. Your chart appears as a bar chart. Press “Enter”. select the data in the “Name” column and “Subject 1” column and click “OK” in the “Select Data Source” window. click on the “Design” tab under “Chart Tools”. To enter the description for the Y-axis. For this. This time. Moving the chart: Click on the chart and when the mouse pointer changes to a four-headed arrow. select the cells that contain the data that you want to appear in the chart. drag it to a position of your choice. Select a Shape Style from the “Shape Styles” group. type “Names” and press “Enter”. select it by clicking in the chart area. Select “Data Labels → Outside End”. Modifying a Chart You may decide that you want to plot only the marks of Subject 1 in the chart. on your worksheet. You can see that the chart displays the marks of Subject 1.in the Formula Bar at the top. Now. Then select a WordArt Style from the “WordArt Styles” group. The “Select Data Source” window is displayed. if some spelling mistakes have been made. You may enhance the appearance of your chart. On the “Design” tab under “Chart Tools”. Now click on the Office Button and then select “Print”. Managing a Workbook Correcting Errors While entering data. Click on the “Format” tab under “Chart Tools”. select “Axis Titles → Primary Vertical Axis Title → Rotated Title”. type “Marks” and press “Enter”.
Right-click in cell A1 of Sheet2. Select the “Move or Copy” option. You may also move or copy sheets with the mouse. click on the “Change All” button. If there are more than one occurrences of the same word spelt wrongly. select the book you want to move the sheet to. Select the “Paste” option. Some words. Select all headings in the range A1 to H10. If you change a word which you did not want to. You can also select the sheet before which you want to insert it. You may make changes in this sheet for another class. click on Sheet2.Place the cell pointer at the beginning of your worksheet or from wherever you want to start checking for errors. Click a sheet you want move and drag it to the place you want to copy it and release the mouse 78 | P a g e . click in the “Create a copy” check box. In the “To book” list. such as proper nouns which are not really errors may be shown as spelling mistakes. “Ignore” etc. To copy the sheet. Simply copy them from one sheet to another. All you need to do is to add data. a message saying so is displayed. A whole new worksheet with the same layout but with different data is ready. The “Spelling” window is displayed and one by one every word in your worksheet is checked. The Sheet2 will be displayed. On the sheet tabs below. select the sheet. The “Move or Copy” window is displayed. options are displayed in the “Suggestions” box from the spelling checker’s dictionary. When the checking is completed for the entire worksheet. The range copied from Sheet1 is pasted in cell A1 of Sheet2. You may add these words to the dictionary by clicking the “Add to Dictionary” button. Select “Spelling” in the “Proofing” group on the “Review” tab or use the keyboard shortcut “F7”. In that case. the spelling checker moves to the next word. From the “Before sheet” list. Working with Sheets You want to make the exam record for another class now. If the spelling is correct but shown as incorrect for some reason. Right-click on the selection and click on “Copy”.. When you click on any button such as “Change”. select the correct word from the suggestions list and click on the “Change” button. You can use the same format of the worksheet. click on “Undo Last”. If a spelling is found to be wrong. click on “Ignore All” or “Ignore Once” whichever is appropriate. Moving or copying sheets: Right click on the Sheet1 tab. You do not have to type all the headings once again. You may copy a sheet to another workbook.
This is the fill handle. Through the options in this window. select all sheets. 3000. hold down the “Ctrl” key while you drag a sheet. Other such autofill entries are . 2000. the current sheet will be deleted after confirmation. A ‘+’ sign appears on the page icon while copying the sheet. If you select “Delete”. names of the months in short. The name will be highlighted. Absolute reference: An absolute reference is a cell or range reference used in a formula whose location does not change when a formula is copied. You will see a black plus sign. and change the tab color. The name of the sheet is changed. without opening the sheets. a number of options are displayed in the pop-up window. right click in any of the sheet tabs and select “Ungroup Sheets”. When you copy. Double-click on the name of the sheet. a solid black triangle appears along with a blank page icon. etc. To copy a sheet with the mouse. If you select “Insert”. move or copy. When you release the mouse. All the range you selected will be filled with names of months starting with January. Manage a sheet: When you right-click on the sheet tab. To deselect the sheets. You can name the sheet accordingly. For this. To stop 79 | P a g e . You may change the tab color of sheets to distinguish between the data stored on each sheet. You can select all sheets by selecting the “Select all sheets” option. Simply type the new name. the sheet will be moved to the new location. a chart or something else. Drag the mouse as far as you want the cells to fill and release the mouse. to give you an idea of what data is stored on the sheet. The number of the copy appears in brackets in the sheet tab Naming a sheet: When you have many sheets. another copy of the sheet is made. you can insert. Type the entry ‘January’ in a cell. the “Insert” window is displayed. delete. Autofill recognizes and automatically extends data and alphanumeric headings as far as you specify. right-click on a sheet tab and select “Tab Color”. While you drag.button. Move the mouse to the corner of the selection.days of the week in short. it becomes difficult to remember what data is stored on each sheet. from which you can select whether you want to insert a worksheet. number series like 1000. Using Autofill: Autofill is a feature of Microsoft Excel 2007 that makes entering a series of headings easier by logically repeating and extending the series. rename.
more data will fit on the screen and vice versa. you have made the column and the row references absolute. Referencing multiple sheets: While working you may have to reference data from more than one sheet. Here. Managing Large Sheets You already know the massive size of the worksheet in Microsoft Excel 2007. Select “Zoom” in the “Zoom” group on the “View” tab. To split the window vertically. the reference of cell O2 has remained constant. Although the formula has been copied. At such times. type a $ (dollar) character before the column and row number. Thus “Sheet1!A1” refers to cell A1 on Sheet1. you can view two areas of a worksheet and lock rows or columns in one area by splitting or freezing panes. there can be data in a number of rows and columns all of which cannot be seen at the same time. Now. For the Final exam. Copy this formula from cell M6 to the remaining students and check the formula for each student in the “Formula Bar”.the automatic relative cell references. If you reduce the percentage. But the problem comes when you need to refer to some other part while working in one part of the sheet. but data for marks will have to be typed. In the zoom window you may select a zoom percentage of your choice. Sheet1 has the value 100 in cell A1 and Sheet2 has the value 200 in cell A1. 20% of the Unit Test marks are to be calculated. Select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. Let us now go to Sheet3. while rows or columns in the non-scrolled area remain visible. activate cell M6 and type ‘=L6 * $O$2’ in it. When a formula containing an absolute cell reference is copied to another row or column in the worksheet. the cell reference does not change. You may copy the Roll Nos and the Names. You can see that the sum of the figures on the other two sheets is displayed here. Splitting Panes: You can split the window either horizontally. you can change the display percentage of the sheet. You can then scroll in one area of the worksheet. enter “=Sheet1!A1+Sheet2! A1” and press “Enter”. This makes the cell reference absolute. Now. This is called referencing multiple sheets. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the top row. vertically or both horizontally and vertically. Now both panes have a common vertical scroll bar but 80 | P a g e . in the cell A1. Prepare the data as shown in the accompanying figure in the neighboring space. starting with cell ‘J1’. to calculate 20% marks. By adding ‘$’ before ‘O’ and ‘2’. Zooming the worksheet: In Microsoft Excel 2007. You can work in any part of the worksheet at any time. At such times.
individual horizontal scroll bars to enable you to move separately in the two panes. rows and columns. To split the window horizontally. or both. You can see that three panes have appropriate vertical and horizontal scroll bars. Freezing panes: With the “Freeze Panes” option. As you scroll through your worksheet. To freeze the left pane of the window. select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab once again. This means that. Select “Freeze Panes → Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. You can freeze information in the top and left panes of the window only. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the leftmost column. Select “Freeze Panes → Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. select the appropriate options from those displayed on selection of “Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. 81 | P a g e . Let us assume that you wish to have the headings and roll numbers & names of the students visible always. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the top row. Moving using the horizontal scrollbar keeps the column numbers in the frozen pane unchanged. To remove a split. select “Freeze Panes → Unfreeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. selecting “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab results in a horizontal and vertical split. if you click on the top left cell. To split the window both horizontally as well as vertically. Select “Freeze Panes → Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. you can see that the frozen panes are visible at all times. Select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. Also. To remove the freeze. Moving using the vertical scrollbar keeps the row numbers in the frozen pane unchanged. For this. Now both panes have a common horizontal scroll bar but individual vertical scroll bars to enable you to move separately in the two panes. regardless of where you are in the worksheet. you can freeze either. To freeze the top row or first column. place the cell pointer in the appropriate cell where you want the split to appear. click the cell below and to the right of the row and column you want to freeze. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the leftmost column. To freeze the top pane of the window. you can see the information in those rows and/or columns at all times. Select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. When a window is split both horizontally and vertically. the top left pane freezes.
The header and footer give additional information about the data on the page. Select “WhatIf Analysis → Goal Seek” in the “Data Tools” group on the “Data” tab. you can use the Goal Seek feature. but not the input value the formula needs to get that result. If the data is not properly visible on the page. Student with Roll Number 6 has failed. you can use the “Header & Footer” option to add the same header and footer on each page. You can do this with Goal seek. you may decide that the pages of your worksheet must have a header and footer. Click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. If you have say 15 pages in your workbook.Forecasting Values Goal Seek: One of the features of Microsoft Excel is analyzing data. During analysis. In the “Goal Seek” window. The header is usually the title you would give to the page. 82 | P a g e . how much he should have scored in the failed subject to score pass marks. you can change the orientation of the page so that data can be fitted accordingly. The text that appears in the bottom margin of the page is called the Footer. The marks in the failed subject are adjusted to 35. Header and Footer: Before you print your data. If there is more data to be fitted on one page. if a student has failed. The default setting is “Portrait”. You now want to find out. It is a method which aids you in forecasting values. Click “OK”. you may change page orientation to “Landscape” by selecting “Orientation” in the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. you can change the page orientation to landscape. how many marks he should have scored in that subject so that he would have secured a Pass grade. Footers and Print Settings Page orientation: Depending on the area of the worksheet you want to print. type ‘105’ (the passing total marks) in the “To value” box. Headers. The text that appears in the top margin of the page is called the Header. For example. Click “OK”. The “Goal Seek Status” window is displayed. Click in the “By changing cell” field and then click C16. If you know the result that you want from a formula. you want to find out. The value in cell C16 is adjusted to get the target value. Activate cell F16. You can see that he has scored very poor marks in one of the three subjects. you often come across situations. where you have to see the effects of changing selected factors in a worksheet. containing the “Total” marks of the student. The page number is usually given as the footer. the cell with the marks below pass level.
In addition. movies and sounds. This will insert the date. whether to the Board of Directors of a company or to your fellow colleagues. 83 | P a g e . correct and update the presentation. Click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. select the name of the printer from the list in the “Name” field. Select all the sheets you want to print by clicking on the sheet tabs.Select “Header & Footer” in the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. text. We shall insert the page number in the box displayed. Click on the Office Button and select “Print”. An effective presentation puts your point across clearly and in an interesting manner. Here. click on “Active sheet(s)” and then click “OK”. In the “Print What” section. Now click “Go to Footer” in the “Navigation” group. For this. On the “Design” tab under “Header & Footer Tools”. you can choose from a variety of computer tools called Graphics Presentation Programs. a Graphics Presentation Program may also suggest layouts and color and animation schemes for different types of presentations and offer professionally designed templates to help you to create a presentation that is sure to hold the attention of your audience. Presentation Graphics Overview of Presentation Graphics Introduction to Presentation Graphics If you have to make a presentation to an audience and you want it to be good. Press “Enter” and type ‘Class VIII B’ on the second line. Graphics Presentation Programs include features to handle pictures. you may enter the text “First Term Exam Report”. Check the layout and close the preview by clicking “Close Print Preview” in the “Preview” group. This displays another box to the right. Now press the “Tab” key. You can print selected sheets in the workbook. A box is displayed at the center of the header area. Use the “Ctrl” key to select more than one sheet. With a few keystrokes you can quickly change. click on “Current Date” in the “Header & Footer Elements” group. Press “Tab” and then press the “Esc” key to complete creation of the footer. In the “Print” window. charts and tables. Printing selected worksheets: You do not always need to print the entire workbook. These programs are designed to help you to create an effective presentation. click on “Page Number” in the “Header & Footer Elements” group.
Undo. The “Slide Show” tab contains tools that control how the slide show is presented. The following Ribbon tabs are displayed in PowerPoint: The “Home” tab contains the basic formatting tools. You will gradually learn to use the commands on all the tabs. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007”. and closing a file. Exploring Microsoft PowerPoint: To start the Microsoft PowerPoint application. The “View” tab contains tools which help you view your presentation in the most suitable way. The “Insert” tab contains the basic set of objects which you can insert into a slide. You may create a new presentation using a template provided by PowerPoint. Each slide shows a different screen to your audience. Creating a Presentation Using Installed Templates A “Template” is a pre-designed presentation designed for common purposes such as a photo album or a quiz show. saving. 2) The Quick Access toolbar which displays icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. For more details on the Microsoft Office User Interface. The “Review” tab contains tools which help you proofread and correct a presentation. Groups and Command buttons. 84 | P a g e . You see the familiar Microsoft Office 2007 user interface which consists of: 1) The Office Button which displays a menu containing commands for opening. you may see the assignment titled “The User Interface” in the “Microsoft Word” topic. 3) The Ribbon which has Task-oriented Tabs. The “Design” tab contains tools to design your slides. The “Animations” tab contains tools to animate objects and create transitions between slides.Each presentation is divided into slides. and Redo. printing. Click on the Office Button and select “New”.
In this full-screen view. You can make changes as required. like an actual slide show presentation.In the left panel. or delete slides. animated elements and transition effects will look in the actual show. if you need to make changes to the way your slide show runs. Here. This is the main editing view. add or delete slides. Click on the tab names to view the respective tabs. under “Templates”. Microsoft PowerPoint has three main views: Normal View. you may select “Slide Show” in the “Presentation Views” group on the “View” tab or click the “Slide Show” button at the bottom right of the status bar. A new presentation is displayed with pre-defined settings. For example. This makes it easy to navigate through your presentation and to see the effects of changes. click “Installed Templates” to see a list of templates. You can also rearrange. Creating your First Slide 85 | P a g e . Slide Sorter View: Click the “View” tab. This view takes up the full computer screen. movies. add. on the right you can see the “Slide Pane”. Select “Slide Sorter” in the “Presentation Views” group. In the Normal View. making it easy to reorder. The “Slides” tab shows your slides as thumbnail-sized images while you edit. On the bottom is the “Notes Pane” in which you can type notes that you want along with a slide. you may specify the timing between the display of each slide and which slides are to be hidden during the presentation. Click on a suitable one and then press the “Create” button. Normal View: Select “Normal” in the “Presentation Views” group. you may use the options available on the “Slide Show” tab. The “Outline” tab shows your slide text in outline form. you see your presentation the way your audience will. When you have finished creating and editing your presentation. You can see how your graphics. and Slide Show View. Slide Sorter View. timings. It has three working areas. you can find various tools that control how the slide show is presented. On the left are the “Slides” and “Outline” tabs. Now. Slide Sorter View gives you an overall picture of it. PowerPoint Presentation Views Viewing a presentation: A “view” is a way of looking at a presentation. which displays a large view of the current slide. To actually run a slide show. You may also change the presentation views by clicking on the buttons displayed on the “Status Bar” at the bottom of the screen. Slide Show View: Select “Slide Show” in the “Presentation Views” group or press “F5” on your keyboard. This is an exclusive view of your slides in thumbnail form.
Sizing and Moving Placeholders You know that placeholders are boxes that are part of most slide layouts. An insertion point is displayed to show your location in the text. You can see a “Rotation Handle” which is a round arrow at the top of the placeholder. You wish to create a presentation which introduces your company and tells about its numerous activities. you may make editing changes to your text on the Outline tab. In the existing slide. you see two boxes. Applying a Theme: You may enhance the appearance of this slide which looks quite plain. Moving a placeholder: You may wish to change the position of your placeholder. You may now edit the text as you wish. In the “Themes” group. Editing in the Slide Pane: You may make changes directly in the slide pane. click in an area between the sizing handles on the side borders. First. click on the arrow at the bottom right to see all available themes. These are simultaneously reflected in the Slide Pane. You may need to change some of the text that you have entered on your slide. let us assume you need to make changes to the title. Now click on a theme of your choice. To move a placeholder. Using the Outline Tab: Alternately. and pictures. Sizing a placeholder: The “Sizing Handles” at the sides and corners of the selection rectangle can be used to adjust the size of the placeholder. you can drag to the location you wish. When you start PowerPoint. These boxes hold title and body text or objects such as charts. The sizing handles at the sides are used to adjust only the height or the width.You are working for a company which offers various educational courses. Saving and Opening a Presentation 86 | P a g e . The title is now a selected object and is surrounded by a selection rectangle. Click in the first placeholder and type the name you want to give your presentation. tables. To rotate a placeholder. click on the text in the title. Click on the title text. In the Slide Pane on the right. When you move your mouse over a sizing handle the pointer becomes a twoheaded arrow. drag the rotation handle in the direction that you want to rotate it. In the second placeholder type a subtitle. Dragging a corner sizing handle adjusts both the height and width at the same time. Click on the “Design” tab. It can be used to rotate the placeholder to any angle. you see a blank presentation in Normal View with the default name “Presentation1”. When the pointer becomes a four-headed arrow. These are called “Placeholders”.
Let us create a new slide by specifying a layout. browse to the location of your picture file. Enhancing the Picture: You may make changes to the picture by using various Picture Tools. create a slide using the “Picture with Caption” layout. you may click the Office Button and select “Save”. In the “Save As” window specify the location at which you wish to save your presentation.pptx”. on a slide. Enter the title and text as shown. charts and movies. Changing Fonts and Formatting 87 | P a g e . You may click on a style of your choice. In the “Picture Styles” group. click on the “More” arrow to see all available picture styles. Your file is stored with the extension “. Click on the picture name and then click “Insert”. select “Picture”. Now click on the “Insert” tab. Click the “Open” button to display the selected file on the screen. You may also use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+S”. The picture is displayed on your slide in a placeholder. Enter the title and text as shown. The available layouts are displayed. Similarly. tables. In the “Illustrations” group. Let us also insert the same picture on the first slide we created. such as text. In the “Slides” group. Now click on the “Format” tab under “Picture Tools”. Now click “Save”. Click on the picture. browse to the location of your presentation and click on the file name from the displayed list. In the “Insert Picture” window. in the “Insert Picture” window. Select a suitable one.To save your presentation. You may apply other effects to your picture by selecting from the various options available under “Picture Effects” in the “Picture Styles” group on the “Format” tab. click on the lower part of the “New Slide” icon. Click on the picture name and then click “Insert”. As you did earlier. You may change the size and position as required. pictures. Using a Slide Layout and Inserting Pictures A Slide Layout refers to the arrangement of elements. Now click the Office Button and select “Close” to close this file. browse to the location of your picture file. You may use the default name for your presentation or enter a new one. In the “Open” window. click the picture icon. To open a file that you have previously saved. To open a recently used presentation you may click the Office Button and then click on the presentation name in the list displayed under “Recent Documents”. You can see a new slide with the specified layout. Click on the first slide on the Slides tab in the left pane. click the Office Button and select “Open”. To display a picture of your company logo on your slide. Click on the “Home” tab.
to create a numbered list. Click on the third slide on the Slides tab in the left pane. Select “Background Styles” in the “Background” group and make your selection. To correct the misspelled words. you may have unknowingly left several typing errors uncorrected. You may select the desired Font and Font Size from the “Fonts” group. Now select “Spelling” in the “Proofing” group or use the keyboard shortcut “F7”. Changing Font Effects and Color: From the “Fonts” group. click on the “Design” tab. click on the “Review” tab. Changing Alignment: You may change the alignment of text by clicking on the “Align Text Left”. Make your selection from the various bullet styles displayed. You will now observe that the text has changed to the new font of the size you selected. Changing the Background Style: To change the background of your slides. Changing Page Properties: Select “Page Setup” in the “Page Setup” group on the “Design” tab. Applying different formatting to characters and paragraphs can greatly enhance the appearance of the slide. Bullets and Numbering: You may enter text as a bulleted or numbered list. You may also change the color of the font by clicking on the arrow to the right of the “Font Color” icon and making your selection. you may select other effects such as Bold.Changing Font and Font Size: Let us change the Font and Font Size of the text on the second slide. Italic. Checking Spellings As you may have entered the information on previous slides. you may use the “Numbering” icon in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. Similarly. In this way you can check the spellings on all the slides of the presentation at one time. “Center” and “Align Text Right” icons in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. Underline and Text Shadow by clicking on the respective icons. Formatting: Enhancing the appearance of the slide to make it more attractive. Now click on the “Home” tab. In the window displayed you may specify the size and orientation of your slides and then click “OK”. 88 | P a g e . Select the text to be formatted by highlighting the text on the slide. Let us center the title of the slide. readable and user-friendly is called formatting. Now to create a bulleted list. Click on the second slide on the Slides tab in the left pane. Let us create such a list on the third slide. select the text and then click the arrow to the right of the “Bullets” icon in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. You may also increase or decrease the font size by clicking on the “Increase Font Size” and “Decrease Font Size” icons in the “Fonts” group.
Let us revert to Normal View by clicking the “Normal” icon on the Status Bar. When your entire presentation has been scanned. Let us move all slides back to their original positions. Inserting. Now click on the slide you wish to move and drag it to a new location. Change to Slide Sorter View by clicking on the “Slide Sorter” button on the Status Bar at the bottom of the screen. click “Ignore”.For each word that is misspelled. To select multiple slides in a row. If you have a large number of slides in your presentation. press “Shift” before clicking the slide icon and then drag. Deleting a Slide: You may use either the Normal View or the Slide Sorter View to delete a slide. Now to delete the blank slide that was just inserted. Moving and Deleting Slides Inserting a Slide: You know that you can insert a new slide by selecting “New Slide” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. You may now select “Delete” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab or press the “Delete” key on your keyboard. click the slide icon on the “Slides” tab. click on the slide after which you want the new slide on the “Slides” tab and then click on the “New Slide” icon. you can see how your presentation would look when viewed by an audience to 89 | P a g e . Moving a Slide: To move a slide in Normal View. Running a Slide Show Running a Slide Show: Once all the slides are in the order that you want. To insert a slide between two slides. you will be informed accordingly. you may highlight one of the suggestions displayed or manually correct it yourself by typing in the correct word in the “Change to” box. Click “Change” to make the correction or “Change All” if there are multiple instances of the misspelled word in the presentation. and drag to a new location. To correct a word that is spelt incorrectly. a dialog box will appear and will prompt you to effect suitable corrections. If you do not wish to change what you have typed. You may choose “Ignore All” if the word appears many times throughout the presentation. select one or more slide icons on the “Slides” tab. you may find it more convenient to use the Slide Sorter View to view all your slides and change their positions.
Click the “Outline” button at the bottom left to hide the left pane. handouts. You may print all slides. the current slide only or any selection of slides. Print what: Here. Click “Close Print Preview” in the “Preview” group to close the preview. To save time and unnecessary printing and waste of paper. You may view all the slides by using the “Next Slide” and “Previous Slide” buttons at the bottom of the screen. Then click the “From Current Slide” icon in the “Start Slide Show” group on the “Slide Show” tab. 90 | P a g e . Now click “Add” and then click “OK”. click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. notes pages or outline view. To see a preview of your slide in a window on the screen. Under “Choose Commands from:” select “All Commands”. click on the “Slide Show” tab in the “Start Slide Show” group. click “From Beginning” or use the keyboard shortcut “F5” to view the complete presentation You may click or press the spacebar to move to the next slide. click the slide icon from which you wish to view your slides. Printing a Presentation: Click the Office Button and select “Print → Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. Click on the Office Button and then click “PowerPoint Options”. The “Print” window is displayed. you may specify whether you wish to print the slides. In the window displayed. you need to add the “Web Page Preview” command to the Quick Access toolbar. Previewing and Printing a Presentation Previewing A Presentation: As you work with your slides. Print range: Under Print range you may specify which of the slides you want to print. Viewing the slide show from the current slide: To do so. it is always a good idea to preview onscreen how your slides will appear when printed. You can see the “Web Page Preview” button on the Quick Access toolbar. Web Page Preview: To preview your presentation as a web page. on the “Slides” tab. click “Customize” in the left pane. you may wish give copies to your colleagues for their comments. The “Print Preview” tab appears when you view the slide in the Print Preview mode.run a presentation. select “Web Page Preview”. From the list displayed below. Clicking it displays your presentation as it would look in a web browser.
Click on the slide below the existing text and drag with the mouse to draw the textbox. Click “Replace All” to replace all occurrences of the search text by the specified new text. Click on the third slide icon on the “Slides” tab. The next occurrence of the specified term after the current cursor position is selected. you may enter the new text in the "Replace with" field. In the "Replace" window. Find whole words only: You may check this box to search for whole words matching the search criteria. Match case: You may check this box for a case sensitive search. Enter some text and click “Find Next”. In the “Text” group. Modifying and Refining a Presentation Finding and Replacing Text Finding Text: You may search for a word or phrase in your presentation. click “Find” or press “Ctrl+F” to display the “Find” window. Choosing the “Grayscale” or “Pure Black and White” option allows you to print without color. Creating a Text Box and Inserting a Hyperlink You may insert hyperlinks in your slides. you may choose the color quality of the prints.Color/grayscale: Here. another document or to a Web site. 91 | P a g e . Inserting a text box: A text box is a container for text or graphics. To create a new text box click on the “Insert” tab. Click “Replace” to replace the current word with the new word. to replace text you may select “Replace” from the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab or press “Ctrl+H” to display the “Replace” window. Let us insert a hyperlink from the third slide to the first slide. A window appears showing the number of replacements made. Enter your options and click “OK”. First let us create a small text box below the text on the slide. Finding and Replacing: Alternatively. click “Text Box". Replacing Text: Click "Replace". In the “Editing” group. A hyperlink is a connection to a location in the current document. Click on the “Home” tab.
Under “Select a place in this document”. In the “Insert Table” window. You may specify the dimensions of your table by dragging with the mouse or by clicking “Insert Table”. Enter the headings and details in the other rows as shown. 92 | P a g e . clicking on this link takes you to the first slide. Create and Enhance a Table You may wish to display some data in tabular form in your presentation. it is automatically resized as needed to display the entire entry. You may select a style from the gallery displayed. click on the “Insert” tab.Adding text to a text box: You will notice that the text box displays an insertion point. enter the number of rows and columns and click “OK”. Cycle. Relationship and others. click “Hyperlink”. Now click on the “Insert” tab. You can see that the hyperlink text is underlined. click on “First Slide”. Each category contains several different layouts. you can effectively communicate your message in a quick and simple way. click “Table”. Now click “OK”. You may size or move your table as required. You may also change the size and position of the text box by using the sizing handles. To insert a table. Select the text and then click “Quick Styles” in the “WordArt Styles” group on the “Design” tab under “Table Tools”. You may choose from various categories such as Process. In the “Insert Hyperlink” window. In the “Links” group. Using SmartArt graphics. Inserting a Hyperlink: Select the text entered in the text box. You may select a table style from the gallery displayed. Hierarchy. Now you are ready to enter the table content. In the “Tables” group. Click the arrow at the bottom right to view all the available styles. Create a new slide using the “Blank” layout by selecting “New Slide” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. You may enhance the appearance of the text in your table. As you type the text in the text box. A “Design” tab is displayed under “Table Tools”. When you run the slide show. Using SmartArt A “SmartArt” graphic is a visual representation of your information and ideas. Let us change the style of the heading text. Enter the text “Go to Slide 1”. under “Link to:” click on “Place in This Document”. Select a suitable one. indicating that you can enter text in it.
click “Clip Art”. In the “Search in” list box. For this. Since yours is a company having operations related to computers. Let us first insert a small clip. click “Change Colors”.Let us create a SmartArt graphic to describe the course structure of one of the courses offered. In the “SmartArt Styles” group on the “Design” tab under “SmartArt Tools”. Close the text pane by clicking the “X” icon at the top right corner. Alternatively. Now click on the “Insert” tab. you may click “Text Pane”. You may select a suitable background style for your text box from the gallery displayed. A clip is a file that can contain sounds and animations. In the “SmartArt Styles” group. First create a new slide using the “Blank” layout. We shall insert a clip as well as Clip Art on one of our slides. enter a word or phrase that describes the clip or the file name of the clip. Inserting Clips and Clip Art You may insert “Clips” and “Clip Art” in your slides. In the graphic displayed on your slide. Now make your selection from the gallery displayed. in the “Create Graphic” group on the “Design” tab. Changing Colors: You may apply color variations to the shapes in your SmartArt graphic. ensure that “All collections” are searched by checking the box against “Everywhere”. “Clip Art” refers to a ready-to-use picture. sound. A “Clip” may be a single media file. animation or movies. in the “Search for” box. Now select a suitable graphic and click “OK”. Click on the “Insert” tab. In the “Illustrations” group. click “SmartArt”. Let us search for clips of the type “Movies”. under “SmartArt Tools. select a category. This displays the text pane where you can enter your text. you may enter text directly by clicking the text boxes. let us look for a clip using the word “Computer”. in the “Results should be” list 93 | P a g e . In the panel displayed on the right. including art. click the arrow at the bottom right to view all the available styles and select a suitable one. Now click “Quick Styles” in the “Drawing” group on the “Home” tab. In the “Choose a SmartArt Graphic” window. Create a text box above the SmartArt graphic and enter the text as shown. In the “Illustrations” group. Click on the slide containing the SmartArt graphic on the Slides tab. Applying a SmartArt Style: A SmartArt Style is a combination of various effects that you can apply to the shapes in your SmartArt graphic to create a professionally designed look.
To enter a title above the shape. Create a new slide using the “Blank” layout by clicking “New Slide” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. Adding Text: To add text within the shape. Now click “Go”. 94 | P a g e . Drag your mouse to create a shape of the size you wish. Changing the Presentation Design and Color Scheme Changing the Presentation Design: After you have created many slides. you may create a text box as shown in the slide in the figure. drag a suitable one onto your slide. Simply click on the one you wish to insert and drag it to a suitable place on your slide. Coloring the Shape: You may apply color to the shape by choosing from a variety of background styles. click on the arrow at the bottom right to see all available themes. you may decide to give a totally new look to your presentation. Click “Quick Styles” in the “Drawing” group and select a style from the gallery displayed. Click on the “Design” tab. Now click “Go”. In the “Drawing” group. click the “View” tab and select “Slide Show” in the “Presentation Views” group. In the “Themes” group. check the box against “Clip Art” under “Results should be” and ensure other boxes are unchecked. On the “Slides” tab. Under “Basic Shapes”. From the pictures displayed. Now click on a theme of your choice. Let us now insert some Clip Art. simply start typing as shown in the figure. To insert Clip Art. For this. check the box against “Movies”.box. Ensure other boxes are unchecked. click “Shapes” to display the various shapes that you can use. To see the clip that you inserted actually playing. “Clip Art” refers to a ready-to-use picture. Create and Enhance Shapes PowerPoint offers many predefined shapes that you can insert into your document. A number of related clips are displayed. You may change the size of the clip as required. click on “Hexagon”. You may size and position the shape as required. you can see that the new theme has been applied to all the slides. The entered text appears at the centre of your shape. you need to run the slide show.
To see the Slide Master. select one from the “Transition Sound” list box. whether on the click of the mouse or after a stipulated time by entering related details under “Advance Slide”. 95 | P a g e . You can see it is surrounded by a box. If you move your mouse over them. You may click the “Preview” icon in the “Preview” group to view the transition effects for the current slide. click “Slide Master”. in the “Transition to This Slide” group. You can view the animation effect right away on your slide. You may select a color scheme by clicking on it. Applying animation to an object: Let us add some animation effects to the graphic in the slide shown. click on “Colors” in the “Themes” group on the “Design” tab. click on the “View” tab. This ensures consistency and saves time. In the panel at the right. click on the “More” arrow to see all the available transition styles. Changing the Slide Master You know that slides can be created using different layouts. In the “Animations” group. Now. Adding Animation and Other Effects “Animation” refers to the addition of special visual or sound effects to your slides. You may specify how you wish to move to the next slide. click “Custom Animation” in the “Animations” group. click on the graphic. Now click “Play” to view your animation. This results in the animation starting after the previous slide. In the "Presentation Views" group. You can see a number of slide icons in the left pane. click the arrow in the list box below the “Speed” list box and select “Start After Previous”. In PowerPoint build effects are animations to slide contents. To associate a sound with your transition. First. On the “Animations” tab. screen tips explain they are masters for different layouts. Applying transition effects: A transition specifies how the display changes when you move from one slide to another. Click the “Apply to All” button if you want the same transition effects for all slides. You can see the various available layouts when you click on the lower part of the “New Slide” icon in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. Now click on the “Animations” tab. It is applied to all slides.Changing the Color Scheme: To change the color scheme. The “Slide Master” is used to make global changes to the slides in your presentation. click in the “Animate” list box and select “Fly In”. Click on a suitable one.
Order: Select the order of printing the slides. six. Print what: Select “Handouts”. or nine miniature slides on a page. four. These can be used by your audience to follow along as you give your presentation or for future reference. Let us select 4. On the “Slides” tab. Click “Notes Page” in the “Presentation Views” group. In Normal View. use the “Notes Pane” at the bottom of the slide to write notes about your slide. Print range: Under Print range you may specify which of the slides you want to print. To view your notes page. Creating Notes Pages You can create “Notes Pages” that include extra notes for yourself while you give your presentation.Click on the slide icon related to the “Blank Layout”. Printing Handouts You can print your presentation in the form of handouts with one. the current slide only or any selection of slides. Now close the Master View by clicking on “Close Master View” in the “Close” group. You may print all slides. 96 | P a g e . You may also use this view to enter or edit notes by clicking in the lower placeholder. three. whether horizontal or vertical. Let us select “Vertical”. click the “View” tab. Printing Handouts: Click the Office Button and select “Print → Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. or for your audience. Let us change the background style. Any change made to this slide will be reflected on all slides created using the “Blank” layout. two. Click “Background Styles” in the “Background” group on the “Slide Master” tab and select a suitable one. You see the master slide in the right pane. Slides per page: Select the number of slides you wish to print on one page. Scale to fit paper: Check this box to print the slides of a size suitable to fit on the sheet of paper. The “Print” window is displayed. you can see that all the slides with the “Blank” layout have the new background style applied.
click the slide icon on the “Slides” tab. 97 | P a g e . On the “Slide” tab in the “Header and Footer” window. check the box against “Don’t show on title slide”. or to bottom of a slide.Frame slides: Check this box to print the slides with an outer frame. To hide the footer on the title slide. On the “Slide” tab of the “Header and Footer” window. click “Apply to All”. if you need to duplicate a slide. Hiding the Footer: To hide the footer on a specific slide. and then type the text that you want to appear at the top or bottom of each notes page or handout. check the box against “Footer”. click “New Slide” and click “Duplicate Selected Slides” below the layouts displayed. Click the “Insert” tab and in the “Text” group. To insert the date. right-click the slide on the “Slides” tab and select “Hide Slide”. select “Header & Footer”. handout or notes page. select the “Header” or “Footer” check box. In the “Slides” group. click the slide you wish to copy. On the “Slides” tab. Click “Preview” to view your handouts onscreen and “Print” to print them. In the “Text” group. the time and date. Click “Apply” or “Apply to all”. To hide a slide. Duplicating and Hiding Slides Duplicating a Slide: In a presentation. time and slide number on the slide. check the appropriate boxes. clear the “Footer” check box and click “Apply”. it can be quite easily achieved. and then type the text that you want to appear at the bottom of the slide in the center. Adding a Header or Footer to a Handout or Notes Page: In the “Header and Footer” window. Using Headers and Footers Headers and Footers are used to add information such as slide numbers. Select any other options that you want and then click “Apply”. on the “Notes and Handouts” tab. a company logo or the presentation title to the top of a handout or notes page in your presentation. To display the same footer information on all slides. Hiding a Slide: If there is a slide that you do not want to display to a particular audience. select “Header & Footer”. Duplicating a slide creates a copy of the selected slide and places it directly after the selected slide. you may hide the slide. Adding a Footer to a Slide: Click the “Insert” tab. Click the “Home” tab.
Right-click on a slide during the slide show. this slide will not be displayed. The hidden slide icon with the slide number inside appears next to the slide that you have hidden. In the “Document Information Panel”. Documenting a File Documenting a file: Document properties are details about a file that help identify it. Before saving the completed presentation. click the arrow next to “Document Properties” to select the set of properties that you want to change. you may decide the color of this pen by using the “Ink Color” option.The hidden slide icon with the slide number inside appears next to the slide that you have hidden. “Previous”. There is another way in which you can hide a slide. 98 | P a g e . For this. When you run your presentation. “Last Viewed” and “Go to Slide” options to move between slides. You can then move your mouse and use it as a pen on your slide. In the window displayed. Learning to Control and Annotate a Slide Show Navigating the Slide Show: Running the slide show and practicing how to control the slide show helps you have a smooth presentation. Use the “Next”. you can go backwards and redisplay it. The hidden slide icon is then removed. Then on the Ribbon. and keywords that identify topics or other important information in the file. Also. Let us select “Ballpoint Pen”. Now click “OK” and close the Document Information Panel. you may wish to include some related documentation with the file. These may be a descriptive title. click the “Slide Show” tab and select “Hide Slide” in the “Set Up” group. To show a slide that you have previously hidden. You may move to any slide in your presentation. for example. Annotate a slide show: During your presentation. Click on the slide that you wish to hide on the “Slides” tab in the left pane. Click the Office Button and select “Prepare → Properties” from the menu. right-click the slide that you want to show. Click the “Hide Slide” icon on the Ribbon once again to show the hidden slide. underline an important point or draw checkmarks next to items that you have covered. right-click on the slide and select “Pointer Options” from the menu displayed. “Advanced Properties”. and then click “Hide Slide”. if someone has a question about a previous slide. the author name. you may want to point to an important word. click on the “Summary” tab. A menu is displayed as shown. Enter your details on this tab. the subject. For example.
moving to another slide or running another program when you click on them. Select “Chime” from the list of sounds. If you want to use all slides from a presentation in a new presentation. on the “Slides” tab. click on the “Sound” icon. themes etc that you require. you may save the file as a new presentation. In the “New Presentation” window. Save the file by clicking the Office button and selecting “Save”.Using Advanced Presentation Features Creating a New Presentation from Existing Slides To make the task of creating a new presentation easier. This has two tabs. click “Shapes”. Under “Action Buttons”. Click the “Insert” tab. Check the box against “Play sound”. “Mouse Click” and “Mouse Over”. simply save the presentation with a new name. Saving the new presentation: Before you make any additional changes. The “Action Settings” window is displayed. Let us use an action button to play a sound in the slide shown in the figure. the actions specified are performed when the mouse is clicked on the button and moved over the button respectively. Click “Save”. select “Blank Presentation” and press the “Create” button. right-click the slide to be copied and select “Copy”. Right-click the first slide in the new presentation and select “Paste”. Now create a new presentation by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “New”. In the “Illustrations” group. Copying a slide: You may want to copy the slide which describes a course structure from your presentation to a new presentation. Specify the location and the new file name in the “Save As” window and click “Save”. Let us use the “Mouse Click” tab. As the names suggest. Adding Action Buttons You may add action buttons on your slides to perform functions such as playing sounds. Click the Office Button and select “Save As” and enter the new file name and location. Now drag with the mouse to create the button of the size you require. 99 | P a g e . Now you may make changes to the new presentation as required. You may make any changes with respect to colors. The copied slide will be inserted in the presentation after the current slide. To do this. you may use the slides from one of your existing presentations. Your original presentation does not get affected.
Now. they form a network. it is important to rehearse the timing. If you do not want the slides in your presentation to advance automatically as per the slide timings recorded. Click the “Slide Show” tab. click the Office Button and then click the “Exit PowerPoint” button at the bottom right. A network may consist of just two computers next to each other or can even extend to a large number of computers located in different parts of the world. PowerPoint includes a timing feature that records the length of time spent on each slide and the total presentation time while you are rehearsing. select “Rehearse Timings”. in the “Set Up” group. so that you are sure that it fits within a certain time frame. You may perform various actions using action buttons such as moving to another slide or running another program. Click “Next” to move to the next slide. To exit the PowerPoint application. You may use the recorded times to advance the slides automatically when you actually give your presentation. and you can see the timing in the “Slide Time box” at the right. clear the “Use Rehearsed Timings” check box. Internet Internet Basics What is a Network? When computers are connected to each other. on the “Slide Show” tab. In the “Set Up” group. Now when you run your slide show. After you set the time for the last slide. Delivering Presentations Rehearsing timing: Before delivering a presentation. the slides advance automatically as per these settings. The “Rehearsal” toolbar appears.During the slide show. when you click on this button you can hear the sound of a chime. your presentation can be delivered and you are ready to impress your audience. “Slide Sorter” view appears and displays the time of each slide in your presentation. Click “Yes”. a message box displays the total time for the presentation and asks you to confirm that you wish to keep the recorded slide timings. 100 | P a g e .
It could be any device such as a data storage device. computer systems at different locations are networked to a main or centralized computer. Hub: This is the central node for other nodes. a printer or a computer. Host Computer: This is a large centralized computer. It may be a server or simply a connection point for cables from other nodes.A “computer network” is a communication system that connects two or more computers so that they can exchange information and share resources. let us have a look at the types of networks. usually a minicomputer or a mainframe. and are quite powerful. Now that you are familiar with the terminology related to computer networks. A non-dedicated server can function as both a client and a server. Network operating systems (NOS): They control and coordinate activities such as electronic communication and resource sharing between the computers and devices on a network. A dedicated server is a computer that specializes in performing specific tasks. Computers in a network can be set up in different ways to suit the needs of users. In decentralized organizations. a client is a user’s microcomputer. Distributed Processing: This is a system where computing power is located and shared at different locations. Typically. Network interface cards (NIC): These are expansion cards located within the system unit that connect the computer to a network. Server: This is a node that shares resources with other nodes. Network Administrator: This is a person who is a computer specialist responsible for efficient operation of the network and implementation of new networks. Dedicated servers are typically used for websites that have high traffic. To understand computer networks. Client: This is a node that uses a resource from another node. you need to get familiar with certain terms which are as follows: Node: This is a device that is connected to a network. They are sometimes referred to as “LAN adapters”. 101 | P a g e .
a number of small computers or peripheral devices are linked to a central unit which is the “network hub”. Usually when computers in one office are connected to one another. All communications pass through the central unit and control is maintained by “polling”. The nodes of a LAN are in close physical proximity.Network Types: Different types of channels allow different kinds of networks to be formed. the network is known as WAN which stands for Wide Area Network. The four principal network topologies are star. They are used to link microcomputers and share printers and other resources. The network types based on the geographical area they serve are local area. They use microwave relays and satellites to reach users over long distances. MANs span distances up to 100 miles. The widest of all WANs is of course. within the same building. including a common internet connection. the network is known as a Local Area Network or LAN for short. A “Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)” is the next step up from the LAN. Wide Area Networks (WANs) are countrywide and worldwide networks. they are now being commonly used by individuals in their homes. These LANs are called “Home Networks” and allow different computers to share resources. LANs span distances less than a mile and are owned by individual organizations. ring and hierarchical. In a “star network”. Telephone lines for example may connect communications equipment within a home or building. When this is done over longer distances. Network Architecture: This describes how a network is arranged and how resources are coordinated and shared. Networks may also be citywide and even international. a MAN is jointly owned by a group of organizations or by a network service provider who charges a fee to provide network services. The hub may be a host computer or file server. the Internet which spans the entire globe. Each connecting device is asked or 102 | P a g e . Typically. This is called the network’s topology. Network architecture encompasses network configurations and strategies. They are frequently used as links between office buildings that are located throughout a city. They provide access to regional service (MAN) providers and span distances greater than 100 miles. Configurations: A network can be configured or arranged in several ways. metropolitan area and wide area networks. Unlike a LAN. Configurations describe the physical arrangement of the network while strategies define how information and resources are shared. bus. While LANs have been widely used within organizations for years.
The nodes are either terminals with little or no processing capabilities or microcomputers running special software that allows them to act as terminals. The minicomputers are in turn connected to the corporation’s mainframe which contains data accessible to all. forming a ring. An advantage of the star topology is that it can be used to support a “timesharing system”. microcomputers in a department are connected to individual departmental minicomputers. All communications travel along a common connecting cable called a “bus” or “backbone”. Client/server networks are widely used on the Internet. Strategies: Every network has a strategy of coordinating the sharing of information and resources. There is no central computer and messages are passed around the ring till they reach the correct destination. Each device examines information as it passes along the bus to see whether it is the intended recipient. Many airline reservation systems are terminal networks. In a “peer-to-peer network”. client/server and peer-to-peer. data and resources can be shared. For example. In a “bus network”. there is no host computer and each device handles its own communications. The most common network strategies are terminal. usually a mainframe. these computers are also hosts to smaller computers or peripheral devices. Processing tasks can be performed at different locations and programs. each device is connected to two other devices. This arrangement is commonly used for sharing data stored on different microcomputers. Distributed data processing is possible using a ring network. “Client/server networks” are based on specialization and use one computer to coordinate and supply services to other nodes on the network. The star topology is commonly used to link microcomputers to a mainframe containing an organization’s database. However. Client nodes request the services. For example. Server nodes coordinate and supply specialized services and access to resources. processing power is centralized in one large computer. This means that multiple users can share resources (or time) on a central computer. A hierarchical network is useful in centralized organizations.“polled” whether it has a message to send and is allowed to send its message in turn. microcomputers may obtain files from other microcomputers as well as provide files to them. nodes have equal authority and can act as both clients and servers. 103 | P a g e . just like a star network. In a “terminal network”. In a “ring network”. The “hierarchical network” consists of several computers linked to a central host computer.
Firewalls: A “firewall” is a system that secures a network. All communications between the internal network and the outside world must pass through it. newsletters. prices. intranets use browsers. pricing structures etc. which can be accessed by certain external users via the Internet. An Intranet is accessible only from within the organization. or part of an intranet. Extranets: An “Extranet” is an intranet. a firewall can also restrict data from flowing out of a network. Thus the Internet can be termed as a Network of Networks. hardware or a combination of both. It acts as a gatekeeper. and from where standard forms can be downloaded. may be made available to suppliers or potential customers using an extranet. Intranets: Many organizations have internal networks similar to the Internet which have web pages that contain company information. mediating traffic between a protected network and the Internet. 2) Like the public Internet. Internet technologies are applied to integrate all these networks. operating systems and strategies. Extranets are used by some organizations to allow suppliers and others limited access to their networks. Entry into extranets is controlled by usernames and passwords which establish the identity of the user and grant access to the areas of the extranet that he is entitled to view. In addition to preventing unrestricted access into a network. web sites and web pages. Most organizational firewalls include a special computer called a “proxy server”. online order forms etc. 104 | P a g e . It then decides whether it is safe to allow a message or file to pass into or out of the organization’s network. History of Internet: In the second half of the decade from 1960 to 1970. The main points of difference between an intranet and extranet are as follows: 1) An intranet is a private network within an organization while an extranet is a private network that connects more than one organization. Specific information such as product ranges. the United States Department of Defense began a project on computer networks. They provide e-mail and other services accessible only to those within the organization.Organizational Internets: Most large organizations have a wide range of network configurations. Firewalls can be implemented in software. Such networks are known as “Intranets” and may or may not be connected to the Internet. The purpose is to increase efficiency and reduce costs. shielding it from access by unauthorized users. Communication within and between organizations is supported using intranets and extranets. What is Internet? The word “Internet” is derived from the word inter-networking which means connecting different networks together.
Gradually.This project was named ARPANET. Instead of having a central system of limited machines. Government Departments and Research Centers also began using this network. This led to the birth of the modern Internet. The roots of the giant network called Internet can be traced back to this project. Universities. researchers developed a new set of rules called Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol or TCP/IP. new independent centers were created in different places. By 1993 the concept of Internet had changed completely. To send data along telephone lines. after 1970. wireless telephones and even satellites. 105 | P a g e .
music and games is available using the Internet. you can search for bargains and make purchases or simply window shop or look for the latest fashions. You can find the latest local. You can have access to entertainment. “Entertainment” in different forms such as movies. Some courses are free while others have to be paid for. advertisement and news. Using the Internet. companionship and many other opportunities on the Internet. It has become a popular medium for business.Today the Internet has become a popular medium for information. anytime for anyone is possible due to the Internet. 106 | P a g e . “Shopping” is one of the fastest-growing Internet applications. shopping. “Searching” for all types of information has become very convenient using the Internet. You can take classes on various subjects. national and international news using the Internet. You can access some of the world’s largest libraries directly from your home computer. information. book clubs and more. education. playing. “Education” or “e-learning” which supports flexible learning anywhere. movie previews. You have additional options such as live concerts.
This is known as e-commerce. With the help of Internet. it offers the convenience of purchasing at any hour of the day or night. monetary transactions are also being carried out. It does away with the need to physically travel to the seller’s location. The Internet offers a chance to reach out to a larger number of customers. e-commerce is the buying and selling of goods over the Internet.e. 107 | P a g e . there are some disadvantages too. For a buyer. These include the inability to provide immediate delivery of goods. the inability to “try on” prospective purchases and questions relating to the security of online payments. While there are numerous advantages of e-commerce. Also. The Internet offers a chance to survey a wide variety of products.Transactions of large industries are also effected over the Internet. From the seller’s perspective. the costs associated with operating a retail store can be eliminated. Electronic Commerce i. a seller is not required to maintain a physical inventory of goods and products are shipped directly from warehouses.
1) Consult product review sites: These sites offer evaluations or opinions on products. transferring funds.gomez.mysimon.com/privatepayments”.Tips on how to shop online: When you shop online.shopping. There are two basic types of Web auction sites: 108 | P a g e .com”. “Online stock trading” allows investors to research. 3) Consult vendor review sites: Even if a vendor offers attractive prices.com”. Two well-known shopping bots are located at “www. Security of your credit card number is important. 2) Use a shopping bot: A shopping bot is an automated shopping assistant that searches the Internet for the best price of a product. The three most widely used B2C applications are as follows: “Online banking” enables customers to perform various banking operations such as accessing account information.americanexpress.private.consumersearch. buy and sell stocks and bonds over the Internet. it would be useful to keep the following suggestions in mind.epinions. This arrangement often eliminates the wholesaler by allowing manufacturers to sell directly to customers. you have to place the order and make the payment.bizrate. You may visit vendor review sites such as “www.com” and “www. “www. 2) The second type of e-commerce “Consumer-to-consumer (C2C)” involves individuals selling to individuals. There are three basic types of e-commerce: 1) “Business-to-consumer (B2C)” involves the sale of a product or service to the general public or end users. 4) Select a payment option: Once you have selected the product and the vendor. You may consider payment options from sites such as “www. Existing retail stores use B2C e-commerce to reach out to customers through the Web. “Online shopping” as you know includes buying and selling consumer goods over the Internet. This is done in the form of classified ads or an auction.yahoo.com” and “www. In “Web auctions”. paying bills and applying for loans without having to visit the bank.com” and “www. You can enlist it to compare prices.buy.com” and “www. you need to check his reputation before placing an order.com” are examples of review sites on the Web. sellers post descriptions of products at a web site and buyers submit bids electronically.
This method is more secure than credit cards. It is a system that allows a person to pay for goods or services by transmitting a number from one computer to another. 3) “Digital cash” is electronic currency that only exists online. Buyers and sellers need to be cautious while interacting with these sites. They facilitate the bidding process but are not involved in completing transactions and verifying the authenticity of the goods sold. Sellers convert it to regular currency through the bank. For example. see the displayed figure. b) “Person-to-person auction sites” provide a forum for buyers and sellers. But credit card fraud over the Internet by criminals known as “Carders” is a major concern for both buyers and sellers. This is typically a manufacturer-supplier relationship. Buyers purchase digital cash from a bank that specializes in electronic currency and use it to purchase goods. the purchased item is dispatched by the seller. Security: The single greatest challenge for e-commerce is the development of fast. a furniture manufacturer would require raw material such as wood. The three basic payment options are as follows: 1) “Cheques” are the most traditional and cheque purchases take the longest time to complete. 2) “Credit card” purchases are faster and more convenient. secure and reliable payment methods for purchased goods. paint and varnish which he would purchase from the related suppliers. 109 | P a g e .a) “Auction house sites” sell directly to bidders. The buyer mails a cheque to the seller. You can often get bargain prices and these sites are generally considered safe places to shop. If it is a valid cheque. 3) The third type of e-commerce “Business-to-business (B2B)” involves the sale of a product or service from one business to another. For a list of digital cash providers. The merchandise presented is typically from a company’s surplus stock.
“Web Utilities” are specialized utility programs that make using the Internet and Web easier and safer. Most application service providers (ASPs) charge a fee to access and use their applications. Excel and PowerPoint. This free service provides access to programs similar to Microsoft’s Word. Some utilities facilitate sharing resources over the Internet while others enhance the capabilities of your browser. “Downloading” is the process of copying a file from a computer on the 110 | P a g e . A “web-based application” is a software package that can be accessed through a web browser. The aim of “web-based services” such as ThinkFree is to free users from owning and storing applications. To use a web-based application. it is automatically deleted from your hard disk. The ASP downloads a copy of the requested application to your computer’s hard disk drive from where you can run it. When you exit the program. Web-based applications: Normally application programs are owned by individuals and organizations and stored on the computer’s hard disk. you must connect to the ASP’s web site.Web Utilities: Utilities are programs that make computing easier. File transfer protocol (FTP): FTP is an Internet standard for transferring files.
Additionally. The Internet has a lot of content which is not suitable for unrestricted viewing. RealPlayer from RealNetworks and Shockwave from Adobe.Internet and saving it on your computer. Windows Media Player from Microsoft. Plug-ins: “Plug-ins” are programs that are automatically started and operate as part of your browser. these programs can 111 | P a g e . These are used for a variety of purposes ranging from viewing and printing documents to playing audio and video files. Filters allow parents of young children as well as organizations to block access to certain sites and set time limits. Others need to be installed before they can be used by your browser. you may visit some of the sites listed in the displayed figure. Some widely used plug-ins include Acrobat Reader from Adobe. You can also use FTP to copy files from your computer to another computer on the Internet. Some plug-ins are included in browsers and operating systems. Filters: “Filters” are programs that block access to selected sites. QuickTime from Apple. This is called “uploading”. To learn more about plug-ins and how to download them. Many web sites require you to have some plug-ins in order to view their content fully.
and programs with any other user. Anyone with access to the Internet can exchange text. provide filters and much more. have a look at the displayed figure. Internet Security Suites: An “Internet security suite” is a collection of utility programs designed to maintain your security and privacy while you are on the Web. using voice chat. Chatting with your friends in virtual chat rooms is another facility that is available. you can also chat 112 | P a g e . Using Internet you can communicate with or find out about what is happening in any part of the world. For a list of some of the best known filters. protect against computer viruses. Today. You may chat using the keyboard. data files.generate reports regarding time spent on the Internet as well as at individual web sites. It is popularly known as the "Information Highway" which is used as a versatile means for information sharing. Two of the best known Internet security suites are from McAfee and Norton. These programs control spam. chat groups and newsgroups.
exchange voice data and view programs that run on practically any software in the world. Newsgroups. Some of the applications that depend on communication systems are as follows. Internet Explorer. animations and videos. The Internet is the actual physical network made up of wires. cables and satellites. The World Wide Web Consortium now manages it. the European Laboratory for Particle Physics. You can access the World Wide Web on the Internet by using any browser application such as Mozilla.org. A web page is simply a document formatted in a standard language known as Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). video. E-mail: This provides a fast and efficient alternative to traditional mail by sending and receiving electronic documents. The Web is a multimedia interface to the resources available on the Internet. 113 | P a g e . File Transfer Protocol (FTP). Telnet to connect to another computer. It connects millions of computers and resources throughout the world. etc. graphics. Examples are Electronic Mail (e-mail). You can also play different games on the Internet. Instant Messaging: This supports direct. There are a large number of applications that can be used on the Internet for various purposes. You can retrieve documents. It is easy to get the Internet and the Web confused. What is WWW? The World Wide Web (WWW) is information organized in the form of Web pages containing text and graphic images. Internet Telephone: This provides a low cost alternative to long distance telephone calls using electronic voice delivery. The World Wide Web was originally developed in 1990 at CERN. animation and sound.with the other person as if you were talking on the telephone. World Wide Web (WWW or Web) and Instant Messaging.w3. “live” electronic communication between two or more individuals. Mailing lists. When you connect to this network you are described as being “online”. Chat groups. Netscape. This means that web pages consist of multiple media such as text. Communications: Computer communications is the process of sharing data. Electronic Commerce: This means buying and selling goods electronically. but they are not the same thing. The name of its website is http://www. It contains hypertext links represented by underlined text and images that lead to related information. view images. programs and information between two or more computers. listen to sound files.
The Internet uses some rules or standard set of protocols for communication between computers. Statistical Information and Personal Information. Java applets are used for presenting animation. providing interactive games and more. or just having fun. Using this protocol. A network also has components called “Routers” that help choose the best path for an individual packet to travel and reach its destination. TCP/IP: The essential features of this protocol involve: 1) Identifying sending and receiving devices AND 2) Reformatting information for transmission across the Internet. Each packet contains the address of its destination computer as well as the computer of its origin. "Web Surfing" means moving through different web pages. Educational.Web pages also can contain special programs called “applets” that are generally written in a programming language such as Java. This ensures uniformity among users using various types of computer systems. The information on WWW can be classified in different categories based on the type of their content such as Business and Commercial. TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the name of the core protocol used on the Internet. the information to be transmitted is broken down in the form of small packets. This may be done by following hyperlinks. either from a search or through a series of linked pages. Protocols are used to create an Internet connection for your computer and they handle the data transfer over network lines. Because these numeric addresses 114 | P a g e . Identification: Every computer on the Internet has a unique numeric address called an “IP address (internet protocol address)”. The other protocols are Point to Point Protocol (PPP) and Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP). Information Flow Over the Internet Sending and receiving devices follow a set of communication rules for the exchange of information. The packets are reassembled at the destination to get the original information. in the course of learning something. Advocacy (to influence readers to support a cause or idea). displaying graphics. These rules for exchanging data between computers are known as “protocols”. These addresses are used to deliver e-mail and to locate web sites. You may even move between pages at random. News.
For example. if you enter a URL.132. 115 | P a g e . 3) Connection devices: These act as the interface between the sending and receiving devices and the communication channel. It may be a physical cable or it can be wireless. 4) Data transmission specifications: These are procedures that coordinate the sending and receiving devices by defining the way in which the messages will be sent across the communication channel.are difficult to remember. At the receiving end. say “www. when you send an e-mail. For example.com”. a system was developed to automatically convert text-based addresses to numeric IP addresses. Every communication system has four basic elements which are as follows: 1) Sending and receiving devices: These may be computers or specialized communication devices. 2) Communication channel: This is the actual medium that carries the message. a DNS might translate it to an IP address say. Communication Systems “Communication Systems” are electronic systems that transmit data from one location to another.103.example. “198. They convert messages into packets that can travel across the communication channel. your computer would be the “sending device”. How the message is modified and sent would be described in the “data transmission specifications”. This system uses a “domain name server (DNS)” that converts text-based addresses to IP addresses. another modem modifies it once again so that it can be displayed on the “receiving device” which would be another computer. Your modem would be the “connection device” which would modify the message so that it could travel efficiently across the “communication channel” which is the telephone line.4” before a connection can be made.
Coaxial cable is used to deliver television signals as well as to connect computers in a network. A single twisted pair culminates in a wall jack into which you can plug your phone and computer. “Physical Connections” use a solid medium to connect sending and receiving devices. Compared to coaxial cable. The other category is wireless. They include telephone lines. Fiber-optic cable transmits data as pulses of light through tiny tubes of glass. 116 | P a g e . fiber-optic cable is lighter and more reliable at transmitting data as compared to coaxial cable. coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable. Telephone lines consist of twisted-pair cable which is made up of hundreds of copper wires. One category connects sending and receiving devices by providing a physical connection such as a wire or cable. There are two categories of communication channels. Coaxial cable is a high-frequency transmission cable and consists of a single solid-copper core.Communication Channels: You know that communication channels are an essential element of every communication system.
Primary technologies used for wireless connections are infrared. “Microwave” communication uses high-frequency radio waves. GPS devices use that information to determine the geographical location of the device. Most Web-enabled devices follow a standard known as “Wi-Fi (i. Microwave is a good medium for sending data between buildings in a city or a large college campus. the waves are relayed by microwave stations with microwave dishes or antennas. printers. 117 | P a g e . sending and receiving devices must be in clear view of one another. Some users connect their notebook or handheld computers to a cellular telephone to access the Web. We see a large number of cables in our offices. It aims to simplify data synchronization between Internet devices and other computers. For longer distances. Satellites can amplify and relay microwave signals from one transmitter on the ground to another. One of the most common applications is to transfer data from a portable device such as a notebook computer or PDA to a desktop computer. broadcast radio. “Broadcast radio” uses radio signals to communicate with wireless devices. “Bluetooth” is the name of a new technology that promises to change the way we use machines. Cellular telephones and many Web-enabled devices use broadcast radio to place telephone calls and to connect to the Internet. wireless fidelity)”. Microwaves travel in a straight line and therefore can be transmitted across relatively short distances. GPS devices provide navigational support in some automobiles. Since the light waves travel in a straight line. It creates a wireless personal area network (PAN) and provides a way to connect and exchange information between two devices over distances of about 30 feet. The “Global Positioning System (GPS)” is a network of 24 satellites developed by the United States Department of Defense which continually sends location information to the earth. cheap radio chip to be plugged into computers. We often have a hard time trying to figure out which cable needs to go where. “Satellite” communication uses satellites orbiting above the earth as microwave relay stations.e. homes and everywhere else. They can be used to send and receive large volumes of data.Wireless Connections: Wireless connections use air to connect sending and receiving devices. Bluetooth is a small. Bluetooth is essentially a cable-replacement technology which tries to solve this problem. microwave and satellite. Conceived initially by Ericsson. mobile phones. They are sometimes mounted with a monitor to display maps and with speakers to provide spoken directions to the driver. “Bluetooth” is a short-range wireless standard that uses microwaves. “Infrared” uses infrared light waves to communicate over short distances. etc. They do not use any solid substances like wires and cables.
A great deal of computer communication takes place over telephone lines. “Modulation” is the process of converting digital signals to analog form. The speed at which modems transfer data is called “transfer rate”. The various units to measure transfer speed are shown in the displayed chart. Telephones send and receive analog signals which are continuous electronic waves. Connection devices: We have seen that connection devices act as the interface between the sending and receiving devices and the communication channel.Let us look at a summary of communication channels. This is typically measured in “bits per second (bps)”. Computers. 118 | P a g e . The modem thus enables digital microcomputers to communicate across analog telephone lines. send and receive digital signals which are binary signals. “Demodulation” is the process of converting analog signals to digital form. Modems: The word “modem” stands for modulator-demodulator. on the other hand.
The “external modem” stands outside the computer and is connected by a cable to the computer’s serial port. internal. Connection Service: Standard telephone lines and conventional modems provide a “dial-up service” which is quite slow. PC Card and wireless. A telephone cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. Unlike other modems. Large corporations lease special high-speed lines from telephone companies which provide very high 119 | P a g e . A “wireless modem” may be internal. It sends and receives signals through the air. The “PC Card modem” is a credit card-sized expansion board that is inserted into portable computers. Another cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. external or a PC Card. The “internal modem” consists of a plug-in circuit board inside the system unit.There are four basic types of modems: external. it does not use cables. A telephone cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack.
Satellite/air connection services use satellites and the air to send data to users at faster rates than dial-up connections. These lines are known as T1. “Cellular services” are used by mobile devices and laptops. “Digital subscriber line (DSL)” uses existing telephone lines to provide highspeed connections. These include DSL. T2. there are other affordable connections which provide significantly higher capacity than a dial-up service. T3 and T4 lines and do not require conventional modems. Let us compare typical user connection costs and speeds. These devices use “3G cellular networks” to download data from the Internet. 120 | P a g e . satellite and cellular services. “Cable modems” use existing telephone cables to provide high-speed connections.capacity. ADSL (asymmetric digital subscriber line) is one of the most widely used types of DSL. cable modems. While special high-speed lines are very expensive.
“Voiceband” is used for standard telephone communication. Bandwidth: This is a measurement of the width or capacity of the communication channel. Specialized high-speed devices and microcomputers with DSL. “Medium band” is the bandwidth used in special leased lines to connect minicomputers and mainframes as well as to transmit data over long distances. 121 | P a g e . Audio and video files require a wider bandwidth than text documents to be transmitted. There are three categories of bandwidth. “Broadband” is the bandwidth used for high capacity transmissions.Data Transmission: Several factors such as bandwidth and protocols affect how data is transmitted. cable and satellite connections use this bandwidth. It indicates the volume of information that can move across the communication channel in a given time. This is also known as low bandwidth. Microcomputers with standard modems and dial-up service use this bandwidth.
Examples are DSL. Using a telephone. there has been a dramatic change in connectivity. there are also other options for connecting to the Internet. Browsers A Web Browser is a software tool used to browse the Internet. To do so. wired devices were required to be able to connect to the Internet. If a computer is part of a local area network (LAN) that has connectivity to the Internet. In this method. Cable Modem. password and access phone number. They provide access through standard telephone lines or cable connections. You can connect your microcomputer by telephone or other telecommunications links to other computers and information sources almost anywhere. you can connect your Personal Computer (PC) to the Internet. They provide Internet connections with wireless modems and other wireless devices. you are linked to the world of larger computers and the Internet. In the past. Some companies also offer free Internet access. This is just the beginning of the “Wireless Revolution” which will change the way we communicate and use computer technology in a big way. “Wireless service providers” do not use telephone or cable lines. you need a device called the “Modem”. In the last five years. The providers are already connected to the Internet and provide a path or connection for individuals to access the Internet. The service provider gives you a software package. the PC connects to the server of an Internet Service Provider (ISP).How Do We Connect? “Connectivity” is a concept related to using computer networks to link people and resources. you can access the Internet through the LAN. They are basically large telecom companies that have nationwide coverage and operations. You can also connect to the Internet using a leased line. With this connection. there is widespread use of mobile and wireless communication devices for gaining access to the Internet. Using the modem and dialer software. An “Internet Service Provider” is a company that provides access to the Internet for a monthly fee. the data transmission rate is much higher. Colleges and universities mostly provide free access to students. Besides these. This is how the PC establishes a connection to the Internet through an ISP. It is a special application program that brings information from any part of the world 122 | P a g e . username. Set Top Boxes and other propriety solutions. Today. “National Internet Service Providers” are providers who operate primarily on a National level.
microsoft. it is closely integrated with the Windows operating system. separate and unique address. you can communicate with any computer over the Internet. Internet Explorer. you can find and view information about anything on the Web To start Internet Explorer. Since it is created by Microsoft. images.in” indicates India. The second part presents the “domain name”. With an Internet connection and Internet Explorer. you see a long rectangular box called the “Address Bar”. It is the name of the server where the resource is located. Type “digital camera” and press “Enter”. This address is known as the Uniform Resource Locator or URL in short. Navigating the Web Using Internet Explorer 7 Internet Explorer is a world-class browser that is designed to support various internet standards across a variety of platforms.com/ and press “Enter”. When you want to visit a website. The first part of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) presents the “protocol” used to connect to the resource.com” indicates a commercial site and “. playing audio and video files and running programs. A browser does the work of connecting to the Internet and locating and displaying web pages. The last part of the domain name following the dot is called the “top-level domain (TLD)”. Another way to navigate the web is to go the address bar and type what you are looking for. Netscape Navigator and Mozilla are some examples of the browser applications that are commonly used. At the top. The URL of the web page is displayed in the address bar.through the Internet to your computer screen. type the website address or URL in the address bar. and animations. If you do not see this icon. It identifies the type of organization or what country the website is from. Protocols are rules for exchanging data between computers. Say you are looking for “digital cameras”. You can connect directly to a web site by typing the URL of that site in the address bar or location bar of the web browser. Each web site has a distinct. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Internet Explorer”. Most browsers have a Graphical User Interface (GUI). click on the “Launch Internet Explorer Browser” icon on your desktop. For example “. The protocol “http://” is the most widely used Web protocol. 123 | P a g e . http://www. for example. This allows easy viewing of text. Internet Explorer automatically sends your query to a search service and displays the results. Using a browser. It allows navigation from one page to another.
Links may be in the form of underlined text. click the “New Tab” button or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+T”. The “Stop” button to its right is used to stop a page from loading. you may enter the settings you require. you can see the “Refresh” button. To create a new tab. 124 | P a g e . Right-click on a blank space on the toolbar and select “Menu Bar”. Select “Tools → Internet Options”. you may use the “Forward” button. If you clicked the Back button and you want to move forward to the page you were on just before you clicked it. Tabbed Browsing: Tabs enable you to have multiple websites open in one Internet Explorer window at one time. Use the “Back” button to the left of the address bar to go to the previous page you were on. You now see a menu displayed above the toolbar. under “AutoComplete”. which is intended chiefly to greet visitors and provide information about the site or its owner. you may click the down arrow just to the right of the Forward button and select the webpage from the dropdown list. Under “Tabs”. On the “General” tab. forms data. In the “Tabbed Browsing Settings” window. To access the Internet Explorer AutoComplete options. click on the “X” to the right side of it. select “Tools → Internet Options”. On the “Content” tab. Home Page: The default page displayed when you start Internet Explorer is called the “Home Page”. you may enter the settings you require. you may enter your preferences under “Home page”. The Home Page of a website is the opening or main page of the website. the web page related to the link is opened.To the right of the address bar. When you click on the link. You may change the Internet Explorer Home Page to a site of your preference. you can see a toolbar. the pointer changes to a hand and the URL is shown in the status bar. In the “AutoComplete Settings” window. and passwords. To quickly go back to a website you visited earlier. AutoComplete: Internet Explorer automatically records Web addresses. Click on a thumbnail to view a particular website. You may use this to reload a web page. Quick Tabs: To see a thumbnail view of all the websites you have open in your tabs. Selecting links: When you point to a link on a web page. You can quickly switch between open websites by simply clicking on the tabs. click the “Quick Tabs” button to the left of the first tab. Below the address bar. To access the Internet Explorer Tabbed Browsing options. select “Tools → Internet Options”. buttons or pictures. click “Settings”. You can scroll through a web page using the horizontal and vertical scrollbars. To close a tab. click “Settings”.
content will appear in the language that has the highest priority.Using frames: The browser area can be divided into different scrollable areas called frames. Creating a list of favorites allows you to visit those sites with a single click. The “Favorites” list contains all the favorites you have created. Now click “Add” in the “Add a Favorite” window. This list appears under “Favorites” when you click the “Favorites Center” button on the toolbar. click “Add”. Alternatively. To view these pages in your preferred language. If you speak several languages. Select “Tools → Internet Options”. In the “Language Preference” window. You may organize your favorite pages in folders and save items under different folders.. Displaying web pages in other languages: Some Web sites offer their content in several languages. On the “General” tab. click “New Folder”. Using the Favorites Center Internet Explorer Favorites are used to save links to sites that you want to visit again. For this. Adding items to the Favorites list: Go to the page that you want to add to your list. rather than having to type the sites URL each time you want to visit it. select the language you want to add and click “OK”. you may pin it to the window by clicking on the “Pin the Favorites Center” button. 125 | P a g e .”. When you click on a link on one page included in a frame. In the “Add Language” window. Viewing thumbnails: Thumbnail images are small images shown on a web page because of space limitations and the time required for downloading. The “Add a Favorite” window is displayed. Click “OK” in the other windows as well. You may type a new name for the page in the “Name” text box. select the desired folder and click “Add”. Click the “Add to Favorites” button on the toolbar and select “Add to Favorites. “Close the Favorites Center” icon. you may create a new folder for a favorite. Click on thumbnails to view related documents. you can add languages to your list of languages in Internet Explorer. the related page is displayed in another frame. click “Languages”. from the “Create in” drop-down list. If you would like to display the Favorites Center at the left of your screen at all times. Enter a name for the new folder in the “Create a Folder” window and click “Create”. To place this favorite in an existing folder. To unpin it. you can arrange them in order of priority. You may adjust the size of the frames by dragging the border between the frames. simply click on the “X” shaped. If a Web site offers multiple languages.
Organizing your Favorites: You may wish to organize your favorite pages by topic. You may re-sort your History items by clicking on the arrow next to the "History" button and making your selection. Online Application Forms: Online Application Forms are forms that are given to the user to fill when connected to the Internet. address. The “Print” window is displayed. a specific page or range of pages by making the appropriate selection under “Print Range”. Click “Yes” in the displayed window. You may then click on a website link to open the related page. right-click on it and select “Delete”. Click the “Add to Favorites” button. History items are displayed sorted by website. click the “History” button in the Favorites Center. For this. and so on. For example. selected text. such as your name. phone number. click on one of the calendar icons. The form shown is used to register for a Yahoo mail account. and then click “Organize Favorites”. You can fill information in it and submit the form contents by clicking on buttons provided. rename or delete a folder. select “File → Print” from the menu. Preliminary validations are performed on some fields. pop-up menus or drop-down lists. To delete an item from the History List. Using Forms Forms are part of the web page that can help you to enter data. buttons. select “Favorites → Add to Favorites. check boxes. Printing and Saving Web Pages Printing and saving web pages: To print the current page. Now.. you may have to enter your personal details while booking an airline ticket online. you may use the different buttons in the lower part to create. 126 | P a g e . Some mandatory fields must be entered before the data is accepted.” and “Favorites → Organize Favorites” from the Menu Bar. A form may have text boxes. You can also move items from one folder to another by using the “Move” button or dragging the item to the appropriate folder You may also use the Menu Bar to add items to your Favorites list and to organize your Favorites. These must be filled in carefully before they are submitted. Click on one of the yellow icons to see what pages you visited at a particular site. the current page. Using the History list: Internet Explorer keeps track of the web pages you have previously visited in the form of history. you can login to your account and use all facilities available. To view the History list. Once you have completed your registration. You may print all pages. In the “Organize Favorites” window.
web directories and search engines. but typically offer no categories or differentiation between different types of material. Saving an entire web page: Select “File → Save As” from the menu. Search engines are also huge databases of web sites. Saving a page without displaying it: Position the mouse pointer over the link to the web page you wish to save.Previewing a web page: To have a look at how a page will look before it is printed. In a keyword search. position the mouse pointer over the image. web directories and search engines. a descriptive world or phrase or by browsing a topic list. Type a file name and then click “Save”. Web directories are databases of Internet sites that are organized by topics or subjects. A number of search tools have been developed and are available on different web sites. You may save the web page with a new name by making changes in the “File name” field. For this. For this. Search engines provide two different search approaches: Keyword search and Directory search. select “File → Print Preview” from the menu. Right-click to display a pop-up menu. For example. Type a file name for the image and then click “Save”. there is a vast ocean of information available on the World Wide Web. Finding Information on the Web Using Search Services As you know. The “Save Webpage” window is displayed. Now click “Save”. Specify the location at which you wish to download the web page. but typically offer no categories or differentiation between different types of material. you can use the Preview option. Choose “Save Target As”. Web directories are databases of Internet sites that are organized by topics or subjects. A search can be done by entering a keyword. Search services can be categorized into two types. Right-click to display the pop-up menu. you enter a keyword or phrase reflecting the information you want. Choose “Save Picture As”. Choose a folder in which to save this image. Saving an image from a page: You may wish to save only an image from a web page. Search services help you to quickly locate information about a specific topic from multiple websites. The “Save As” window is displayed. The search engine compares your entry against its database and displays a list of “hits” in the form of hyperlinks to related web pages. Search engines are also huge databases of web sites. Specify the location at which you wish to save your file. The “Save Picture” window is displayed. if you entered the keyword “travel” you get 127 | P a g e . Search services can be categorized into two types. You may choose a format for the page from the dropdown list in the “Save as type” field. Click “Close” when the download is completed.
thousands of hits. These are ordered according to those sites most likely to contain the information requested and are usually in groups of 10. You may find relevant information on the web using “Subject Directories”. Subject directories are collections of Internet resources organized into subject categories. They are useful for looking for information on a specific subject or to gain familiarity with a topic. Advantages of subject directories are that they generally contain good quality sites and they save time since subject wise information is available. Let us have a look at the Google subject directory. Enter the URL “http://directory.google.com” in the address bar and press “Enter”. You can see the Google directory on your screen showing links to various subjects. Clicking on a subject will show you more detailed lists from which you may make your selections. Using the Search Box: One of the new features of Internet Explorer 7 is the “Search Box” located at the top right. You can search the internet using most search engines from the search box instead of going to other search engine sites. If you want to find something on a page you are currently on, click on the down arrow to the right of the magnifying glass and select “Find on this Page”. Enter your search criteria and click “Next”. Using the Search Box: One of the new features of Internet Explorer 7 is the “Search Box” located at the top right. You can search the internet using most search engines from the search box instead of going to other search engine sites. If you want to find something on a page you are currently on, click on the down arrow to the right of the magnifying glass and select “Find on this Page”. Enter your search criteria and click “Next”. You may change the default search engine if you wish. For this, click on the down arrow to the right of the magnifying glass and select “Change Search Defaults”. Click “Set Default” and then “OK” to make the search provider you just added as the default one. Metasearch Engines: When you research a topic, you may need to visit different web sites in order to use different search engines. This would be time-consuming and duplicate responses would be inevitable. “Metasearch Engines” offer an alternative. They are programs that automatically submit your search request to several search engines simultaneously. The metasearch engine receives the results, eliminates duplicates, orders the hits and provides the edited list to you. You can see a list of some metasearch engines available on the Web in the displayed table.
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Specialized Search Engines: These search engines focus on subject-specific web sites. They save your time by narrowing your search. For a list of a few specialized search engines, have a look at the displayed table.
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Content Evaluation: You must keep in mind that not all information available on the Web is accurate. In fact, anyone can publish content on the Web. Many sites such as Wikipedia.com, allow anyone to post new material, sometimes anonymously and without critical evaluation. To evaluate the accuracy of information found on the Web, you need to consider the following points. Authority: Is the author an expert on the subject? Is the web site an individual’s personal one or an official one? Accuracy: Has the information been critically reviewed for correctness? Does the web site provide a method of reporting inaccurate information? Objectivity: Is the information reported biased or based on actual facts? Does the author gain personally by convincing the reader or changing his opinion? Currency: Is the information up to date. Is the date when the site was updated specified? Google
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Click the links to visit the related web pages.com in the address box. If you typically search only pages in a specific language. you can save this as your default search behavior on the “Preferences” page. Searching by Keyword: Some simple tips for entering keywords are be specific. use multiple words and leave out non-essential words. Type the keyword on which you wish to search in the search text box. The search results displayed have links to the pages containing matches to your desired keyword. You can filter inappropriate material. set the interface language and search for pages written in specific languages. Click “Preferences” to enter your requirements. Advanced Search: Once you know the basics of Google search. Language Tools: Click “Language Tools” to specify your language preferences for a particular search. At a personal level.“Google” is one of the most popular search engines. Press “Enter” to display the Google home page. friends and family can stay in touch even when separated by thousands of miles. use more descriptive words as opposed to general ones. Communication Using E-Mail Using Web E-Mail Services You know that communication is the most popular Internet activity. electronic communication has become a standard and preferred way to stay in touch with suppliers.google. Preferences: You may configure your search exactly as you want it. Start the Internet Explorer browser and type www. Searching by Topic: The Google web site interface consists of many links to various topics and a search text box. I am Feeling Lucky: You may try using the "I am Feeling Lucky" button when you have entered your search terms. At a business level. but if you do. You may click on the link of your choice. Click “even more” to see some more useful links. the "Iam Feeling Lucky" site would be listed on top. 131 | P a g e . employees and customers. Click “more” to view additional links. The result displayed is page wise if the resulted list is big. You will not see the search results page at all. This takes you straight to the most relevant website that Google finds for your query. you might want to try Advanced Search. Click “Advanced Search” to enter your options. Then press the “Google Search” button”. which offers numerous options for making your searches more precise and getting more useful results.
type “www. the identity of the recipient is verified and then the mail is forwarded. Hotmail.com” is the name of the domain or server. The web site has a registration page that will ask you to enter some information and also make you accept a user agreement.com. You have already seen how to fill in an online form. all the mail that has been received is downloaded to his computer. The other is based on Post Office Protocol (POP3) using which you may download mails onto your computer or send mails stored on your hard disk. similarly every e-mail account has a unique address. low cost and absence of time restrictions.yahoo. The most popular is the free web mail service that many web sites provide. Indiatimes. When an e-mail is sent. enables communication by sending and receiving written messages via a computer over the Internet.com. etc. This is a very powerful tool for communication and a prime reason for the popularity of Internet. To use the e-mail facility the user has to register with the web site providing the facility. The website provides you with a unique user name and you can also specify a password. enter an ID which will act as both your login name and your email address. After you have chosen a name. To go to the Yahoo home page. has increased rapidly in recent years. or electronic mail. it is not necessary for the person to whom the e-mail has been sent to be available. “yahoo. Rediffmail. When the recipient switches on his computer and connects to the mail service. In this. click “Free Mail: Sign Up”. The mail sent by you is sent to the mail server. Next.E-mail. There are basically two types of e-mail services you can use. especially in urban areas. When the mail server identifies the recipient.com. Just as every web page has a unique address.com”. you have to create a password. Creating an e-mail account is fairly simple. Some of the examples are mail. or for his computer to be on.com. “ahmed” is the name of the person.com” in the address bar and press “Enter”. A complete e-mail address is normally in the form of “ahmed@yahoo. You will be asked to answer this question in case you forget your password.com. try a variation of the name. Let us create a free e-mail ID on Yahoo. At the other end. You see a form displayed on your screen. Now. You need an e-mail program and a connection to the Internet. The use of e-mail in our country. 132 | P a g e .Yahoo. Then you may enter an alternate e-mail address if you have one. E-mail has become very popular because of its speed. it sends the message to his address. Select a security question and enter a suitable answer. The first step is to fill out your personal information. If the ID you select has already been taken by someone else.
Enter your name as you want it displayed and click “Next”. Click on the "Commands" tab. the CAN-SPAM Act has been enacted which requires that every marketing-related e-mail provides an opt-out option. The Mozilla Thunderbird e-mail program which is available for free download at “www. click “Finish”. Click “Next”. When the option is selected. These programs use a variety of approaches to identify and eliminate spam. click "Go". You may then close the “Customize” window. to download and read news messages. In the window displayed. and to post replies to them. you can see that there is a default news account named “Microsoft Communities”. Point to "Add or Remove Buttons". Also. When “Congratulations” is displayed. click "News". enter your e-mail address. Using Newsgroups A newsgroup is a forum on the Internet for discussions on a specified range of subjects. the recipient’s address is to be removed from future mailing lists. Newsgroups are also called discussion groups. and drag it and place it in the "Go" menu. click “Add”. click on “Newsgroup Account” and then click “Next”.the development and use of “Spam Blockers”. In the “Internet Accounts” window. In the United States of America. Select “Tools → Accounts” from the menu. a folder with this name is created in the list of folders in the left panel. If you have not previously set up a newsreader. Microsoft Outlook automatically sets up the Windows Mail Newsreader. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Outlook 2007”. Now. In the "Categories" list. and then click "Customize". This indicates that you may subscribe to a newsgroup of your choice on the Microsoft news server.mozilla. Newsreaders are used to gain access to various types of newsgroups. perform the following steps. Select “Go → News” from the menu. This newsreader is a Network News Transport Protocol (NNTP) newsreader.com” comes with built-in spam blocking software. which you can use to download newsgroup content and then work with it when you are not connected to the Internet. In the "Commands" list. If you do not find the “News” item in the “Go” menu of Microsoft Outlook. Adding a News Account: Let us add a new account. To start the Microsoft Outlook application. Here you are required to enter the Internet News Server Name. On the Standard toolbar click the "Toolbar Options" arrow. In Windows Mail. 134 | P a g e . You can see this account under the “News” heading in the “Internet Accounts” window. Enter the server name and then click “Next”.
There are different instant messengers available such as Yahoo messenger. You may read any message you wish by double-clicking on it. The difference is that you can send and receive messages as soon as they are typed. It is similar to e-mail. On the “All” tab. you may add additional information in the “Contact”. Google talk etc. ICQ. Click “Add Contact” after you are done. you can see which of your contacts are online and offline at any given time. Select “Start → All Programs”. Now click “OK”. The list is downloaded and the “Newsgroup Subscriptions” window is displayed. In the contacts list. The names of the newsgroups appear in the folder list. Using Messengers for Instant Messaging Instant Messaging enables you to have a conversation with another person or a group of people concurrently. Now. Windows Live Messenger. you need to add his name to your list of contacts. Click the “Add a contact” button. right-click on its name and select “Unsubscribe”. ensure that you are connected to the Internet and click “Yes”. Then click “Subscribe”. You 135 | P a g e . enter your message in the “Personal invitation” box and check the box against “Also send an e-mail invitation to this contact”. Enter your e-mail address and password and then click “Sign In”. If both parties are online at the same time. Select “File → New → News Message” to create a new message to send to the complete group. In the “Instant Messaging Address” box enter your contact’s e-mail address. To print this message. You see a window asking whether you would like to view a list of available newsgroups. you can have a complete conversation. Click “Reply Group” to send a reply to all members of a group and “Reply” to reply to the individual sender of the message. To use a messenger. click “Windows Live Messenger” to start the Windows Live Messenger. select “File → Print” from the menu bar. Click “OK” to confirm. If your contact does not have Windows Live Messenger. Since this list needs to be downloaded from the news server. If you wish. Adding a Contact: Before you can chat with someone. it must first be downloaded from the Internet and installed on your computer. In the “Windows Live” folder. To unsubscribe from a group. You can see that the contact is displayed in your list. download the Windows Live Messenger and install it. Click on a newsgroup name in the folder list to see a list of messages.Click “Close”. you may click on the group you wish to subscribe to. “Personal”. Use “Ctrl+Click” to select multiple groups. You may choose to reply to a message. “Work” and “Notes” sections.
For this. you may click on the different categories in the left pane to specify related settings. you may close the conversation window by clicking “Show Menu” and selecting “File → Close”. Specifying Other Settings: You may specify other settings such as the way your name is displayed in a conversation. click on the “Show Menu” icon to the right of the Paint Brush icon in the conversation window. Changing the Display Picture: You may change the picture that is displayed against your name. In the main Messenger screen. You may send an emoticon along with your message. You can also send messages to contacts who are offline. Right-click on a contact’s name in the main window to perform various activities such as sending an e-mail. In the window displayed. deleting the contact etc. you are informed about his status. editing contact details. you are ready to begin your chat. You can see the complete conversation in the upper section of the “Conversation” window. Now select “File → Save”. enter the file name in which you want to save it and press “Save”. click on your name at the top of the screen and then click on the status you wish. This message is displayed immediately on your contact’s screen. Type your message and then select an emoticon from the list. Choose a picture and then click “OK” in the “Display Pictures” window. Changing your Status: You may wish to display a specific status against your name such as “Busy”. Changing the Color Scheme: You may change the color scheme of the Messenger application by clicking on the Paint Brush icon at the top of the main Messenger window and selecting a color of your choice. also called “Smileys”. double-click the name of an online contact. Social Networking 136 | P a g e . messages from your contact are displayed on your screen.can chat with any contact who is online. Click “Options”. For this. In the “Save As” window. you are notified about it. “Out to lunch” etc. Click “Change display picture”. Chatting with your contact: Now. When a contact comes online. For this. Click on your name at the top of the screen. “Emoticons”. In the box at the bottom of the conversation window that comes up. In the same way. click on your name at the top of the screen. After you have completed your chat. type your message and click “Send” or simply press “Enter”. When you click “Send”. Click “OK” in the window that comes up. Offline contacts will receive the messages once they come online. are symbols that help to convey emotion or additional meaning in a written statement. The new picture is then displayed. When you click on the name of a contact who is offline. the emoticon is sent along with the text. Saving your conversation: You may save your complete conversation.
One of the fastest growing uses of the Internet is “social networking” i. you provide profile information such as your age. friend-of-a-friend and common interest. “Common interest” sites bring together individuals that share common interests or hobbies. There are three basic categories of social networking sites: reuniting. Many sites even notify you when someone joins with parts of his profile matching yours. “Reuniting” sites are designed to connect people who have known one another but have lost touch. a network could be started by an acquaintance who provides his profile information and list of friends. gender. school name etc. “Friend-of-a-friend” sites are designed to bring together two people who do not know each other but share a common friend. Two well-known friend-of-a-friend sites are Friendster and MySpace. Two popular reuniting sites are Facebook and Classmates Online. You must consider carefully what you are disclosing before providing information to any site or individual. connecting individuals to one another. You could then visit his site to connect to his friends and join his list of friends as well. 137 | P a g e . if you are looking for business contacts. see the displayed table. you might join Meetup. This information is added to the site’s database. For example. When you join a social network by connecting to a reuniting site. you might join LinkedIn. For a summary of social networking sites.e. Members can search the database to locate individuals. For example. If you wanted to locate or create a special interest group.
Although the information is well maintained. Currently. You are responsible for maintaining the employment records for all employees of the School. retrieving any kind of information is time consuming. Also making reports quickly is a difficult task. 138 | P a g e . You need to manually leaf through the pages to locate the required information. the employment records are maintained on paper forms and stored in file cabinets organized alphabetically.DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Overview Introduction to Databases You have recently accepted a new job as an Employment Administrator with All Saints High School.
Access 2007 is a relational database management application that is used to create and analyze a database. Each row is a record which contains all the information about a person. The first screen that appears is the “Getting Started with Microsoft Office Access” page. 139 | P a g e . Forms and Reports. You can create as many tables as you need to store different types of information. It is an electronic database management system which can store. Usually. In Access. Queries. you can also use queries to make changes to your database. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Access 2007”. The table object is the basic object and has to be created first. using Access 2007. print and preview data and much more. you will learn how to create a database. this action involves retrieving a piece of information. Queries let you quickly perform an action on a table. A relational database is the most widely used database structure. organize. and present information in many different ways. edit data. Creating a Database Introduction to Access To start the Microsoft Access application. Here. access. Typically. data is organized in linked tables. The four main objects in an Access database are Tables. the information in a database is stored in a table. The software tool that you will use to accomplish the task you have been assigned will be Microsoft Access 2007. In the following labs. which are simply the components of a database. enter data. What is a database? : A database is an organized collection of related information. The tables are related or linked to one another by a common field. thing or place. Each column is a field which is the smallest unit of information about a record. Forms are windows that you create and arrange in order to easily view or change the information in a table.The school has recently purchased new computers and the management now wants to update the employee record system to an electronic database management system. before any other objects are created. Tables store information. manipulate. every database is stored in a single file which has the extension “. Tables are made up of vertical columns (called fields) and horizontal rows (called records). However. That file contains database objects.accdb”.
140 | P a g e . Several templates are displayed under “Featured Online Templates”. Another will contain information of all the departments in the School and a third one will contain the payroll of the employees. you can quickly search the table to locate a specific record based on the data in a field. queries. After studying the existing record keeping procedures and the reports that are created. there are templates that can be used to track issues. -It is easy to add. and how its formatted. entering and editing data and then previewing and printing. You must understand the purpose of the database. By clicking the object tabs. how its grouped and sorted. -You can analyze the data in a table and perform calculations on different fields of data. You can choose where the information appears on the printed page. For example. -You can quickly produce reports using some Access features. delete and modify records from a table. -Your tables. you decide to create several separate tables of data in the database. The main table will include the employees’ basic information. forms and reports are displayed as tabbed objects in the Access window. manage contacts. Planning is the first step in the development of a database. You must know how the structure or layout of each table in the database must be. or you can customize them to suit your needs. Template databases can be used as they are. creating. You must plan the design of your database in respect of how many tables will be required. what data each of them will contain and how will they be related. you can easily switch between various objects. and more become available if you click one of the categories under “Template Categories” at the left of the Access window. For this you must study the existing employee records. Creating a New Database Creating a database entails several basic steps: planning. The features of Access 2007 are as follows: -Once the data is entered in the database. Access provides you with a wide variety of templates that are ready-to-use databases that contain all that is needed for performing a specific task. -Its capability to sort records in a table according to different fields can provide more meaningful information. or keep a record of expenses.Reports help you print some or all of the information in a table.
click the arrow in the upper corner. and Redo. to provide you with a larger work area. double-click the object in the Navigation Pane. 3) The Ribbon which has Task-oriented Tabs. To expand the minimized Navigation Pane. Change it to “Employee. or other database objects.For now. click the arrow at the top. Click on the “Browse” icon to the right of the file name. forms and reports appear in the Navigation Pane. Undo. it is time to create it so that the data can be stored in it. To minimize the expanded Navigation Pane. form. click on “Desktop” in the left panel and then click “OK”. you see the “Navigation Pane”. Click “Blank Database” under “New Blank Database”. This indicates that you are 141 | P a g e . You may specify the location where you wish to store your database. For more details on the Microsoft Office User Interface. Design view allows you to create or change a table. Creating a Table Access provides different window formats called “Views” to display and work with the objects in a database. Creating a database: Now that you have designed the database. a table named Table1 which is completely blank. In the “File New Database” window. Access creates your first database object. you will create only the table containing the employee information. At the left. To apply a command to a database object. saving.accdb”. When you open a database or create a new one. and closing a file. the default database name is displayed in the “File Name” box. But you cannot change the data in design view. with no defined fields. To open a database object. and configure the fields. printing. 2) The Quick Access toolbar which displays icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. It also allows you to enter and edit the data. Groups and Command buttons. You see the familiar Microsoft Office 2007 user interface which consists of: 1) The Office Button which displays a menu containing commands for opening. At the bottom of the screen you see the words “Datasheet View” on the “Status Bar”. The Navigation Pane can be minimized into a vertical bar. right-click the object and select an item from the context menu that appears. The two most commonly used views are “Datasheet View” and “Design View”. the names of your database objects such as tables. In the panel at the right. Now click “Create”. The “View” icon in the “Views” group is used switch back and forth between the Datasheet view and the Design View. you may see the assignment titled “The User Interface” in the “Microsoft Word” topic. Datasheet view shows the data in the database. You can also set keys and restrict the values entered here.
142 | P a g e . except a period (. Access also ensures that every record has a non-blank primary key field. like words. Phone No. combinations of words and numbers. We shall use the “Design View” to create a table. and that it is always unique. spaces. You can now see the name of your table in the Navigation Pane on the left. you need to enter a name for the table. queries and reports. In Datasheet view. and search for data. The name can consist of letters. Now let us begin creating the table structure. you can edit fields. and special characters. Enter the Table Name as “Emp Info” and click “OK”. Type “Employee ID” as the field name and press “Enter”. an exclamation (!). Access provides a number of data types to choose from. the default name “Table1” is displayed. A primary key is a field or set of fields in your table that provide Access with a unique identifier for every record. It is important to choose the right kind of data type before you start entering data in the table. forms. This view provides a row and column view of the data in tables. which makes queries and other operations fast. numbers. add and delete data. You must specify a primary key for all tables. etc. Access automatically creates a primary key and assigns a field name of "ID" and the AutoNumber data type to it. and brackets(). you must create the structure of the table. Before you can enter data into a table. You will learn about the different data types shortly. You can enter up to 255 characters in a text field. meaning the fields that will hold the data. forms. This view can be used to create and view the design of all types of database objects such as tables. Let us first understand what is meant by a “Primary Key”. You cannot start the name of a field with a space.). and queries. Text: It is the default data type and is used to store text entries. Field name: A field name is used to identify the data stored in a field. Subject1. and numbers that are not used in calculations.now in datasheet view. You can see a small key to the left of the field name indicating that this field is the primary key of the table. Following are the data types you can use. Examples are names and phone numbers. Access automatically creates an index for the primary key. When you create a new table. Click on “View → Design View” in the “Views” group. Click on the drop down menu button to select the “Data Type”. Before defining the fields in a table. The “Emp Info” tab is displayed in the document window on the right. You may also create a table using this view. Following are some examples of valid field names: First name. In the “Save As” window. Data type: The data type defines the type of data the field will contain.
Date of joining. Number: It is used to store numbers only. spreadsheet files. Pass. Price. Marks in an exam is an example. Format: Specifies how the data is displayed in the table and printed. its default properties are displayed under “Field Properties”. Type the description wherever applicable. sequential number that is automatically incremented by one whenever a new record is added to the table. but is formatted to display decimal places and the currency symbol. and On or Off. AutoNumber: It is a unique.Memo: It is used to store text that is too long to be stored in a Text field. It can be used for fields like Fees Paid. Caption: Specifies a field caption or a prompt for the user to enter data. Some of the more common properties are as follows: Field Size: It decides the maximum number of characters that can be entered in the field. Giving this description is optional. documents. Yes/No: This data type accepts only two values – Yes or No. A field property is a characteristic that helps define a field. As you can see. etc. Click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar and switch to Datasheet View by clicking “View → Datasheet View” in the “Views” group. Input mask: Simplifies data entry and controls what data is required and how it is to be displayed. Hyperlink: This is used to store web addresses. graphs etc. The description that you had entered is displayed in the “Status Bar”. True or False. Each data type has its own set of field properties. Fees. charts and other types of supported files to the records in your database. For example. Calculations can be performed on the numbers stored in a Number field. documents. Information about the data type is displayed in the left panel and on the right hand side is the help box displaying information about the current task. Description: The “Description” text box is used to describe the field. When you select a data type. Switch back to Design View by clicking “View → Design View” in the “Views” group. For example. etc. Select the “Text” data type. 143 | P a g e . Currency: This is similar to the Number data type. etc. Summary of a book is an example. OLE Object: This data type is used to store images. Attachment: This is used to store images. the default field size of the “Text” data type is 255. Birth date. Date/Time: It is used for storage of date and time information.
Default Value: It specifies a default value for a field to be automatically filled in at the time of data entry. Click in the “Field Size” property box and change the field size to ’15’. Click the “Field Size” property text box. Validation Text: It is displayed when the validation rule is violated. Let us change the primary key back to “Employee ID” as before. Click on the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. We now need to switch to Datasheet View. Validation Rule: Restricts the data entry to meet certain conditions or requirements. Select the “Data Type” of this field as “Date/Time” from the drop down menu. In the same manner. Allow Zero Length: Specifies whether or not an entry containing no value is valid. Do not make any other changes. Click with the mouse in the “Field Name” column to enter the next field name. and grouping operations run against large amounts of data. sorting. So select the “Data Type” as “Attachment”. Follow the same procedure for the next field – Date_Of_Joining. This field property specifies whether an index is to be created on that field. Click on “View → Datasheet View” in the “Views” group. Now. Select “General Date”. This value can be changed. If you set it to “Yes”. The “Photo” field is of a different type – you want to store the photo of the employee. enter the information shown in the table until you come to the “Birth Date” field. You may change the primary key simply by clicking on another field name and then clicking on the “Primary Key” icon in the “Tools” group. Required: Specifies whether or not a value must be entered in a field before the record is stored. Entering and Editing Data You can now start entering data in the table. The structure of your table is now ready. 144 | P a g e . You must save your table structure before you can start entering data into the table. let us change some of the defaults. But you cannot do so until you change the view. We used the Design View to define the structure. Type ‘First Name’ and select “Text” as the “Data Type” from the drop down menu. Indexed: An index is used to speed up queries. it can be used to indicate that you know no value exists for a field. Click in the “Format” property box and open the drop down list. You can see that the name given to the field with the data type Attachment has been replaced by a paperclip icon. Double-click on 255 to select it and type ‘4’ to change the field size.
Click “Yes” to delete the record. To see that the picture has really been inserted. You can see the name of the picture in the “Attachments” window. If you want to 145 | P a g e . you may enter the date directly or use the Date Picker displayed at the right of the field. This displays the “Column Width” window where you can type the desired value. In the “Choose File” window. right-click a columns name and select “Column Width”. For the date fields. For this. You have been informed by the HR department. Check that you type data exactly as it appears in the accompanying table. position the mouse on the right border of a column header. Changing Column Width The data you have entered may not be completely visible in the Table’s column. You may adjust the column width. It displays the table in a reduced size so that you can see the layout. double-click in the attachment field. If you make a mistake while typing. Click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. Type the employee’s ID number. Complete the information for the first record except for the “Photo” field. For this. Click “OK”. navigate to the location of the picture file. The document will be printed using the default settings. Double-click in the attachment field to open the “Attachments” window. You may drag with the mouse to select multiple records. Now click “Add”. Remember not to use any spaces before or after the data.The insertion point can be seen in the first column of the first row. Use the right arrow key or press “Enter” to move to the next field. click “Delete”. in the “Employee ID” column. Previewing the table gives you an idea how the table will look after it is printed. See that there is consistency in the data that you enter. Alternatively. left or right until you get the desired width. Then click “OK”. Now double-click on the name of the picture in the “Attachments” window. Deleting a record: Select the record to be deleted by clicking the “Record Selector”. use the “Backspace” key to delete characters to the left of the insertion point or the “Delete” key to delete characters to the right of the insertion point. Inserting a picture: The photo can be inserted as an attachment. in the “Records” group. Click on the picture and then click “Open”. On the “Home tab”. Then drag in the desired direction. that an employee has resigned and is no longer an employee of the School. Before printing it is advisable to preview it. This is the small box to the left of the record. you may adjust the column width to a specific number of characters. Then you must delete that employee’s record. that is. Preview and Print a Table The table is now ready and you want to print it. You will be asked to confirm the deletion.
To print selected records. For example. After you have entered your print specifications. Since you have just one table open presently. For example. Click on the Office Button and select “Close Database”. click on the “Landscape” icon in the “Page Layout” group. The “Print Preview” tab appears when you view the table in the Print Preview mode. Closing the database: Next. click the “Close Print Preview” icon. Access will prompt you to save them before closing. you have to close the database. You may also print the table by clicking the Office Button and selecting “Print → Print” from the menu or use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+P”. To close the preview. If you have made any changes that have not been saved. select “Selected Record(s)”. After you have entered your print specifications. enter the page range. The “Print” window is displayed. The “Print Range” section of the window lets you specify how much of the document you want to print. To print pages that are continuous. If you click “No” to discard changes. Select “All” to print all records. The page is displayed with a heading and date in the “Header” and the page number in the “Footer”. Select “Pages From” to specify the number of the pages you want to print. To print selected records. Clicking on “Cancel” will not close the window and you will be able to continue working. to print pages 1 to 5. To close a table. If you want to change the page orientation. enter the page range. click “OK”. you may first click on the related tab to make it active. Select “Pages From” to specify the number of the pages you want to print. two or multiple pages if there is more data than can fit on one or two pages. Closing a table: Multiple table tabs may be open at one time. click “OK”. You are now back to the “Getting 146 | P a g e . Select “All” to print all records. type ‘1’ and in the “To” field enter ‘5’. You have to close the table and database that you have created and have been working on until now. to print pages 1 to 5. type ‘1’ and in the “To” field enter ‘5’. Click “Yes” to save changes. Check once again whether everything is as you want it and click on the “Print” icon. To print pages that are continuous. You can see the preview consisting of one. Close and Open a Table and Database You have finished working with the employee database for now and you want to stop working but continue later on. in the “Pages From:” field. select “Selected Record(s)”. the table will close without saving the changes.change some settings you may do so. The table tab will close. in the “Pages From:” field. The “Print Range” section of the window lets you specify how much of the document you want to print. simply click on the “X” shaped icon at the right end in line with the table name.
Let us modify the default name. This time. you can see that only the structure of the table has been copied and there is no data contained in it. Now right click once again in the Navigation Pane and select “Paste”. The table will open in Datasheet View. you may not see the name of your database in this list. Your Database window is displayed. you may need to copy only the structure of a table. In the “Open” window. you may accept the default name displayed or enter a new name. double-click the table name in the navigation pane. In the document pane. If any database 147 | P a g e . including its structure and data. This would save time in creating a new table which required similar fields but had different data to be entered. in the “Getting Started with Microsoft Office Access” page. To open the “Emp Info” table. In such a case. To exit Access. Enter the words “(with data)” at the end of the name and click “OK”. This copy would be identical to the existing one complete with its objects and data. navigate to the location of your database and click “Open”. Now click the Office Button and select “Save As”. we shall copy the structure only.Started with Microsoft Office Access” page. click “More…” at the top of the list. You may use the Copy-Paste method to copy both the data and structure of a table by selecting “Structure and Data” under the “Paste Options” in the “Paste Table As” window. Sometimes. Enter the words “(structure only)” at the end of the name and click “OK”. Double click on the new table name in the Navigation Pane. Click the table name in the Navigation Pane. In the “Paste Table As” window. This is an alternative method to using the “Save As” option of the Office Button. For this. Let us create another copy of the “Emp Info” table. In the “Save As” window. click the Office Button and select “Save As → Access 2007 Database”. Making Copies of Database Objects Copying a database object: You can make a copy of an object in the database such as a table. Right click on the name of the “Emp Info” table in the Navigation Pane and select “Copy”. Sometimes. click on the database name in the list displayed under “Open Recent Database” on the right. Let us make a copy of the table “Emp Info”. select “Structure Only” under “Paste Options”. Opening the database: When you need to work once again with the “Employee” database. Making a Copy of the Database You can make a copy of the complete database. you may click the Office Button and then click the “Exit Access” button at the bottom right. You may create a new database or open an existing one. You can see the new table displayed in the Navigation Pane and the data displayed in the document window on the right.
One is the “Pin Code” and the other is the “Gender” of the employee. Move to the “Format” field property text box and type ‘>’. 148 | P a g e . Type ‘Pin Code’ and make its data type as “Text”. For example. For this. you see a window asking whether the objects can be closed. You can see that all data in the “State” field is displayed in uppercase. The new database is created identical to the original database. To do so. you realize that there is no uniformity in the data entered in the “State” field. you have forgotten to add two fields! The PIN code number needs to be added to make the address complete and the gender of the employee also needs to go on record. The “Pin Code” field should be after the “State” field and the “Gender” field should be after the “Phone” field. The field’s “Format” property can be defined to tell Access the way you want the data to be displayed. Also. to change the “State” field’s format to display it in uppercase. This will display the PIN codes of all records in the same format. you need to first change to Design View. Make the “State” field the current one by clicking on it. So. To define the format.objects are open. say “Backup_Employee. Modifying a Table Customizing and Inserting Fields If you look through the records. type ‘@@@ @@@’ with a space after the first three characters. You can easily make all these changes and put restrictions on the way data is entered or displayed. enter the location and the name for the new database. switch to Design View.accdb” and click “Save”. type ‘7’ and in the “Format” field property text box. click on the upper part of the “View” icon in the “Views” group on the “Design” tab. Now. A row is inserted between the “State” and “Phone” fields. you can use the four symbols used in the table shown. To set the display format. You want all the records to display the name of the state in uppercase. In the “Save As” window. You can even add and delete fields. you have to enter the appropriate symbol in the “Field Properties” window. you must insert those fields which you have missed while designing the database the first time. Make “Phone” the current field. Select “Insert Rows” in the “Tools” group on the “Design” tab. BS83DT will be displayed with a space between BS8 and 3DT. Click “Yes”. In the “Size” field property. Change to Datasheet View Click on “Yes” to save changes.
Setting the “Validity Check” option makes sure that the values entered by the user are valid for the field type. Fill in these empty fields in all the records. you can make data entry a bit quicker. A default value is used to specify a value that is automatically entered in a field when a new record is added. So. make the “Gender” field the current one and click on the “Default Value” property text box. You can also add validation text. While looking through the records. The table above shows some examples of validity rule settings and corresponding messages. which is an explanatory message that appears if the user enters invalid information in a field for which a validation rule has been set. Switch to Design View and make the “State” field the current one by clicking on it. Click on the “Default Value” property text box and type “Bristol” in it. The table is displayed with two new columns which have no data in them. An expression is a formula consisting of a combination of symbols that evaluates to a single value. Access displays a default message but it does not clearly explain the reason for the error. “Field Size” as ‘1’ and “Format” as ‘>’. If you do not give a message. A validation rule is an expression that defines acceptable values. Enter its “Data Type” as “Text”. Switch to “Datasheet” view. This value can either be accepted or another value can be entered by the user while adding a new record. you observe that most of the employees are from “Bristol” State and that there are more males than females as employees.Repeat the procedure for inserting a row and adding the “Gender” field after the “Phone” field. You want the “Gender” field to accept only two values – “M” for male and “F” for female. Similarly. Save the design changes related to default values. Now switch to Datasheet View. Save the new table structure by clicking on the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. Type ‘M’ in it. Observe that the new blank record has the “State” and “Gender” fields already filled with values. This is because of the “Default Value” property that you have set for these two fields. 149 | P a g e . by setting the default value of the “Sate” field to “Bristol” and that of “Gender” to “F”.
Click “OK” to continue. The “State” and “Gender” fields are already filled with default values. except ‘F’ or ‘M’. A warning message box is displayed saying that the data integrity rules have been changed. Access asks you if you want to check the existing data with the new validity rule. type ‘ “M” Or “F” ’ and in the “Validation Text” property box. Type the data shown in the table in the new record. Click “Yes”. Now. In the “Validation Rule” property box. click “No”. You will be asked to save the changes. type ‘Please enter either “M” or “F” only. Press “Backspace” and enter valid text. The warning message is immediately displayed. For now. When you make changes to the structure of a table. switch to Datasheet View. Now try entering an invalid value in the “Gender” field. 150 | P a g e . You may change them if required. Type ‘k’ or any other letter in either upper or lower case. you often make changes that could result in the loss of data or existing data may become invalid.Adding a Validity Rule: Switch to Design View and click on the “Gender” field.
type “Smith”. you may use the “Find” and “Replace” icons in the “Find” group on the “Home” tab.Finding and Replacing Data Finding and Replacing data: If you want to search for some information in the table and also replace it. Use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Z” or click on the “Undo” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. click in the “Last Name” field of the first record and select “Find”. One is that the “State” names should all be shortened to 2 lettered names. “NORTHSIDE” with “NS” and so on. You need not do this manually. Click in the “Search Fields As Formatted” check box which finds data based on its display format. in the “Match” box. using the “Undo” command will cancel the last action as long as you have not made any further changes to the table. That means you have to replace “Bristol” with “BS”. Once you move to another record or move to another window. The other is that. one of the employees. click in the “Match Case” check box and click “Find Next”. The “State” field will already be selected in the “Look In” box. Now. The first occurrence of the search criteria specified is highlighted. The “Find” command locates all specified values in a field and the “Replace” command finds a value and automatically replaces it. If the text is found and it is the one you want to replace. “EASTSIDE” with “ES”. you have been told to make two changes. select “Whole field”. Select “Whole Field” in the “Match” box and “All” in the “Search” box. If you make changes to a single record. cancels the command. “Jenny Smith” is married and needs to change her “Last Name” and “Address”. Finding and replacing data is fast and accurate but you have to be careful not to replace unintended values. So. In the “Find What” box. Check whether it the record you are looking for. so. Clicking on the “Cancel” button. Click “Find Next”. you have to make changes in the “State” field. If it is. While in the “Datasheet” view. So click in the “State” field and select “Replace”. Your original data appears. 151 | P a g e . Click on the “Cancel” button if you do not want to perform any action. Now. You want to match the whole field. The “Look In” box displays the “Last Name” field because the field was the current one when the command was given. close the “Find and Replace” window and make the necessary changes in the “Last Name” and the address fields. the “Undo” command has no effect. Click on the “Replace” tab and type “Bristol” in the “Find What” box. then click on the “Replace” button. In the “Search” box. select “All”. The “Find and Replace” window is displayed with the “Find” tab selected. You may use the “Find and Replace” feature. type ‘BS’. not part of it. In the “Replace With” box. You want Access to find a perfect match to what you have typed in the “Find What” box. the last name of the employee.
If you want to search the entire table. the data in all the fields containing “BRISTOL” is replaced with “BS”. the “Look In” list contains the name of the field in which your cursor is currently positioned. a search for “Smith” with the initial alphabet “S” in uppercase and “m-i-t-h” in lowercase will not display “SMITH” with all uppercase letters or “smith” with all lowercase letters. uppercase or lowercase) as the specified text. The options are Up. You can sort on one field or more than one adjacent field. So you need to make a change in the default value too since you now need “BS”. the search returns only those instances of the text that have the same case (i. A warning message is displayed by Access. Sorting: Sorting the data often helps in finding some particular information quickly. You also saw that the records in a table are arranged according to the primary key. When you select multiple columns to sort. You are asked whether you want to continue. In the “Default Value” property box. “Start of Field” finds data only at the beginning of the field. Sorting Records In the first lab. In this case. Switch to Design View and click in the “State” field. Down. type “BS” and switch to Datasheet View. The “Search” box allows you to specify the direction to follow while searching. But the Accounts department has requested for the employee list in alphabetical order. How are you going to give it to them? To arrange the records in the table in alphabetical order. “Any Part of Field” finds data anywhere in the field. and All (which is the default). you had set the default value for the “State” field as “Bristol”.e. click on “Yes” because that’s what you want.The “State” field in the next record is highlighted. you can sort them on a single field – the field on the basis of which you want to arrange them. warning you that the replace operation cannot be undone. Since you want to replace all the fields containing “BRISTOL” with “BS”. If you check the box against “Match Case”. For example. If you remember. the “Last Name” will be the field which you will use to sort records. You will see that the new record at the end has the default value changed to “BS”. click on “Replace All”. In Access.. Access sorts records starting from the leftmost 152 | P a g e . Let us have another look at the various options available in the “Find and Replace” window. you may select the name of the table from the list. “Whole Field” finds only data that is exactly the same. you can sort data in ascending or descending order. By default. Instantly. you had seen what a primary key is and what its importance is. In the “Match” list options. Save the changes made to the table.
The records are displayed according to the changed order of fields. Now. To select the two columns. Switch to Datasheet View to see the order of the fields. the temporary sort must be removed. so Ted’s record comes first and then comes Tom’s record. They are sorted on the “Employee ID” field which is the primary key. The “Last Name” field moves up one row so that it is the second field in the field name list. click in the “Last Name” field of any record. you need to sort on multiple fields. To sort on multiple fields. To remove the temporary sorting order. position the mouse pointer in the column heading of “Last Name”. you need to select the two fields. So. sorting is done from the leftmost field. The cursor will change to a solid black arrow pointing downwards. Now drag the mouse down until you see a black line under the “Last Name” field. To sort on multiple fields. “Last Name” must be to the left of “First Name”. Click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar. in Datasheet View. Select the “Ascending” icon in the “Sort & Filter” group on the “Home” tab again. To change the order of fields. switch to Design View. observe the order of the records before sorting. Select the “Ascending” icon in the “Sort & Filter” group on the “Home” tab to display the records sorted by Last Name.column and moves to the right across the columns. They are arranged alphabetically first by “Last Name” and then by “First Name”. Tom’s record appears before Ted’s which is not in ascending alphabetical order. Click in the “Field Selector” of the “First Name” field. Observe the records of Tom and Ted now. The new sort order is saved with the table data and automatically applied every time you open the table. You see that Ted and Tom are sorted by Last Name but not by “First Name”. Observe the order of records after sorting on the “Last Name” field. To sort first by “Last Name” and then by “First name”. select “Clear All Sorts” in the “Sort & Filter” group. In the “Datasheet” view. This is the small box to the left of the field name. To return to the primary key sort order. The records will again be displayed in the order of the “Employee ID” field. Drag to the right to select the next column – “First Name”. Creating Forms Using the Form Wizard 153 | P a g e . Then release the mouse. Both the columns will be highlighted.
It guides you through the steps required to create a form. Click on the “New (blank) record” button to add new records. click “More Forms → Form Wizard”. In the next step.Being the one to be in charge of the employee records database. To make it easy to view and use. Click on “Employee ID” and click on the button with “>” symbol on it. The other two buttons below this. the layout of the form is displayed. titles. The “Form Wizard” window is displayed. You can move one record up or down by clicking on the “Next record” or “Previous record” buttons respectively. lines. you are asked to select the style of the form. “Emp Info” will be displayed by default. Select the fields from the list one by one. Forms are based on a table and contain design control elements like descriptive text. The field name is displayed in the “Selected Fields” list now. The information on this form will be used as an input source for the new record that will be added for the new employee. In the next step. Using the Form Wizard: Click on the “Create” tab. At the bottom of the form window is the record number indicator. Access provides a feature to create onscreen forms. where you are asked to give the form a name and save it. The field names are on the left with the corresponding data in boxes in front of them. The “Form Wizard” feature of Access makes it very easy to design forms. type it and click “Finish”. boxes and pictures. Read it so that you know what you are supposed to do in that step. The form is displayed with the first record’s contents in it. the name of the current table “Emp Info” is displayed. Information regarding what you are supposed to do in each step is mentioned on the top in the “Form Wizard” window. click the close 154 | P a g e . It is desirable for the onscreen form to be similar to the paper form filled in by each new employee when hired. The button below this can be used to move all fields into the “Selected Fields” list. The fields from the current table are displayed in the “Available Fields” list. The “First record“ button takes you to the first record and the “Last record” button takes you to the last one. If not. In the “Forms” group. one of your main objectives is to make the database easy to use. The next step is the last step. In the “Tables/Queries” list. Leave it as it is and click on “Next”.To close the form. A form is a database object that is mainly used to enter and display records and make changes to existing records onscreen. as you may have realized can be used to move fields back into the “Available Fields” list. Select all the fields in the same manner as the first field and click on “Next”. labels. Select a suitable one and click “Next”. Seeing the records at all times in the form of rows and columns can be tiring to the eyes. “Columnar” is selected by default.
In Access. You can start typing the data of the new employee as shown in the accompanying figure. You may click on the tab names to switch between them. Now let us change the label “Photo”. it is necessary to frame a question. Click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar to save your changes and close the form. 155 | P a g e . you have to put questions in the form of queries. Click on it and drag the picture to position it a little lower down in the form. But if you ask. You can see that both the form and the table are open on two separate tabs. The form will be displayed. double-click on the form name “Emp Info”. you first need to open the form. Click on the “New (blank) record” button at the bottom of the window. You see a box with a dotted outline enclosing the picture and the field label “Photo”. Adding Records in a Form A new employee has recently joined the School and you need to input all related information into the database. Open the form once again by double clicking the form name in the Navigation Pane. to see all the records that you have entered. Queries and Reports Using Queries To get any information. Framing it correctly will give you the most accurate information. You can see your form name displayed in the navigation pane on the left. “When is the train to Central Park?” you may get the most appropriate answer “It leaves on Tuesday morning at 6:30 am”. In the navigation pane. The form with all blank boxes is displayed. you can enter and view as many records as you want. Of course. Click on the field displaying the photo of the employee. To add records. You will add this information using the form you created. the “State” and the “Gender” fields have their default values.button on the form. At the top left corner you see a four-headed arrow. So framing a question correctly is important. to get information stored in the tables. Now switch to Design View by selecting “View” in the “Views” group on the “Home” tab. click on the table name in the navigation pane and scroll if required. In this way. For example. Now. After you are done. if you ask at the railway enquiry counter – “Is there a train to Central Park?” you will most probably not get the expected answer. Let us learn to modify the design of the form we created. click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar. Click on it and enter “Photograph”.
The query is displayed with all the records in the table. Here. The “New Query” window is displayed with “Simple Query Wizard” selected. Select the following fields – “Employee ID”. In the document window. In the “Available Fields” list. at the top. Modifying a Query: There was nothing very different in this query. like any other database object. who have been in service for at least five years. Creating a query in Access is very much similar to creating a table or form. Switch to Design View by clicking on the upper part of the “View” icon in the “Views” group.Query: A query is a request for specific data in a database. If not. Now. There are five types of queries in Access: Select query. This is very interesting. you can see all the fields of the table used for the query in a small window. the “Emp Info” table is already selected. accept the default name for the query or type a new one and click “Finish”. It was very simple. Parameter query. Action query and SQL query. but with selected fields. select it. “City”. “Address”. Using the Query Wizard: Click on the “Create” tab. Queries can be used as a source for forms and reports because they are based on tables. Click “OK” to display the “Simple Query Wizard” window. which you are going to use. “Last Name”. they want a list of all employees. You will find this wizard similar to the one you used to create a form. Crosstab query. select them one by one and click on the “>” button. While the query is open. which you have already done. Click “Next”. you have a request from the Administrative department. you need to check their dates of joining the 156 | P a g e . analyze and even change existing data. Access saves each query in your database. To select the required fields. How are you going to specify this condition? You need to make some modifications in this query you have just created. The most common is the “Select” query. In the “Tables/Queries” list. click on the “Home” tab. But now. for a “5 Years Service Award” they want to give. you can run it any time you want to take a look at the actual data that meets your specifications. the fields selected in the query are displayed. Queries are used to view data in different ways. In the lower part. Once you’ve saved a query. and “Phone”. A “Select” query retrieves the requested data from one or more tables and displays it in a query datasheet in the order you specify. click “Query Wizard”. “First Name”. you see all the fields in the “Emp Info” table. to know about the employees who have been in service for 5 years or more. In the “Other” group.
In the “Reports” group. Then. double-click on this field. Using the Report Wizard: Click on the “Create” tab. The records matching your criteria are displayed. select “Table: Emp Info”. For this. In the criteria row. For this. As soon as you press “Enter”. scroll down a bit. Click “Next”. which you are not going to need. Type the name ‘5 Year Service’ in the “Save As” window. there is an option for grouping fields. You will do this with the help of the “Report Wizard” that is provided by Access. You will be creating this address report based on the “Emp Info” table. In the Tables/Queries list. “Address”. It is displayed in the first blank box after the “Phone” field. Now close the query tab. click the Office Button and select “Save As”. “City”. In the next “Report Wizard” window. “Pin code”. Running a query: To see the result of this query. Confirm that the “As” box has “Query” displayed in it. type the condition as ‘>= 1/1/2001 AND < 1/1/2002’ and press “Enter”. 157 | P a g e . and “Phone” one by one by clicking on the “>” button. It might be a simple listing of all fields or of selected fields based on a query. which you can view or edit by selecting “View → SQL View” in the “Views” group on the “Home” tab. click “Report Wizard”. A report is a printed output generated from tables and queries. Specifying criteria: You need the list of employees who have been in service for at least five years. Now close the query tab. SQL (Structured Query Language) is a powerful database language used in queries. Creating Reports There is another request from the Administrative department – they need an address report of all employees sorted by name. as you did while selecting fields for the query. Access adds the “#” signs before and after the dates to identify the values in the expression as dates. Click “OK”. “First Name”. If you do not see the “Date_of_Joining field in the window at the top. You must now specify a criterion for this field.organization. Select fields “Last Name”. so click “Next”. “State”. Saving the query: You now need to save this modified query. Each query that you create has an underlying SQL statement. click on the “Run” icon in the “Results” group on the “Design” tab. you need to modify the query by adding the “Date_of_Joining” field and specifying criteria. The “Report Wizard” window is displayed.
Here enter the report title as “Employee Address List”. select “Last Name” as the first field and “First Name” as the second field and click “Next”. click on it. Switch to Layout View by selecting “View → Layout View” in the “Views” group. drag the right edge of the box to a suitable size. The next window lets you select the style of the report. Similarly. So. When the mouse pointer appears as a four-headed arrow. tabular or justified and the page can be oriented either as a portrait or a landscape. click on “Preview the report” and click “Finish”. You can see that the complete column is shifted to the right. drag to the right to position it after the “First Name” column. You may find that the “State” field is too big for its two character contents. the headings and contents of some fields are not displayed completely. If you see that a heading is not displayed completely. you need to modify the report layout. close the report tab by clicking on the “X” shaped icon at the right end. 158 | P a g e . you are asked about the layout of the fields and the page. You can sort the records by up to four fields in either ascending or descending order. Click in the check box that says. A box appears around it. where the data is not displayed completely. “Adjust the field width so all fields fit on a page” and click “Next”. But if you see the report properly. You need the address list of employees in ascending order of “Last Name” and within that in ascending order of the “First Name”. the first thing you need to do is to exchange the order of the fields “First Name” and “Last Name”. In the next window. You can have the fields laid out as either columnar. The next window is the last step of the wizard. Click on the heading “Last Name”. The preview of the report is displayed with the title and footer and all the records arranged in the specified sort order. Then drag the right edge or lower edge of the box that appears to a suitable position.The next “Report Wizard” window asks for the sort order of the records to be printed in the report. For now. Select a suitable one from the list and click on “Next”. You can reduce its size and make space for the other fields. Modifying Report Layout Modifying report layout: Double-click on the report name in the Navigation Pane. click on it. You need to make some changes. To make these changes. When the mouse pointer appears as a two-headed arrow. Now.
you may move and resize the fields again as required. Click “OK”. The “Report Wizard” window is displayed. Here give a report title as “5 Year Service Awards”. You can have the fields laid out as either columnar. The “Print” window is displayed. you have to follow all the same steps you performed to create a report from the table. To create a report from a query. To create this report. If they are still not properly visible. click on “Preview the report” and click “Finish”. Then close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. 159 | P a g e . Close the preview. you can make use of the query you created to list those employees. Select the query “5 years service” from the Table/Query list. You need the report in ascending order of the “Last Name” and within that. Click “Close Print Preview” to close the preview. You can see in the preview. you will select the query. Select a suitable one from the list and click “Next”. instead of the table. select View → Print Preview” in the “Views” group. Printing a Report Printing a report: The report is now ready to be printed. The next window is the last step of the wizard. Click on the “Create” tab.To see the preview. all the records of employees who have worked for five years. Save the report either by using the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+S” or by clicking “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar. In the “Reports” group. Click in the check box that says. So. select “Last Name” as the first field and “First Name” as the second field and click “Next”. Select the “Print Range” by clicking on “Pages From” and typing ‘1’ to ‘1’. The next window lets you select the style of the report. tabular or justified and the page can be oriented either as a portrait or a landscape. click “Report Wizard”. in the “Report Wizard”. The next “Report Wizard” window asks for the sort order of the records to be printed in the report. Select the printer from the “Name” list. “Adjust the field width so all fields fit on a page” and click “Next”. Click “Next” once again. you are asked about the layout of the fields and the page. Creating a Report from a Query There is a requirement to print a report of all those employees who were listed for the five years service award. in ascending order of the “First Name”. Check if all the data contents are visible on the page. Click the Office Button and select “Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. In the next window. The difference is that. Add all fields in the “Available Fields” list by clicking on the “>>” button and click “Next”.
click “Encrypt with Password”. For this. In the “Database Tools” group. Close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. In the “Unset Database Password” window. type your password in the “Password” box. Click the “Database Tools” tab. schedules etc. The steps to create and apply a password to your database are as follows. Your database is now open. open the database in “Exclusive” mode.Protecting the Database Using Passwords Assigning a password: Microsoft Office Access 2007 provides a number of features that can help make your data more secure. Close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. So you do not have to worry anymore about sharing your Personal Computer. Enter your password and click “OK”. click “Decrypt Database”. 160 | P a g e . You want to use tools to organize your contacts. It is very important that you remember your password. type your password and click “OK”. but away from access by unauthorized people. Your database can now be accessed without a password the next time it is opened. click on the Office Button and select “Open”. Enter your password in the “Password Required” window and click “OK”. One of the first things you can do in this direction is to use a password for accessing your database. Store the password in a secure place from where you can recover it in case you forget it. PERSONAL INFORMATION MANAGER Getting started with Outlook Introduction to Microsoft Outlook Your cherished dream has come true. You may exit Access by clicking on the Office Button and then clicking the “Exit Access” button. If you forget your password. Removing a password: Open the database in Exclusive mode. Now click “OK”. First. In the “Set Database Password” window. In the “Open” window. Close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. and then re-type it in the “Verify” box. Using a password: Open the password protected database as you open any other database. Click the “Database Tools” tab. it cannot be retrieved. In the “Database Tools” group. The “Password Required” window appears. You have decided to use this opportunity to its maximum potential and are eager to personalize your work environment. Click the database file and then click the arrow next to the “Open” button and select “Open Exclusive”. your company has decided to give laptops to each of its key employees. navigate to the location of your database.
It can be used to organize and track all types of information. Select the day. Press “Enter”. you have an integrated solution for managing your time and information.With Microsoft Office Outlook 2007. In the time slot type ‘Meeting with the client’. The calendar for the current month is displayed in the category specific tools window. events and meetings. Click the button corresponding to “Calendar” in the navigation pane. click “View → To-Do Bar → Minimized”. is displayed in the information viewer on the right. The upper portion of the navigation pane contains “Category specific tools” for working with different types of information. Select the time slot of 6 pm for the appointment in the information viewer of the Outlook window. To begin with. By default an appointment is allotted half an hour. To expand the minimized Navigation Pane. and Contacts etc. The Navigation Pane can be minimized into a vertical button bar. Calendar. click the arrow in the upper corner. 161 | P a g e . we shall take a look at the calendar. The “Untitled Appointment” window is displayed. Some of the important tasks that can be performed using Microsoft Outlook are maintaining a personal calendar of appointments. having today’s date and time divisions. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Outlook 2007”. To minimize the expanded Navigation Pane. Let us create an Appointment. to provide you with a larger work area. The bottom portion contains Category buttons for different tasks. Select the month from the calendar by using the arrows. Click the “New” button on the Standard toolbar. Starting Microsoft Outlook: To start the Microsoft Outlook application. you will see a navigation pane on the left which contains categories such as Mail. Your appointment has now been recorded. click the arrow at the top. Let us create another appointment and enter more details. The “Day” view. upcoming appointments. Creating an Appointment Your immediate concern is to record all your important appointments in the calendar. This enables you to see a minimized view of the To-Do Bar at all times. tasks and important mail enabling you to prioritize your work. If the To-Do Bar is not visible at any time. The To-Do Bar on the right gives you a consolidated view of your calendar. and storing addresses. Using Calendar When you open Microsoft Outlook 2007.
Select “Actions → New Recurring Appointment”. Creating a recurring appointment There are some meetings which take place on a regular basis. To turn a reminder off. Select 7 pm as the “End time” from the drop-down list. monthly or yearly. In the “Untitled . You may keep this setting. 162 | P a g e . The current setting is “No end date”. Under “Appointment time” you may set the start and end time of the appointment. in the “Options” group. On the “Appointment” tab. Select “Out of Office”. say ‘Take along the maintenance log file & purchase bills’. You may click the To-Do Bar to expand it and view details. Now click on the “Save & Close” button in the “Actions” group. Under “Range of recurrence” you may specify the time frame for your recurring appointment. You can also see the appointment on the To-Do Bar at the right. You may wish to be reminded about your appointment by a bell. Creating an event There is a two day exhibition for Product Promotions to be held in two weeks. “Recur every 1 week on Monday”. you may select the way in which you want your appointment to appear in the Calendar. select “None”. You can specify details of the appointment in the “Appointment Recurrence” window.Accounts Manager’ as the “Subject” and ‘Accounts office’ as the “Location”. Click the 9 am time slot. Now click the Monday of the next week and the following week on the calendar. The “Out of Office” indicator is displayed at the left corner. Select the end time “10:30 AM” from the drop-down list. Click on the “Today” tab in the Standard toolbar. weekly. Under “Recurrence pattern” you may specify the days in the week when the appointment is going to occur and also if it is going to occur daily. such an entry is called an Event. In the text box below. You can see that the recurring appointment has been recorded. in the “Actions” group.Type ‘Meeting with maintenance people’ as the “Subject”. Click it once again to return to the minimized form. Let us keep this setting unchanged. such as meetings with your Accounts Manager. Click on Monday in the next week in the left panel. Since it will last for at least 24 hours. Click “OK”.Appointment” window type ‘Weekly meeting . In the “Show As” field. Click on “Save & Close” on the “Recurring Appointment” tab. Press the tab key and type ‘Factory Premises’ as the “Location”. The current setting is “Weekly”. You can see that one hour has been allotted for this appointment. select the amount of time in the “Reminder” list before the appointment when you want the reminder to appear. type your notes.
This means that you may click on the related button to see the appointments on your calendar as you wish. To mark the calendar to show that you will be out of office during these days. Changing the calendar view By default. Rightclick in any of the time slots and select “New All Day Event”. Type ‘Product Promotion Exhibition’ as the “Subject”. Select the next day from the “End time” drop-down menu. Select “View → Current view”.Click on the Monday of two weeks later. in the date navigator window. Click on the “Save & Close” button in the “Actions” group. you can view your calendar based on different criteria. Type ‘International Trade Center’ as the “Location”. Creating a task list 163 | P a g e . select “Out of Office” from the “Show As” list. Set the “Reminder” to 2 days in the “Options” group” of the “Event” tab. you can view your calendar on Day/Week/Month basis. In addition.
percentage complete and categories. To change the view to a simple list. From the “Priority” drop-down menu choose the option “High”. if necessary. For your weekly meetings with your assistants. Type ‘Create presentation displays for Product Promotion’. Creating a new category: Click “New” in the “Color Categories” window. 2. due date. Let us enter the category name as “Personal”. subject. select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. Meeting with the Accounts Department. Create the following tasks in a similar way: 1. Meeting with the maintenance staff. It includes different columns for priority. Click in the “Due Date” text box and select a date from the calendar. A task can occur only once or happen on a recurring basis. Outlook 2007 offers you Color categories that allow you to group information in a way that allows you to find and track all information most effectively. they are displayed. such as a weekly report. select “Actions → Categorize → All Categories”. Click in the “Click here to add a new Task” text box. From the “Status” drop-down menu. This view shows detailed information about each task. Outlook has certain predefined categories.A task is a personal work related action item. If there are any tasks that have been entered previously. Press “Enter”. Setting up Categories A category is a descriptive keyword or phrase to which you can assign related items. Now enter the category name as “Time & Expenses” and click “OK”. Click on the “Tasks” button in the Navigation Pane. 3. status. choose the option “In Progress”. To change the view to a detailed list. Click “OK” Renaming a category: You may rename an existing color category to make it more meaningful. To set up your categories. 164 | P a g e . The “Task” window is displayed. Meeting at the Yoga Club. Click on “Save & Close”. Your task has now been recorded. Enter today’s date as the “Start date”. select “View → Current View → Simple List”. You may make changes as per your requirements. Select the Yellow Category and click “Rename”. Updating the status of a task: Double-click on a task’s “Subject”. you have several tasks that need to be completed. Set the “% Complete” to 25%.
right-click in the “Categories” column. select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. select “View → Current View → Task Timeline”. Updating the task status You can update the status of the task at any time and specify the status and percentage completed. the “Status” column must be visible. Now the task has been assigned to the “Personal” category. Meeting with the maintenance staff – Orange Category You can use the same categorization techniques for other Outlook item like appointments and mails. You see that the tasks are sorted in ascending order by Categories. Meeting with the Accounts Department – Blue Category 2. Clicking in a column heading other than “Task Subject” sorts the list according to that column. click on the column heading “Categories”. Scroll the time line window to view all the tasks. To assign a category to this task. Sorting tasks Sorting tasks is the process of rearranging items in ascending or descending order. For example. You may click on the “Delete” icon on the Standard toolbar to delete a completed task from the list. Similarly. Click in the “Status” column next to a task. The subject of the task is also displayed. assign the following categories to the tasks as follows: 1. You may also sort tasks by using the “Arrange By” option from the View menu. You may sort your tasks according to Subject by selecting “View → Arrange By → Subject”. Using a task timeline In the Tasks Timeline view. In this view. you might want to sort your tasks by Status or Due Date. the tasks are arranged according to their due dates. To change the view to “Task Timeline”. For example. From the drop-down list. you can see this column in the “Detailed List” view. select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. You can now see that this task appears crossed out with “% Complete” as 100%.Categorizing tasks: Select the task “Meeting at the Yoga Club” from the list. select “Completed” and press “Enter”. The next time you click. To switch to the “Detailed List” view. each task will be represented by a task symbol. In the “Detailed list” view. 165 | P a g e . From the available categories list. To update the status of the task. Select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. Now to return to the “Detailed list” view. select “Personal”. they are sorted in descending order.
Using the Address Book What is an Address Book in Outlook The Address Book is an electronic book. You can choose to enter 166 | P a g e . Type the required message and then close the window. Select “View → Current View → Active Appointments”. Select “File → Print”. click on the “Actual Size” icon in the toolbar. The “Copies” section allows you to enter the number of pages and copies. If everything is OK. To display the preview in actual size. Click “OK” in the “Print” window. Before printing it is always a good idea to take a preview of the document you want to print. Notes are an electronic version of paper notes that you use to jot down quick reminders. which includes detailed information of all the people with whom you communicate. A blank yellow colored note window is displayed. Type your name in the left header text box. Similarly. Click on the “Header/Footer” tab. “Table” or “Memo”. Confirm that the “Notes” view is set to “Icons”. select “Calendar” in the Navigation pane. Now. to print the appointments. Select and delete the user name from the left footer box. You can reopen the note and make changes to it by double-clicking on it. Print range and Copies. If necessary. Let us assume that you need to create a note to remind you to send an email message for an event. Click on the “Preview” button. the Print style. Let us make some changes. Here you need to specify details about the Printer. select the appropriate printer for your system from the “Name” drop-down list. select “File → Print”. The “Print range” section allows you to specify the rows in the table that are to be printed.Printing tasks and calendar items Many times you may need to print out your task list and appointment calendar so that it is available during a meeting. Click on the “New” icon on the Standard toolbar. click on the “Print” button in the preview window. The “Print” window is displayed. Click on the “Page Setup” button. Creating Notes The “Notes” tool is used to create a reminder for yourself. The “Print style” section specifies the format in which you want to print your task list. Here two styles are available. Click “OK”. Click the button corresponding to “Notes” in the navigation pane.
“By Category”. Here. You can view the entire contact list in the “Business Cards” format. Click “OK”. click “Contacts” in the navigation pane.pst)” from the “Create a file of type” list box. Click on the “Browse” button. 167 | P a g e . This file can then be used to copy details of your contacts to another location or another computer. you can enter the basic contact information such as “Full Name”. The “Import and Export Wizard” window is displayed. “Phone List”. right-click on the contact and select “Delete”.different types of information such as business and home address. “Addresses”. nick names. If you want to delete a particular contact from the contacts list. “Contacts” has several views like “Business Cards”. This wizard guides you through the complete procedure. Click the “New” button from the Standard toolbar.Contact” window is displayed. By doubleclicking on the contact you may edit the information. you can see the “General” button of the “Show” group highlighted. Like other outlook tools. Click “Next”. Exporting contacts: Select “File → Import and Export”. Choose “Personal Folder File (. Specify the location where you wish to save the exported file in the “Open Personal Folders” window. This is called “Exporting”. On the “Contact” tab. Several of the fields include drop-down lists that allow you to further customize the information for each contact. “Phone numbers” etc. The names are automatically listed in ascending alphabetical order. Importing & Exporting Contacts You may need to save your contacts to a file so that they are available for use in the future. Click on the "Save & Close" button in the “Actions” group. This is called “Importing”. phone numbers. Click “Next”. The “Untitled . Enter the required information in the appropriate fields. Adding and Removing Contacts To add a contact. By referring to your address book you can contact or communicate quickly with any individual from the contact list. You may also delete a contact by selecting “Edit → Delete” or pressing the “Delete” key after selecting the contact. “Address Cards”. Click “Next”. “By Company” and others. Select the “Contacts” folder from the “Select the folder to export from” list. birth-dates and anniversaries. Choose “Export to a file”. Type ‘Contacts’ in the “File name” text box. “Company”. email addresses.
Now click “Finish”. select the 168 | P a g e . you may select from three possibilities with regards to duplicates. In the “Create Microsoft Personal Folders” window. click the arrow in the “Find a contact” drop-down list. Outlook will search all the available address books. On the “Distribution List” tab. Select the appropriate option and click “Next”. select “File → New → Distribution List”. Creating and editing mailing lists A mailing list is a collection of contacts. Under “Address Book”. Importing contacts: Select “File → Import and Export”. type the name of the contact you want to find and press “Enter”. Searching Address Books You can search for an address and the information associated with it in the address book. You can enter a partial name (such as “Hyosuke”). In the “Name” field. Click on the “Browse” button. select the address book that contains the e-mail addresses you want in your distribution list. choose “Import from another program or file”. The contacts you entered are now saved in a file and will be available when you want to import them later.Now click “Finish”. Click “Next”. In the “Import and Export Wizard” window. Select the file from the appropriate location and click “Open”. Creating a mailing list: To create a mailing list. Click “Next”. and then select the appropriate name. It provides an easy way to send messages to a group of people. click “OK”. This list is saved with a name. Choose “Personal Folder File (. type a name for the mailing list. first or last name. In the “Find a contact” box on the Standard toolbar. In the list below. The new contacts will be incorporated into the existing list. Select the “Contacts” folder from the “Select the folder to import from” list. To quickly open a contact you have previously searched for. e-mail address and company name. You may add contacts from different address books into your list.pst)” from the “Select file type to import from” list. in the “Members” group. Since there is a possibility that your imported file may contain contacts which you already have. You can also enter new contacts. click “Select Members”.
This mail can then be sent to all members of the list after completing other details. Now click “OK”. The “Untitled Message” window is displayed. simply click “Remove” in the “Members” group. Now click “Save & Close”. and then click “OK”. Click on “To” to display the “Select Names” window. Select “Tools → Account Settings”. Creating Mails: To create a mail to send to all members of a mailing list. double-click on the list name in the “Contacts” folder. and then click “Members”. Additionally. On the “E-mail” tab. You can see the name of the mailing list in the message window. Let us delete a member from this list. Using Outlook for E-Mailing Setting up a Mail Account A very important feature of Outlook is sending and receiving e-mail. You can now make the changes you require. On the “Auto Account Setup” screen. In the “Internet E-mail Settings” screen. You first need to set up your mail account. select Account type. Enter details in the “Add New Member” window and click “OK”. check the box beside “Manually configure server settings or additional server types” and click “Next”. click “New”. Then click on the name of the mailing list and after that click “To”. Under “Server Information”. either POP3 or IMAP depending on the type of mailbox you use. under “User Information”. For this. Now click “Save & Close” in the “Actions” group. Click “Mail” in the navigation pane. For this. 169 | P a g e . click “Add New” in the “Members” group in the “Distribution List” window. You may disconnect from the Net and read your mails at leisure.name. The mailing list is saved in your “Contacts” folder by the name you give it. click “Mail” in the navigation pane. Adding other members: You may also add members that do not exist in your address books to your mailing list. Editing a Mailing List: To make changes to your mailing list. Click the “New” button on the Standard toolbar. Do this for each person you want to add to the distribution list. POP3 is generally used. enter your name and email address. You may create your mails offline and connect to the Internet only when you are ready to send them. Under “Choose E-mail Service”. ensure that “Internet E-Mail” is selected and then click “Next”. You are holidaying in Malaysia and you want to send an e-mail to your friends back home. The “Distribution List” window is displayed. all incoming mail can be stored on your hard disk.
While composing the message. The list of files attached is 170 | P a g e . Using Attachments Attachments are separate files that are sent along with your e-mail message. click “Insert”. You can attach all sorts of files to an e-mail. click on the "To:" button. Click “Next”. “Cc” stands for carbon copy and “Bcc” stands for blind carbon copy. word processor documents. you must enter details such as the e-mail address of the recipient. including spreadsheets. Attachments do not form part of your e-mail message but they can be opened and viewed or edited by the e-mail recipient. database files. Select the appropriate “Address Book”. enter your email address in the “User Name” field and the password for that account. Then click on a name from the list to whom you wish to send the mail and click the “To ->” button. Under “Logon Information”. Now click “Close”. even sound recordings and graphic images. You may add multiple names to any of the fields. You may also directly type in e-mail addresses not included in your address book. On the “Outgoing Server” tab. To send an e-mail.Enter the respective server names provided by your Internet Service Provider (ISP) in the “Incoming mail server” and “Outgoing mail server (SMTP)” fields. Now enter the subject and in the large white box below the subject field. Now. If you add a recipients name using “Bcc”. type your message. Attaching a file: You now want to send some digital pictures of Malaysia along with your message. Click the “More Settings” button. Click the arrow next to the "New" button on the Standard toolbar and select "Mail Message". click on the Paperclip Icon in the “Include” group. and then click “Finish” on the “Congratulations!” screen. Use the “Cc ->” and “Bcc ->” buttons in the same way for entering the addresses to which you wish to send copies to. All files in a folder can also be selected by clicking “Organize” on the toolbar and then clicking “Select All”. They can be compared to a covering letter sent with a parcel or a birthday card sent along with a present. Specify the location and name of the picture files on your computer that you would like to attach. Creating an E-mail Message Creating a Mail message: This is also known as “Composing” a mail. This brings up the “Select Names” window. You may select multiple files by holding down the “Ctrl” key while you click each file. Ensure that the “Remember password” box is checked. Click “OK”. check the box “My outgoing server (SMTP) requires authentication” and click “OK”. In the “Untitled Message” window. the name is not visible to other recipients of the message. the subject and the content of the mail.
In order to view an attached file. your mail is stored in the “Outbox”. For this. A copy of all sent messages will be kept in your “Sent Items” folder. click the “Message” button. To return to the message body. when you start Microsoft Outlook. mails from the Outbox are sent to the intended recipients. She has also written about submission dates for your projects. then you must have the related software installed in order to see it. all mails that you have received are deposited in your “Inbox”. When you receive an attachment in a message.displayed just below the Subject Field. Instead of clicking the “Send” button. click on the mail whose content you wish to see. One of your friends has written to you that she has paid your college fees since you are out of town. You may edit your message at any time by clicking on the “Drafts” folder in the left panel and then double-clicking on the related message in the right panel. When you connect. if you have received a picture as an e-mail attachment. You may remove incorrect file attachments by clicking them and pressing the “Delete” key. If you are not connected to the Internet. right click on the attachment name and select “Open”. You can see this folder in the left panel. Receiving Mail Receiving Mail: By default. Your mail is now stored in the “Drafts” folder. Reading Mail: In the center panel. You may also use the “Send/Receive” button to send and receive mail. Sending Mail After you have finished entering all information. You may also click the “Send/Receive” button when connected to send mails which are in the Outbox. click the “Send” button. For example. and want to quickly see what the attachment contains without opening it. click the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. simply click the attachment In the Reading Pane. 171 | P a g e . To open an attachment of a mail in your Inbox. You can now read the message displayed in the right panel which is the Reading Pane. the recipient needs to have a copy of the software application that was used to create the attachment initially. For this. She has attached a picture of her visit to Malaysia last year. It is very important to know how to view them. Click on it to see a list of all mails received in the center panel. Drafts: You may create a draft of a mail and send it at a later stage. Viewing and Saving an Attachment Viewing an attachment: You may also receive attachments from your friend like the ones you sent. you can preview it. Here you can see details such as the sender’s name and the subject of the mail. create a mail as described earlier.
sender’s name etc. A new mail message window is displayed with the original mail content and the subject. subject. You may want to empty the Deleted Items folder to make free space for additional storage. Now. click on it and then click on the “Print” button on the Standard toolbar. Now send it like any other mail. Now click the “Reply” button. click on it and select “File → Save As” from the menu bar. click on the Inbox folder and then click on the mail in the center panel.Saving an attachment: To save an attachment of a mail in your Inbox. Replying to and Forwarding a Mail Replying to a mail: You now want to thank your friend for paying your fees. A new mail message window is displayed. Handling mails in the Inbox Sorting Mails: You may sort the mails in your Inbox by selecting a suitable option by clicking on the “Arranged By:” button in the center panel. enter details regarding the location where you wish to save the mail and click “Save”. Specify the location to save the file and then click “Save”. You may sort your mails by date received. You may make any changes you require. right click on the attachment name and select “Save As”. 172 | P a g e . For this. This may be changed if required. Let us edit the content to remove the statement regarding the payment of fees. For this. enter the e-mail address of the person you wish to send it to in the “To:” field. You may also make any other changes to the message that you wish. Also. Saving Messages: To save a mail that you have received to another place on your hard disk. right-click on the folder name and select “Empty Deleted Items Folder” and then click “Yes” in the window that comes up. To reply to her mail. the original mail that you had received is appended at the end. Printing Messages: To print a mail. Deleting Messages: To delete a mail. click on it and then click on the “Delete” button on the Standard toolbar. click on the mail from the Inbox and then click the “Forward” button. Enter your mail content and send it like any other mail. The message will be deleted and moved to your “Deleted Items” folder. The “Subject” field displays the words “FW:” followed by the original subject. Forwarding a mail: You might want to convey the information related to the project submission dates to another friend. You can also see the original sender’s name and e-mail address as well as the date and time it was originally received. You may click on the box to the right of the “Arranged By:” field to reverse the sort order. In the “Save As” window. You can see that the recipients e-mail address and subject with the words “RE:” before it are already filled in. You may forward the mail that you have received.
Windows Vista comes with software that will burn your CDs for you. To burn a CD you need both a CD burner and CD burning software. Type your search text in the From. You can make your search more focused by clicking the “Expand the Query Builder” arrow. Calendar and Contacts.also known as CD-R 2) Rewriteable CDs . Let us flag a mail in the Inbox. Body. The Instant Search pane is always available in all of your Outlook views. The moment a match is found. There are two types of CDs: 1) Recordable CDs . such as Mail. or To fields. in your Inbox. You can use a flag to quickly create a follow-up item that can be tracked in the To-Do Bar. To display more search fields in the Query Builder. All flagged mail items get added to the to-do bar making it easy for you to keep track of the tasks and mail that you need to reply to or act upon. It is replaced by a tick and is removed from the To-Do Bar.Using Instant Search The “Instant Search” feature helps you to quickly find items in Microsoft Office Outlook 2007. You can use the same search techniques to find any Outlook item. the space can only be used once. and then select the search fields you want from the list. Let us use it to find a message in your Inbox. Subject.also known as CD-RW On CD-R disks. click “Add Criteria”. you can click the flag once again. MAKING IT WORK CD Writing What is CD Writing? FOR YOU CD Writing is also known as “Burning of a CD”. and even in the Calendar. 173 | P a g e . A burned CD is a CD that has been written by using a process that involves using a device called a “CD Writer” or “CD Burner” to burn indentations into the CD. Using Flags Flags are very useful throughout Outlook. The reasons for burning a CD might be to create a backup of your files or simply to backup frequently used CDs. When you have taken the necessary action. although you may add files over multiple sessions until the total space has been used. On CD-RW disks. Simply type a word in the search box. the related mail is displayed. Click on the flag symbol next to an important mail. You can see that it gets added in the To-Do Bar.
Open the folder that contains the files you want to write to the CD in another window. click “Burn files to disc”. the disc must first be prepared using a process called formatting. enter a name for this disc. Open the folder that contains the files you want to burn. Live File System discs enable you to copy individual files immediately to a disc. CD-RW disks can only be used on CD-RW drives and not on ordinary CD-ROM read-only drives. Before you can copy files to a CD. When the formatting is complete. In the window that appears. In the “Burn a disc” window. In the window that appears. perform the following steps: Insert a writeable CD into your computers CD Writer. click “Burn files to disc”. An empty disc folder opens. Let us delete one of the files. The files are copied to a temporary folder on your hard drive. Windows burns discs in the Live File System format. However. CD-RW disks are also more expensive. they are copied automatically to the disc. Click “Mastered” and then click “Next”. You may change the files in this folder if you wish. Creating such a disk requires as much free space on your hard disk as the capacity of the disc you are burning. Now drag the files to be copied into the empty disc folder. Using the Mastered format: To write a CD using the Mastered format. such as a music CD. This is the “Destination Drive”. 174 | P a g e . As you drag files into the disc folder. and click “Next”. enter a name for this disc and then click “Show formatting options”. This is the “Source Drive”. In the “Burn a disc” window. This is a convenient format if you need to copy a few files at a time. You may format a CD using either the “Live File System” or “Mastered” format. Mastered discs enable you to burn multiple files to a disc at one time. It takes several minutes for the disc to be formatted in the Live File System format. perform the following steps: Insert a writeable CD into your computers CD Writer. By default. Re-size and arrange the windows in such a way that both the “Source Drive” and the “Destination Drive” are visible on the screen. You may delete individual files or reformat the disc to create additional disc space when you use a rewriteable disc. This format is advisable if you need to burn a large collection of files. and then drag the files into the empty disc folder. an empty disc folder opens. Burning a CD using Windows Vista Using the Live File System format: To write a CD using the Live File System format.the space can be erased and re-used many times.
a worm is self-contained and does not need to be part of another program to spread itself. “Spyware” is software designed to take control of another computer system without the consent of the owner. many other viruses are fairly benign or merely annoying. the disc burner tray will open and you can remove the disc. on the toolbar. Now. press the “Delete” key. A virus can infect different parts of the computer’s operating and file system. using someone else’s credit card. Click “Finish” when the process is complete. click “Burn to disc”. click “Next” Erasing a CD A rewriteable CD may be erased and written many times. The selected files are copied to the disc. To delete a specific file on a disk. you can delete one or more files to make more room on the disc. and the infected file. Virus Protection What is a Computer Virus? A computer virus is a self-replicating computer program that spreads by inserting copies of itself into other executable code or documents. A virus attaches itself to. is called a "host". by destroying data. COM or EXE file. The term “virus” is often extended to refer to worms. Worms harm the network and add to network traffic. for example. However. A “Trojan Horse” is a malicious program that is disguised as or embedded within legitimate software. To erase all files on a disc. click “Next”. If you use the Live File System format.After you are sure about the files to be written to the CD. for example. Viruses are one of the several types of malicious software. To select more than one file. You may write the same files to another CD by checking the box against “Yes. or executable code that is not part of a file. and becomes part of. on the toolbar. The insertion of a virus into the program is termed as an "infection". An “Identity Theft” is a harmful act by deliberately impersonating a person. An example of an executable file is a program. burn these files to another disc”. While viruses can be intentionally destructive. A computer virus behaves in a way similar to a biological virus. In the window that is displayed. When the disc burning is complete. Viruses generally do not affect network performance. “Adware” is a software package that 175 | P a g e . click on the file name. which spreads by inserting itself into living cells. click “Erase this disc”. hold down the “Ctrl” key while you click the files you want. another executable program. whereas viruses infect or corrupt files on a targeted computer. Now. Trojan horses and other such software. as their malicious activities are mostly confined within the target computer itself.
You are alerted when any possible threat is detected. before copying data to your hard disk. Today. It is important to regularly scan your computer using a good anti-virus program. the software is automatically activated each time you start your computer. Even if CDs are read only. MacAfee. originally designed to protect computers from viruses. Virus Protection Are you worried that the precious data computer on your computer could be destroyed due to a virus attack? Did you know that your private e-mail could also be intercepted by unauthorized persons? It is even possible for others to gain control over your computer system. Some of the popular antivirus packages are Norton Antivirus. the files on them may already be infected. “VirusScan” is one of the programs included in an Internet security suite. It continually works to ensure your security and privacy. The first step towards making your computer safe while you are on the Internet is to install an Internet security suite. displays. It controls how frequently your computer is scanned for viruses. An infected file is either deleted or quarantined (i. Onscreen instructions guide you through the installation process. port monitoring and other methods. identity theft and adware. Such analysis may include data captures. This software typically uses two different techniques to accomplish this. You must keep your antivirus program updated by downloading the latest releases by your antivirus program vendor. This can be installed either by downloading from the Internet or from a disc provided by the vendor. Always scan floppies and CDs for viruses. 176 | P a g e . Once installed. When a file is checked. network-borne worms are more common than viruses. with an emphasis on the virus dictionary approach. due to the popularity of the Internet. or downloads advertising material to a computer. Most commercial antivirus software uses both of these approaches. The first is scanning all files to look for known viruses matching definitions in a virus dictionary. it is compared to the profile of known viruses. Internet security suites are available to protect you against all these hazards. Fortunately.e. The second is identifying suspicious behavior from any computer program which might indicate infection. moved into a protected area where it won’t cause any more harm). Anti-virus software. Antivirus software consists of computer programs that attempt to identify and eliminate computer viruses and other malicious software.automatically plays. AVG Antivirus and Quick Heal. has in turn expanded to cover worms and other threats such as spyware.
First. Streaming has two advantages over downloading. You can use it to block certain Web sites. “Privacy Service” is another program included in an Internet security suite that helps protect your privacy online.A “Personal Firewall” is a program that controls network traffic to and from a computer system. there is no download wait when streaming. only to find it’s the only good song in the album. after the music has finished playing. You may also listen to music online. However. you can choose to purchase individual songs. Streaming requires a powerful computer and a fast connection since the file is not stored on your computer. You may run Windows Update by connecting to the Internet and selecting “All Programs → Windows Update” from the Start menu. if so desired. 177 | P a g e . buying online is fast and convenient. By downloading from the Internet. you can always copy music to a CD to free up space. Playing video or sound in real time as it is transferred to your computer over the World Wide Web is called “Streaming”. You can hear the music as soon as your player starts receiving the stream. Because these music files are compressed. A sound card and speakers (or earphones) are also required to hear audio. It allows access only to authorized users and applications. All done Downloading Music Rather than traveling to a store to buy a music CD. Audio files in mp3 and Windows Media Audio (WMA) format are optimized for storing music in compressed format. Second. Using Windows Update: “Windows Update” is software designed to keep your computer current and more secure by automatically downloading and installing the latest security and feature updates from Microsoft. Getting More from Your Computer Listening to Music You can use your computer for lots more than just computational activities. a large hard drive is not required to store them. you may use your Windows Media Player or download other players such as Winamp and Real Player from the Internet. This means you can store thousands of songs without running out of hard drive space. To listen to music. no files are left on your computer to take up space. prevent sensitive information from being sent over the Internet and block unwanted advertisements. There’s nothing worse than buying a CD after you have heard a good song. you can log onto one of the music sites and download it within seconds. If you hear a great song on the radio.
Broadcasts can also be digitally recorded by the computer for later replay. you will be prompted to type in a valid credit card number to pay for the music. Some cheaper tuners cannot do much of the signal processing and rely on the systems CPU for that task. Most TV tuners also function as video capture cards. you may create a large music collection on your computer. To stop recording. double-click the file to play it. demodulator. even while running other applications. By downloading music. A Download Manager window shows the progress of the download. While downloading music. there are others from which you can download legal music. you could be subject to steep fines or other penalties. tuner. each version is designed for the radio frequencies and video formats used in each country. 178 | P a g e . Once a song is found. For this. This means that your computer can serve both as a computing device as well as a television. Once a TV tuner card has been installed. click the “Stop” button. spyware and other unwanted software. If you are downloading pirated digital files. If it is not a free download. You may include video clips from television as part of a presentation. listen to a sample to make sure it’s the one you want before downloading it. Size and move the television window and control box window. you may view your favorite TV shows. Then select the channel.net and music. You may capture a video playing in the TV window into a digital file. You must specify the location on your computer to store the downloaded file. TV Tuner Card A “TV tuner card” is a computer component that allows television signals to be received by a computer. or distribution to other computer users. enabling the recording of television programs onto a hard disk. For this. Like TV sets.The best way to find the music you want on the internet is to use a search engine.lycos. Many TV tuners can function as FM radios. and an analog-to-digital converter for analog TV. Once downloaded.com. There are many popular sites for music lovers such as MusicSites. you must respect copyright laws. Then click the “Record” button to start recording. and they could be exposing your computer to viruses. It can be copied on CDs or a digital MP3 player so that you can take it wherever you wish. Most internal tuners do all the low level demodulation needed to convert a radio signal into an on-screen image using a hardware chip and do not need to use the CPU. specify the location on your computer in which you wish to save the video clip by clicking the “Properties” button. Although many sites offer pirated music. click the “TV” icon on the desktop. The card contains a receiver.
SMS is used by organizations for marketing.Once you have saved the video clip. information about flight delays. sports news and much more. This unwelcome junk mail is called “spam”. Now in the “Media Clip” group. you may use it in any way you like. you may click on its image anytime during the presentation. It is a globally accepted wireless service for sending messages of up to 160 alphanumeric characters between mobile subscribers and external systems such as email. paging. mail it as an attachment or include it in a presentation. or from the Internet. Today. For this open the presentation file and click on the “Insert” tab. This has limited impact because a lot of spam originates from other countries as well. This service is available on digital Global System for Mobile (GSM) networks allowing text messages to be sent and received via the network operators’ message center to your mobile phone. PC to Mobile: Sending SMS SMS is an abbreviation for “Short Message Service”. like many other valuable technologies does have some drawbacks. To play the video clip. There are others that provide this service free of cost as well. SMS is a very popular service. messages are stored in the network and are delivered at the next available opportunity. We often receive many unwanted e-mails. or something similar. and voice mail systems. There are numerous sites providing paid SMS services. A more effective approach has been the development and use of “Spam Blockers”. If the phone is powered off or out of range. using an "SMS gateway" website. Spam Blocking Software In an attempt to control spam. particularly among young people. current events. The Mozilla Thunderbird e-mail 179 | P a g e . some countries have anti-spam laws as part of their legal system. These programs use a variety of approaches to identify and eliminate spam. What is Spam? E-mail. You may add it to a Web page. Let us insert the clip in a presentation. as well as for providing value-added services such as reminders for payments. You have to register with a site in order to send SMS using the interface provided. Navigate to your clip and press “OK”. Choose “When Clicked” in the window displayed. You require Internet connectivity and an SMS service provider to be able to send an SMS from your PC to a mobile phone. These are mostly related to commercial advertising. Then size and move the image of the clip as required. often for products of questionable quality. click the “Movie” icon. get-richquick schemes.
Blocking Images: Some e-mail messages contain images that let spammers know that you have received them. 180 | P a g e . Check the box against “Do not mark mail as junk if the sender is in:”. you need to do three things: set up your microphone. Now click “OK”. a list of e-mail addresses that should never be blocked.program which is available for free download at “www. click “Junk Settings”. select it and then click the “Junk” icon on the toolbar. In the left panel. If at any time you decide that the message is not spam. you need to have a microphone connected to your computer. Then make a selection for the location of the Junk folder and click “OK”.mozilla. To specify a white list. all you need to do is click the "Show Images" or "Load Images" button that appears to the right of the alert message. you need to train it to recognize unwanted messages. For this select “Tools → Account Settings” from the menu. If you do want to view the remote images. under “Local Folders”. An icon appears between the Sender and Date fields indicating that the message is spam. Similar messages will be marked as spam in future. This ability to accept voice input is called “Speech Recognition”. The spam indicator is then removed. Thunderbird displays an alert stating that remote images have been blocked. You can verbally say commands that the computer will respond to. Training Spam Blocking Software: After you install Mozilla Thunderbird.e. learn how to talk to your computer. simply select it and click the “Not Junk” icon. By default. When you have received a message in your Inbox which you consider to be spam.com” comes with built-in spam blocking software. under “Local Folders”. select “Tools → Account Settings” from the menu. For this. To set up your computer for Windows Speech Recognition. In the left panel. you have an alternative. Mozilla Thunderbird will become more efficient in recognizing spam and taking appropriate action. Then make a selection from “Personal Address Book” or “Collected Addresses” which contains the addresses of all viewed mail messages. Thunderbird blocks remote images in messages. click “Junk Settings”. What is Speech Recognition? Are you tired of typing lengthy documents using your keyboard? Now. and the images in the message body are replaced with simple place-holders. such as those of family and friends. and you can dictate text to the computer. Check the box against “Move new junk messages to:”. they will continue to send mails. Once spammers know that your e-mail address is valid. Creating a Junk Folder: You may choose to move new junk messages to a separate folder. Specifying Friends: You may create a “White List” i. You can use your voice to control your computer. When you receive a message with remote images. After reviewing your actions for several weeks.
and train your computer to understand your speech. Speech Recognition is available only in English and a few other languages. Setting up your microphone: Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Ease of Access”. Now select “Speech Recognition Options → Set up microphone” and follow the instructions in the wizard. Learning to talk to your computer: Windows comes with a speech training tutorial to teach you the commands used with Speech Recognition. To run the tutorial, click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Ease of Access”. Now select “Speech Recognition Options → Take Speech Tutorial” and follow the instructions in the tutorial. Training your computer to recognize your speech: Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Ease of Access”. Now select “Speech Recognition Options → Train your computer to better understand you” and follow the instructions in the wizard. Controlling your computer: Speech Recognition listens and responds to your spoken commands. You can use Speech Recognition to run programs and interact with Windows. There are various commands you can use with Speech Recognition such as selecting a menu option, clicking or doubleclicking an item, switching to an open program, scrolling up and down and many more. Dictating text: You can use your voice to dictate text to your computer. For example, you can dictate text to fill out online forms or dictate text to a word processing program to type a letter. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Accessories”. Now select “Ease of Access → Windows Speech Recognition”. A window appears at the top of the screen which shows you the working of the speech recognition software. To start dictating, open the program you want to use or select the text box you want to dictate text into and then begin speaking. What is Digital Video Editing? In the past, when you needed to compile movies or required professionalquality editing of home videos, you required the services of photo labs or studios. You can now manage this on your own using special software. “Digital Video Editing” is the process of editing videos on a computer using digital video editing software. The process of Digital Video Editing involves three steps. 1. Input: Captured video and audio files are sent to the system unit for processing. 2. Editing: The files are subdivided into a series of clips that can be merged to form a new file and special effects can be added.
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3. Output: The edited video is stored on hard disks or optical disks for later viewing or additional editing. Windows Movie Maker Windows Movie Maker is a feature of Windows Vista that enables you to create home movies and slide shows on your computer, complete with professional-looking titles, transitions, effects, music, and even narration. You can also use Windows Movie Maker to publish your movies and share them with your friends and family. Start the application by clicking the “Start” button and selecting “All Programs → Windows Movie Maker”. On the left is the “Tasks pane” which you can use to perform common tasks related to Digital Video Editing. Capturing Video: You may import a video from your digital video camera to your computer. First, connect your camera in playback mode to your computer. Then, from the “Import” group in the Tasks pane, click “From digital video camera” and follow the on-screen instructions. The video on the camera tape is encoded into a video file and saved to your computer’s hard disk. The “Contents pane” in the center shows clips, effects, or transitions youre working with while you create your movie. The area at the bottom where you create and edit your movie is displayed in two views, the “Storyboard” and the “Timeline”. To switch views, use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl + T”. The storyboard is the default view. You can use this to look at the sequence or ordering of the clips and easily rearrange them. This view also lets you see any video effects or video transitions that have been added. Audio clips are not displayed on the storyboard, but you can see them in the timeline view. Editing a Movie: Each movie is stored as a separate project. If you make changes to a clip, those changes are only reflected in the current project; they do not affect the source file. You can drag clips and pictures from the Contents pane to the storyboard and arrange them for your current project. To add a special effect, click on “Effects” in the Task pane and drag the effect you require to the storyboard. A transition controls how your movie plays from one video clip or picture to the next. To add a transition, click on “Transition” and drag the transition to the transition cell between two clips or pictures. The preview monitor on the right enables you to view individual clips or an entire project. By using the preview monitor, you can preview your project before publishing it as a movie. You can also drag clips to the preview monitor to play them. You can use the buttons underneath the preview monitor to play or pause a clip, or to move a clip frame-by-frame. The “Split”
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button allows you to split a clip into two parts at the point displayed in the preview monitor. Publishing a Movie: Once you movie is complete, you may create a DVD to share it with others. For this you would need a DVD writer and some special software such as Sonic MyDVD or Windows DVD Maker. Insert a recordable DVD into your DVD writer. Then, from the “Publish to” group in the Tasks pane, click “Recordable CD” and complete the steps to publish your movie. Understanding Terms and Technologies Netizens Today, the Internet is an integral part of our lives. As a powerful communications medium, the Internet offers great possibilities for social change. The term “Netizen” is now used regularly. This word has been created using the two words “Net” and “Citizen”. So a Netizen is a citizen of the world, thanks to the global connectivity that the Internet offers. A Netizen is also known as a “Cybercitizen”. Netizens physically live in one country but are in contact with much of the world via the global computer network. Virtually, they live next door to every other single netizen in the world. Geographical distances do not have much significance since everyone exists in the same virtual space - Cyberspace. The term “Netizen” indicates civic responsibility and participation. Netizens try to be conducive to the Internets use and growth. They use the Internet to engage in various intellectual and social activities such as giving and receiving viewpoints and furnishing information. Blogs The term "blog" is a contraction of "Web log." A weblog is a journal or newsletter that is frequently updated and intended for general public use. Blogs have reshaped the web and enabled millions of people to have a voice and connect with others. A typical blog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, web pages, and other related media. Most blogs are primarily textual although some focus on photographs (photoblog), videos (vlog), or audio (podcasting) and are part of a wider network of social media. A blog gives you your own voice on the web. Its a place to collect and share things that you find interesting — whether its your political views, a personal diary, or links to web sites you want to remember. Blogs often provide commentary or news on a particular subject, such as food, politics, or local news; some function as personal online diaries. Journalists often use blogs to publish breaking news, while others reveal inner thoughts through blogs. There are three main features of a blog. The first is reverse chronological order. This means that latest entries are displayed at the top. The second feature is unfiltered content. Opinions are given freely without any
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films. Edutainment seeks to instruct by using some familiar form of entertainment such as television programs. Edutainment makes learning enjoyable. They have videos and lessons that use edutainment as a basis for teaching in a more efficient and faster way. Edutainment is also used to refer to the use of elearning modules to put across concepts in an entertaining manner. such as multimedia encyclopedias or reference disks.restrictions. It is a form of entertainment designed to educate as well as to amuse. Fast moving shooting games are not edutainment. It attempts to minimize the dryness of regular news coverage by adding a certain amount of light-hearted or sensational style. Infotainment may include information related to topics such as health tips or gardening tips. legal or otherwise. The third feature is comments. There are also blogs on edutainment that give the latest news and updates on available software. Other stories may deal with current trends such as a shift in political views or a change in the attitudes of teenagers. music. Cyberspace 184 | P a g e . Infotainment is a combination of information and entertainment. websites. along with celebrity interviews and human drama stories. Infotainment or “soft news” refers to a part of the news trade that provides information in a way that is considered entertaining to its viewers. games which involve problem solving experiences with gentle intelligent creatures may be referred to as edutainment. computer and video games. It refers to a general type of broadcast program which consists of both "hard news" segments and interviews. On the other hand. Infotainment “Infotainment” is a term applied to software that seeks to inform and entertain simultaneously. multimedia software. Comments can be made on any issue discussed on the blog or from outside. Edutainment is normally used to provide education related to one or more specific subjects. Examples include educational software for children that teach them to spell or count while playing games and CD-ROMs about machines that contain animations showing how the machines work. Edutainment “Edutainment” refers to educational entertainment or entertainmenteducation. The term “Edutainment” is used to distinguish regular computer games from more educational software. It consists of an informal group of rules and ways of behaving on the Internet. etc. Many non-fiction CD-ROM titles are classified as infotainment. travel or shopping that are not actually "news" at all. Netiquette “Netiquette” or Network etiquette is etiquette on the Internet.
They should not misuse this to read private email. and sound. As a result. Not knowing the rules for behaving properly online might result in unintentionally offending or misunderstanding someone. Some people in cyberspace such as system administrators have more power than others. point it out politely and preferably by private email rather than in public. Follow the same standards of behavior online that you follow in real life. Respect the time and bandwidth of others: “Bandwidth” is the informationcarrying capacity of the channels that connect everyone in cyberspace. 185 | P a g e . For example. For example. Always try to be polite: You may stand up for yourself when you have been wronged. there are loads of gadgets and new technologies that can equip you to deal with nearly every personal or business contingency. Digital versions of books are available complete with pictures.has its own culture. Be tolerant and if you do decide to inform someone of a mistake. mechanics can know what parts needed to be replaced even before the car has come in for servicing. but try not to hurt people’s feelings. you would wasting both bandwidth and the time of the people who have to check all copies of the posting. You must remember that your communication via email or on discussion groups involves written words. you may make use of a gadget to make your off-key singing sound really melodious! These are just a few of the huge advancements in technology. under-the-hood diagnostics can be performed while a car is speeding along a track. always be cautious with your words. Reading is not what it used to be in the past. Give people the benefit of the doubt. when you accidentally post a note to a newsgroup five times. It now has an additional dimension.whether it involves a spelling error or asking a stupid question or giving an unnecessarily long answer. naturally you wouldn’t read anyone’s email. Be tolerant: Everyone makes mistakes -. Think before writing: The most important rule relevant to e-mail marketing is not to send promotional messages to anyone who has not agreed to receive them. There’s a limit to the amount of data that can be carried at a given moment. video clips. There are chances that theyre stored at the other end and may be used for purposes that you did not intend. Let us have a look at some of the core rules of Netiquette. Even if you are not a great singer. Respect the privacy of others: In the same way as you wouldn’t wish to snoop through your colleagues desk drawers. So. Technology Today Today.
click the “Show Menu” icon at the right end of the toolbar in the Conversation window and select “Actions → Video → Start a Video Call”. click the “Show Menu” icon at the right end of the toolbar in the Conversation window and select “Actions → Create a sharing folder”. the file is transferred to him. There are different instant messengers available such as Yahoo messenger. Till date. iPods. both you and your contact need to have a microphone and speakers. In the Conversation window. Using a Webcam: In addition to text communication. When he does so. In the displayed window. For this. Podcasting and RSS iPod: iPod is a brand of portable media players created by Apple and launched on October 23. VoIP allows users to not only talk but also broadcast video conferences via the Web. Windows Live Messenger. Sharing Files: You can share files with your contacts by using the “Sharing Folders” feature. Messenger allows you to have a voice or video conversation with an online contact. both you and your contact must agree to share files with each other by creating sharing folders. both you and your contact can access it. You and your contact can access all the files in the shared folder at any time. Your contact is given an option to accept the file. click the “Add Files” button. Browse for the file you would like to share and click “Open”. You may also exchange files with your contacts in the course of your conversation. ICQ. In the “Sharing Folders” window. To create a sharing folder. even if one of you is offline. as well as Web cameras for video conferencing. The difference is that you can send and receive messages as soon as they are typed. When your contact agrees to share the file. Google talk etc. Chatting and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). You may also drag the files you wish to share with your contact into the “Sharing Folders” window. the video conference begins. click the “Show Menu” icon at the right end of the toolbar and select “File → Send a single file”.It is possible to easily contact and communicate with people you do not even know using technologies such as Instant Messaging (IM). If both parties are online at the same time. To hold a video conference. This enables you to see and hear your contact. Instant Messaging enables you to have a conversation with another person or a group of people concurrently. it is possibly the best-selling digital 186 | P a g e . you can have a complete conversation. Your contact is given an option to accept the video conference. Transferring files: In the “Internet” topic. 2001. browse to the file you wish to share and press “Open”. When he does so. It is similar to e-mail. Before you can share files with a contact. we learnt to send instant messages using Windows Live Messenger.
other than the iPod touch. Apples “iTunes” software is used to transfer music to the devices. Click the “Create a playlist” button at the bottom-left corner and enter a name for your playlist. Creating a Custom CD: Using iTunes.com” and follow the on-screen instructions for downloading and installing the iTunes software. Using iTunes: Let us learn how to use Apple’s iTunes software. games. can also serve as external data storage devices. iPod is a music player and more. podcasting allows you to download files onto your computer and MP3 player which can contain music. Uploading to a Digital Media Player: Another way to carry your favorite tunes is to upload them to your iPod using iTunes. and calendars to those iPod models that support them. They vary in size and features. Podcasting: “Podcasting” is a new type of online media delivery which consists of free audio and video broadcasts. Now select your playlist and click the “Play” button at the top to hear your music. Devices in the iPod family are designed according to the latest demands and technology. you need to connect to “www. but to create a podcast or even to listen to one. It also transfers photos. click “Music” in the “Library” list and drag them to “iPod” in the left panel. You would need to have a CD Writer on your computer for this. videos. Click “Music” in the “Library” list in the left panel to view your songs. Insert a blank CD into your CD drive. iTunes starts automatically. Connect your iPod to your computer. This is one of the ways in which you can take your favorite tunes with you. 187 | P a g e . An important feature about podcasting is that you can subscribe to a series so that it automatically downloads on to your computer and MP3 player. iTunes stores a music library on the users computer and can play and write music from a CD.audio player series in history. Digital media players are lightweight digital storage devices that do not require cassettes or disks. or any portable music player . “iPod classic” is a model which has a hard-drive. Finding Music: Select “iTunes Store” in the left panel and follow the onscreen instructions to locate and purchase music files. Drag songs you would like to hear to your playlist. First.apple. Now click on the “Burn Disc” button once more. Select your playlist and click the “Burn Disc” button at the bottom right. To transfer individual music files. The smaller iPods like “nano” and “shuffle” use flash memory which is a non-volatile memory device. iPods. you may create a custom CD. They store music files internally. talk shows or anything else. The term “Podcast” is derived from the words ‘iPod and ‘broadcast. You can also purchase digital music files from within iTunes. it is not mandatory to possess an iPod. “iPod touch” is a model which has a touch screen. Put simply.
and. It is a radio standard and communications protocol primarily designed for low power consumption. cheap radio chip to be plugged into computers. instructional and promotional material.Podcasting enables you to compile all your favorite music. They may also be used in story telling for children or the visually-impaired. It aims to simplify data synchronization between Internet devices and other computers. Juice. Such software is available for free download from the Internet. It creates a wireless personal area network (PAN) and provides a way to connect and exchange information between two devices over distances of about 30 feet. technologies like Podcasting empower you with a voice that can literally reach around the world. homes and everywhere else. Sportscasts and lots more. We often have a hard time trying to figure out which cable needs to go where. RSS Feeds: A “web feed” is a data format used for providing users with frequently updated content. 188 | P a g e . Bluetooth is a small. using the Internet. Bluetooth and Wi-Fi have slightly different applications. Odeo. which will then be automatically downloaded for you. users of cellular phones can buy a multi-purpose phone that can serve as a portable phone and also be used to get information from a computer. Bluetooth is essentially a cable-replacement technology which tries to solve this problem. printers. RSS is a method of publishing content on frequently updated web sites. You can use podcasting software such as iTunes. radio programs and news stories and you may listen to them whenever and wherever you wish. with a short range. Using this technology. Users access headlines and see web site updates via an RSS reader which is an application that displays a short summary and provides links to the full article on the Web site. Podcasts are downloaded via a feed such as RSS. Conceived initially by Ericsson. Podcasts can be used for a number of different things such as creation of informational. We see a large number of cables in our offices. in general. film reviews. Bluetooth vs. Wi-Fi: “Wi-Fi” is short for "Wireless Fidelity" and is a set of standards for wireless local area networks. This allows users to "subscribe" to a site so that they can quickly scan the updated headlines and then go to specific articles of interest. Some browsers also include the RSS reading functions. Today. for Commentaries. etc. Short for Really Simple Syndication (or Rich Site Summary). have all mobile and fixed computer devices in total co-ordination. It was originally developed for use by wireless devices and local networks but it is now used for Internet access as well. Podnova and Feedburner to subscribe to your favorite podcasts. mobile phones. Bluetooth & Wi-Fi Technology “Bluetooth” is the name of a new technology that promises to change the way we use machines.
Wikipedia has grown rapidly into one of the largest reference Web sites. modem. It consists of 195 independent language editions sponsored by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. It is the result of the combined efforts of an online community of people interested in building a high-quality encyclopedia in a spirit of mutual respect. If you have more than one computer. 189 | P a g e . 3) Connect the computers: There are several ways to connect computers depending on the type of network adapters. Installing the Network: The steps to install the network are as follows. computers are commonly found in homes. For this. and offers better security than Bluetooth. Since its creation in 2001. you need to set up the connection first. you need a cable or DSL modem and an account with an Internet service provider (ISP). A home network is commonly used to share files. but requires more expensive hardware and higher power consumption. 2) Set up an Internet connection: If you want to use your network to share an Internet connection. It offers quick understanding on various issues and current affairs. Popular Websites Wikipedia “Wikipedia” is one of the most popular reference sites on the Internet. Home networks allow multiple users to access the Internet at the same time. Open the “Connect to the Internet” wizard and follow the instructions. printers and Internet access as well as to run multiplayer computer games. 1) Install the Hardware: Install network adapters in the computers that need them by following the installation instruction manuals that come with the adapters. It is a web-based free content. you may use it to share different resources. but with higher power resulting in a stronger connection. and Internet connection that you have. you can use a home network to share files and printers and play multiplayer computer games.Wi-Fi uses the same radio frequencies as Bluetooth. run the “Set up a Wireless Router or Access Point” wizard on the computer attached to the router. Using the Network: Once your network has been installed. 4) Run the “Set Up a Wireless Router or Access Point” wizard: If your network is wireless. Home Networking Today. It covers greater distances. It enables a faster connection. It also depends on whether or not you want to share an Internet connection among all the computers on the network. multilingual encyclopedia written by contributors around the world.
So. Various people have used YouTube to achieve celebrity status by dancing. you can research on any topic with great ease. On the lefthand side of the screen you can see a “search” box with two buttons under it labeled "Go" and "Search". YouTube’s phenomenal appeal lies in its simplicity and global reach. This encyclopedia can be found at www. For example. Select the language of your choice to go to the Main Page. called a “Wiki” where anybody can edit and add to an article. Many people are constantly improving Wikipedia content. none of them have been able to match the cultural impact or enormous volumes of YouTube. YouTube YouTube is a website that specializes in publishing user-posted video clips. Anyone is welcome to add information as long as they do so within Wikipedias editing policies. If you wish to look up additional Wikipedia pages. Let us look for information related to the great scientist Albert Einstein. Its slogan is “Broadcast Yourself” meaning that everyone is free to broadcast whatever they wish.com. preferring that they watch videos online. while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos.This is a special type of website.wikipedia. Let us click on “English”. Unregistered users can watch most videos on the site. the site was purchased one year later by Google. you must include appropriate references. While much of the content consists of original amateur videos. You see a page which displays links to other pages. and press enter or click “Go”.com. Started in 2005. Content is meticulously appraised and inappropriate changes are removed. if you add information to an article. using Wikipedia. The visitors to this site are mostly teenagers and young adults. professional content is now being provided by some advertisers and media producers. It is one of the top ten most popular websites on the Internet. and in other creative ways. There are a number of other video sharing sites but so far. posting video resumes. 190 | P a g e . YouTube discourages users from downloading videos to their own computers. Browsing through the loads of available videos is simple and uploading your own video is almost as simple. Type “Einstein” into the box. It can be found at www. Here you will most likely find all the information you need. Simply click a link to view the related page. This will take you directly to Wikipedias most relevant article on the entered keyword.youtube. provided it is not potentially offensive. click “Search” after you have entered your keyword. Repeat offenders may be blocked from editing. singing.
*****THE END**** 191 | P a g e . YouTube has been the focus of controversies related to some sensitive political and personal issues. the site has been banned in a few countries. Because of this.Like most other social-networking sites.
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