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ALL ABOUT COMPUTERS
Introduction to Computers The purpose of this course is to help you become competent with computer technology. Computer competency refers to acquiring computer-related skills. They include the effective use of popular application packages and the Internet. Today, computer competency is undoubtedly a prerequisite in all walks of life. To begin with, you must understand the impact of computers in the world today. Computers are affecting our lives is some way or the other. Airline and railway reservations, telephone and electricity bills, banking, medical diagnoses, weather forecasts… the list of services using computers is almost endless. A computer is a device that allows you to input data, process data quickly and efficiently, receive outputs and store data. Thus a computer consists of one or more input devices, output devices, storage devices and a processing unit.
WINDOWS BASICS What is an Operating System? Mac
Other Operating Systems Mac OS: “Mac OS” is the trademarked name for a series of graphical user interface-based operating systems developed by Apple Inc. for their Macintosh line of computer systems. The Macintosh user experience is credited with popularizing the graphical user interface. It is a powerful, easyto-use operating system that is popular with professional graphic designers, desktop publishers and many home users. One of the latest versions of the Macintosh operating system is “Mac OS X”, also known as “Tiger”. It provides powerful features such as “Spotlight” and “Dashboard Widgets”. Spotlight is an advanced search tool that can rapidly locate files, folders, e-mail messages, addresses and much more. Dashboard
Widgets are specialized programs that constantly update and display information. The next version of Mac OS, “Leopard” includes “Boot Camp” which allows appropriately equipped Apple computers to use both Mac OS and Windows XP. UNIX and Linux: UNIX is a powerful multitasking operating system that was developed in 1969. It was originally designed to run on minicomputers in network environments. Now, it is also used by powerful microcomputers and Web servers. Linux is a popular version of UNIX. It was initially created as a hobby in 1991 by a graduate student, Linus Torvalds, at the University of Helsinki in Finland. He allowed free distribution of the operating system code and encouraged others to modify and further develop the code. Introduction to Windows Vista Windows Vista has a more elegant and sophisticated looked than all previous versions of Windows. The new Vista interface is great to look at, with a lot of added functionality making working in Vista a really pleasant experience -and a more secure one. Windows Aero: This is the graphical user interface for Windows Vista. Its name is a contraction of the words Authentic, Energetic, Reflective and Open. It includes new transparencies, live thumbnails, live icons and animations which are visually very appealing. Glass window borders and surfaces make the interface both professional and beautiful. Windows Sidebar: This is a long, vertical bar that is displayed on the side of your desktop. It contains mini-programs called gadgets, which offer information at a glance and provide easy access to frequently used tools. To add a gadget, right-click on the side bar and select “Add Gadget”. Now simply drag a gadget from the Gadget gallery onto the sidebar. To remove a gadget from the sidebar, move your mouse over it and click on the “X” sign next to it. Additional gadgets can also be downloaded from the Microsoft Gadgets website by clicking on “Get more gadgets online”. Search Boxes: Search boxes are prominently integrated into Windows Explorer, the Start menu, Control Panel, Windows Internet Explorer and Help. So no matter where you are, you can always search for related files, folders or information. Two types of searches are supported: Regular search, where a search is performed when you click the “Search” button, and Instant search, where the results are displayed immediately as you type.
Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel”. c) “Uninstall programs” that allow you to safely remove programs that you do not need from your hard disk. Under “System and Maintenance”. Specify how often and when you wish to take a backup. Windows Vista has maintenance utilities such as “Disk Cleanup” and “Disk Defragmenter”. Click “Continue” in the “User Account Control” window. To backup specific files. Disk Cleanup is used to remove unnecessary files on your hard disk to free up disk space and help your computer run faster. Now click “Save settings and start backup” to begin the backup process. Specify the location where you wish to store the backup and click “Next”. In the displayed window. specify the file types that you wish to backup and click “Next”. It helps to protect you from the effects of a disk failure. Backup “Backup” is a utility program included with Windows Vista that makes a copy of all or selected files that have been saved onto a disk. You may backup your entire computer by clicking “Back up computer”. 4| Page . you may use the “Back up files” button.Utilities: “Utilities” are specialized programs designed to make computing easier. and Disk Defragmenter is used to rearrange your files so that they are not broken up. Click “Change backup settings”. b) “Antivirus programs” that guard against programs that can damage your computer system. click “Back up your computer”. d) “Backup programs” that make copies of files to be used in the event of the originals being lost. e) “File compression programs” that reduce the size of files for easy storage and transfer over the Internet. The “Backup Status and Configuration” window is displayed. There are various utility programs such as: a) “Troubleshooting” or “diagnostic programs” that recognize and correct problems before they become serious. To enter settings regarding where the backup is to be stored and which files are to be backed up. click “Change settings”.
Whenever a file is retrieved. In the displayed window specify whether all files or only your files are to be cleaned up. many nonessential files are saved on your hard disk. 5| Page . The operating system tries to save a file on a single track across contiguous sectors i. Click “Continue” in the “User Account Control” window.Disk Cleanup When you surf the Web. Then select the drive you want to clean up and click “OK”. Each track is divided into wedge-shaped sections called sectors. “Disk Cleanup” is a utility that eliminates such files and frees up valuable disk space and improves system performance. click “Delete Files”. into small parts that are stored wherever space is available.e. Disk Defragmenter Files are stored and organized on a disk according to “tracks” and “sectors”. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Accessories → System Tools → Disk Cleanup”. However. A track is a concentric ring. it is reconstructed from the fragments. the hard disk becomes highly fragmented and results in slower operations. “Disk Defragmenter” is a utility program that eliminates unnecessary fragments and rearranges files and unused disk space to optimize operations. sectors that are adjacent to each other. In the displayed window. click “Select volumes”. this is not always possible and the file has to be broken up or fragmented. The space that will be made free by the cleanup is calculated and the files suggested for cleanup are displayed. The disk cleanup process begins and the selected files are removed. To specify which partitions of your hard disk you wish to defragment. After a period of time. Verify the files and click “OK”. To start the defragmentation process. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Accessories → System Tools → Disk Defragmenter”. click “Defragment now” and click “OK” in the displayed window. It runs automatically at a scheduled time by default. You may modify the scheduled time for defragmentation by clicking “Modify schedule”.
as well as clean up your hard disk. Viruses enter your computer in various ways such as opening e-mail attachments and downloading from the Internet.Utility Suites: A “Utility Program” performs a specific task. Norton SystemWorks The Norton SystemWorks utility suite includes the following: “Norton AntiVirus” is a collection of antivirus programs that can protect your system from different viruses. Virus protection programs set up a barrier to viruses attempting to enter a computer system. history files and cookies. “Norton CleanSweep” is a collection of programs that help you to safely remove programs that you do not need. “One Button Checkup” integrates several of the separate utilities. Buying the package is less expensive than buying the programs separately. They also compress and make backups of programs. These protection programs are loaded into memory and run continually in the background and monitor all operations looking for actions associated with viruses. “Norton Utilities” is a collection of separate troubleshooting utilities that can be used to prevent and fix problems and improve system performance. When several utility programs are combined into a single package. It is a quick evaluation that looks for typical PC problems and alerts you accordingly. Existing viruses are removed and the virus list is automatically updated so that your system is checked for the newest viruses. it is known as a “Utility Suite”. Three popular utility suites are McAfee Office. Device Drivers: “Device drivers” are specialized programs designed to allow particular input or output devices to communicate with the rest of the computer system. locate lost files and repair damaged files. “Web CleanUp” is a collection of programs that remove unnecessary files from your computer such as temporary files. “GoBack Personal Edition” can be used to restore system configurations. When a new device such as a mouse or a printer is added 6| Page . They protect existing files from damage when new programs are installed. Norton SystemWorks and V Communications. These suites also include programs that protect your system from dangerous programs called computer “viruses”.
to a computer system, a new device driver must be installed before it can be used. Each time the computer system is started, the operating system loads all device drivers into memory. Windows supplies many device drivers which are automatically installed when a new device is connected. If a particular device driver is not included with the Windows systems software, it is supplied by the manufacturer of the product. When a device driver needs to be manually installed, wizards provided by Window assist you in the process. For example, the “Add Printer” wizard provides step-by-step guidance for installing a driver for a printer. Ex.: Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel”. Under “Hardware and Sound”, click “Printer”. Click the “Add a printer” button on the toolbar to display the “Add Printer” wizard. Follow the onscreen instructions to install the driver. Sometimes, when your computer behaves unpredictably, you could try reinstalling or updating your device drivers. Windows makes it easy to update your drivers using “Windows Update”. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Windows Update”. In the left pane, click “Check for updates”. To see if updated drivers are available, click “View available updates”. Windows Update will list any updated drivers that are available for devices installed in your computer. If updates are available, click the driver that you want to install, and then click “Install”. Some of the security and safety features of Windows Vista are as follows: Windows Defender: This is a software product which is a part of Windows Vista. It is designed to prevent and remove spyware. Spyware on your computer could result in information being transmitted from your computer without your knowledge. Windows Firewall: This helps in guarding your computer against many types of malicious software. User Account Control: This is an infrastructure that requires user consent before allowing any action that requires administrative privileges such as installing new software or changing system settings. Parental controls: An administrator can apply parental control restrictions to other users on the computer. Facilities include web content blocking,
restrictions on what kind of games may be played and what programs may be executed. Exploring the Desktop Desktop When your computer is booted up and ready to use, the screen you see is called the “Desktop”. It is the background for all programs and contains the commands needed for accessing those programs. The background graphic is called “Wallpaper”. The desktop can be customized to suit individual needs.
Icon Another important graphic feature that you find on the desktop is an “Icon”. Icons are small pictures that are linked to programs. Most icons and toolbar buttons display a “Tool Tip” containing a brief description of the item when you rest the mouse pointer on it. Double-clicking on the icon runs the program or accesses the file and rightclicking accesses a menu offering options, actions and properties. Icons can be moved around on the desktop by clicking and dragging them. Vista’s live icons graphically depict the content of files stored on your computer.
Recycle Bin The "Recycle Bin" on the desktop serves as a trash can. When you delete a file or folder, it goes into the Recycle Bin where it stays until the bin is emptied. Double-clicking on the icon opens a window that shows you its contents. If you delete something you shouldn't have, you can find it in the Recycle Bin and restore it to its proper place. When the Recycle Bin is emptied, everything in it is permanently deleted.
Taskbar At the bottom of the screen, you see a long, thin bar which is called the “Taskbar”. The currently active tasks are displayed in the form of buttons on
the taskbar. When you move your mouse over a button, a thumbnail image of the window is displayed. The taskbar has a circular button displaying the Windows logo at one end and a clock on the other. The button at the left end is the "Start" button which is used to start a program, open a document, get help, find information and change the system settings. If you click on the "Start" button, a box called a “Menu” appears. This menu contains several items. Some of them have sub-items which can be accessed by clicking on them. You may see icons on the taskbar, too. These are called "Quick Launch" icons that allow one-click access to frequently used programs. The right end of the taskbar is the “Notification” area. In the “Notification” area, to the left of the clock are several icons that indicate the tools that are automatically started when you turn on your computer and are running in the background, such as antivirus protection. This area also temporarily displays icons while a tool is in use, such as a printer when printing is in progress.
Personalize your Desktop You may set different display properties for your desktop. Right click on the desktop and select “Personalize”. Changing the Wallpaper: You can make your desktop as attractive and colorful as you wish by setting a wallpaper of your choice. For this, click on “Desktop Background”. In the “Picture Location” box, select the location of the picture. Now from the pictures displayed, make your choice by clicking on it. You may use the “Browse” button to search for a background picture from another location not in the list. Specify how you want the picture to be positioned and click on “Change background color” to select a color to fill the space not used by the picture. You may also save a picture from a Web site as your desktop background. Right-click the picture and then click “Set as Background”. Setting a Screen Saver: A screen saver is a program that displays an image, animation, or just a blank screen on a computer after no input has been received for a certain length of time. Screen savers were originally designed to prevent damages (called burn-in) to CRT screens. The screens manufactured nowadays are much more resistant to damages. To set a screen saver, click on “Screen Saver” in the “Personalization” window. Now
Click on “Mouse Pointers” in the “Personalization” window. Changing the Display Settings: You may change various settings related to the display of your monitor. Now click “OK”. To clear the screen saver after it has started. move the slider to the resolution you want. At higher resolutions. but they are larger and easier to see. so more items fit on the screen. Click “OK” to save your settings. select “See-saw”. simply move your mouse or press any key. In the “Wait” field. you can see the recommended resolution based on the size of the monitor. In the displayed figure. Click “Preview” to see how the selected screen saver will appear on your monitor. Now select a different scheme from the “Scheme” list. At higher resolutions. At lower resolutions. fewer items fit on the screen.select “3D Text” from the list. You may even specify a different pointer for a specific action. Screen resolution refers to the clarity of the text and images on your screen. you can see the way your mouse pointer will appear when different actions are performed. In the “Customize” box. Screen resolution refers to the clarity of the text and images on your screen. Click on “Busy” in the “Customize” box and then click “Browse”. so more items fit on the screen. 10 | P a g e . fewer items fit on the screen. To change the setting options for your screen saver. In the displayed figure. Click “OK” to save your settings. click “Settings”. say “Good Morning!”. Click on “Display Settings” in the “Personalization” window. you can see the recommended resolution based on the size of the monitor. Click on one and then click “Open”. but they are larger and easier to see. In the “Custom Text” box enter some other text. Click “Preview” once again to see how the screen saver will look with the new settings. Click on “Display Settings” in the “Personalization” window. In the “Rotation Type” box. You can see a variety of cursors displayed in the “Browse” window. Under “Resolution”. In this way. you may try using other screen savers and make changes to the related settings. move the slider to the resolution you want. Under “Resolution”. Changing the Mouse Pointer: You may choose a different mouse pointer and also change the way it appears during activities such as clicking and selecting. At lower resolutions. Changing the Display Settings: You may change various settings related to the display of your monitor. items appear smaller. specify the number of minutes of idle time after which you want the screen saver to start. items appear smaller.
Using Windows Vista The “Start” button is one of the most important features in Windows. You may explore the various other options in the “Personalize” window to further personalize your Windows experience. Click “Advanced Settings”. Programs you have not recently used are removed from the list and replaced with the more recently used programs. click “OK” in the “Display Settings” window. a submenu with additional options is displayed. Clicking an icon in the “Start” menu starts a program or accesses an item or feature immediately. To use your computer. A refresh rate of at least 75 hertz generally produces less flicker. Programs are added to the most frequently used programs list when you use them. It is a convenient place to store documents. Pictures: The “Pictures” folder in Windows Vista offers a variety of options for viewing and managing your digital pictures. you 11 | P a g e .To get the best color display from your monitor. The next part is the “Most frequently used programs list”. you need to start application programs and access files you have created using these applications. When you point to an item with an arrowhead symbol. From within “Pictures”. Click the “Monitor” tab and make a selection from the “Screen refresh rate” box and click “Apply”. you may make a selection from the “Colors” box. graphics. Another consideration in getting the best possible display from your monitor is the screen refresh rate. Documents: “Documents” is your personal folder. Pointing to an item in the “Start” menu moves the selection cursor to the item and displays a pop-up description. as it is the starting point for most features on your computer. If the refresh rate is too low. The programs on the pinned items list remain there and are always available for you to click to start them. Click “Yes” in the displayed window and then click “OK”. You can add programs to the pinned items list. causing eye strain and headaches. As you learn more about Windows Vista. the monitor can flicker. or other files you want to access quickly. The list of programs on the Start menu is divided into two parts. To save your settings. Windows colors and themes work best when you have your monitor set to 32-bit color. The first part is the “Pinned Items List”. you will find there are many ways to perform the same task.
Now click the correct day. Changing the date and time manually: To make changes to the system date and time. Music: The “Music” folder is the place where Windows automatically saves all the audio clips you download from the Internet or save on your hard drive with Windows Media Player. To set the time. as well as settings for the monitor display and sound. print photos or copy photos to a CD. Control Panel: Using the Control panel. enter the correct time into the box under “Time”. you can access hardware settings for the keyboard. you can access many support applications that enable you to customize the appearance and functionality of your computer system. mouse. the “Control Panel” and other system applications. To change only the hour. Help and Support: You can click “Help and Support” to learn how to use Windows Vista. Network: “Network” displays shortcuts to shared computers. simply double-click on it. To play a particular audio file that you have saved. double-click the hour. All Programs: Clicking “All Programs” opens a list of programs currently installed on your computer. receive support and more. From the Control Panel. click on the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Clock. Computer: This item in the “Start” menu is used to access drives. On the “Date and Time” tab. printers and modem. printers and other hardware.can view photos at different sizes. and other resources on the network. Date and Time Settings The “System Date” and “System Time” are the date and time as maintained by the computer's internal clock. and year under “Date” to set the date. such as a printer or shared folder. rotate them. printers. view a slide show. month. Windows uses these settings to identify when files are created or modified. obtain troubleshooting information. and then click the arrows to increase or 12 | P a g e . Language. and Region → Date and Time”. click on “Change date and time”. The shortcuts are created automatically whenever you open a shared network resource.
Borders and corners: You can drag these with your mouse pointer to change the size of the window. Minimize. make sure you are connected to the Internet. Select the appropriate server and then click “Update Now”.decrease the value. and Close buttons: These buttons reduce the window to a button on the task bar. select your current format and then click “Customize this format”. Sizing and Moving Windows: To make the desktop more workable. Select your current time zone from the list and click “OK”. To change your time zone. On the “Internet Time” tab. Changing the date and time display: You may change the way in which your computer displays the date and time. Similarly you may change the value of the minutes. Updating the Date and Time: You may also synchronize your computer clock by an Internet time server. Most windows have the same basic parts:Title bar: This displays the name of the window which indicates which program is running. click “Change time zone” on the “Date and Time” tab. Enter the formats you require on the “Time” and “Date” tabs of the “Customize Regional Options” window. On the “Formats” tab. If the box against “Synchronize with an Internet time server” is empty. and close it. Now click “OK”. and Region → Regional and Language Options”. enlarge it to fill the whole screen. seconds and the AM/PM indicator. Language. Changing the Time Zone: Time zones are areas of the Earth that have adopted the same standard time. Select “Control Panel → Clock. Maximize. click “Change Settings”. Using the buttons in the Title Bar you can 13 | P a g e . you can move and size windows. Each program that you open is opened in its own window. click on it. usually referred to as the local time. respectively Menu bar: This contains several items that that you can click to make choices in a program. Scroll bar: This lets you scroll the contents of the window to see information that is currently out of view. Working with Windows A window is a rectangular section on the screen that is used to display information and other programs. For this.
“Show Windows Stacked”. then choose one of the options “Cascade Windows”. click on it. or provides you with information. To scroll you can either click the arrow of the scroll bar or you can drag the scroll box to move the content within the window. allows you to select options to perform a task. scroll bars appear on the window. Clicking the main part of the button performs a command. text boxes. restore the window to the original size or close a window. whereas clicking the arrow opens a menu with more options. Command buttons: A command button performs an action when you click it. Dialog Boxes: A dialog box is a special type of window that asks you a question. 14 | P a g e . Menus: To keep the screen free of unnecessary items. or “Show Windows Side by Side”. If a command is shown in gray. point to the title bar and drag the window to the new location on the desktop. Command buttons may also appear as small icons without any text. it is unavailable and cannot be clicked. Moving a Window: To move a window. right-click on an empty area of the taskbar. To choose an arrangement. combo boxes and other such controls. Data may be entered using push buttons. Scrolling a Window: When there is more information in a window than can be viewed on the screen. maximize the window to its largest size. Let us have a look at some of them. list boxes. There are two types of scroll bars Vertical and Horizontal. or perform other actions related to the working of the window. menus are hidden until you click their titles in the “menu bar”.minimize the window. Some menu controls are shown by an arrow next to a word or picture. Changing the Size of the Window: You can change the size of the window by pointing to the border of the window with your mouse and dragging to make it smaller or bigger. Dragging a corner changes the height and width simultaneously. change settings. option buttons. To choose a command listed in a menu. Split buttons: These buttons change into two parts when you point to them. Windows Controls: Most windows have “controls” that allow you to select commands. Arranging windows automatically: You can also have the windows on your desktop automatically arranged. check boxes.
you can choose multiple options at the same time using check boxes. Drop-down lists: These are similar to menus. some or all of the options are displayed without having to open the list. information is displayed on multiple tabs. A drop-down list shows only the currently selected option when it is closed. Maintenance and Troubleshooting by selecting appropriate options. Under “Ask someone” you may click on the various links for additional assistance and support from friends. you may search across multiple remote and online providers to get the most information for the topic that you are investigating. They are also called “radio buttons”. The other options are displayed when you click the control. Here. Using Help With Windows Vista Help features. Click on the magnifying glass or press “Enter” to display a list of related topics. In the “Search Help” text box. Unlike a drop-down list. options are available for selection instead of commands to be executed. This is the most commonly used windows control. Sliders: A slider enables you to adjust a setting along a range of values by dragging the slider toward the value that you want.Option buttons: Option buttons enable you to make one choice among multiple options. 15 | P a g e . you may enter the keywords you wish to search on. You can switch to a different tab by clicking on it. Text boxes: A text box is used to type textual information. Windows communities or from Microsoft Customer Support online. You may click on any topic under “Find an answer” to see help for that topic. Tabs: In some dialog boxes. You may perform tasks related to Security. List boxes: A list box displays a list of options that you can select from. The currently selected tab appears at the front. Check boxes: Check boxes enable you to select one or more independent a single option only. Click the “Start” button and then click “Help and Support” to display the “Windows Help and Support” window.
To switch to a specific program. but only one window is active at a time. Working with Multiple Windows The capability to run multiple programs at the same time is called “Multitasking”. This indicates that clicking this link will open the associated item on your computer. then select an item to make it the active window. This makes working with your computer more like you would actually work. just click its taskbar button. This is now the “active” window. You can see that each program is displayed in its own window. the window currently in use. On the Start menu click “Computer” and then “Help and Support”. Click the button to see a menu of the items in the group. Multiple windows can be open on the desktop at once. allowing you to switch easily between tasks without having to put one away before beginning the other. it appears in the size in which it was last used and at any location on the desktop. You can tell it is the active window because the taskbar button and title bar appear dark whereas those of the inactive windows are dimmed. If the taskbar becomes too crowded with buttons. The “Document1” window is the active window. that is. in this case. The window in which the program is running appears in front of the other windows. Switching between windows: Using the taskbar: Each running program has a corresponding button on the taskbar. the taskbar buttons resize themselves automatically to fit in the taskbar. When a new window is opened. the Microsoft Word document named “Document1”. As more windows are opened. then the buttons for the same program become grouped into a single button.Under “Information from Microsoft” you will find guidance on various tasks which will make your experience of working with Windows Vista smooth and convenient. A new window opens on the desktop and the taskbar displays an additional button for this open window. The newly opened window is automatically the active window and appears on top of other open windows on the desktop. “Computer” and “Document1”. There are now three programs running at the same time. “Windows Help and Support”. Opening a New Window: Notice the “Document1” icon on the desktop. 16 | P a g e . Double-click on it.
Restart: This closes all open programs. Using Windows Flip 3D: This feature allows you to flip through a cascading stack of your open windows. Let us see what each of them does. shuts down Windows and restarts the computer once again. and allows you to resume working within seconds. Shut Down: To shut down your computer completely. select “Log Off”. use this option. Log Off: If you share the computer with someone else. click any part of a window in the stack to display that window. Shutting down Windows Vista It is very important to shut down Windows Vista correctly. Do not turn off the computer by pressing the power button as you may lose valuable data. Alternatively. Sleep: Sleep is a power-saving state. and then click the “Power” button in the lower right part of the Start menu. While holding down the Windows logo key. Release the “Alt” key to show the selected window. You may also click on the “Switch between windows” icon on the taskbar to enable the “Windows Flip 3D” feature. Lock: This is used to lock the computer when you do not want anyone else to access your files. Organizing Your Work Files and Folders 17 | P a g e . click the “Start” button. Switch User: This enables you to switch to another user without closing the programs of the current user. press the “Tab” key repeatedly or rotate the mouse wheel to cycle through open windows. This closes all your open programs but does not put the computer off. shuts down Windows and puts off your computer. you see various options. Release the Windows logo key to display the window at the front. When you click the arrow next to the “Lock” button. This action puts your computer in “sleep” mode.Using ALT+TAB: You can cycle through all open windows and the desktop by holding down the “Alt” key and repeatedly pressing the “Tab” key. It closes all open programs. To turn off your computer. It saves all open documents and programs.
click “Folders” again. When you move the mouse pointer into the area of the Folders list. A Folder System is also called a “Directory System”. The panel at the left is the Navigation pane. and gain access to options in the Control Panel to modify your computer settings. CD-ROM drive. the folder contents in the right panel change to display the contents of the location you clicked. a “file” is an item that contains a collection of related information. you can tell what kind of file it is. At the top. You can view additional folders by clicking “Folders” at the bottom of the Navigation pane. This displays the “Windows Explorer” which shows you the contents of your floppy disk. You know that Windows has some common folders such as Documents. By looking at a file icon. digital pictures. folders created in the main folder appear indented below the main folder. Subfolders appear indented below their parent folders. To close the Folders list. Pictures. You can also search for and open files and folders. You can graphically view the content saved on your computer in ways that enable you to visualize what is inside a folder or file. In the Folder List. you see a small triangle next to each folder which has subfolders. where you can click any folder to navigate directly to it. A “folder” is a container in which you can store files. When you click a location in the Navigation pane. Windows Vista offers “Live Icon” views of files and folders. a Details Pane. Examples of files are text documents. It is a named area on a disk that is used to store related subfolders and files. Music and others that you can use to organize your files. a Preview 18 | P a g e . and network drives. Click the “Organize” button to organize the contents of a folder. and even songs. Click the resulting triangle to collapse the expanded list. Your computer represents files with icons. hard disks. Using Computer To open the “Computer” window. Some common file icons are displayed. This displays the “Folders list”. commonly used folders are displayed under the heading “Favorite Links”. So a “Folder System” is made up of folders and subfolders. Click “Layout” to specify whether to display Menus. A folder within a folder is known as a “Subfolder”. click on the “Start” button and select “Computer”. Click the triangle to expand the folder. spreadsheets. Arranging files into logical groups makes it easy to locate any particular file.In a computer.
Medium Icons. you may select the folder. If you delete a folder containing subfolders and files. For example. These links let you open folders quickly. Large Icons. Details and Tiles. right-click and select “Rename”. Clicking again reverses the sort order from ascending to descending. Select the folder that you wish to delete. View. Small Icons. You can choose from the options: Extra Large Icons. Sorting and Grouping Files and Folders: You may click on any column heading to sort the files by that column. Tools and Help. move. List. Alternately. Working with Folders Creating Folders: Using the Folders list. Let us click on “Documents”. all the subfolders and files contained within the folder are removed. Working with Files 19 | P a g e . no matter which folder you are presently in. Let us select “Menu Bar”. Click the “Views” button to specify how you wish to view the contents of a folder. Using Windows Explorer. You may type a new name for this folder. click on the folder name and select “File → Rename” from the menu bar. select “File → New → Folder” from the menu bar. and search for files and folders. The following characters cannot be used in a folder or file name: \ / : * ?><| If you think you will need to use a folder frequently. it must be assigned a name. and/or the Navigation Pane. Confirm deletion by clicking “Yes” in the “Folder Delete” window. Edit. you can open a folder that contains a file you want to copy or move. Press the “Delete” key or select “File → Delete” from the menu bar. Folder and File Names: When a file or folder is created.Pane. drag it to the Favorite Links area. you may select the location where you wish to store your data files. rename. A folder icon with “New Folder” written next to it is displayed. To create a new folder. you can copy. Deleting Folders: When you no longer need a folder you can delete it. You can use the context menu that appears on right-clicking the mouse to perform various functions. Renaming Folders: To rename a folder. You can now see a menu with the items File. and then drag the file to another folder or drive.
Now select “Edit → Paste” from the menu bar. the File Name and the Extension. Renaming and deleting a file: A file can be renamed or deleted in the same way as a folder by clicking on it and selecting “File → Rename” and “File → Delete” respectively. Then. The “Move Items” window is displayed. you can use the Start menu to search instead. click “Select All” on the “Edit” menu. Keep the “Ctrl” key pressed and then select multiple files. select the item to be copied or moved. Now this file can be copied to one or more locations. while a document created using Notepad is stored with the extension “. Finding Files: If you are looking for a specific file from a large number of files in a folder. Copying a file: You may make a copy of a file. The file is removed from the original location and placed at the new one.docx”. You may now drop the selection by releasing the mouse button. If you do not know which folder to search. Different types of files are stored with different extensions. click on the file name and select “Edit → Copy” from the menu bar.txt”. First. Type anything you can remember about the file. Moving a file: You may move a file from one location to another. you can select these files to copy or move them at the same time. point the mouse to it and drag the pointer to the new location by keeping the mouse button pressed. To select all the files and folders in the window. Type in the Search box. and then click a result to open it. A copy of it is created at the new location. The file that was copied remains at the original location. Now click on the location you wish to move the file to and then click “Move”. click on the file name and select “Edit → Move To Folder” from the menu bar. Click on the folder you wish to copy it to. a document created using Microsoft Word 2007 is stored with the extension “. 20 | P a g e . For example.The name of a file consists of two parts. such as part of its name. Drag and Drop: All Windows applications have the ability to copy or move selections using the “Drag and Drop” feature. you can use the Search box at the top to search the current folder. Selecting Multiple Files: When you want to copy or move several files into the same folder. A file can also be copied to a folder by selecting ““Edit → Copy To Folder” from the menu bar and clicking on the appropriate folder in the “Copy Items” window. For this. For this. To quickly select adjacent files you may similarly use the “Shift” key.
Take the mouse cursor to the beginning of your name and press “Enter” twice. Using Applications Using Notepad Some useful applications are available as a part of Windows Vista. Select “File → Save As”. locate the folder you have created to save your work. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → Notepad”. In the “Save As” window. You may use this shortcut to quickly access your data file location again. Saving Files: A permanent copy of the work you have created using an application program is stored as a file on the disk only when you save it. A shortcut icon with an arrow at the bottom left appears on the desktop. In the “Font” window. Formatting a Document: You may wish to change the way your text appears. type your Name and then press “Enter”. all the changes you have made will be lost. select “Format → Font” from the menu bar. If necessary. right-click and select “Send To → Desktop (create shortcut)”. re-size the “Notepad” window to an appropriate size. When the application first opens. Point the mouse pointer to the folder name. To start Notepad. Type your Address and press “Enter” again. If you fail to save the file. To create a shortcut to your folder. In the open Notepad. Editing a Document: One of the advantages of using a computer is that you can edit the contents of your file. For this. select the font along with the style and size you require. The default name of the shortcut is the same as your folder name followed by the word “Shortcut”.Using Shortcuts You may need to use a particular file or folder stored on your computer frequently. Using Notepad: “Notepad” is a basic text editing program and it is most commonly used to view or edit text files. a blank workspace is ready for you to begin typing to create a new document. you can create a shortcut icon for the location and place it on the desktop. Press the “Up Arrow” key twice and then type the date. To access the location of this file quickly. you may specify the location 21 | P a g e . Press “OK” to apply your selection to the complete text in your document.
The “Ruler” is used to set tab stops by clicking on it where you want a tab stop to appear. WordPad includes many features and can be used to create and format large and complex text documents. A tab stop specifies the place that the cursor stops at when you press the “Tab” key. Menus: Let us have a brief look at the different menus available on the menu bar. save and print your documents using this menu. The “Insert” 22 | P a g e . The “Edit” menu is used to perform tasks related to the content of your document such as entering and modifying your data. you cannot accidentally save special formatting in documents that need to remain pure text. Make the appropriate selections from the “Print” window and click “Print”. format bar. You may create. open. Because Notepad supports only very basic formatting. Each menu has different menu items. Your file is stored with the extension “. You can delete tab stops by dragging them off the ruler. Another way is to do this is by directly pressing “Ctrl+P”. A new blank document is displayed. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → WordPad”. The buttons on the “Format Bar” are used to change the format of text. you may want to print a copy of your document. status bar and the ruler. The “View” menu is used to specify whether or not you want to display the toolbar. A lightweight editor: Notepad is a basic text editor that you can use to create simple documents. This method is called using a “Keyboard Shortcut”. Printing a Document: Now.txt”. The “File” menu is used to perform tasks related to your document as a whole.where you wish to save the file and the name of the file. Click “Save”. Using WordPad Using WordPad: “WordPad” is an application used to create rich text documents. To start WordPad. The “Status Bar” provides additional information about the buttons and commands in WordPad. Toolbars: The buttons on the main “Toolbar” are shortcuts for common file management tasks. such as creating or saving a file. Select “File → Print” from the menu bar. This is especially useful when creating HTML documents for a Web page because special characters or other formatting may not appear in your published Web page or may even cause errors.
To further enhance the appearance of the title. the text automatically moves to the next line when it reaches the right edge of the margin.menu is used to insert the date and time and other objects in your document. After looking over the text. The title now appears in the selected color. This feature is called “Word Wrap”. Now enter the title and press “Enter”. you would like to increase the font size. Finally. The two most common means to remove text are to use the “Backspace” key to delete unwanted characters to the left of the insertion point. Font size is measured in points. The first change you want to make to this document is to add a title. ready for you to begin entering text. drag from one end of the area of text to the other. or the “Delete” key to remove characters to the right. make the characters larger and display the characters in a color. A quicker way to select a word is to double-click on it. “Font size” refers to the height and width of printed characters. you may need to make some modifications. Click the “Font Size” drop-down list button on the Format Bar and select the font size you wish. Click the “Bold” button on the Format Bar to add a bold effect. Before you can apply the formatting effects. The “Help” menu contains items through which you can get assistance whenever you require. Click at the beginning of your text. 23 | P a g e . you can click in the left margin of the line to select the entire line quickly. You can also select the text you want to delete and then press “Delete” to remove it. you may decide to remove a word. This is called “Editing” text. which refers to the height of the character. The “Format” menu is used to enhance the appearance of your document content. Press “Enter” twice and then use the “Up Arrow” key to move the insertion point up. Editing text: After you have entered your text. Since you want to select the entire title. You may use the “Center” button on the Format Bar to center the title. Formatting Text: You decide you want to improve the appearance of the title by applying various formatting effects to the text. The insertion point is positioned at the top of the document. with a point equal to about 1/72 inch. Entering text: As you type. You want to center it between the margins. Most documents use a font size of 10 or 12 point. To select text. you will make the title text bold and apply a color to it. you first need to select the text you want to format. Click the “Color” button and select a color of your choice.
The “Save As” window appears on the screen. place the insertion point where you want to paste the text. Let us now see some additional features of WordPad. The associated program. double-click on the file name on the desktop.rtf”. you can save the file on the desktop using a new file name for easy access. Notice that this icon does not display the arrow symbol that appears in shortcut icons. You may click “Replace All” to replace all occurrences of the original text. The document icon for the WordPad file appears on the desktop. select the text. Click “Replace” to replace the original text with the new text. select “File → Save As…” from the menu. You may refine your search by checking the boxes against “Match whole word only” to find whole words matching your search criteria and “Match case” to make your search specific to capital and small alphabets. WordPad in this case. To paste text you have cut or copied. To save the document. Copying and Deleting Text: To cut text that you want to move to another location. To copy text for writing to another location. Moving. If you want to replace that text with other text enter it in the “Replace with” field. You may undo your actions by selecting “Edit → Undo” from the menu. This is because the file is actually stored in the desktop folder and the icon is not a shortcut to an object that is in another location. If you plan to use this file again shortly. and then select “Edit → Copy” from the menu. select “Edit → Find” or “Edit → Replace” from the menu and specify your search criteria in the “Find what” field. The file name is displayed in the title bar before the program name and the Windows taskbar displays a button for the open application. To open this file. and the file is opened and displayed in the workspace. Then click "Save" to save the file on the desktop. Your file is stored with the extension “.Saving a file to the Desktop: If you like how the document looks then you may save the document. Finding and Replacing Text: To find or replace specific characters. and then select “Edit → Cut” from the menu. Type the desired file name and select “Desktop” as the location to save the file. and then select “Edit → Paste” from the menu. Creating a graphic using Paint 24 | P a g e . is started. select the text.
The mouse pointer appears as a pencil when this tool is selected and you are pointing to the drawing area. When you move the mouse pointer into the drawing area. First. you need to draw the plot of grass below the tree. In this case you will create a blank file called “New” on the desktop using the “24 bit Bitmap” image file type. To start Paint. you need to select this application by clicking on the icon on the desktop. move the pointer to where you want the circle to begin. A circle or 25 | P a g e . a drawing program that can be used to create and modify graphic images. Displayed at the top of the window is the color box that is used to add color to the graphic. You can tell it is selected because it appears in a box. Your file is stored with the extension “. Try to draw a picture of a palm tree. The text under the icon displays the default icon name "New". and then create and save the file. Select “File → Save”. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → Paint”. The Paint program also includes a toolbar. Paint has many of the same features. menu bar and status bar as you have seen in the other application programs. To begin drawing.bmp”. called a toolbox. edit the drawing and so on. Generally. By default the toolbox is displayed on the left edge of the window. fill shapes with colors. including a title bar. when we create a file. which is the picture of a palm tree. Since the file is blank.Another application that is included with Windows is “Paint”. The Paint program is loaded with the blank file open. we open the application first. The “Save As” window is displayed. You may wish to create a blank file on the desktop. The tool you select is drawn when you drag or click in the drawing area. The “Ellipse” tool creates an ellipse or circular shape. similar to the one shown above. Let us create a logo for your organization. The white area in the workspace is the drawing area where you may create the drawing. Now. it changes to a plus (+). Since you want to use Paint to create the graphic. The toolbox buttons are used to draw shapes. The pre-selected icon is the “Pencil” button. you are ready to open the file and create a graphic. the desktop icon displays a blank square. that you can add to the document you previously created using WordPad. Specify the location as “Desktop” and then select the type of file you want to create from the “Save as type” list.
To clean up the drawing. You may change the foreground color to brown. while the inside of the shape is filled with the background color. Using different shapes can add interest to the drawing. the outline of the shape is created using the foreground color. You have created a simple oval shape with a black outside borderline and white interior. you want to create two tree trunks. The last fill style creates an object without a border using the selected fill color. Using the “Brush” Tool: Next. This tool also provides several "spray" shapes. Double-click on a color in the color box. The brush applies the foreground color when you drag to create the shape. You need to use the Brush tool to create the shape and apply the color at the same time. you may create a custom color. Notice the three additional buttons. The Airbrush sprays with the foreground color. displayed at the bottom of the toolbox.ellipse is created by dragging the mouse until the shape is displayed as you want it to appear. Using the “Airbrush” Tool: Finally. you can use the Eraser tool to delete the parts of the trunk you may not like. 26 | P a g e . To set the background color. If you select colors before creating a shape. drag with the right mouse button held down while spraying. The first button draws an ellipse with an outline border in the selected fill color without filling the object. The Brush tool creates broad lines of color as you drag. The color box consists of two areas. You need to delete the oval and replace it with another that contains color. To use the background color. This is the default selection and the setting you have used. The second button draws an outline border and also fills the object with the selected fill color. Using the “Eraser”: You may make mistakes or to not like the appearance of your drawing. You need to use the Airbrush tool for this purpose. Creating a Custom Color: Since the color selection of green colors on the palette is limited. right-click in the color palette. For this you may need to erase sections of your drawings. Adding Color: You now want to fill the shape with a green color. The “Edit Colors” window contains a palette of basic colors. You may do this by selecting colors from the color box. The eraser uses the background colors. you want to create the palm fronds. the “select colors area” and the “color palette”. called “fill-style” buttons.
Now see the live icon representing your Paint document. Drawing a Polygon: In the toolbox. Drawing a Rectangle or Square: In the toolbox. Drawing a Curved Line: In the toolbox. hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer to draw a straight line. The box below the matrix displays the selected color. you may click anywhere on the matrix. Click “Define Custom Colors >>” to display the color area to the right. Drawing a Straight Line: In the toolbox. click the “Curve” icon. At the bottom of the toolbox. click the “Line” icon. Drag the mouse to draw the line. To draw a rectangle. This is a color matrix. To define a custom color. click the “Rectangle” icon to create a square-cornered shape.many of which are displayed in the color box. At the bottom of the toolbox click a line width. click a fill style. automatically replacing the original contents with the new contents. To draw a square. You can also use the slider on the color gradient bar at the right to change the elements. hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer diagonally in the direction you want. The “Save” command saves the document as it appears onscreen to the same file name. 27 | P a g e . press the “Shift” key while dragging the pointer. associated with the selected color. Click “Add to Custom Colors” and then click “OK”. You can only create two curves for each line. or click the “Rounded Rectangle” to create a round-cornered shape. The green color you selected is the selected color in the “Basic colors” palette. and then hold down the left mouse button to drag the pointer to adjust the curve. Click on the page where you want each new line segment to appear. Let us now see some additional features of Paint. At the bottom of the toolbox. Press the “Shift” key while dragging to get a straight line. click the “Polygon” icon. click a line width. Click on the page where you want one arc of the curve to be. At the bottom of the toolbox. The custom color automatically becomes the foreground color and replaces the originally selected green. Draw a straight line by dragging the pointer. Your logo is now ready. click a fill style. You can see a small picture of the graphic you created. To draw the polygon. Now you may apply this color to the fronds. such as hue and saturation. Release the mouse button and repeat this step for a second arc. Repeat these steps and double-click when done.
28 | P a g e . Embedding an Object: You are now ready to insert the picture into the WordPad document. The “Paste” and “Paste Special” commands on the “Edit” menu are used to insert a copy from the Clipboard into a document. select “Image → Attributes” from the menu. in this case the entire picture. You can adjust the size of any selected object by dragging the handles in the same manner as sizing windows. Select “Edit → Paste”. It is surrounded by a box and eight solid squares called “handles”.Typing and Formatting Text: In the toolbox. You would like the palm tree picture that is stored in the Clipboard to be centered at the top of the document. The graphic of the palm tree that was stored in the Clipboard is pasted into the document. You may also resize your picture by dragging the image resize handles that are located at the bottom right corner and along the sides of your picture. hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer diagonally to the size you want. Since the drawing occupies almost the entire space. size and style you require. Changing the Picture Size: To change the size of your picture. To do this. linking or embedding it. click the “Text” icon. This is because the “Center” feature was in effect for the line the insertion point was on when the two new lines were created. You can select an item from an open document and copy it to another location in the same or another document. Copying between Applications Now you can insert the logo of your organization (the palm tree) into your WordPad document. You will embed the palm tree object in the document. Enter the dimensions you require. These indicate the object is selected and can be manipulated. You can copy the entire picture or any part of the drawing by selecting an area. A dotted line identifies the selected area. Contents of the selected area are copied to the Clipboard. The insertion point appears at the center of the blank line. An object can be inserted into another document by pasting. click the font. you need to copy the graphic from Paint and insert it into the WordPad document. Now you are positioned in the document where you want the picture inserted. you may select the entire drawing area. To create a text frame. Click inside the text frame to type text. On the text toolbar.
The color that is applied to the text is the foreground color. This allows you to edit the embedded graphic from within WordPad. it is always a good idea to preview on screen how your document will appear when printed. you first create a box. It shows the default type style and size that will be used when you type the text entry. WordPad is displayed again. Also notice that the title bar still displays "WordPad" and if you scroll down. To edit an embedded object. you can open the object server by double-clicking on it. To make the background the same as the grass. 29 | P a g e . You may want to increase the font size to 14 point. If you do not like how your text box looks. Paint. and the “Fonts” window is displayed. has not changed.Editing an Embedded Object: After looking at the inserted graphic. This indicates that the Paint program has not been opened a second time in its own application window. Notice that there is still only one Paint application button in the taskbar. The Text tool is used to add text to a Paint object. you want to give a copy of the document to a friend to get feedback regarding the content and layout. you can always use “Edit → Undo” from the menu and try it again. You may want to add the company name to the grass area of the graphic. Previewing. The text frame displays an insertion point. To save time and unnecessary printing and paper waste. When adding text. you can also choose a color for the text. You now have access to the Paint menu and toolbar so you can edit the object while you are still in the WordPad document. Printing and Saving Although you still plan to make several formatting changes to the document. and the graphic appears in its own editing window. Before typing the text. You may verify that the original file created using Paint. the text of your document is still displayed. you are not prompted to save the file before it is closed. Select “File → Print Preview” from the menu. you may decide you want to add some text inside the graphic. containing the palm tree. The “Print Preview” feature displays each page of your document in a reduced size so you can check the layout. the server application is opened within WordPad. called a text frame and then type the text inside it. because it was the last-used application. Since no changes were made to the file. you make the text frame transparent so that the background is visible.
You may want to clear these from the desktop and move them to the folder where you store your data. The Preview window also includes its own toolbar. Double-click the shortcut icon you created to your data location. Backspace --> Removes the last digit of the displayed number. The flyer looks good and does not appear to need any further modifications immediately. Select “View → Refresh” from the menu to refresh the display of the window. click “+” to add. “-” to subtract. The functions of the different buttons on the Calculator are as displayed. perform the following steps: First.The Preview window displays a reduced view of how the current page will appear when printed. To start Calculator. type the first number in the calculation. or “/” to divide. “*” to multiply. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → Calculator”. Using Calculator Using Calculator: “Calculator” is an application which performs functions parallel to a handheld calculator. Open the folder where you save your files. as well as functions found on a scientific calculator. Performing a simple calculation: To perform a simple calculation involving addition. To save the current document. such as logarithms and factorials. multiplication or division. Finally. Then. You can now see that the file icons are no longer on the desktop and are now located in the selected folder. type the next number in the calculation. This view allows you to check your page layout before printing. Choose “Move Here” from the shortcut menu. Cleaning up the desktop You have a few files stored on the desktop of your computer. such as addition and subtraction. It performs basic arithmetic. 30 | P a g e . Finally you will remove the shortcut icon. After that. Right-drag the selected icons to the right pane of the window. click “=” or press the “Enter” key to get your result. click the “Save” icon on the Toolbar. You can print the flyer directly from the Preview window using the “Print” button. The desktop should be cleared of all icons you created and should appear the same as when you started. subtraction. Type other operators and numbers in the same way.
Performing a scientific calculation: Your calculator can be made into a full-functioned scientific calculator. you can easily correct errors.CE --> Clears the number displayed at that time. Decimal. Word Processor Applications help you to create different types of written documents such as personal letters. Octal and Binary. You have a choice of four numbering systems: Hexadecimal. Sqrt --> Calculates the square root of the number on the screen. Documents that you use often can be saved as templates. move paragraphs and reprint your document. In addition to handling simple calculations. programming calculations and statistical calculations for averages and standard deviation. printing etc. C --> Clears the entire calculation. MR --> Recalls a number from the memory. form letters. With a few keystrokes. an invoice form. select “View → Scientific” from the menu. Creating and Editing a Document 31 | P a g e . the Scientific Calculator has complete trigonometrical calculations. Microsoft Word and OpenOffice. % --> Calculates percentages. The activity of word processing includes typing text using the keyboard and using various facilities of formatting.org Writer are a few of the popular Word Processors. store. M+ --> Adds the displayed number to the memory. 1/x --> Calculates the reciprocal of the displayed number. editing. modify. MC --> Clears the numbers in the memory. Through a word processor you can create. for example. Word Processing Overview of Word Processing What is Word Processing? Typing text using a computer is commonly known as Word Processing. For this. brochures. retrieve and print part or all of a document. faxes and even professional manuals. MS --> Stores numbers in the memory.
integrated into it. graphics. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Word 2007”. 32 | P a g e . Clicking the Office Button displays the “File” menu. Word comes with a variety of templates for almost every purpose. The Microsoft Office user interface is uniform across most of its components. Once the “New” icon is added. Microsoft Word offers a wide variety of options to design documents. The User Interface The User Interface is the way in which you interact with your computer. etc. You can also create your own templates. The text frames can be linked anywhere. It is designed to put your most commonly used commands in a place where you can always find them. Text can be formatted multi-columnar and have text frames. such as “New”. from the menu that appears. Additionally. To start the Microsoft Word application. click the arrow on the right. even beyond page limits to create a newspaper format. Microsoft Word contains numerous functions to assist you in creating perfectly styled documents. and Redo. You can add an icon to the toolbar by just clicking on an icon name. To add an additional command to the Quick Access toolbar. tables. you can create various indexes and tables in text documents. Undo. You can define the structure and appearance of the indexes and tables according to your needs. In Word. you can simply click on it when you need to create a new document.Introduction to Microsoft Word Microsoft Word is a complete Word Processor Application. saving. a file is called a “document”. printing. It consists of three main parts: 1) The Office Button 2) The Quick Access toolbar 3) The Ribbon The Office Button: This appears at the top-left corner of your screen. This contains commands for opening. and closing a file. displaying icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. The Quick Access toolbar: This appears to the right of the Office Button near the top of the screen.
orientation. The “References” tab contains the most common items needed when generating a professional paper. pages. The following Ribbon tabs are displayed in Word: The “Home” tab has common formatting commands. “Copy” and “Format Painter” command buttons. thesaurus. Under “Choose commands from:” you can see a list of commands that you may add to your Quick Access toolbar. 33 | P a g e . This provides a detailed description of what the button does. “Font”. When you move your mouse over most command buttons. table of contents. You can see that your chosen icons now appear on the Quick Access toolbar. The “Mailings” tab contains the items needed for a mail merge. including footnotes. The “View” tab contains the view options for the document and is the location of the Switch Windows command to move between files open in that application. You will gradually learn to use the commands on all the tabs. The “Insert” tab contains all items that can be inserted into the file. c) Command buttons in each group that carry out a command or display a menu of commands. a “Super-tooltip” is displayed. and copy/paste. such as pictures. b) Groups within each tab that break a task into subtasks. The “Review” tab contains spell check. and track changes. It consists of:a) Task-oriented tabs. “Cut”. The Ribbon: The Ribbon is a component of the Office Fluent user interface. bullets. The “Clipboard” group in turn has the “Paste”. and spacing properties. To remove an icon. “Paragraph”. click “More Commands”. styles. “Styles” and “Editing” groups. right-click on it and select “Remove from Quick Access Toolbar”. Click an icon and then click the “Add” button. and index. the “Home” tab has the “Clipboard”. and text boxes. For example. Click “OK”. The “Page Layout” tab contains margin. citations.Now. clip art.
to create a new blank document. For this. Access keys: Access keys are another type of keyboard shortcut used to access the Ribbon. You decide to create a document like the one displayed above. commands. You are required to create a document listing the special offers of your company. At the right end of the Ribbon.Equivalent keyboard shortcuts are also displayed if applicable. click the Office Button and select “New”. You then see little labels. To restore the Ribbon. Now click “Create” in the “New Document” window. groups. the badges showing the Key Tips for the commands on that tab appear. Clicking this brings up the Help window related to the Office application that you are using. and the Quick Access Toolbar has an access key. and every access key is assigned a Key Tip. right-click anywhere on the Ribbon and choose “Minimize the Ribbon”. When you first start Word. Creating New Documents Let us now learn to effectively use Microsoft Word using the following simple Case Study. You are working for Global Tours and Travels. They relate directly to the tabs. You want your document to be attractive and at the same time informative. or badges. right-click any tab and choose the “Minimize the Ribbon” command again. a new blank document is opened. and command buttons change as you take on various activities. 34 | P a g e . The tabs. You first need to press the “Alt” key. you see a question mark symbol. We shall now learn step-bystep. showing the Key Tips for all the tabs. the Microsoft Office Button menu. You may use them when you are more familiar with the commands. Every single command on the Ribbon. You can hide the Ribbon if you wish to have more space to write. When an existing word document is open. After you press a key to activate a particular tab. It is like a blank piece of paper that has certain default settings which are the most commonly used settings. which includes the most commonly-needed commands. how to include all such features into your document. and other things that you see on the screen. When you first launch most of the Microsoft Office applications you’ll find yourself in the Ribbons Home tab.
select it and then click on the “Underline” icon in the “Font” group. move your mouse over the different fonts displayed. Similarly. You will be comfortable using it after you are more familiar with the Word application. Entering and Formatting Text Let us now enter text into a new document. select it and then click on the “Bold” icon. click the “Italic” icon.A “Template” is a pre-designed document designed for common purposes such as a fax. For now. Selecting Text: To select a section of text. you may change the Font Size. Setting up the way a page of text will look by entering certain attributes is called “Formatting”. Now type “Come to any of the offices”. click on the “Bold” icon in the “Font” group and begin text entry. from the drop-down menu. It provides easy access to the most-used formatting commands. Underlining: To underline your text. You may create a new document using standard templates provided by Word by clicking on a template name in the “New Document” window. on the “Home” tab. Type "SPECIAL OFFERS". press “Enter” once again. Changing the Font: Let us select the text “SPECIAL OFFERS” and change the font. Making text Bold: To enter text with a bold display. click at the point you want to begin and drag your cursor to the right and release it when you have reached the end of the selection. invoice or business letter. in the “Font” group. A “Font” is a design for a set of characters. The "Live Preview" feature allows you to have a preview of how the selected font would affect the appearance of the text. Press "Enter" once to come to the next line. let us use the command buttons on the Ribbon. It remains semi-transparent until you move your mouse pointer over it. To make existing text bold. When text is selected. without actually applying it. To insert a blank line. You may choose other underline styles and colors by clicking on the arrow to the right of the “Underline” icon. On the “Home” tab. To change the color of the text click on the arrow next to the “Font Color” icon and select a color. Justifying Text: 35 | P a g e . Let us insert some more text. Click on the font you would like. a "Mini Toolbar" is automatically displayed. To make the text appear in italics.
you may click the Office Button and select “Open”. Align Text Right or Justify. click on this button once again. you may select Align Text Left. Closing a File: To close a file. folder and location for the file and then click “Save”. navigate to the location of your document. Then. click the Office Button and select “Close” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+W”. Alternatively. In the “Paragraph” group. Closing and Opening files Saving Documents: Your file is stored with the extension “. Using the shortcut keys “Ctrl+S”. 3. When you save a new file for the first time. line breaks. Moving through Text Moving through text using the Keyboard: You can use the arrow keys and other keys on the keyboard which are shown above to position the cursor at the location you want to type or modify text. 1. Click the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. Click on Center. tab stops and spaces.docx”. click the “Show/Hide” icon in the “Paragraph” group. Opening Documents: There are many ways in which you can open a document. select the file and click “Open”. Click the Office Button and select “Save”. such as paragraph marks. Displaying formatting marks: You can display nonprinting characters in your text. you may click on the “X” shaped icon at the top right corner of the window or use the keyboard shortcut “Alt+F4” to exit the Word application. Click the “Line spacing” icon in the “Paragraph” group and make your selection. For this. Enter the name. There are three ways to save a document. Saving. Alternatively. You may use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+O”. Changing Line Spacing: Select the text you would like to change the line spacing for. To remove the display. You may open a recently used document by clicking on the Office Button and then clicking a document name under the list of “Recent Documents” displayed on the right. 2. 36 | P a g e . the “Save As” window is displayed. Center.Select the text you would like to justify.
say “Global Tours Logo”. enter a unique name for the building block in the “Name” field. and then click “Word Options”. Now click “OK”. Building Blocks: Building Blocks in Word are designed specifically for the addition of frequently used content to your documents. On the “Insert” tab. 37 | P a g e . Now click “Proofing” and then click the “AutoCorrect Options” button. and then click “Building Blocks Organizer”. Ensure that the box against the option is checked. Using Automatic Editing Features Using AutoCorrect: You may use the numerous features provided by Microsoft Word to automatically correct your document. you can see that it is corrected. you may check the boxes against the options you require. You can see that the “Correct TWo INitial CApitals” option is checked. type enough so that the name is different from that of any other building block and then press “F3”. Click on a building block name and then click “Insert”. click “Quick Parts”.Moving through text using the Mouse: You can use the mouse to move the insertion point to a specific location in a document. and then click “Save Selection to Quick Part Gallery”. On the “Insert” tab. You can even replace some text with alternate text as it is typed using the “Replace text as you type” option. Click where you want to insert a building block in the document. These corrections are effected as you enter your text. in the “Text” group. in the “Text” group. Creating a Reusable Building Block: Select the text or graphic that you want to store as a reusable building block. As it is typed. Now enter numeric “1st” in the “Replace” box and alphabetic “First” in the “With” box. Click the Office Button. When you can use the mouse to move the insertion point. Using a Building Block: Let us insert this building block into another document. On the “AutoCorrect” tab. The building block is inserted. When you type the digit “1” followed by the alphabets “s” and “t”. Select “AutoText” from the “Gallery” drop-down list. Begin typing the unique name of the building block you created. they are replaced by the text “First”. In the Create New Building Block window. Now try typing the text “HAppy” with two initial capitals. Click “Gallery” to sort by gallery. it is shaped as an I-beam. Click at the point where you wish to position the cursor. click “Quick Parts”. Using AutoComplete: Another useful feature is “AutoComplete”.
click the “Page Layout” tab and select “Line Numbers → Continuous” in the “Page Setup” group. endnote etc. Now enter the line number to which you wish to go and click the “Go To” button. You may navigate to a specific item in your document. To display the line numbers in a document.When you begin typing in the name of a month. 38 | P a g e . Down. This results in a grammatically incorrect sentence. Some of them are as follows: 1. Simply click “OK”. Use the Up. Alternatively you may use the scrollbars on the right and bottom of your screen. These checks are enforced as you enter your text. You can also navigate to a specific page. and then click “Word Options”. using the “Go To” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. section. 4. such as “January”. Right and Left Arrow keys on your keyboard. Your cursor moves to the specified line. Let us move to a specific line number. The green wavy line disappears since the sentence is grammatically correct once again. Once you correct the spelling. Now remove the word “Discounts” from the sentence. Word automatically finishes the name. it is underlined with a red wavy line. On the “Go To” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. Now click “Proofing” and then check the boxes against the spelling and grammar checks you require. Let us leave the default settings. Click the “Home” tab and select “Find” in the “Editing” group. footnote. Automatic Spelling and Grammar checking: Click the Office Button. the wavy line is removed. 3. Navigating a Document There are different ways you can move through your document. Word brings up a little box above the incomplete word. Re-enter “Discounts”. Use the “Ctrl+Home” keys to go to the beginning of the document and the “Ctrl+End” keys to go to the end. If you then press “Enter”. This time. You may also use the “Page Up” and “Page Down” keys on your keyboard. a green wavy underline appears. You can see that as soon as this word is entered. Click “Close” in the “Find and Replace” window. Now enter the sentence “Discounts are available on international tickets” with the word “Discounts” incorrectly spelled. 2. click “Line” in the “Go to what” list.
you may select “Undo” from the Quick Access toolbar or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Z”. Click at the point where you wish to insert the picture. To change the size. you may press "Delete" for characters to the right of the insertion point and "Backspace" for characters to the left. you would like to proof read it for accuracy and completeness and modify or edit the document as needed. Editing a Document After entering the text of a document. Selecting and Deleting Text: In order to delete a section of text. To delete a blank line. For this. Undoing and Redoing Editing Changes: After making some changes. specify your picture and its location and click “Insert”. You can also redo an action that has been undone. Now to undo this action. Working with graphics Inserting Graphics: You now wish to insert a picture of one of the buses of your company along with your company name. The picture now appears in your document.To remove the display of line numbers. To move your 39 | P a g e . Let us insert a picture from an existing file on the hard disk. You may select from the various options available in the “Illustrations” group on the “Insert” tab. click on the picture. you may also use "Ctrl+Delete" for words to the right of the insertion point or "Ctrl+Backspace" for words to the left. location. You can reverse your last action by using the “Undo” command. select “Redo” from the Quick Access Toolbar or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Y”. click on that line and press “Delete”. Click the “Picture” icon. The line is displayed once again. color etc. The line that was displayed is now deleted. In the “Insert Picture” dialog box. Sizing and Moving Graphics: You may change the graphic that you have inserted in respect of size. Point to a handle and drag with your mouse to the size you require. To remove individual characters. To delete an entire word. It is surrounded by eight boxes called “sizing handles”. Select the entire line and press “Delete”. you may decide they are not necessary after all. you may select it and press “Delete”. Let us first delete a line of text. click the “Page Layout” tab and select “Line Numbers → None” in the “Page Setup” group.
The “Print” window is displayed. This is particularly useful for documents which have only a small amount of text on the last page. Under “Print Range”. Zoom: The “Zoom” icon can also be used to specify the zoom percentage. click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. click on the icon below the “Many pages” button and drag towards the right and down. To view a document in the Print Preview mode. Printing a document: There are two ways to print a document: 1. The Zoom level can be adjusted using the slider at the bottom right of the window. In the “Name” field. 40 | P a g e . Drag the slider to the right or left as required. Click the Office Button and select “Print” from the menu. you may select the name of the printer on which you wish to print the document. Previewing and Printing a Document Previewing a document: It is always a good practice to preview your document onscreen before you print it. Let us have a look at few of the basic options you might need to change. In the “Number of copies” box. The preview size will be adjusted accordingly. Two Pages: Click this icon to display two pages in the preview window. To display Multiple Pages. click the “Zoom” icon and select “Many pages”. 2. you may specify how many copies of the document you wish to print. One Page: Click this icon to display one page in the preview window. Shrink One Page: Click this icon to prevent the document from being printed on an additional page.picture. you may specify whether you wish to print the entire document or a specific part. Use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+P”. To specify the number of pages to view. Default settings are displayed which are normally acceptable. place the cursor on the picture and drag with your mouse to the new location. The Print Preview tab appears when you view the current document in the Print Preview mode.
Thesaurus: The “Thesaurus” is a dictionary of synonyms which you can use to find words that are synonymous with a term. They are no longer displayed as spelling mistakes. 41 | P a g e . On the “Review” tab. You may also select “Print→ Quick Print” from the Office Button menu. you may specify how many pages of your document you want printed on a sheet of paper. Click on the correct spelling and then click “Change”. in the “Proofing” group. You may click “Options” in the “Spelling and Grammar” window to specify the spelling and grammar checks that you require. such as proper nouns which are not really errors may be shown as spelling mistakes. click “OK” to print the document. On the “Review” tab. When the checking is completed. you are informed accordingly. in the “Proofing” group. The “Spelling and Grammar” window appears only when a mistake is found. it determines which words in its dictionary are similarly spelled and displays a list of those words in the “Suggestions” box. REVISING AND REFINING A DOCUMENT Revising a Document Spelling and Grammar checking: There are two ways you can do this: 1. 1. 2.Under “Zoom”. It lets you print a document with one click but does not offer the flexibility to specify whether to print all or just part of your document. Some words. select “Thesaurus”. You can see that the incorrect spelling has been corrected. Press “Shift+F7”. You may add these words to the dictionary by clicking the “Add to Dictionary” button. number of copies and other such things. with the most likely match highlighted. 2. Use the keyboard shortcut “F7”. There are two ways to start the thesaurus. When the spelling checker encounters a word it doesn’t recognize. After you have entered your options. in the “Pages per sheet” box. select “Spelling & Grammar”.
the word is inserted at the current cursor position. On the “Home” tab.S. On the “Home” tab. 2. Select “Look Up” to look up further variations of the selected word. The “Cut-Paste” commands involve deleting the section from the document. When you select “Insert”.)” from the dropdown list below. select “Paste”. Select “Thesaurus: English (U. Select “Copy” to copy the word which can be pasted to another location. 2. in the “Clipboard” group. but any existing clipboard contents are overwritten. On the other hand. the “Copy-Paste” commands create a copy at the new location. say “Contact”. Paste: This command is used to insert the contents of the clipboard into the document. Copy and Look Up. Moving and Copying Selections Using Copy: Let us select some text for copying to the clipboard. For this select it and use “Cut” to move the selected section. Then press “Ctrl+V” to paste. In the “Search for:” text box. You may point to a synonym of your choice and specify the action you wish to perform by viewing the drop-down list. You may choose from the options Insert.You now see a panel on the right. Press “Ctrl+C”. You may use any of the following methods for cutting: 1. The contents are inserted at the position of the cursor. You may use any of the following methods: 1. 2. enter your expression. in the “Clipboard” group. Press “Ctrl+X”. select “Cut”. select “Copy”. moving it to the clipboard and then pasting it to a location of your choice. The document itself does not change. in the “Clipboard” group. 42 | P a g e . A list of synonymous terms is displayed. Using Cut and Paste: You may decide to move a section lower down in your document. Any selected text or objects are replaced by the pasted contents. Now move lower down in the document and click where you want to place your selection. On the “Home” tab. Press “Ctrl+V”. You may use any of the following methods for pasting: 1. Click on the arrow to the right of the search box. leaving the original location unchanged.
Now open a second Word document by clicking “New” in the Office Button menu. Finding and Replacing text Finding Text: You may search for a word or phrase in a document. Then. point the mouse to it and drag the pointer to the new location by keeping the mouse button pressed. Alternatively. Click “Create” in the “New Document” window. First. A fixed page break is inserted and the cursor is now at the beginning of the new page. Let us leave our graphic on the first page and display the other text on the next page. Working with Multiple Documents Opening a Second Document: Save the current document by clicking the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. you may need to insert Page Breaks just before them so that they start on a new page. To insert a Page Break. Make it active by clicking on the taskbar. Click “Select” in the “Editing group on the “Home” tab. Click “Select All” from the menu displayed. say “office” and click “Find Next”. This becomes the “active” program. you may use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Enter”. You may now drop the selection by releasing the mouse button. Copy the contents by clicking “Copy” in the “Clipboard” group. Enter some text. place the cursor at the point where you want a new page to begin and click “Page Break” in the “Pages” group of the “Insert” tab. The previous document is the “dormant” program now. The next occurrence of the specified term after the current cursor position is selected. Paste the contents by clicking on “Paste” in the “Clipboard” group of the “Home” tab. A blank document is displayed in a new window. 43 | P a g e . Let us now move the text back to its original location. Select “Find” from the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab or press “Ctrl+F” to display the “Find” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. Move to the new document by clicking on the taskbar. Copying between Documents: The dormant program appears dimmed on the taskbar. Inserting Page Breaks To control document paging so that important titles and headlines appear on the top of the pages. select the item to be copied or moved.Drag and Drop: All Windows applications have the ability to copy or move selections using the “Drag and Drop” feature. Click “Find Next” once again.
Entering the Page Size: To set the Page Size. Modifying Page Layout Changing Margin Settings: To set margins. You may click on any of the 44 | P a g e . say “new office” in the “Replace with” field. Click “OK”. Replace All: You may click this button to replace all occurrences of the search text by the specified new text. Enter the text you wish to find in the “Find what” field and the text with which you wish to replace it. On the “Margins” tab. Position the cursor above your text and select “Date & Time” from the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab.Finding and Replacing: You may search for a word or phrase in a document and replace it by some other text. This updating is seen when you next open your document. Let us change the left and right margins to 4 inches each. check the “Update automatically” box. You may click on any of the available options or click “Custom Margins” to enter your own specifications. select “Size” from the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. you may enter your requirements in one or more of the fields. Replace: You may click this button to replace the next occurrence of the search text by the specified new text. More: You may click this button to specify additional search options. Select from the “Portrait” or “Landscape” options. You can see that your document is displayed with wider side margins. Changing the Orientation: You may orient your document vertically or horizontally by clicking on “Orientation” from the “Page Setup” group of the “Page Layout” tab. Select “Replace” from the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab or press “Ctrl+H” to display the “Replace” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. select “Margins” from the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. A window appears showing the number of replacements made. If you want the date to be automatically updated when the current date changes. Click “Undo” on the Quick Access toolbar to revert to the original margins. Select the format you require. Inserting the Current Date Let us now insert the current date into this document. This function provides many advanced options to help make your search as specific as necessary to find what you are looking for.
On the “Indents & Spacing” tab. You can see that this time. Spacing: You may specify the spacing between paragraphs by adding space above or below selected paragraphs. you may specify your indent requirements in the “Indent Left” and “Indent Right” boxes. If you do not see the horizontal ruler displayed just below the Ribbon. from the drop-down list. Let us learn to set the position of a tab stop in a blank document. On the “Paper” tab. Alternatively. Now enter the text as shown. the distance between the words is as per the new tab stops specified. Setting Tab Stops: A “Tab Stop” is the amount of spacing that is applied each time you press the “Tab” key. Press “Undo” twice on the Quick Access toolbar to remove these indents. you may use the “Decrease Indent” and “Increase Indent” icons in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab for indenting your text. Click “OK” to save your settings. etc. In the “Paragraph” group. You can quickly set tabs by clicking the ruler at the location you want your tab stop. You may also manually set the dimensions you require in the “Width” and “Height” fields. You can also use your mouse to set the tab stops in the “Ruler”. click “Tabs” to display the “Tabs” window. In the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. When more than a single space is required to be inserted between words. pressing the “Tab” key after each word. enter “2 cm” and click “OK”. A5. Paragraph Formatting in detail Indents: Indentation determines the distance of the paragraph from either the left or the right margin. click on the arrow at the bottom right. Select a paragraph of text. This brings up the “Paragraph” window.available options or click “More Paper Sizes” to enter your own specifications. although this method is not as precise. For this use the “Spacing Before” and “Spacing After” boxes in the “Paragraph” group on the “Page Layout” tab. click the “View Ruler” button at the right corner. You can see on the ruler that each word appears at a distance of 2 cm from the other. Now enter the same text pressing the “Tab” key after each word. you may select the paper size from preset formats like A4. Then click on the “Page Layout” tab. Character Formatting in detail 45 | P a g e . In the “Default tab stops” box. it is advisable to use tabs rather than spaces to avoid problems with text alignment.
Numbered lists are normally used to convey a sequence of events. continue numbering or even skip some numbers from the previous list used. You can see that your text is displayed with all capital letters. Let us select “UPPERCASE”. You can see that your mouse pointer changes to a paint brush. Joining and Separating Numbering: You have the option to restart numbering. Format Painter: You can copy the formatting applied to a section of text to another section. Highlighting: Select some text to highlight. This means you may specify which parts you want in capital letters and small letters. Now. You may use a bulleted list or a numbered list. click on the arrow next to the “Numbering” icon in the “Paragraph” group of the “Home” tab and select a numbering style. select it and click on the “Format Painter” icon on the “Home” tab in the “Clipboard” group. Click on the arrow next to the “Text Highlight Color” icon in the “Font” group and select a color. Bulleted lists are normally used to list logically related information. You may specify effects for your text by checking the boxes against the effects you require on the “Font” tab. the document will lose its clarity regarding the main information that it is meant to convey. click on the “Change Case” icon from the “Font” group. This brings up the “Font” window. you may decide to go in for a numbered list. Numbered List: Alternatively. So you may use a “Hyperlink”. Your text now appears as a bulleted list. Also. Creating Lists You may want to display the information about the special offers that you have entered as an itemized list so that it stands out from the rest of the text. Select the text “Time Table”. Simply right-click on the number and select from the options “Restart at”. Now to copy the formatting of this text. Effects: On the “Home tab. A hyperlink is a connection to a location in the current 46 | P a g e . Giving all this information in a single document will crowd the document. First. click on the arrow at the bottom right. Bulleted List: Select your text and then click on the arrow next to the “Bullets” icon in the “Paragraph” group of the “Home” tab and select a bullet style. In that case. Using Hyperlinks Inserting Hyperlinks: You now want to give information related to the different routes and their timings. in the “Font” group. Now. “Continue Numbering” or “Set Numbering Value”.Changing the capitalization of text: You may change a portion of text in respect of case. You may select an option from the menu displayed. drag it over the text to which you wish to apply the same format. let us change the font color of a section of text.
You now wish to insert a banner at the bottom of your document. 47 | P a g e . A hyperlink may be in the form of text or a graphic. we shall use the text “Time Table” as a hyperlink. Let us insert a hyperlink to another document called “time_table. You may format the text by selecting it and using the mini toolbar displayed. make a selection from the “Shape Style” group.docx”. Under “Stars and Banners” select the “Double Wave” banner. To make this banner more attractive. Now enter your text. There are two ways to insert a hyperlink: 1. When you press the “Ctrl” key and click on this text. You may use the sizing handles to modify the size of the shape. Use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+K”.document. Click “OK”. Let us add some text to this banner. right-click on it and select “Remove Hyperlink”. Place the cursor in your document at the point where you wish to insert the hyperlink. another document or to a Web site. click “Current Folder” and then click on “time_table. In this case. Click “Shapes” in the “Illustrations” group on the “Insert” tab to display the various shapes that you can use. Inserting Shapes Word offers many predefined shapes that you can insert into your document.docx” which contains the complete time table. Removing Hyperlinks: To remove the hyperlink while retaining the text. Click the “Hyperlink” icon in the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. You now see that the hyperlink text is underlined. 2. This document exists in the same folder as your document. Because you wish to create a link to another document. The Print Preview tab appears when you view the current document in the Print Preview mode. To view a document in the Print Preview mode. Drag your mouse to create your shape of the size you wish. click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. You may also drag to place the shape at another location. Editing while previewing Now you will preview your document to see if any changes are required. Select this text. Right click on the banner and select “Add Text”. you can view the time table document. Use any of them to display the “Insert Hyperlink” window.
Click on the page you wish to magnify to see it in normal size. in the “Paragraph” group.When the mouse pointer moves over the document it is shaped as a magnifying glass with a plus sign. The mouse pointer changes to an “I” beam. Different items are indented to represent their level in a document’s structure. select “Object” from the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. Click “OK” in the “Object” window. click the “Multilevel List” icon and select a list style. You can easily change the level of an item in the hierarchy by simply increasing or decreasing the indent by using the “Tab” or “Backspace” keys respectively. You may create a new object to insert or insert an existing one from a file. Check the box against “Link to file” if you want your document to be updated whenever the file containing the inserted object is edited. When you wish to edit the document. Let us insert an existing spreadsheet created using Microsoft Excel. You may now save your changes. Creating a multilevel list: Click where you want to begin your list. uncheck the box against the “Magnifier” button in the “Preview” group on the Print Preview tab. Inserting Objects You may insert external objects such as pictures. Check the box against “Display as icon” if you want to display your object as an icon. For this. This indicates that you can now make changes to the text. Saving to a New Folder 48 | P a g e . Make your changes and then click “Close Print Preview” to close the preview window. Now enter your list. Now click “Insert”. It makes the hierarchy of items in a document very clear and easy to understand. click on the “Create from File” tab. You see that the object is now a part of your document Using Additional Word Features Creating Multilevel Lists A multilevel list shows the list items at different levels rather than at one level. a spreadsheet or even another word document into your current document. In the “Object” window. You can edit the object later using the application which created the source file. On the “Home” tab. Use the “Tab” key to go to the next level and “Shift+Tab” to move up one level. Click “Browse” and navigate to the file you wish to insert. video clips. Click again to see it in a compressed size.
you sometimes notice that many spelling and grammar errors are indicated by red and green wavy lines. and then click “Word Options”. The new folder is created as a subfolder in the active directory. Using Click and Type: On a new blank page. They are mostly for words that are not in the dictionary. 2. make appropriate changes in the “File name” field and then click “Save”. Type the name of the new folder in the “Name” field in the “New Folder” window and press “Enter”. You can still run spelling and grammar checks manually by using functions like “Spelling & Grammar” on the “Review” tab at any time you wish. Click “New Folder”. The chart displayed in the figure lists the different pointer shapes and formatting that is applied. 3.Next. the I-beam pointer displays an icon indicating the formatting that will be applied when you double-click at that location. The red and green wavy lines are no longer displayed. you will save the multilevel list you have created in a folder on your disk. Hiding Spelling and Grammar When you go through a document. Click the Office button and select “Save As”. Press “Save” to save your file with the same name in the new folder. Your document is now saved in the newly created folder. Enter the appropriate location where you wish to place the file in the “Save in” field. If you wish to change your file name. Move the mouse pointer across the page and observe the change in it. At the bottom of the window. Now click “Proofing”. Formatting Documents Automatically There are two ways in which you can format your document automatically. You may turn off the display of these errors if you do not wish to be distracted as you work. 49 | P a g e . You can create a new folder at the time you save a file. Click the Office Button. You will use this folder to hold related files. As you move the mouse pointer over different areas. check the boxes against “Hide spelling errors in this document only” and “Hide grammar errors in this document only” and click “OK”. The steps to save the file are: 1. switch to the Print Layout view by selecting “Print Layout” from the “Document Views” group on the “View” tab.
You would need to update your table of contents. in the “Table of Contents” group. you may apply styles “Heading2” and “Heading3” to subsequent heading levels. Click “Insert Table of Contents” at the bottom of the window that comes up. You may now press the “Ctrl” key and click on any heading to move to the related content in your document. the topics that are included in the document and makes it easier to locate information. avoiding the need to enter blank lines. Select “Update entire table” and click “OK”. The “Update Table of Contents” window is displayed. Applying Styles: This is the second way in which you can format your document automatically. Similarly. Let us create a Table of Contents for the document you created in the previous assignment. You can now see “Region 3” in the table of contents. To see the complete list of styles click on the arrow at the bottom of the “Styles” group. Select the main heading. For now. It shows you at a glance. Place the cursor at the beginning of the document. graphics or other items in a blank area of a document. On the “Home” tab. You may choose to update page numbers only or the entire table. Simply click “OK”. A particular style can be applied to a heading or any other text to improve its appearance or make it stand out clearly. Click on the “Table of Contents” tab. select “Update Table”. The “Table of Contents” window appears. Formatting a Document Section 50 | P a g e . in the “Table of Contents” group. let us apply different styles to different heading levels. Creating a Table of Contents A Table of Contents is a listing of the topics that appear in a document with their associated page references. select “Table of Contents”. In the document displayed.You can use this method to quickly insert text. in the “Styles” group select the “Heading1” style. You can see in the displayed document that “Region 3” is not displayed in the table of contents. it is best to use the default settings. This style is now applied to your selected text. You may enter your specifications here. On the “References” tab. Doubleclick at the center of the document. On the “References” tab. Your table of contents is ready. Click on a style to apply it to the selected text. Updating the Table of Contents Updating the Table of Contents: You may introduce new headings or move certain information to another page in your document at a later stage. You can now enter text which will be formatted as per the pointer shape. This makes your document attractive as well as clear.
ensure that “This section” is selected in the “Apply to” field. In the “Page Setup” window. Type your footnote. A footnote or an endnote consists of two linked parts — the note reference mark and the corresponding note text. Deleting the text in the note does not delete the note. Endnotes: You may insert endnotes in the same way using the “Insert Endnote” button in the “Footnotes” group on the “References” tab. Let us consider the document we had created earlier. Adding Bookmarks 51 | P a g e . position your cursor at the text you want the footnote to appear. meanings of difficult words are given in the form of footnotes. Footnotes appear at the end of each page and endnotes appear at the end of the document. Click on the arrow at the bottom right of the “Page Setup” group. Using Footnotes and Endnotes Footnotes or Endnotes are used to explain. select “Breaks” from the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. change the left margin to “5”. You can see that the text in the section after the cursor position gets indented as per the new left margin. Deleting a Footnote or Endnote: When you want to delete a note. “Odd Page” or “Even Page” starts the section on the next odd or even numbered page. Inserting a Footnote: To insert a footnote. Let us select “Continuous”. Under “Preview”. location and format by clicking on the arrow at the bottom right of the “Footnotes” group. “Next Page” moves the section to the new page. select the type of section break you wish. “Continuous” creates the section at the cursor position. comment on. To insert a section in your document. you can create sections within the document and apply the formatting to the required section. Select “Insert Footnote” from the “Footnotes” group on the “References” tab. Sometimes. Under “Section Breaks”. Click “OK”. simply delete the note reference mark in the document window. Position your cursor before the first point. right-click the footnote and select “Go to Footnote” to take you back to the insertion point in the main body so you can continue working on your document. Formatting a section: Let us now make some changes to the section that you have created. When you are done. A reference mark is inserted at the point you selected and you are taken to the bottom of the page. or provide references for text in a document. To do so. You may make changes to your footnotes and endnotes in respect of numbering.You may need to apply specific formatting to only a part of your document.
Move your mouse over the various options under “With Text Wrapping” and click on your choice. In contrast to hyperlinks. click on it and then click on the “Format” tab under “Picture Tools”. Moving to a specific bookmark: Select “Bookmark” from the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. It identifies a location in the document or a selection of text that you name for future reference. Showing Bookmarks: Click the Office Button. Select “Insert Caption” from 52 | P a g e . check the box against “Show bookmarks” and click “OK”. You can define the wrapping style around an object. Click on the figure you want to refer to. Your text now appears by the side of the picture.A Bookmark is used to mark a certain location in a document. in the “Arrange” group. Deleting a Bookmark: To delete a bookmark. drawing or object in your document or type some text around it. Referencing Figures Setting References: A cross-reference is a reference from one part of a document to related information in another part. enter a name for your bookmark and click “Add”. but not among multiple documents. This caption will be used for reference. Under “Show document content”. Changing the Object Position: Click on the picture. If you have assigned a bookmark to an item. Click “Close” in the “Bookmark” window. Clicking on the reference takes you to the referred location in the document. Your cursor now moves to the bookmark location. Click on the bookmark and then click “Go To”. You must now add a caption to this figure. You can also set cross-references to the captions of charts and tables. Adding a Bookmark: You now wish to insert a bookmark before the text “Contact Us”. and then click “Word Options”. Wrapping text around graphics: To change the way text wraps around the picture. the bookmark appears in brackets on the screen. you may need to change the position of a graphic. Under “Picture Tools”. Click on the bookmark and then click “Delete”. references allow you to move within a document. In the “Bookmark” window. Then select “Bookmark” from the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. Select “Text Wrapping” in the “Arrange” group and choose a suitable option from the ones displayed. select “Bookmark” from the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. If you have assigned a bookmark to a location. the bookmark appears as an Ibeam. on the “Format” tab. You first must define a reference target for the cross-reference. select “Position”. Click before this text. Formatting Picture Layout Sometimes. Now click “Advanced”.
You see that the data has been moved to the right and a new blank column has been inserted. say “For your information. Select some cells which you would like to shift. select the position of the caption and press “OK”. Similarly. Your table is displayed on the screen. To insert multiple rows or columns. Creating a Simple Table A table is used to organize information into an easy-to-read format of horizontal rows and vertical columns. Now let us insert a cross-reference for this reference. Click “OK”. In the “Insert Cells” window. In the “Caption” window. In the “Cross-reference” window.the “Captions” group on the “References” tab. You may drag with your mouse to specify the dimensions of the table or click “Insert Table”. Position your cursor at an appropriate location. 53 | P a g e . Shifting Cells: You may shift a few cells or a complete row or column. select “Figure” as “Reference type” and “Entire Caption” as “Insert reference to” from the respective drop-down lists. This displays the caption near your text. enter the Table size in respect of number of rows and columns. select “Shift Cells Right” and click “OK”. enter your caption. click in the table. Entering data: Click on a cell and enter your data. Press “Tab” to move to the next cell. Inserting a Table: To insert a table. Sizing a table: To quickly change the overall table size. Moving a table: To move your table. Now click “Close”. select “Table” in the “Tables” group on the “Insert tab. Under “Table Tools”. select “Insert Above” to insert a row above the current row. click on the “Layout” tab. Select “Cross-reference” from the “Captions” group on the “References” tab. Enter your text. place the cursor on the top left corner and drag with your mouse to the new location. Inserting additional rows and columns: To insert additional rows or columns at a later stage.This handle appears whenever the mouse pointer rests over the table. Click on the arrow at the bottom right of the “Rows & Columns” group. “Insert Left” inserts a column to the left and “Insert Right” inserts a column to the right. We have created a table with 2 rows and 5 columns. Under “For which caption:” click on the appropriate caption and then click “Insert”. You may now press the “Ctrl” key and click on the caption to see the captioned picture. In the “Insert Table” window. see “. Select “Insert Below” to insert a row below the current row. In the “Rows & Columns” group. select the same number of rows or columns required to be inserted and then click on the appropriate icon. drag the resize handle at the bottom right corner of the table to an appropriate location.
You can see that the data in the table is now sorted by Coach Number. you may select the options that you want. click the “Design” tab. select the text and then click the “Sort” icon in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. Click in the table. Move the pointer over the table until you see a four headed arrow at the top left corner. on the “Layout” tab. The available auto formats consist of a combination of fonts. Click in the table. Sorting Data Word can quickly sort text. and use the different formatting options from the “Home” tab. patterns. click the arrow next to the “Borders” icon and select “Borders and Shading”. in the “Data” group. borders and alignment settings. Inserting a Header: Let us now add a header to the document you created previously. For now. except that the formatting affects the selected cells only. let us leave the default options in the “Sort Text” window unchanged. Let us center the text in the first column of the table displayed. Simply click “OK” to see a sorted list. Let us let the displayed field “Coach Number” remain as the field to sort by.Formatting a table: This is similar to formatting a document. Using table Styles: A quicker way of applying formats to a table automatically is to use the Table Styles offered by Word. For this click on the arrow next to the “Borders” icon and select “No Border”. In the window that comes up. Sorting a List: The “Sort” feature and various sorting options can also be used for non-tabled text. colors. 54 | P a g e . click “Select”. Under “Table Tools”. Click it to select the table. and then click “Select Table”. In the “Table Styles” group. The same header and footer can be used throughout the document or different ones can be used in different sections. In the “Table” group. For this. You may select the cells. click the “Design” tab. Select the first column and click the “Center” icon in the “Paragraph” group Borders: You may specify the border style for your table. Now let us remove the borders of the table. Inserting Headers and Footers Headers and footers provide information that typically appears at the top and bottom of each page in a document and helps the reader to locate information in a document. In the “Table Styles” group. click “Sort”. click the Layout tab. click on your choice in the “Style” box. Under “Table Tools”. In the “Sort” window. data or numbers according to specified criteria in ascending or descending order. Let us sort data contained in the time table document displayed. you may make your selection. Click “OK”. Now. under “Table Tools”. Under “Table Tools”.
You may recall that you 55 | P a g e . and then click “Word Options”. This is because all three words have been entered by applying a specific style. Now click “Close Header and Footer” on the “Design” tab under “Header & Footer Tools”. Now click “Close Header and Footer” on the “Design” tab and scroll down to see your footer. A list of header styles is displayed. Respond appropriately to any other located errors. The header area becomes active. From the list displayed. Inserting the Page Number: You may insert the page number and the total number of pages in your document on every page of your document at a position of your choice. Word indicates formatting inconsistencies with a blue wavy underline. select the word “North”. right-click on it and select “Styles → Select Text with Similar Formatting”. Click the “Spelling & Grammar” icon in the “Proofing” group on the “Review” tab. You now see the page number and number of pages displayed at the bottom right of the page. You can see the words “East” and “West” highlighted as well. Select “Footer” in the “Header & Footer” group on the “Insert” tab and select the style “Blank (Three Columns)”. If the Format Consistency Checker finds at least two instances of a scheme that are identical. Under “Editing options”. it offers you the opportunity to make all similar formatting schemes identical to the format scheme that occurs most frequently. you may like to check it in respect of spelling and grammar as well as formatting consistency. if any. click the Office Button. Click “Close Header and Footer” on the “Design” tab. Now click “Advanced”. special terms and abbreviations. Now click on “Bottom of Page”. The footer area becomes active. Checking the document After your document is ready. Checking Formatting Inconsistencies: To turn on this feature. Press the “Tab” key twice and enter the name of your company in the header area. Inserting the page number at the bottom of the page overwrites a previously inserted footer. scroll down and click on “Bold Numbers 3”. Click in the first placeholder and enter the word “Comfort”. inserting the page number at the top of the page overwrites a previously inserted header. select “Page Number” in the “Header & Footer” group on the “Insert” tab.Select “Header” in the “Header & Footer” group on the “Insert” tab. if any. Enter the words “Style” and “Economy” in the second and third placeholders in the same way. Inserting a Footer: You may insert a “Footer” in the same way as the header. For this. It identifies different formatting schemes that are very similar to each other. Click on the first one. check the boxes against “Keep track of formatting” and “Mark formatting inconsistencies” and then click “OK”. Similarly. In the document displayed. Choose “Ignore All” for all proper names. Now.
Click “More Columns” to display the “Columns” window. narrow columns help the reader read the articles more quickly. Changing the Display of the Document Creating Newsletter Style Columns A newsletter is a common application for newspaper columns. Let us select “Two” as the number of columns under “Presets”. by using the format “3-6. The default column style is one column across the full width of the page. Pages: You may use this option to print only the pages that you specify in the “Pages” field. select “All” to print the entire document. 10. To print only selected pages in your document.learnt about applying styles in the assignment titled “Formatting Documents Automatically”. To print single pages. You may apply these column settings to the whole or part of the document. In a newsletter. Selection: You may use this option to print only the selected areas or objects in the current document. you need to click the Office Button and select “Print” from the menu. If you want. 12”. 11”. You may click on the number of columns you require. You may select other settings for the size and display of the columns under “Width and spacing”. the word “South” has been entered using the size and font of an existing style without applying the style. Under “Print Range”. The “Print” window is displayed. Select the text that you wish to display in columnar format. You may choose to ignore or remove the inconsistency from the different options displayed. Your text is displayed in columnar format. In the document displayed. you can print a combination of page ranges and single pages. Using Word Art 56 | P a g e . use the format “7. 8. To print a range of pages. use the format “3-6”. Right click on this underline to display formatting suggestions. Then. select “Columns” in the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. Click “OK”. you may use either the “Current page” or “Pages” option under “Print Range”. 9. Printing Selected Pages You know that to print a document. Click “OK” to print your document.
The symbol is inserted at the current cursor position. You can see that your text has been adjusted accordingly. click on the left side of the displayed box. click on “Spacing” in the “Text” group. The names and 57 | P a g e . In this way. you may enhance your WordArt text. Let us use a drop cap in our document. typically a file of names and addresses with a document to create new documents. select “WordArt”. To change the direction of the 3-D effect. To select an effect. Then set the “Lines to drop” field as “2”. click “3-D Effects”. The “WordArt Gallery” is displayed. Click “OK” to display the drop cap in your document. You may change the font. Leave them unchanged for now. 3-D Effects: You may apply 3-D effects to your WordArt text. Click on “Dropped” under “Position”. covering several lines. font size and font style if you wish. Then select “Drop Cap” in the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. in the “Text” group. Select the text “Special Offers”. Then click “OK”. Spacing: To modify the spacing between the characters of the WordArt. The “Edit WordArt Text” window is displayed. select “Symbol” in the “Symbols” group on the “Insert” tab. Click “More Symbols” to display the “Symbol” window. Select the first letter “C” from the list of offers. You may also specify the font and the distance of the drop cap from your text. On the “Symbols” tab. Now select “Tight”.WordArt is used to enhance your documents by changing the shape of text and adding special effects such as 3-D and shadows. Let us use WordArt to enhance the heading of the document created. On the “Insert” tab. Inserting Symbols To insert Symbols or Special Characters in your document. On the “Format” tab. Using Mail Merge Using Mail Merge The Mail Merge feature combines a list of data. click on a symbol of your choice and click “Insert”. Click “Drop Cap Options” to display the “Drop Cap” window. click “3-D Effects” once again and click the appropriate “Tilt” button on the right side of the displayed box. Adding a Drop Cap Drop caps are the first character/s at the beginning of a paragraph that are enlarged. Then click “Close”. Click on a style. Click on the “Format” tab under “WordArt Tools” to modify the WordArt as per your requirements.
The "New Address List" window is displayed. select "Use the current document". Starting the Wizard: Select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. Enter your file name. Make sure to insert a space between each field. Click "More items" to display the "Insert Merge Field" window. First Name and Last Name of the first person. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. You wish to mail your document about special offers to a large number of people. Enter the Title. Enter a space. After you are done. your letters to everyone are ready. Selecting the starting document: Now. Click "New Entry" to add subsequent entries. Click "Next" to complete the merge. A wizard guides you and in a few steps. 58 | P a g e . click "OK". Click "OK" in the "Mail Merge Recipients" window. then on "Insert". say "List1" and click "Save". Inserting Fields: Now. Let us add the text at the beginning of our document as shown. Set the document type to "Letters" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. Select "Type a new list" and then click "Create". since you are ready with your letter. You may make your selections from the windows that are displayed. click "Next" Creating a List: Let us create a list of people we wish to send our document to. you may add the items that you wish to be incorporated in it. Click "Next". Now click "Close".addresses are entered (merged) into the document in the blank spaces provided. Now. Similarly. Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. Click after the word "Dear". enter the fields First Name and Last Name. We are now ready to insert the field names. you want to create labels for the envelopes. This is very simple using Word’s Mail Merge feature. A personal touch can be added by addressing each person by his individual name at the top of the document. Use the right and left arrows to preview letters to the others. Printing or Editing Letters: You may now click "Print" to print your letters or click "Edit individual letters" to make changes to any letter. Printing Mailing Labels Now that your letters are ready. The "Save Address List" window appears. You see that the field names are now inserted in your document. The result is a personalized letter. Previewing Letters: You now see a preview of the letter to the first person on your list. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". Click on Title.
For now. Now click “Close”. Similarly. Then click "Next". Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. click "OK". After you are done. Press “Enter” after the Last Name field to bring the Address Line 1 to the next line. Address Line 2 and City. Inserting Fields: Now. Last Name. then on "Insert". Enter the Address Line 1. Arranging Fields: Let us now arrange the fields. Now click "Label options". Printing or Editing Labels: You may now click "Print" to print your labels or click "Edit individual labels" to make changes to any label. Set the document type to "Labels" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. Click on the name of the list in the box at the bottom and then click "Edit". Here. The "Label Options" window is displayed. Select "Use an existing list" and then click "Browse". Address Line 2 and City fields for all the people in the list. Use the right and left arrows to move between labels. you may select the type of printer. enter the fields First Name. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". navigate to the location of your list. The default location is the sub folder “My Data Sources” in the “Documents” folder. Then insert a space before each field in the first line. Click on the Title field. In the "Select Data Source" window. Similarly.Starting the Wizard: In a new blank Word document. Click "Update all labels". select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. Selecting Recipients: You have a list of people you wish to send your document to. Let us now include address details. You see that the field names are inserted in your document. Click on your list "List1" in the appropriate location and then click "Open". the type of label product. Replicating Labels: You may copy the layout of the first label to the other labels. Click "Next" to complete the merge. move the Address Line 2 and City fields to the following lines. and the product number. Previewing Labels: You now see a preview of the labels. Now click “OK” and then click "Next". Address Line 1. Click “Yes” to confirm the address details in the window that comes up. Click "More items" to display the "Insert Merge Field" window. The "Mail Merge Recipients" window is displayed. select “Formtec” in the “Label vendors” box and "Formtec AT-7210" under Product Number and click "OK". Preparing and Printing Envelopes 59 | P a g e . Click "Next". you may add the names and address details on the labels.
In the “Insert Address Block” window. simply click “OK”. On the "Envelope options" tab. You can use the Mail Merge task pane to create a group email distribution. Un-check the boxes in front of the names for which you do not want envelopes and then click "OK". Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. Starting the Wizard: Select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. You may specify different settings related to the appearance and printing of the envelope on the "Envelope options" and "Printing options" tabs. click on "List1" and then click "Open". You may use "More items" to insert any individual items you wish. Click "Address block". Selecting Recipients: You already have a list of people. you make changes as required. Set the document type to "E-mail messages" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". browse to the location of your list. click "Next". Use the right and left arrows to preview other envelopes. Select "Use an existing list" and then click "Browse". Click “Next”. Set the document type to " Envelopes" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. For this. This directly inserts all address fields on your envelope. your system must include a compatible e-mail program. The "Envelope Options" window is displayed. Now click "Envelope options". 60 | P a g e . Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right.Sometimes. as you did for labels. Previewing Envelopes: You now see a preview of the first envelope. such as Microsoft Outlook. Now click "Next". The "Mail Merge Recipients" window is displayed. Let us make envelopes for some of them. Printing or Editing Envelopes: You may now click "Print" to print your envelopes or click "Edit individual envelopes" to make changes to any envelope. In the "Select Data Source" window. select an appropriate Envelope size and click "OK". select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. Click "Next" to complete the merge. Arranging your envelope: Let us use the "Address block" feature. you may want to quickly address a single envelope instead of printing and pasting a label. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. Starting the Wizard: In a new blank Word document. For now. Merging for sending E-mails using Outlook You may also want to e-mail your document so as to reach out to a larger number of people. Now.
Inserting Fields: Now. special formatting and styles. click “Installed Templates” to see a list of templates. Selecting Recipients: You already have a list of people. then on "Insert". Click "Next" to complete the merge. click "Next". Now click "Next". Let us use this list. The "Merge to E-mail" window is displayed. select the mail format you want to use. menus. click on "List1" and then click "Open". Click "More items" to display the "Insert Merge Field" window. Now click "Close". In the "Subject line" field. click "Next". 61 | P a g e . key assignments. Click on First Name. Then click "OK". In the "Select Data Source" window. type the subject line you want to use for all the messages. Use the right and left arrows to preview other messages. you may add the items that you wish to be incorporated in it. click "OK". A new document is displayed with pre-defined settings. verify that "Email_Address" is displayed. Then. Sending mails: You may now click "Electronic Mail" to send your e-mails. You may use any of the standard templates provided by Microsoft Word for your document such as Resumes. Using Standard Templates Using a Template from Word Every Microsoft Word document is based on a template. since you are ready with your message. select "Use the current document". You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. Just ensure that you have entered the e-mail addresses of the people on the list. Selecting the Template type: Click on the “Equity Letter” template and then press the “Create” button. Replace body text with your own text. Now. Previewing your messages: You now see a preview of the first e-mail message. Under "Send records”. Click after the word "Dear". In the "Mail Merge Recipients" window. page layout. Enter a space. In the right left panel. under “Templates”. Select "Use an existing list" and then click "Browse".Selecting the starting document: Now. Adding details: Just click on the parts marked in square brackets and enter your details. Brochures and Reports. Let us create a new document based on an existing template. A template determines the basic structure for a document and contains document settings such as fonts. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". select the records you want to merge. browse to the location of your list. In the "To" field. In the "Mail format" field. Click the Office Button and select “New” from the menu. You may make changes if required.
before you can start using some languages on your computer. click “Control Panel Home”. If you see the “Classic View” displayed. Finally.Saving the document: You may save this file just like a normal document. Now click “Word Document”. In the “Save As” window. Using a Configured Language in Word Start the Microsoft Word application. In the “Add Input Language” window. Now start typing your text. and Region” option of the “Control Panel”. you see a list of languages that Windows Vista has been configured to use. SPREADSHEET Overview of Excel Introduction You have recently accepted a new job as an Administrative Assistant with All Saints High School. click “Change keyboards or other input methods” under “Clock. enter “Special Package” in the “File name” field and click “Save”. In the box at the bottom. click “OK” in the “Regional and Language Options” window. click “Apply” and then “OK” in the “Text Services and Input Languages” window. Now click “Change keyboards”. Then click “Control Panel”. In the “General” tab of the “Text Services and Input Languages” window. Click on the “EN” icon on the taskbar. Click on the plus sign in front of “Arabic (Saudi Arabia)”. click the Office Button and then click the “Exit Word” button at the bottom right. You can see that your text appears in the new language. Word Processing in Other Languages Language Settings in Windows Vista Setting a language for the Windows Vista operating system: By default Windows Vista does not support entry in certain languages. Language. the box at the top displays the default input language. Click the Office Button and click on the arrow next to “Save As”. Your document is created based on the template you selected. Click “Add” to add a new language. Language. Check the box next to the first keyboard type and click “OK”. you must configure Windows Vista to be able to use fonts specific to those languages. and Region” This displays the “Keyboards and Languages” tab of the “Regional and Language Options” window. Click on the “Arabic” language in the window that comes up. Currently the school records are maintained on paper 62 | P a g e . You can do this by configuring the language settings in the “Clock. To exit the Word application. let us add the Arabic language as an example. Now. Now. Click on the “Start” button. Hence. Now click on the plus sign in front of the word “Keyboard” displayed below it.
and unwanted data can be deleted. change. You will prepare the Exam Record of students in Microsoft Excel 2007. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Excel 2007”. It is mainly used for different type of calculations varying from very simple to complex.You can create charts to represent data more effectively. and is part of the Microsoft Office suite. Microsoft Excel is the world’s most widely-used spreadsheet program. new data can be added. You are responsible for maintaining the exam records of all students.All data is stored in the computer. whole or part of the spreadsheet can be printed. it still takes time to manually leaf through the folders to locate the information you need. . The school has purchased new computers and it plans to computerize all administrative operations. calculate and analyze data. Although the information is well organized. . update and delete data with a few keystrokes. It consists of three main parts: 1) The Office Button 2) The Quick Access toolbar 3) The Ribbon 63 | P a g e . . . consisting of rows and columns. The Microsoft Office user interface is uniform across most of its components.forms and stored in file cabinets organized alphabetically. A spreadsheet is like an accountant’s ledger. The User Interface The User Interface is the way in which you interact with your computer.It is very easy to manage. Whenever a hard copy is required. An electronic spreadsheet or worksheet is made up of rows and columns. therefore there is no paper used. since you can add. Features of Microsoft Excel 2007 Features of Microsoft Excel 2007: .It is a general purpose electronic spreadsheet used to organize.You can create well-designed spreadsheets that produce accurate and professional-looking results. filled with numerical or textual data. To start the Microsoft Excel application. This data can be edited.
The “Formulas” tab helps you build useful formulas that can resolve a great deal of problems. and hyperlinks. You will gradually learn to use the commands on all the tabs. filtering. The “View” tab lets you select from a variety of viewing options. The Quick Access toolbar: This appears to the right of the Office Button near the top of the screen. It also includes tools for dealing with large amounts of information. and Redo.The Office Button: This appears at the top-left corner of your screen. It is designed to put your most commonly used commands in a place where you can always find them. like sorting. and closing a file. The “Page Layout” tab helps you in getting your worksheet ready for the printer. The “Insert” tab lets you add special ingredients like tables. The Ribbon: The Ribbon is a component of the Office Fluent user interface. The “Data” tab lets you get information from an outside source for analysis. The “Review” tab contains proofing tools like spell check. and searching for important pieces of information with search tools. printing. charts. The following Ribbon tabs are displayed in Excel: The “Home” tab has some of the most commonly used buttons. and other page settings. and grouping. For more details on the Microsoft Office User Interface. It consists of:a) Task-oriented tabs. It also enables you to view several separate Excel spreadsheet files at the same time. like those for cutting and pasting information. paper orientation. Undo. It also has buttons that let you add comments to a worksheet and manage revisions. c) Command buttons in each group that carry out a command or display a menu of commands. You can specify margins. graphics. saving. displaying icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. b) Groups within each tab that break a task into subtasks. please refer to the following: Topic: Word Processing Lab: Creating and Editing a Document 64 | P a g e . Clicking the Office Button displays the “File” menu. This contains commands for opening. formatting your data.
AB. Microsoft Office Excel 2007 supports up to 1 million rows and 16 thousand columns per worksheet.… AA. up or down. You can use the arrow keys to move left. Microsoft Excel automatically recalculates formulas when the cells that the formula depends on have changed. Specifically. Cell address: The address of a cell is made up of two parts – the column name and the row number. The intersection of a row and a column is called a cell. 65 | P a g e . you need to click the worksheet tabs. a single file or document is called a workbook. To enter data in a cell. Each cell has its own address called the cell address.Assignment: The User Interface Workbooks and Worksheets In Microsoft Excel 2007. By default. A special feature of Excel is “AutoCalculate”. Excel also calculates workbooks each time they are opened. Suppose you want to refer to a cell in the third row and fifth column.The number of the third row is obviously 3 and the name of the fifth column is E. To view the part of the worksheet that is currently not visible. To enable you to explore massive amounts of data in worksheets.048. the reference or address of the active cell appears in the Name Box.576 rows by 16. C. BB. Each worksheet can be used to organize different types of related information. BA. B. The simplest way is to click the cell that you want to activate with the mouse. Navigating the Excel Worksheet There are several methods for navigating a worksheet. …AZ. the Excel 2007 grid is 1. chart sheets containing graphic pictures of your worksheet data. To move among the worksheets in your workbook. use the vertical scroll bar on the right edge of the window or horizontal scroll bar at the bottom of the window. The worksheet is divided into a grid of rows and columns.… XFD and the rows are numbered from one onwards. you must first move to the cell. right. There are some keyboard shortcuts to navigate within the worksheet. It contains a collection of one or more worksheets and. As you move from one cell to another.384 columns which works out to more than 17 billion cells. At the bottom of the workbook window are tabs that give you instant access to other worksheets in the workbook. The columns are named as A. optionally. the address of that cell will be E3.
you can enter data in it. CREATING AND EDITING Creating a New Workbook When you first start Excel. When you finish entering data in one column. Click the Office Button and select “New”. To activate a particular cell. Now click “Create” in the “New Workbook” window. a new blank Excel workbook is opened. A template is a file that is provided by the application in a “ready to use” form. There is another way to create a new blank worksheet. Entering and Editing Data After you are presented with a blank worksheet. The cell pointer will move down one row. It includes predefined settings that can be used as a pattern to create many different types of workbooks. For example a Sales Report. A template file has an extension “. It is here that you will be entering the data. Type the address of the cell you want to make active and click “OK”. Click in cell A1 to activate it and type ‘Roll_No’ and press “Enter” to complete the entry. click in the cell you want to begin. To select a group of cells.Page Up and Page Down keys can be used to move up or down one screen .Use “Ctrl+Home” to go the cell A1 and .Use the Home key to move to column A of the current row . Continue typing the data in column A as shown in the accompanying figure. To enter data. 66 | P a g e . drag your cursor and release it when you have reached the end of the selection.“Ctrl+End” to go to the cell in the last row and last column that contains data.. the same default settings are used.xltx”. Expense Statement. activate cell B1 and repeat the same procedure as you did for column A. Template: You may also create a new workbook using a template. You can also design and create your own workbook templates. move to a cell where you want to enter data and type the entry using the keyboard. Balance Sheet. etc. use the F5 function key or press “Ctrl+G”. Whenever you create a new workbook using a template.
To remove individual characters. To adjust the height of the formula box. move your mouse over the bottom of the formula box until the pointer changes to a vertical twoheaded arrow and then drag with your mouse to where you want it. You may wish to change only a part of the text in a cell. a checkmark and an "X" icon appear just to the left of the box. This is particularly useful when a cell contains a large amount of information. you can also resize the name box. if you make a typing mistake. To adjust the width of the name box move your mouse between the name box and the formula box until the pointer changes to a horizontal two-headed arrow and then drag with your mouse to where you want it. or "X" to roll it back. The shape of the cursor will change to a double sided arrow pointing to the right and left. You can use the formula bar to enter and edit data. column C. you will see that the data overflows into the next column. Click the checkmark to confirm your entry. We will see later on.While entering the data in the “Name” column. use the “Backspace” key on the keyboard to erase the wrong character typed and continue typing. press "Delete" for characters to the right of the insertion point and "Backspace" for characters to the left. Leave it as it is for now. Place the mouse on the boundary between the columns. Now move the cursor to the point at which you want to edit the text. you can adjust the size of the formula box in the formula bar. The “Delete” key on the keyboard can be used to clear the contents of a cell. You may make the changes you require. You can also click and drag the mouse to adjust the width of the column. Changing Column Width Now you will adjust the width of the column B. Enter data in all five columns as shown. The width of the column will be automatically adjusted to the maximum length of characters in the column. Correcting typing mistakes: While entering the data. Move the mouse to the boundary between column B and column C in the bar where column names are given on top. To accommodate long names. double-click on the cell. When the cursor 67 | P a g e . instead of editing directly in your worksheet. you see the Name Box on the left and the Formula Bar on the right. Resizing the Formula or Name Box: To make it easier to view and edit a large amount of text in a cell. Double click on the boundary while the cursor is a double sided arrow. how to adjust the column width. To overwrite the contents of a cell simply make the cell active and type whatever you want to. Below the Ribbon. When you start typing in the formula box. For this. that is.
click and drag the mouse to widen the column as much as needed. browse to select the file you want to open. Release the mouse when you reach cell E11. Now close the file. to save it again. Select all the data you have entered. save it. You now have to add a heading to the worksheet. Once a file has been saved. The background color of the cells changes as you drag the mouse. to click the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. you must make place on the worksheet. It is a good practice to save a file often to prevent data loss due to unforeseen circumstances like power failure. From the window that is displayed. you must save the file. Then click and drag the mouse up to the last cell containing data to be moved. Release the mouse when you reach cell E11. To open an existing workbook. To save a file. Enter the column width and press “OK”.shape changes. Then click and drag the mouse up to the last cell containing data to be moved. Moving Cells You now have to add a heading to the worksheet. click the Office Button and select “Open” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+O”.xlsx”. Saving. The name of the workbook appears in the “Title Bar”. Your file is stored with the extension “. Select all the data you have entered. Keep saving it as you work. Another way to save is file is. click the Office Button and select “Close”. As soon as you have opened a new file. click the Office Button and select “Save As”. by placing the mouse in cell A1. by placing the mouse in cell A1. To close the file. Then type ‘Exam Record’ in the box in front of the label “File name” and then click on the “Save” button. The height of a row can be changed in a similar manner. The background color of the cells changes as you drag the mouse. To do so. Now click “Open”. you must make place on the worksheet. To do so. Closing and Opening a Workbook Now that all the data has been entered. You may also use the “Cut” and “Paste” commands to move cells. “Ctrl+S”. You can also specify the width of the column by clicking on a column and selecting “Format → Column Width” in the “Cells” group on the “Home” tab. click the Office Button and select “Save” or use the keyboard shortcut. Select the data from the cells to be moved and then select “Cut” in the “Clipboard” 68 | P a g e .
The total of the marks for the three subjects is displayed in cell F10 as 248. Select the cells C8 to E8 and right-click on the selection. and ^ to perform addition. as shown in the figure. To do this in Excel. In the cell above Sub1. Select cells starting with A1 to E1 and click on the “Merge & Center” icon in the “Alignment” group on the “Home” tab. You will soon see how to bring the heading to the center of the data. Total Marks secured = Marks of Subject 1 + Marks of Subject 2 + Marks of Subject 3. A formula is evaluated from left to right and in the following order: percent. press Tab to enter it into your formula. In regular Mathematics. division. Select “Insert” from the pop-up window and select “Shift cells down” from the “Insert” window. Using Formulas Formula: A formula is nothing but an expression that performs calculation on data contained in the worksheet. 69 | P a g e . Move the cursor down and type ‘=C10+D10+E10’ and press “Enter”. percent and exponentiation respectively. multiplication. exponentiation. subtraction. all the selected cells are merged and the heading is centered. In Excel. one heading at a time You have to now insert cells to make place so that we can give a combined heading for the three subjects. A moving border appears around the selection. Excel displays a drop-down list of matching items. you have to make use of a formula. When you see the item you want. a formula always begins with an equal sign (=) and uses arithmetic operators like +. /. Let the text overflow into the neighboring cells.group on the “Home” tab. -. addition and subtraction. You now have to calculate the total marks for each student. Merge and center ‘Marks’ above the three subject marks as shown in the accompanying figure. they are evaluated from left to right. Formula AutoComplete: The Formula AutoComplete feature makes entering formulas very simple. Move the data for ‘Roll_No’ and ‘Name’ one row down. including a description of each item. type ‘Marks’. As soon as you click on the icon. Click on the cell where you want to move your data and then click on the upper part of the “Paste” icon in the “Clipboard” group on the “Home” tab. *. Centering and Merging Cells To merge and centre headings:Type the headings in appropriate cells as shown in the accompanying figure. When you begin typing a formula. If a formula contains operators of the same precedence. Do the same for the other headings – . Type ‘Total’ in cell F8. %. multiplication and division. Exam Record and Class VIII – B.
observe the formula you have pasted in cell F11. Duplicating Cell Contents You have to calculate the ‘Total’ and ‘Percent’ marks for all students in the same way. Right click in anywhere in the selection. The cells in a range can be adjacent or non-adjacent. A non-adjacent range is two or more cells or ranges that are not adjoining.to cancel the moving border. The formula for adding marks and calculating percent is copied from cells F10 and G10 respectively and pasted into all selected cells. It shows “=C11+D11+E11”. Percentage = Marks secured multiplied by 100 and divided by the Maximum Marks. The Percent marks for the three subjects are displayed in cell G10 as 82.66667. This is called “What-If Analysis”. Select “Paste” from the pop-up window. Select cells F10 and G10. Type ‘Percent’ in cell G8. The formula can be copied and pasted in the other cells. The formula in cell F12 is “=C12+D12+E12”. A moving border appears around the selection. press Esc key. You can see that the value in the “Percent” field is changed automatically. another workbook or in a totally different application. An adjacent range is a block of adjoining cells. In regular Mathematics. a range. This is called “Relative Cell Referencing”. The contents of several continuous cells. What-If Analysis: If you change one or more numbers in your spreadsheet. all related formulas are recalculated automatically.You have now to calculate the percent marks for each student. But you don’t have to type the formula every time. Alternatively. that is. In the Formula Bar. Range: A range is a selection of two or more cells. Let us change the marks of one student. another worksheet. You may also use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+V” or select “Paste” from the “Clipboard” group on the “Home” tab. Move the cursor down and type ‘=F10 * (100/300)’ which is the formula to calculate percentage and then press “Enter”. Thus you can change the value in a cell and see the effect on other related cells. can also be copied and pasted in a similar manner on the same worksheet. 70 | P a g e . The row numbers have changed relative to the positions of the cells containing the formula. This indicates that the contents have been copied. you may use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+C” or select “Copy” from the “Clipboard” group on the “Home” tab. Select all cells from F11 to G19. Right-click anywhere in the selection Select “Copy” from the pop-up window.
71 | P a g e . =IF(G10>=80. "A". In Excel."PASS". an adjacent range is specified by giving the starting and ending cell addresses separated by a colon (:). B grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 50. the student will be declared “PASSED”. The grades will be given as follows: Percent marks greater than or equal to 80. Now select C14:F21. You now have to give Grades to the students according to their marks. you will use the “IF” function. This means a new “IF” statement is started inside another “IF” statement. Using Functions A “Function” is a prewritten formula that performs calculations automatically. C grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 35. The condition for a student to pass is that he must secure at least 35 percent marks."Pass". The result of the function is displayed in cell H10. The grades for all students are displayed. IF(G10>=50. otherwise he would be declared “FAILED”. "FAIL"))))) Press “Enter”. The results for all students are displayed. A grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 60. you would write this condition as follows: If percentage is greater than or equal to 35.) like A4. "B". "Fail"). “Copy” this function and “Paste” it in the cells from I11 to I19. Type the heading ‘Grade’ in cell I8 and type the function as shown in cell I10. You have to decide whether a student has passed or failed. "A+". IF(G10>=60. You will again use the “IF” function to do so. Let us select the range A11:A18 using the mouse. Click on the cell A11 and drag to the cell A18. In regular English. E9. A+ grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 75. “Copy” this function and “Paste” it in the cells from H11 to H19. Click on the first cell. This is called “nested IF”. Pass grade All others fail. =IF(G10>=35. "C". IF(G10>=75. IF(G10>=35.In formulas. Let us learn to use a nested IF this time. Press “Enter”. C7. It is possible to nest multiple IF functions within one Excel formula. press the “Ctrl” key and then click on the next two cells. A non-adjacent range is specified by giving the cell addresses separated by a comma (. Type the heading ‘Result’ in cell H8 and type the function as shown in cell H10. The result of the function is displayed in cell I10.
The “Function Arguments” window is displayed.Now to find the maximum. Type ‘Maximum marks’. Type the range as ‘F10:F19’ next to “Number1” and click “OK”. you have to use the “AVERAGE” function. To find the average marks. Select the “Statistical” category. activate it. You can simply type the function you want to use in the cell. From the “Select a function” list. minimum and average marks scored by the students. It is written for you by Excel as =MIN (F10:F19) There is another way of using functions. you can make use of some statistical functions. select “Statistical” from the “Or select a category” list. 72 | P a g e . B23. Activate cell C24. The result is displayed in cell C24. Select “Insert Function” in the “Function Library” group on the “Formulas” tab. The maximum number in the range is displayed in cell C22 as 262. It is written for you by Excel as =MAX (F10:F19) Now. click in the drop down box next to “Or select a category”. Press “Enter” to complete the entry. Activate cell C23. The Function Arguments window is displayed. From the window that opens. The minimum number in the range is displayed in cell C23. Observe the formula bar to see how the function is written. to find the minimum marks. select “MAX” from the alphabetical list of functions and click “OK”. the “Statistical” category will already be selected. Select “Insert Function” in the “Function Library” group on the “Formulas” tab. You can type all the functions in the same manner whenever you want to use them. Observe the formula bar to see how the function is written. you have to use “MIN” function. Type the range as ’F10:F19’ next to”Number1” and click “OK”. and B24 respectively. To insert a function in cell C22. From the “Select a function” list. ‘Minimum marks’ and ‘Average marks’ in cells B22. Enter the numbers or the range from which you want to find the minimum number. and type ‘=Average (F10:F19)’ in it. select “MIN” from the alphabetical list of functions and click “OK”. Since the “MAX” function has been most recently used. If the category is something else. Here you can enter the numbers or the range from which you want to find the maximum number.
You can choose from a variety of predefined styles by selecting “Cell Styles” in the “Styles” group on the “Home” tab. Alignment: To bring the headings to the center. you must first select all of them. Now click on “Format Cells” and from the window that opens. Then click on the “Font Size” list and select 14. Now select “Thick Box Border” from the displayed list. Changing the “Font” and “Font Size” of the headings: Select cell A1 and click on the “Font” list in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. Decimal Places: The percent marks are displayed with many decimal places. Hold down the Ctrl key and click in cells A4. A theme consists of a color palette. The numbers in the “Percent” range are displayed with two decimal places. select them first. While the headings are still selected. To bring the headings to the center. click on the “Number” tab. You may use the “Align Text Left” or “Align Text Right” icons to move the headings to the left or right if you wish. A window of colors is displayed. Let us see how we can enhance our worksheet which looks quite plain. The accompanying figure shows an enhanced view of the worksheet. You may access the theme gallery by selecting “Themes” in the “Themes” group on the “Page Layout” tab. click on the “Center” icon in the “Alignment” group on the “Home” tab. A list of fonts is displayed. If the headings are not selected. With the Ctrl key still held down. you can make them bold. All the headings are centered. select range A8:H8 and range C9:E9. You want the percent marks to be displayed with only two decimal places. then click on the “Bold” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. 73 | P a g e . and effects. “Themes” are universal designs that unify all of the styles. Select “Number” from the “Category” list and change “Decimal places” to 2. Select “Bodoni MT Black”. Click “OK”. The font color of all headings is displayed with the color Blue. Changing the font color of the headings: Select all headings and click on the arrow next to the “Font Color” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. Select the range of Percent marks. A thick border is displayed around the entire range. Select “Blue”. font set.Formatting the Worksheet You can make your spreadsheet look more coordinated and professional by using Styles and Themes. Adding a thick border: Select the range of cells from A8 to H19 and click on the arrow next to the “Borders” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. Select “Format” in the “Cells” group on the “Home tab. “Styles” are individual designs that can be applied to different parts of the document. To select all headings. click in cell A1. A5. The font and the font size of the heading are changed.
Highlighting: To highlight the range of “Maximum, Minimum and Average Marks”, select the range B22:C24. Click on the “Fill Color” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. Select the color “Yellow”. The cell range is filled with the color Yellow. Indenting: To adjust the indenting of the contents of a cell, click on the cell. Then, in the “Alignment” group on the “Home” tab, click on the “Increase Indent” or “Decrease Indent” icon as required. Working with Graphics You now have to insert the logo of the School. To do so, activate cell G3 and select “Clip Art” in the “Illustrations” group on the “Insert” tab. In the “Clip Art” panel at the right, type ‘concepts’ in the “Search for:” box. Check in the boxes before “My Collections” and “Office Collections” in the drop down list of “Search in”. Click in the box before “Clip Art” in the drop down list of “Results should be” and click “Go”. Resizing the graphic image: Click on the “Bull’s Eye” image. It will be bigger in size. You have to resize it so that it occupies less space and looks proportionate to the rest of the data on the page. To resize it, click on the lower right corner handle of the image, and drag the mouse so that the image becomes smaller in size. Release the mouse when the image becomes the desired size. Entering the Date Inserting a row: Click on row number 7 on the left side. Right click and select “Insert”. One Row will be inserted. To insert multiple rows, select an equal number of rows. This means that when you select four rows, four more rows are inserted. Activate cell A7 and type ‘Date:’. Then place the cell pointer in cell B7 and select “Insert Function” in the “Function Library” group on the “Formulas” tab. Select “Date & Time” as category. Select “Date” as function and click “OK”. Type the “Year” as ‘2007’, “Month” as ‘02’ and “Day” as ‘21’ in the “Function Arguments” window. Click “OK”. The date is displayed as “2/21/2007” in cell B7. Formatting the date: To change the date format, right-click in cell B7 and select “Format cells”. The “Format Cells” window is displayed. Click on the “Number” tab. Select “Date” from the “Category” list and select the “Type” as “14-Mar-01”. The sample format is visible in the “Sample” box. Click “OK”. The date is displayed in the format 21-Feb-07. Previewing and Printing
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The worksheet is now ready. You can print it. Before getting a hard copy, you can preview the worksheet. If you do not like the way it looks, you can make more changes. To preview your worksheet, click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. The “Print Preview” tab appears when you view the worksheet in the Print Preview mode. Click “Close Print Preview” in the “Preview” group to close the preview. Everything seems to be OK. But the logo of the school needs to be moved up, in line with the school’s name. Moving the graphic image: Click and drag the “Bull’s Eye” image so that it is in line with the school’s name. Release the mouse when done. The image can also be moved by using the arrow keys on the keyboard by selecting it first. Click on the image to select it. Use the right arrow key to move the graphic image to the right, left arrow key to move it to the left and so on. Printing the worksheet: Click the Office Button and select “Print → Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. Select the printer name from the list in front of “Name”. Under “Print Range” enter “Pages From” as ‘1’ To ‘1’. Select “Active Sheet” under “Print what” and click “OK”. Sorting Data Excel can quickly sort text, data or numbers according to specified criteria in ascending or descending order. In the worksheet displayed you can see a list of people along with their ages. Let us sort this list according to the names. Click in any of the cells containing names and then click “Sort & Filter” in the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab. To sort the list in ascending order of names, click “Sort A to Z”. To sort it in descending order, click “Sort & Filter” and select “Sort Z to A”. Now, to sort this list according to the ages of the people, click in a cell containing an age and follow the same procedure. When you click the “Sort & Filter” icon, you see the options “Sort Smallest to Largest” and “Sort Largest to Smallest”. This is because previously it was an alphabetic list and now it is a list containing numbers that is being sorted. To sort the list in ascending order of ages, select “Sort Smallest to Largest”. Now if you had to sort the data in the worksheet containing student marks that you previously created in descending order of roll numbers, you would need to follow a slightly different procedure. This is because this worksheet contains headings and information other than simply data. First select all columns which contain data and then select “Sort & Filter → Sort Largest to Smallest” in the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab. Using Charts
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Learning about Charts
You have to present the exam results of the students of class VIII-B. The most easy and effective manner to do this would be to present it in the form of a chart. A chart is a visual representation of data and conveys the information in an easy to understand and attractive manner. There are different types of charts available in Microsoft Excel 2007 such as Column charts, Line charts, Bar charts, Area charts, Bubble charts and many more. You may select a suitable type depending on the data you want to chart and the emphasis you want the chart to impart. Here you will learn to make a single data series chart. Parts of a Chart: A chart has different parts as labeled in the accompanying image. Chart Title – The tile of the chart “Student Vs Marks”. Value Axis – The Y-axis on which the value is shown. Value Axis Title – The title “Marks”. Category Axis – The X-axis on which the category for which you have charted the values is shown. Category Axis Title – The title “Name” Chart Area – The entire area on which the chart is drawn. Legend – The legend, as in a map, shows which color is used to represent what: “Series 1” in this case. Creating a Chart To present the marks of all students as a chart, select the “Name” range (B11 to B20), hold down the “Ctrl” key and select the “Total” range (F11 to F20), without selecting the titles in cells B9 and F9. On the “Insert” tab, in the “Charts” group, select “Column”. Now select “Clustered Column”, the first image from the Chart sub-types displayed. You can now see the chart on your worksheet. You can make changes to your chart and enhance its appearance using various “Chart Tools”. If you do not see “Chart Tools” displayed on the Ribbon, click in the chart area to ensure that the chart is selected. Now, under “Chart Tools”, on the “Design” tab, select a suitable style from the “Chart Styles” group. Now let us add more details in our chart. For this we shall use the “Labels” group on the “Layout” tab under “Chart Tools”. Click “Chart Title” and select “Above Chart”. Now type the title ‘Student Vs Marks’. As you type, it appears
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For this. To print only the chart. click on the “Design” tab under “Chart Tools”. This time. Now. You can see that the chart displays the marks of Subject 1. Data Labels are used to label the elements of a chart with their actual data values. Similarly. select “Axis Titles → Primary Horizontal Axis Title → Title Below Axis”. if some spelling mistakes have been made. Sizing the chart: Click on the center of any side of the chart or at a corner. To enter the description for the Y-axis. Then select a WordArt Style from the “WordArt Styles” group. You may enhance the appearance of your chart. drag it to a position of your choice. After a chart has been created. 77 | P a g e . select it by clicking in the chart area. drag to a suitable size. select “Change Chart Type” in the “Type” group. on your worksheet. Select “Data Labels → Outside End”. select “Axis Titles → Primary Vertical Axis Title → Rotated Title”. Managing a Workbook Correcting Errors While entering data. to enter the description for the X-axis. You may explore the various other options on the “Format” tab to further enhance your chart. On the “Design” tab under “Chart Tools”. Your chart appears as a bar chart. type “Names” and press “Enter”. Now click on the Office Button and then select “Print”. When the mouse pointer changes to a two-headed arrow. Modifying a Chart You may decide that you want to plot only the marks of Subject 1 in the chart. you can even change the Chart Type. the spelling checker locates all misspelled words and proposes the correct spelling. type “Marks” and press “Enter”. The “Select Data Source” window is displayed. You can now see the actual marks of each student. Select a Shape Style from the “Shape Styles” group. select the cells that contain the data that you want to appear in the chart. Now click “Select Data” in the “Data” group. Now click “OK”. select the data in the “Name” column and “Subject 1” column and click “OK” in the “Select Data Source” window. Moving the chart: Click on the chart and when the mouse pointer changes to a four-headed arrow. Select “Bar” in the left pane of the “Change Chart Type” window and then click “Clustered Bar” in the right pane. Press “Enter”. The chart title is displayed above your chart.in the Formula Bar at the top. Click on the “Format” tab under “Chart Tools”.
If there are more than one occurrences of the same word spelt wrongly. select the sheet. select the book you want to move the sheet to. The Sheet2 will be displayed. Simply copy them from one sheet to another. Click a sheet you want move and drag it to the place you want to copy it and release the mouse 78 | P a g e . If a spelling is found to be wrong. When the checking is completed for the entire worksheet. If you change a word which you did not want to. a message saying so is displayed. If the spelling is correct but shown as incorrect for some reason. You can use the same format of the worksheet. You may also move or copy sheets with the mouse. Some words. From the “Before sheet” list. You can also select the sheet before which you want to insert it. Select the “Paste” option. Moving or copying sheets: Right click on the Sheet1 tab. click in the “Create a copy” check box. Select the “Move or Copy” option. On the sheet tabs below. You may add these words to the dictionary by clicking the “Add to Dictionary” button. Select all headings in the range A1 to H10. the spelling checker moves to the next word. The range copied from Sheet1 is pasted in cell A1 of Sheet2. In the “To book” list. When you click on any button such as “Change”. “Ignore” etc.. click on “Ignore All” or “Ignore Once” whichever is appropriate. You may make changes in this sheet for another class.Place the cell pointer at the beginning of your worksheet or from wherever you want to start checking for errors. select the correct word from the suggestions list and click on the “Change” button. click on Sheet2. You do not have to type all the headings once again. In that case. The “Spelling” window is displayed and one by one every word in your worksheet is checked. To copy the sheet. Right-click on the selection and click on “Copy”. such as proper nouns which are not really errors may be shown as spelling mistakes. The “Move or Copy” window is displayed. Select “Spelling” in the “Proofing” group on the “Review” tab or use the keyboard shortcut “F7”. options are displayed in the “Suggestions” box from the spelling checker’s dictionary. You may copy a sheet to another workbook. A whole new worksheet with the same layout but with different data is ready. Right-click in cell A1 of Sheet2. click on “Undo Last”. Working with Sheets You want to make the exam record for another class now. All you need to do is to add data. click on the “Change All” button.
button. When you copy. To copy a sheet with the mouse. right click in any of the sheet tabs and select “Ungroup Sheets”. A ‘+’ sign appears on the page icon while copying the sheet. Through the options in this window. you can insert. If you select “Insert”. You may change the tab color of sheets to distinguish between the data stored on each sheet. a solid black triangle appears along with a blank page icon. Simply type the new name. All the range you selected will be filled with names of months starting with January. names of the months in short. a number of options are displayed in the pop-up window. hold down the “Ctrl” key while you drag a sheet. To deselect the sheets. For this. Type the entry ‘January’ in a cell. the current sheet will be deleted after confirmation. Move the mouse to the corner of the selection. number series like 1000. the “Insert” window is displayed. the sheet will be moved to the new location. You can select all sheets by selecting the “Select all sheets” option. While you drag. The name of the sheet is changed. Other such autofill entries are . The name will be highlighted. it becomes difficult to remember what data is stored on each sheet. You will see a black plus sign. The number of the copy appears in brackets in the sheet tab Naming a sheet: When you have many sheets. This is the fill handle. right-click on a sheet tab and select “Tab Color”. To stop 79 | P a g e . select all sheets. Double-click on the name of the sheet. and change the tab color. delete. from which you can select whether you want to insert a worksheet.days of the week in short. 2000. without opening the sheets. Drag the mouse as far as you want the cells to fill and release the mouse. Manage a sheet: When you right-click on the sheet tab. If you select “Delete”. etc. Autofill recognizes and automatically extends data and alphanumeric headings as far as you specify. rename. 3000. to give you an idea of what data is stored on the sheet. When you release the mouse. another copy of the sheet is made. You can name the sheet accordingly. a chart or something else. Absolute reference: An absolute reference is a cell or range reference used in a formula whose location does not change when a formula is copied. move or copy. Using Autofill: Autofill is a feature of Microsoft Excel 2007 that makes entering a series of headings easier by logically repeating and extending the series.
but data for marks will have to be typed. At such times. By adding ‘$’ before ‘O’ and ‘2’. Thus “Sheet1!A1” refers to cell A1 on Sheet1. You can work in any part of the worksheet at any time. Managing Large Sheets You already know the massive size of the worksheet in Microsoft Excel 2007. activate cell M6 and type ‘=L6 * $O$2’ in it. Select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. the reference of cell O2 has remained constant. Prepare the data as shown in the accompanying figure in the neighboring space. you have made the column and the row references absolute. Although the formula has been copied. Splitting Panes: You can split the window either horizontally. Referencing multiple sheets: While working you may have to reference data from more than one sheet. starting with cell ‘J1’. You may copy the Roll Nos and the Names.the automatic relative cell references. enter “=Sheet1!A1+Sheet2! A1” and press “Enter”. Now. Select “Zoom” in the “Zoom” group on the “View” tab. In the zoom window you may select a zoom percentage of your choice. When a formula containing an absolute cell reference is copied to another row or column in the worksheet. you can view two areas of a worksheet and lock rows or columns in one area by splitting or freezing panes. vertically or both horizontally and vertically. This makes the cell reference absolute. Now both panes have a common vertical scroll bar but 80 | P a g e . 20% of the Unit Test marks are to be calculated. the cell reference does not change. To split the window vertically. You can see that the sum of the figures on the other two sheets is displayed here. Here. Sheet1 has the value 100 in cell A1 and Sheet2 has the value 200 in cell A1. For the Final exam. in the cell A1. more data will fit on the screen and vice versa. You can then scroll in one area of the worksheet. Copy this formula from cell M6 to the remaining students and check the formula for each student in the “Formula Bar”. Now. to calculate 20% marks. Let us now go to Sheet3. there can be data in a number of rows and columns all of which cannot be seen at the same time. At such times. you can change the display percentage of the sheet. type a $ (dollar) character before the column and row number. If you reduce the percentage. Zooming the worksheet: In Microsoft Excel 2007. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the top row. while rows or columns in the non-scrolled area remain visible. But the problem comes when you need to refer to some other part while working in one part of the sheet. This is called referencing multiple sheets.
Also. Let us assume that you wish to have the headings and roll numbers & names of the students visible always. Now both panes have a common horizontal scroll bar but individual vertical scroll bars to enable you to move separately in the two panes. Moving using the vertical scrollbar keeps the row numbers in the frozen pane unchanged. the top left pane freezes. To split the window horizontally. you can see the information in those rows and/or columns at all times. To remove the freeze. you can see that the frozen panes are visible at all times. To freeze the top pane of the window. You can freeze information in the top and left panes of the window only. You can see that three panes have appropriate vertical and horizontal scroll bars. select “Freeze Panes → Unfreeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. Select “Freeze Panes → Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab once again. select the appropriate options from those displayed on selection of “Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the leftmost column. Select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. As you scroll through your worksheet. Select “Freeze Panes → Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. 81 | P a g e . Freezing panes: With the “Freeze Panes” option. you can freeze either. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the leftmost column. To freeze the top row or first column. click the cell below and to the right of the row and column you want to freeze. For this. When a window is split both horizontally and vertically. selecting “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab results in a horizontal and vertical split. To remove a split. or both. This means that. To freeze the left pane of the window. rows and columns. regardless of where you are in the worksheet. To split the window both horizontally as well as vertically. place the cell pointer in the appropriate cell where you want the split to appear. Select “Freeze Panes → Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the top row. Select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab.individual horizontal scroll bars to enable you to move separately in the two panes. if you click on the top left cell. Moving using the horizontal scrollbar keeps the column numbers in the frozen pane unchanged.
Student with Roll Number 6 has failed. The marks in the failed subject are adjusted to 35. you can use the Goal Seek feature. You can see that he has scored very poor marks in one of the three subjects. Activate cell F16. where you have to see the effects of changing selected factors in a worksheet. you may change page orientation to “Landscape” by selecting “Orientation” in the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. The default setting is “Portrait”. you can use the “Header & Footer” option to add the same header and footer on each page. Headers. you can change the page orientation to landscape. If there is more data to be fitted on one page. type ‘105’ (the passing total marks) in the “To value” box. Footers and Print Settings Page orientation: Depending on the area of the worksheet you want to print. The page number is usually given as the footer. The text that appears in the top margin of the page is called the Header. how much he should have scored in the failed subject to score pass marks. If the data is not properly visible on the page. Click in the “By changing cell” field and then click C16. you may decide that the pages of your worksheet must have a header and footer. The header is usually the title you would give to the page. You can do this with Goal seek. you often come across situations. The value in cell C16 is adjusted to get the target value. containing the “Total” marks of the student. Header and Footer: Before you print your data. The “Goal Seek Status” window is displayed. During analysis. if a student has failed. Select “WhatIf Analysis → Goal Seek” in the “Data Tools” group on the “Data” tab. the cell with the marks below pass level. you want to find out. In the “Goal Seek” window. Click “OK”. You now want to find out. Click “OK”. you can change the orientation of the page so that data can be fitted accordingly. how many marks he should have scored in that subject so that he would have secured a Pass grade. For example. The text that appears in the bottom margin of the page is called the Footer. Click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. If you have say 15 pages in your workbook. If you know the result that you want from a formula. but not the input value the formula needs to get that result. It is a method which aids you in forecasting values. 82 | P a g e . The header and footer give additional information about the data on the page.Forecasting Values Goal Seek: One of the features of Microsoft Excel is analyzing data.
select the name of the printer from the list in the “Name” field. You can print selected sheets in the workbook. whether to the Board of Directors of a company or to your fellow colleagues. click on “Page Number” in the “Header & Footer Elements” group. Click on the Office Button and select “Print”. This displays another box to the right. An effective presentation puts your point across clearly and in an interesting manner. you can choose from a variety of computer tools called Graphics Presentation Programs. We shall insert the page number in the box displayed. text. movies and sounds. a Graphics Presentation Program may also suggest layouts and color and animation schemes for different types of presentations and offer professionally designed templates to help you to create a presentation that is sure to hold the attention of your audience. 83 | P a g e . This will insert the date. Use the “Ctrl” key to select more than one sheet. Press “Enter” and type ‘Class VIII B’ on the second line. In the “Print What” section. In the “Print” window. Check the layout and close the preview by clicking “Close Print Preview” in the “Preview” group. click on “Active sheet(s)” and then click “OK”. For this. Graphics Presentation Programs include features to handle pictures. Now click “Go to Footer” in the “Navigation” group.Select “Header & Footer” in the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. A box is displayed at the center of the header area. correct and update the presentation. charts and tables. Click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. With a few keystrokes you can quickly change. Select all the sheets you want to print by clicking on the sheet tabs. On the “Design” tab under “Header & Footer Tools”. Here. In addition. These programs are designed to help you to create an effective presentation. you may enter the text “First Term Exam Report”. Printing selected worksheets: You do not always need to print the entire workbook. Now press the “Tab” key. Presentation Graphics Overview of Presentation Graphics Introduction to Presentation Graphics If you have to make a presentation to an audience and you want it to be good. click on “Current Date” in the “Header & Footer Elements” group. Press “Tab” and then press the “Esc” key to complete creation of the footer.
You may create a new presentation using a template provided by PowerPoint. Undo. you may see the assignment titled “The User Interface” in the “Microsoft Word” topic. 2) The Quick Access toolbar which displays icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007”. For more details on the Microsoft Office User Interface. The “Slide Show” tab contains tools that control how the slide show is presented. 84 | P a g e . printing. Groups and Command buttons. Click on the Office Button and select “New”. and Redo. The “View” tab contains tools which help you view your presentation in the most suitable way. The “Animations” tab contains tools to animate objects and create transitions between slides.Each presentation is divided into slides. The following Ribbon tabs are displayed in PowerPoint: The “Home” tab contains the basic formatting tools. Creating a Presentation Using Installed Templates A “Template” is a pre-designed presentation designed for common purposes such as a photo album or a quiz show. The “Review” tab contains tools which help you proofread and correct a presentation. 3) The Ribbon which has Task-oriented Tabs. Exploring Microsoft PowerPoint: To start the Microsoft PowerPoint application. and closing a file. The “Design” tab contains tools to design your slides. You will gradually learn to use the commands on all the tabs. saving. Each slide shows a different screen to your audience. The “Insert” tab contains the basic set of objects which you can insert into a slide. You see the familiar Microsoft Office 2007 user interface which consists of: 1) The Office Button which displays a menu containing commands for opening.
Now. A new presentation is displayed with pre-defined settings. on the right you can see the “Slide Pane”. movies. PowerPoint Presentation Views Viewing a presentation: A “view” is a way of looking at a presentation. To actually run a slide show. if you need to make changes to the way your slide show runs. This is the main editing view. or delete slides. animated elements and transition effects will look in the actual show. When you have finished creating and editing your presentation. you may specify the timing between the display of each slide and which slides are to be hidden during the presentation. Slide Show View: Select “Slide Show” in the “Presentation Views” group or press “F5” on your keyboard. Here. The “Slides” tab shows your slides as thumbnail-sized images while you edit. You can see how your graphics. This view takes up the full computer screen. Click on a suitable one and then press the “Create” button. you see your presentation the way your audience will. you may select “Slide Show” in the “Presentation Views” group on the “View” tab or click the “Slide Show” button at the bottom right of the status bar. click “Installed Templates” to see a list of templates. In this full-screen view.In the left panel. This is an exclusive view of your slides in thumbnail form. Creating your First Slide 85 | P a g e . On the bottom is the “Notes Pane” in which you can type notes that you want along with a slide. timings. You can also rearrange. which displays a large view of the current slide. It has three working areas. Slide Sorter View gives you an overall picture of it. Slide Sorter View. and Slide Show View. under “Templates”. Slide Sorter View: Click the “View” tab. Click on the tab names to view the respective tabs. In the Normal View. For example. This makes it easy to navigate through your presentation and to see the effects of changes. like an actual slide show presentation. You may also change the presentation views by clicking on the buttons displayed on the “Status Bar” at the bottom of the screen. Select “Slide Sorter” in the “Presentation Views” group. On the left are the “Slides” and “Outline” tabs. add or delete slides. you may use the options available on the “Slide Show” tab. You can make changes as required. you can find various tools that control how the slide show is presented. making it easy to reorder. Normal View: Select “Normal” in the “Presentation Views” group. add. The “Outline” tab shows your slide text in outline form. Microsoft PowerPoint has three main views: Normal View.
Click on the “Design” tab. You may now edit the text as you wish. Editing in the Slide Pane: You may make changes directly in the slide pane. It can be used to rotate the placeholder to any angle. Using the Outline Tab: Alternately. Moving a placeholder: You may wish to change the position of your placeholder. Sizing a placeholder: The “Sizing Handles” at the sides and corners of the selection rectangle can be used to adjust the size of the placeholder. First. To move a placeholder. When you start PowerPoint. These are called “Placeholders”. you see a blank presentation in Normal View with the default name “Presentation1”. In the existing slide. tables. You can see a “Rotation Handle” which is a round arrow at the top of the placeholder. Click in the first placeholder and type the name you want to give your presentation. These boxes hold title and body text or objects such as charts. you can drag to the location you wish. When you move your mouse over a sizing handle the pointer becomes a twoheaded arrow. you may make editing changes to your text on the Outline tab. In the second placeholder type a subtitle. You may need to change some of the text that you have entered on your slide. Click on the title text. Now click on a theme of your choice. let us assume you need to make changes to the title. and pictures. click on the text in the title. Sizing and Moving Placeholders You know that placeholders are boxes that are part of most slide layouts. In the “Themes” group. To rotate a placeholder. you see two boxes. When the pointer becomes a four-headed arrow. Saving and Opening a Presentation 86 | P a g e . The sizing handles at the sides are used to adjust only the height or the width.You are working for a company which offers various educational courses. In the Slide Pane on the right. These are simultaneously reflected in the Slide Pane. click on the arrow at the bottom right to see all available themes. Dragging a corner sizing handle adjusts both the height and width at the same time. click in an area between the sizing handles on the side borders. An insertion point is displayed to show your location in the text. You wish to create a presentation which introduces your company and tells about its numerous activities. drag the rotation handle in the direction that you want to rotate it. Applying a Theme: You may enhance the appearance of this slide which looks quite plain. The title is now a selected object and is surrounded by a selection rectangle.
Click on the “Home” tab. In the “Insert Picture” window. Click on the first slide on the Slides tab in the left pane. on a slide. such as text. pictures. To open a recently used presentation you may click the Office Button and then click on the presentation name in the list displayed under “Recent Documents”. In the “Open” window. You can see a new slide with the specified layout.To save your presentation. you may click the Office Button and select “Save”. You may apply other effects to your picture by selecting from the various options available under “Picture Effects” in the “Picture Styles” group on the “Format” tab. In the “Slides” group. Click on the picture. click on the lower part of the “New Slide” icon.pptx”. click on the “More” arrow to see all available picture styles. in the “Insert Picture” window. Enhancing the Picture: You may make changes to the picture by using various Picture Tools. browse to the location of your presentation and click on the file name from the displayed list. Let us also insert the same picture on the first slide we created. charts and movies. Now click the Office Button and select “Close” to close this file. You may also use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+S”. Click on the picture name and then click “Insert”. The available layouts are displayed. Enter the title and text as shown. click the Office Button and select “Open”. Click on the picture name and then click “Insert”. In the “Save As” window specify the location at which you wish to save your presentation. The picture is displayed on your slide in a placeholder. select “Picture”. In the “Picture Styles” group. You may change the size and position as required. You may use the default name for your presentation or enter a new one. To display a picture of your company logo on your slide. Similarly. Now click on the “Format” tab under “Picture Tools”. Enter the title and text as shown. As you did earlier. To open a file that you have previously saved. browse to the location of your picture file. click the picture icon. In the “Illustrations” group. Click the “Open” button to display the selected file on the screen. Let us create a new slide by specifying a layout. Using a Slide Layout and Inserting Pictures A Slide Layout refers to the arrangement of elements. Your file is stored with the extension “. Select a suitable one. Now click on the “Insert” tab. Now click “Save”. browse to the location of your picture file. tables. You may click on a style of your choice. create a slide using the “Picture with Caption” layout. Changing Fonts and Formatting 87 | P a g e .
To correct the misspelled words. Click on the second slide on the Slides tab in the left pane. You will now observe that the text has changed to the new font of the size you selected. You may also change the color of the font by clicking on the arrow to the right of the “Font Color” icon and making your selection. click on the “Design” tab. You may also increase or decrease the font size by clicking on the “Increase Font Size” and “Decrease Font Size” icons in the “Fonts” group. Changing Font Effects and Color: From the “Fonts” group. Bullets and Numbering: You may enter text as a bulleted or numbered list. you may have unknowingly left several typing errors uncorrected. select the text and then click the arrow to the right of the “Bullets” icon in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. Underline and Text Shadow by clicking on the respective icons. you may use the “Numbering” icon in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. Select “Background Styles” in the “Background” group and make your selection. you may select other effects such as Bold. Changing Page Properties: Select “Page Setup” in the “Page Setup” group on the “Design” tab. Similarly. Now click on the “Home” tab. Changing the Background Style: To change the background of your slides.Changing Font and Font Size: Let us change the Font and Font Size of the text on the second slide. Applying different formatting to characters and paragraphs can greatly enhance the appearance of the slide. Now select “Spelling” in the “Proofing” group or use the keyboard shortcut “F7”. “Center” and “Align Text Right” icons in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. Click on the third slide on the Slides tab in the left pane. click on the “Review” tab. Select the text to be formatted by highlighting the text on the slide. Let us center the title of the slide. Italic. You may select the desired Font and Font Size from the “Fonts” group. 88 | P a g e . Now to create a bulleted list. readable and user-friendly is called formatting. Make your selection from the various bullet styles displayed. In the window displayed you may specify the size and orientation of your slides and then click “OK”. Let us create such a list on the third slide. Changing Alignment: You may change the alignment of text by clicking on the “Align Text Left”. to create a numbered list. Checking Spellings As you may have entered the information on previous slides. Formatting: Enhancing the appearance of the slide to make it more attractive. In this way you can check the spellings on all the slides of the presentation at one time.
press “Shift” before clicking the slide icon and then drag. To correct a word that is spelt incorrectly.For each word that is misspelled. Moving and Deleting Slides Inserting a Slide: You know that you can insert a new slide by selecting “New Slide” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. Let us move all slides back to their original positions. Now to delete the blank slide that was just inserted. click on the slide after which you want the new slide on the “Slides” tab and then click on the “New Slide” icon. If you do not wish to change what you have typed. Click “Change” to make the correction or “Change All” if there are multiple instances of the misspelled word in the presentation. Deleting a Slide: You may use either the Normal View or the Slide Sorter View to delete a slide. you will be informed accordingly. You may now select “Delete” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab or press the “Delete” key on your keyboard. Moving a Slide: To move a slide in Normal View. you can see how your presentation would look when viewed by an audience to 89 | P a g e . Inserting. Let us revert to Normal View by clicking the “Normal” icon on the Status Bar. To insert a slide between two slides. you may find it more convenient to use the Slide Sorter View to view all your slides and change their positions. click the slide icon on the “Slides” tab. Running a Slide Show Running a Slide Show: Once all the slides are in the order that you want. click “Ignore”. Now click on the slide you wish to move and drag it to a new location. select one or more slide icons on the “Slides” tab. and drag to a new location. To select multiple slides in a row. you may highlight one of the suggestions displayed or manually correct it yourself by typing in the correct word in the “Change to” box. If you have a large number of slides in your presentation. a dialog box will appear and will prompt you to effect suitable corrections. Change to Slide Sorter View by clicking on the “Slide Sorter” button on the Status Bar at the bottom of the screen. You may choose “Ignore All” if the word appears many times throughout the presentation. When your entire presentation has been scanned.
From the list displayed below. Then click the “From Current Slide” icon in the “Start Slide Show” group on the “Slide Show” tab. The “Print” window is displayed. Click “Close Print Preview” in the “Preview” group to close the preview. Click the “Outline” button at the bottom left to hide the left pane. You may print all slides. In the window displayed. You may view all the slides by using the “Next Slide” and “Previous Slide” buttons at the bottom of the screen. You can see the “Web Page Preview” button on the Quick Access toolbar. click “Customize” in the left pane. click the slide icon from which you wish to view your slides.run a presentation. click “From Beginning” or use the keyboard shortcut “F5” to view the complete presentation You may click or press the spacebar to move to the next slide. The “Print Preview” tab appears when you view the slide in the Print Preview mode. Previewing and Printing a Presentation Previewing A Presentation: As you work with your slides. it is always a good idea to preview onscreen how your slides will appear when printed. Printing a Presentation: Click the Office Button and select “Print → Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. notes pages or outline view. on the “Slides” tab. Print what: Here. you may wish give copies to your colleagues for their comments. Viewing the slide show from the current slide: To do so. click on the “Slide Show” tab in the “Start Slide Show” group. 90 | P a g e . Clicking it displays your presentation as it would look in a web browser. the current slide only or any selection of slides. handouts. Under “Choose Commands from:” select “All Commands”. To see a preview of your slide in a window on the screen. Click on the Office Button and then click “PowerPoint Options”. Now click “Add” and then click “OK”. you may specify whether you wish to print the slides. select “Web Page Preview”. To save time and unnecessary printing and waste of paper. click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. you need to add the “Web Page Preview” command to the Quick Access toolbar. Web Page Preview: To preview your presentation as a web page. Print range: Under Print range you may specify which of the slides you want to print.
In the “Text” group. to replace text you may select “Replace” from the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab or press “Ctrl+H” to display the “Replace” window. you may enter the new text in the "Replace with" field. Inserting a text box: A text box is a container for text or graphics. Modifying and Refining a Presentation Finding and Replacing Text Finding Text: You may search for a word or phrase in your presentation. Click “Replace All” to replace all occurrences of the search text by the specified new text. First let us create a small text box below the text on the slide. you may choose the color quality of the prints. 91 | P a g e . Click on the “Home” tab. Let us insert a hyperlink from the third slide to the first slide. A window appears showing the number of replacements made. Replacing Text: Click "Replace". Enter some text and click “Find Next”. Click “Replace” to replace the current word with the new word. Match case: You may check this box for a case sensitive search. A hyperlink is a connection to a location in the current document. click “Find” or press “Ctrl+F” to display the “Find” window. Click on the slide below the existing text and drag with the mouse to draw the textbox. In the "Replace" window. Find whole words only: You may check this box to search for whole words matching the search criteria. click “Text Box". The next occurrence of the specified term after the current cursor position is selected. another document or to a Web site. Choosing the “Grayscale” or “Pure Black and White” option allows you to print without color. Click on the third slide icon on the “Slides” tab.Color/grayscale: Here. To create a new text box click on the “Insert” tab. Enter your options and click “OK”. In the “Editing” group. Creating a Text Box and Inserting a Hyperlink You may insert hyperlinks in your slides. Finding and Replacing: Alternatively.
Now click on the “Insert” tab. Under “Select a place in this document”. click “Table”. You may select a table style from the gallery displayed. You may also change the size and position of the text box by using the sizing handles. Let us change the style of the heading text. To insert a table. Click the arrow at the bottom right to view all the available styles. You may choose from various categories such as Process. In the “Insert Table” window. In the “Tables” group. Now click “OK”. Each category contains several different layouts. In the “Links” group. Hierarchy. You may enhance the appearance of the text in your table. 92 | P a g e . Cycle. Create a new slide using the “Blank” layout by selecting “New Slide” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. Enter the text “Go to Slide 1”. Select a suitable one. Create and Enhance a Table You may wish to display some data in tabular form in your presentation. Using SmartArt A “SmartArt” graphic is a visual representation of your information and ideas. When you run the slide show. As you type the text in the text box. you can effectively communicate your message in a quick and simple way. clicking on this link takes you to the first slide. click on the “Insert” tab. Select the text and then click “Quick Styles” in the “WordArt Styles” group on the “Design” tab under “Table Tools”. In the “Insert Hyperlink” window. Enter the headings and details in the other rows as shown. You can see that the hyperlink text is underlined. You may specify the dimensions of your table by dragging with the mouse or by clicking “Insert Table”. You may size or move your table as required. Relationship and others. You may select a style from the gallery displayed. Inserting a Hyperlink: Select the text entered in the text box. click “Hyperlink”. A “Design” tab is displayed under “Table Tools”. Using SmartArt graphics. it is automatically resized as needed to display the entire entry. click on “First Slide”. indicating that you can enter text in it. under “Link to:” click on “Place in This Document”. Now you are ready to enter the table content. enter the number of rows and columns and click “OK”.Adding text to a text box: You will notice that the text box displays an insertion point.
click “Clip Art”. Inserting Clips and Clip Art You may insert “Clips” and “Clip Art” in your slides. Changing Colors: You may apply color variations to the shapes in your SmartArt graphic. Now click “Quick Styles” in the “Drawing” group on the “Home” tab. We shall insert a clip as well as Clip Art on one of our slides. For this. Click on the “Insert” tab. This displays the text pane where you can enter your text. in the “Search for” box. Click on the slide containing the SmartArt graphic on the Slides tab. In the “Choose a SmartArt Graphic” window. First create a new slide using the “Blank” layout. A clip is a file that can contain sounds and animations. click “Change Colors”. select a category. You may select a suitable background style for your text box from the gallery displayed. in the “Create Graphic” group on the “Design” tab. In the “SmartArt Styles” group. Create a text box above the SmartArt graphic and enter the text as shown.Let us create a SmartArt graphic to describe the course structure of one of the courses offered. in the “Results should be” list 93 | P a g e . In the “Illustrations” group. including art. animation or movies. click the arrow at the bottom right to view all the available styles and select a suitable one. Now make your selection from the gallery displayed. ensure that “All collections” are searched by checking the box against “Everywhere”. let us look for a clip using the word “Computer”. In the graphic displayed on your slide. In the “Search in” list box. Let us search for clips of the type “Movies”. In the panel displayed on the right. enter a word or phrase that describes the clip or the file name of the clip. Applying a SmartArt Style: A SmartArt Style is a combination of various effects that you can apply to the shapes in your SmartArt graphic to create a professionally designed look. under “SmartArt Tools. you may enter text directly by clicking the text boxes. “Clip Art” refers to a ready-to-use picture. sound. Now click on the “Insert” tab. Alternatively. you may click “Text Pane”. In the “SmartArt Styles” group on the “Design” tab under “SmartArt Tools”. Let us first insert a small clip. A “Clip” may be a single media file. click “SmartArt”. Close the text pane by clicking the “X” icon at the top right corner. Since yours is a company having operations related to computers. Now select a suitable graphic and click “OK”. In the “Illustrations” group.
click on “Hexagon”. You may change the size of the clip as required. simply start typing as shown in the figure. You may size and position the shape as required. The entered text appears at the centre of your shape. Now click on a theme of your choice. Under “Basic Shapes”. drag a suitable one onto your slide. Create a new slide using the “Blank” layout by clicking “New Slide” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. From the pictures displayed. Now click “Go”. Now click “Go”. “Clip Art” refers to a ready-to-use picture. On the “Slides” tab. A number of related clips are displayed. Adding Text: To add text within the shape. click the “View” tab and select “Slide Show” in the “Presentation Views” group. you can see that the new theme has been applied to all the slides. you need to run the slide show. check the box against “Clip Art” under “Results should be” and ensure other boxes are unchecked. you may decide to give a totally new look to your presentation. Drag your mouse to create a shape of the size you wish. To insert Clip Art. check the box against “Movies”. Click “Quick Styles” in the “Drawing” group and select a style from the gallery displayed. Simply click on the one you wish to insert and drag it to a suitable place on your slide. To enter a title above the shape. you may create a text box as shown in the slide in the figure. click on the arrow at the bottom right to see all available themes. In the “Drawing” group. In the “Themes” group. Click on the “Design” tab.box. Ensure other boxes are unchecked. Let us now insert some Clip Art. click “Shapes” to display the various shapes that you can use. 94 | P a g e . Create and Enhance Shapes PowerPoint offers many predefined shapes that you can insert into your document. To see the clip that you inserted actually playing. Coloring the Shape: You may apply color to the shape by choosing from a variety of background styles. Changing the Presentation Design and Color Scheme Changing the Presentation Design: After you have created many slides. For this.
click on the “View” tab. It is applied to all slides. First. In PowerPoint build effects are animations to slide contents. Applying transition effects: A transition specifies how the display changes when you move from one slide to another. select one from the “Transition Sound” list box. in the “Transition to This Slide” group. In the “Animations” group.Changing the Color Scheme: To change the color scheme. In the "Presentation Views" group. In the panel at the right. Applying animation to an object: Let us add some animation effects to the graphic in the slide shown. Now click on the “Animations” tab. Click the “Apply to All” button if you want the same transition effects for all slides. You can see it is surrounded by a box. click on the graphic. click “Slide Master”. click on “Colors” in the “Themes” group on the “Design” tab. You can view the animation effect right away on your slide. 95 | P a g e . Click on a suitable one. whether on the click of the mouse or after a stipulated time by entering related details under “Advance Slide”. Now click “Play” to view your animation. You may click the “Preview” icon in the “Preview” group to view the transition effects for the current slide. click in the “Animate” list box and select “Fly In”. The “Slide Master” is used to make global changes to the slides in your presentation. To associate a sound with your transition. Now. You can see a number of slide icons in the left pane. click the arrow in the list box below the “Speed” list box and select “Start After Previous”. This ensures consistency and saves time. This results in the animation starting after the previous slide. Adding Animation and Other Effects “Animation” refers to the addition of special visual or sound effects to your slides. click on the “More” arrow to see all the available transition styles. You may select a color scheme by clicking on it. To see the Slide Master. You may specify how you wish to move to the next slide. If you move your mouse over them. On the “Animations” tab. click “Custom Animation” in the “Animations” group. Changing the Slide Master You know that slides can be created using different layouts. screen tips explain they are masters for different layouts. You can see the various available layouts when you click on the lower part of the “New Slide” icon in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab.
or nine miniature slides on a page. Print range: Under Print range you may specify which of the slides you want to print. whether horizontal or vertical. Slides per page: Select the number of slides you wish to print on one page. Print what: Select “Handouts”. To view your notes page. Let us select 4. or for your audience. two. Printing Handouts: Click the Office Button and select “Print → Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. Scale to fit paper: Check this box to print the slides of a size suitable to fit on the sheet of paper. Printing Handouts You can print your presentation in the form of handouts with one. On the “Slides” tab. The “Print” window is displayed. 96 | P a g e . the current slide only or any selection of slides. Now close the Master View by clicking on “Close Master View” in the “Close” group. click the “View” tab. three. Click “Notes Page” in the “Presentation Views” group. You see the master slide in the right pane. you can see that all the slides with the “Blank” layout have the new background style applied. use the “Notes Pane” at the bottom of the slide to write notes about your slide. You may print all slides. These can be used by your audience to follow along as you give your presentation or for future reference.Click on the slide icon related to the “Blank Layout”. Click “Background Styles” in the “Background” group on the “Slide Master” tab and select a suitable one. Let us change the background style. Any change made to this slide will be reflected on all slides created using the “Blank” layout. You may also use this view to enter or edit notes by clicking in the lower placeholder. Let us select “Vertical”. In Normal View. Creating Notes Pages You can create “Notes Pages” that include extra notes for yourself while you give your presentation. four. six. Order: Select the order of printing the slides.
click the slide you wish to copy. Hiding a Slide: If there is a slide that you do not want to display to a particular audience. check the box against “Don’t show on title slide”. Duplicating and Hiding Slides Duplicating a Slide: In a presentation. In the “Text” group. and then type the text that you want to appear at the top or bottom of each notes page or handout. and then type the text that you want to appear at the bottom of the slide in the center. handout or notes page. In the “Slides” group. Duplicating a slide creates a copy of the selected slide and places it directly after the selected slide.Frame slides: Check this box to print the slides with an outer frame. Click “Preview” to view your handouts onscreen and “Print” to print them. a company logo or the presentation title to the top of a handout or notes page in your presentation. click the slide icon on the “Slides” tab. right-click the slide on the “Slides” tab and select “Hide Slide”. check the box against “Footer”. Adding a Header or Footer to a Handout or Notes Page: In the “Header and Footer” window. check the appropriate boxes. if you need to duplicate a slide. To display the same footer information on all slides. Click the “Insert” tab and in the “Text” group. the time and date. select the “Header” or “Footer” check box. select “Header & Footer”. or to bottom of a slide. To hide a slide. time and slide number on the slide. On the “Slide” tab of the “Header and Footer” window. On the “Slide” tab in the “Header and Footer” window. Adding a Footer to a Slide: Click the “Insert” tab. click “Apply to All”. on the “Notes and Handouts” tab. Hiding the Footer: To hide the footer on a specific slide. 97 | P a g e . On the “Slides” tab. click “New Slide” and click “Duplicate Selected Slides” below the layouts displayed. Click “Apply” or “Apply to all”. clear the “Footer” check box and click “Apply”. To insert the date. Click the “Home” tab. select “Header & Footer”. Select any other options that you want and then click “Apply”. Using Headers and Footers Headers and Footers are used to add information such as slide numbers. it can be quite easily achieved. To hide the footer on the title slide. you may hide the slide.
Click on the slide that you wish to hide on the “Slides” tab in the left pane. The hidden slide icon with the slide number inside appears next to the slide that you have hidden. The hidden slide icon is then removed. 98 | P a g e . You can then move your mouse and use it as a pen on your slide. you may want to point to an important word. Learning to Control and Annotate a Slide Show Navigating the Slide Show: Running the slide show and practicing how to control the slide show helps you have a smooth presentation. Documenting a File Documenting a file: Document properties are details about a file that help identify it. you may wish to include some related documentation with the file. click on the “Summary” tab. Also. For example. A menu is displayed as shown. There is another way in which you can hide a slide. and keywords that identify topics or other important information in the file. Click the “Hide Slide” icon on the Ribbon once again to show the hidden slide. In the window displayed. In the “Document Information Panel”. Right-click on a slide during the slide show. you can go backwards and redisplay it. underline an important point or draw checkmarks next to items that you have covered. if someone has a question about a previous slide. These may be a descriptive title. To show a slide that you have previously hidden. right-click on the slide and select “Pointer Options” from the menu displayed. When you run your presentation. “Previous”. “Advanced Properties”. Before saving the completed presentation. Now click “OK” and close the Document Information Panel. for example. the author name. Enter your details on this tab. For this. and then click “Hide Slide”. Then on the Ribbon. you may decide the color of this pen by using the “Ink Color” option. right-click the slide that you want to show. click the “Slide Show” tab and select “Hide Slide” in the “Set Up” group.The hidden slide icon with the slide number inside appears next to the slide that you have hidden. the subject. Let us select “Ballpoint Pen”. Use the “Next”. You may move to any slide in your presentation. “Last Viewed” and “Go to Slide” options to move between slides. this slide will not be displayed. click the arrow next to “Document Properties” to select the set of properties that you want to change. Annotate a slide show: During your presentation. Click the Office Button and select “Prepare → Properties” from the menu.
click on the “Sound” icon. Saving the new presentation: Before you make any additional changes. To do this. In the “New Presentation” window. select “Blank Presentation” and press the “Create” button. The copied slide will be inserted in the presentation after the current slide. Click the Office Button and select “Save As” and enter the new file name and location. you may use the slides from one of your existing presentations. As the names suggest. If you want to use all slides from a presentation in a new presentation. Select “Chime” from the list of sounds. Save the file by clicking the Office button and selecting “Save”. “Mouse Click” and “Mouse Over”. on the “Slides” tab. Right-click the first slide in the new presentation and select “Paste”. Check the box against “Play sound”. 99 | P a g e . This has two tabs. you may save the file as a new presentation. Let us use the “Mouse Click” tab. simply save the presentation with a new name. Let us use an action button to play a sound in the slide shown in the figure. Specify the location and the new file name in the “Save As” window and click “Save”. Copying a slide: You may want to copy the slide which describes a course structure from your presentation to a new presentation. Under “Action Buttons”. right-click the slide to be copied and select “Copy”. the actions specified are performed when the mouse is clicked on the button and moved over the button respectively. The “Action Settings” window is displayed. You may make any changes with respect to colors. Now create a new presentation by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “New”. In the “Illustrations” group. Click the “Insert” tab. Adding Action Buttons You may add action buttons on your slides to perform functions such as playing sounds. Click “Save”. Now drag with the mouse to create the button of the size you require. Now you may make changes to the new presentation as required. Your original presentation does not get affected. click “Shapes”.Using Advanced Presentation Features Creating a New Presentation from Existing Slides To make the task of creating a new presentation easier. moving to another slide or running another program when you click on them. themes etc that you require.
Click “Yes”. your presentation can be delivered and you are ready to impress your audience. After you set the time for the last slide. In the “Set Up” group. a message box displays the total time for the presentation and asks you to confirm that you wish to keep the recorded slide timings. so that you are sure that it fits within a certain time frame. Now. the slides advance automatically as per these settings. A network may consist of just two computers next to each other or can even extend to a large number of computers located in different parts of the world. click the Office Button and then click the “Exit PowerPoint” button at the bottom right. in the “Set Up” group. when you click on this button you can hear the sound of a chime. PowerPoint includes a timing feature that records the length of time spent on each slide and the total presentation time while you are rehearsing. and you can see the timing in the “Slide Time box” at the right. Click the “Slide Show” tab. on the “Slide Show” tab. 100 | P a g e . You may perform various actions using action buttons such as moving to another slide or running another program. clear the “Use Rehearsed Timings” check box. select “Rehearse Timings”. If you do not want the slides in your presentation to advance automatically as per the slide timings recorded. they form a network. Click “Next” to move to the next slide. To exit the PowerPoint application. Delivering Presentations Rehearsing timing: Before delivering a presentation.During the slide show. The “Rehearsal” toolbar appears. Internet Internet Basics What is a Network? When computers are connected to each other. it is important to rehearse the timing. Now when you run your slide show. “Slide Sorter” view appears and displays the time of each slide in your presentation. You may use the recorded times to advance the slides automatically when you actually give your presentation.
Network operating systems (NOS): They control and coordinate activities such as electronic communication and resource sharing between the computers and devices on a network. A dedicated server is a computer that specializes in performing specific tasks. Host Computer: This is a large centralized computer. and are quite powerful. Computers in a network can be set up in different ways to suit the needs of users. Hub: This is the central node for other nodes. 101 | P a g e . Distributed Processing: This is a system where computing power is located and shared at different locations. Server: This is a node that shares resources with other nodes. a printer or a computer. you need to get familiar with certain terms which are as follows: Node: This is a device that is connected to a network.A “computer network” is a communication system that connects two or more computers so that they can exchange information and share resources. It could be any device such as a data storage device. Dedicated servers are typically used for websites that have high traffic. To understand computer networks. Client: This is a node that uses a resource from another node. Typically. Network interface cards (NIC): These are expansion cards located within the system unit that connect the computer to a network. A non-dedicated server can function as both a client and a server. let us have a look at the types of networks. Now that you are familiar with the terminology related to computer networks. In decentralized organizations. computer systems at different locations are networked to a main or centralized computer. They are sometimes referred to as “LAN adapters”. usually a minicomputer or a mainframe. Network Administrator: This is a person who is a computer specialist responsible for efficient operation of the network and implementation of new networks. a client is a user’s microcomputer. It may be a server or simply a connection point for cables from other nodes.
The hub may be a host computer or file server. This is called the network’s topology. Networks may also be citywide and even international. MANs span distances up to 100 miles. including a common internet connection. LANs span distances less than a mile and are owned by individual organizations. Configurations: A network can be configured or arranged in several ways. Network architecture encompasses network configurations and strategies. They use microwave relays and satellites to reach users over long distances. a MAN is jointly owned by a group of organizations or by a network service provider who charges a fee to provide network services. They are frequently used as links between office buildings that are located throughout a city. While LANs have been widely used within organizations for years. bus. Unlike a LAN. The widest of all WANs is of course. a number of small computers or peripheral devices are linked to a central unit which is the “network hub”. These LANs are called “Home Networks” and allow different computers to share resources. Network Architecture: This describes how a network is arranged and how resources are coordinated and shared. metropolitan area and wide area networks. All communications pass through the central unit and control is maintained by “polling”. Telephone lines for example may connect communications equipment within a home or building. within the same building. A “Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)” is the next step up from the LAN.Network Types: Different types of channels allow different kinds of networks to be formed. they are now being commonly used by individuals in their homes. Usually when computers in one office are connected to one another. They are used to link microcomputers and share printers and other resources. When this is done over longer distances. Typically. The nodes of a LAN are in close physical proximity. ring and hierarchical. the Internet which spans the entire globe. The four principal network topologies are star. In a “star network”. Wide Area Networks (WANs) are countrywide and worldwide networks. Configurations describe the physical arrangement of the network while strategies define how information and resources are shared. The network types based on the geographical area they serve are local area. the network is known as a Local Area Network or LAN for short. They provide access to regional service (MAN) providers and span distances greater than 100 miles. the network is known as WAN which stands for Wide Area Network. Each connecting device is asked or 102 | P a g e .
these computers are also hosts to smaller computers or peripheral devices. “Client/server networks” are based on specialization and use one computer to coordinate and supply services to other nodes on the network. forming a ring. usually a mainframe. each device is connected to two other devices. For example. client/server and peer-to-peer. For example. The “hierarchical network” consists of several computers linked to a central host computer. microcomputers may obtain files from other microcomputers as well as provide files to them. In a “bus network”. just like a star network. The nodes are either terminals with little or no processing capabilities or microcomputers running special software that allows them to act as terminals. Each device examines information as it passes along the bus to see whether it is the intended recipient. processing power is centralized in one large computer. The most common network strategies are terminal. In a “peer-to-peer network”. Server nodes coordinate and supply specialized services and access to resources. An advantage of the star topology is that it can be used to support a “timesharing system”. All communications travel along a common connecting cable called a “bus” or “backbone”. nodes have equal authority and can act as both clients and servers. data and resources can be shared. The minicomputers are in turn connected to the corporation’s mainframe which contains data accessible to all. Client/server networks are widely used on the Internet. A hierarchical network is useful in centralized organizations. This means that multiple users can share resources (or time) on a central computer. 103 | P a g e . Processing tasks can be performed at different locations and programs. The star topology is commonly used to link microcomputers to a mainframe containing an organization’s database. microcomputers in a department are connected to individual departmental minicomputers. In a “terminal network”. Many airline reservation systems are terminal networks.“polled” whether it has a message to send and is allowed to send its message in turn. Distributed data processing is possible using a ring network. This arrangement is commonly used for sharing data stored on different microcomputers. However. Client nodes request the services. In a “ring network”. Strategies: Every network has a strategy of coordinating the sharing of information and resources. There is no central computer and messages are passed around the ring till they reach the correct destination. there is no host computer and each device handles its own communications.
They provide e-mail and other services accessible only to those within the organization. Specific information such as product ranges. Most organizational firewalls include a special computer called a “proxy server”. Firewalls: A “firewall” is a system that secures a network. and from where standard forms can be downloaded. Intranets: Many organizations have internal networks similar to the Internet which have web pages that contain company information. What is Internet? The word “Internet” is derived from the word inter-networking which means connecting different networks together. or part of an intranet. An Intranet is accessible only from within the organization. Entry into extranets is controlled by usernames and passwords which establish the identity of the user and grant access to the areas of the extranet that he is entitled to view. hardware or a combination of both. mediating traffic between a protected network and the Internet. Extranets are used by some organizations to allow suppliers and others limited access to their networks. newsletters. The main points of difference between an intranet and extranet are as follows: 1) An intranet is a private network within an organization while an extranet is a private network that connects more than one organization. Such networks are known as “Intranets” and may or may not be connected to the Internet.Organizational Internets: Most large organizations have a wide range of network configurations. 2) Like the public Internet. pricing structures etc. online order forms etc. In addition to preventing unrestricted access into a network. which can be accessed by certain external users via the Internet. the United States Department of Defense began a project on computer networks. Internet technologies are applied to integrate all these networks. The purpose is to increase efficiency and reduce costs. prices. All communications between the internal network and the outside world must pass through it. History of Internet: In the second half of the decade from 1960 to 1970. Thus the Internet can be termed as a Network of Networks. operating systems and strategies. Extranets: An “Extranet” is an intranet. Firewalls can be implemented in software. intranets use browsers. It then decides whether it is safe to allow a message or file to pass into or out of the organization’s network. 104 | P a g e . Communication within and between organizations is supported using intranets and extranets. It acts as a gatekeeper. web sites and web pages. shielding it from access by unauthorized users. a firewall can also restrict data from flowing out of a network. may be made available to suppliers or potential customers using an extranet.
Government Departments and Research Centers also began using this network. after 1970. Instead of having a central system of limited machines. researchers developed a new set of rules called Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol or TCP/IP. new independent centers were created in different places. This led to the birth of the modern Internet.This project was named ARPANET. To send data along telephone lines. wireless telephones and even satellites. Gradually. By 1993 the concept of Internet had changed completely. The roots of the giant network called Internet can be traced back to this project. Universities. 105 | P a g e .
anytime for anyone is possible due to the Internet. “Entertainment” in different forms such as movies. You can have access to entertainment. Using the Internet. movie previews. “Education” or “e-learning” which supports flexible learning anywhere. You can take classes on various subjects. “Shopping” is one of the fastest-growing Internet applications. You can find the latest local. national and international news using the Internet. advertisement and news. book clubs and more. information. you can search for bargains and make purchases or simply window shop or look for the latest fashions. You have additional options such as live concerts. education. Some courses are free while others have to be paid for. playing.Today the Internet has become a popular medium for information. It has become a popular medium for business. shopping. music and games is available using the Internet. “Searching” for all types of information has become very convenient using the Internet. You can access some of the world’s largest libraries directly from your home computer. companionship and many other opportunities on the Internet. 106 | P a g e .
For a buyer.e. Also. With the help of Internet. the costs associated with operating a retail store can be eliminated. The Internet offers a chance to reach out to a larger number of customers. These include the inability to provide immediate delivery of goods.Transactions of large industries are also effected over the Internet. it offers the convenience of purchasing at any hour of the day or night. This is known as e-commerce. It does away with the need to physically travel to the seller’s location. a seller is not required to maintain a physical inventory of goods and products are shipped directly from warehouses. there are some disadvantages too. monetary transactions are also being carried out. While there are numerous advantages of e-commerce. e-commerce is the buying and selling of goods over the Internet. From the seller’s perspective. 107 | P a g e . the inability to “try on” prospective purchases and questions relating to the security of online payments. Electronic Commerce i. The Internet offers a chance to survey a wide variety of products.
2) The second type of e-commerce “Consumer-to-consumer (C2C)” involves individuals selling to individuals.com” and “www. 1) Consult product review sites: These sites offer evaluations or opinions on products. This arrangement often eliminates the wholesaler by allowing manufacturers to sell directly to customers.Tips on how to shop online: When you shop online. 4) Select a payment option: Once you have selected the product and the vendor.com”.com”.yahoo. you have to place the order and make the payment.bizrate. sellers post descriptions of products at a web site and buyers submit bids electronically. Existing retail stores use B2C e-commerce to reach out to customers through the Web. you need to check his reputation before placing an order.consumersearch. There are three basic types of e-commerce: 1) “Business-to-consumer (B2C)” involves the sale of a product or service to the general public or end users. 3) Consult vendor review sites: Even if a vendor offers attractive prices. Security of your credit card number is important.com” are examples of review sites on the Web.com” and “www. “www. In “Web auctions”.shopping. 2) Use a shopping bot: A shopping bot is an automated shopping assistant that searches the Internet for the best price of a product. transferring funds. Two well-known shopping bots are located at “www. “Online stock trading” allows investors to research. “Online shopping” as you know includes buying and selling consumer goods over the Internet. This is done in the form of classified ads or an auction. You may consider payment options from sites such as “www. buy and sell stocks and bonds over the Internet. The three most widely used B2C applications are as follows: “Online banking” enables customers to perform various banking operations such as accessing account information.mysimon.epinions. There are two basic types of Web auction sites: 108 | P a g e .private.buy. it would be useful to keep the following suggestions in mind.com” and “www.americanexpress. You can enlist it to compare prices. paying bills and applying for loans without having to visit the bank.com” and “www.gomez. You may visit vendor review sites such as “www.com/privatepayments”.
3) “Digital cash” is electronic currency that only exists online. You can often get bargain prices and these sites are generally considered safe places to shop. This is typically a manufacturer-supplier relationship. They facilitate the bidding process but are not involved in completing transactions and verifying the authenticity of the goods sold. secure and reliable payment methods for purchased goods. 3) The third type of e-commerce “Business-to-business (B2B)” involves the sale of a product or service from one business to another. Security: The single greatest challenge for e-commerce is the development of fast. The merchandise presented is typically from a company’s surplus stock. The three basic payment options are as follows: 1) “Cheques” are the most traditional and cheque purchases take the longest time to complete. see the displayed figure. 109 | P a g e . For example.a) “Auction house sites” sell directly to bidders. paint and varnish which he would purchase from the related suppliers. The buyer mails a cheque to the seller. b) “Person-to-person auction sites” provide a forum for buyers and sellers. It is a system that allows a person to pay for goods or services by transmitting a number from one computer to another. Sellers convert it to regular currency through the bank. This method is more secure than credit cards. Buyers purchase digital cash from a bank that specializes in electronic currency and use it to purchase goods. 2) “Credit card” purchases are faster and more convenient. If it is a valid cheque. the purchased item is dispatched by the seller. But credit card fraud over the Internet by criminals known as “Carders” is a major concern for both buyers and sellers. Buyers and sellers need to be cautious while interacting with these sites. For a list of digital cash providers. a furniture manufacturer would require raw material such as wood.
“Web Utilities” are specialized utility programs that make using the Internet and Web easier and safer. “Downloading” is the process of copying a file from a computer on the 110 | P a g e . you must connect to the ASP’s web site. The aim of “web-based services” such as ThinkFree is to free users from owning and storing applications. When you exit the program. To use a web-based application. Some utilities facilitate sharing resources over the Internet while others enhance the capabilities of your browser. A “web-based application” is a software package that can be accessed through a web browser. This free service provides access to programs similar to Microsoft’s Word. Excel and PowerPoint. Most application service providers (ASPs) charge a fee to access and use their applications. File transfer protocol (FTP): FTP is an Internet standard for transferring files. The ASP downloads a copy of the requested application to your computer’s hard disk drive from where you can run it. it is automatically deleted from your hard disk.Web Utilities: Utilities are programs that make computing easier. Web-based applications: Normally application programs are owned by individuals and organizations and stored on the computer’s hard disk.
The Internet has a lot of content which is not suitable for unrestricted viewing. Others need to be installed before they can be used by your browser. You can also use FTP to copy files from your computer to another computer on the Internet. To learn more about plug-ins and how to download them. RealPlayer from RealNetworks and Shockwave from Adobe.Internet and saving it on your computer. Additionally. Some plug-ins are included in browsers and operating systems. Filters: “Filters” are programs that block access to selected sites. Many web sites require you to have some plug-ins in order to view their content fully. Windows Media Player from Microsoft. These are used for a variety of purposes ranging from viewing and printing documents to playing audio and video files. these programs can 111 | P a g e . Some widely used plug-ins include Acrobat Reader from Adobe. Plug-ins: “Plug-ins” are programs that are automatically started and operate as part of your browser. Filters allow parents of young children as well as organizations to block access to certain sites and set time limits. QuickTime from Apple. This is called “uploading”. you may visit some of the sites listed in the displayed figure.
generate reports regarding time spent on the Internet as well as at individual web sites. you can also chat 112 | P a g e . Using Internet you can communicate with or find out about what is happening in any part of the world. For a list of some of the best known filters. You may chat using the keyboard. Chatting with your friends in virtual chat rooms is another facility that is available. Anyone with access to the Internet can exchange text. data files. have a look at the displayed figure. and programs with any other user. Two of the best known Internet security suites are from McAfee and Norton. Today. Internet Security Suites: An “Internet security suite” is a collection of utility programs designed to maintain your security and privacy while you are on the Web. protect against computer viruses. These programs control spam. It is popularly known as the "Information Highway" which is used as a versatile means for information sharing. provide filters and much more. using voice chat. chat groups and newsgroups.
view images. etc. Examples are Electronic Mail (e-mail). listen to sound files. Instant Messaging: This supports direct. The Internet is the actual physical network made up of wires. There are a large number of applications that can be used on the Internet for various purposes. It connects millions of computers and resources throughout the world.w3. cables and satellites. The World Wide Web Consortium now manages it. programs and information between two or more computers. the European Laboratory for Particle Physics. exchange voice data and view programs that run on practically any software in the world. animation and sound. Telnet to connect to another computer. video. Netscape. but they are not the same thing.org. The World Wide Web was originally developed in 1990 at CERN. graphics. “live” electronic communication between two or more individuals. It is easy to get the Internet and the Web confused. You can retrieve documents. You can also play different games on the Internet. What is WWW? The World Wide Web (WWW) is information organized in the form of Web pages containing text and graphic images. Internet Telephone: This provides a low cost alternative to long distance telephone calls using electronic voice delivery. You can access the World Wide Web on the Internet by using any browser application such as Mozilla. Mailing lists. Chat groups. animations and videos. This means that web pages consist of multiple media such as text. The Web is a multimedia interface to the resources available on the Internet. Newsgroups. The name of its website is http://www. E-mail: This provides a fast and efficient alternative to traditional mail by sending and receiving electronic documents. Electronic Commerce: This means buying and selling goods electronically. A web page is simply a document formatted in a standard language known as Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). Some of the applications that depend on communication systems are as follows. It contains hypertext links represented by underlined text and images that lead to related information.with the other person as if you were talking on the telephone. Internet Explorer. Communications: Computer communications is the process of sharing data. World Wide Web (WWW or Web) and Instant Messaging. When you connect to this network you are described as being “online”. 113 | P a g e . File Transfer Protocol (FTP).
Protocols are used to create an Internet connection for your computer and they handle the data transfer over network lines. Java applets are used for presenting animation. Using this protocol. Statistical Information and Personal Information. News. or just having fun. This ensures uniformity among users using various types of computer systems. A network also has components called “Routers” that help choose the best path for an individual packet to travel and reach its destination. displaying graphics. Educational. in the course of learning something. Advocacy (to influence readers to support a cause or idea). Because these numeric addresses 114 | P a g e . The packets are reassembled at the destination to get the original information. "Web Surfing" means moving through different web pages. The information on WWW can be classified in different categories based on the type of their content such as Business and Commercial. The other protocols are Point to Point Protocol (PPP) and Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP). The Internet uses some rules or standard set of protocols for communication between computers. These addresses are used to deliver e-mail and to locate web sites. This may be done by following hyperlinks. These rules for exchanging data between computers are known as “protocols”.Web pages also can contain special programs called “applets” that are generally written in a programming language such as Java. Each packet contains the address of its destination computer as well as the computer of its origin. Identification: Every computer on the Internet has a unique numeric address called an “IP address (internet protocol address)”. TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the name of the core protocol used on the Internet. the information to be transmitted is broken down in the form of small packets. You may even move between pages at random. providing interactive games and more. TCP/IP: The essential features of this protocol involve: 1) Identifying sending and receiving devices AND 2) Reformatting information for transmission across the Internet. Information Flow Over the Internet Sending and receiving devices follow a set of communication rules for the exchange of information. either from a search or through a series of linked pages.
a DNS might translate it to an IP address say. 2) Communication channel: This is the actual medium that carries the message. For example. At the receiving end.132. another modem modifies it once again so that it can be displayed on the “receiving device” which would be another computer. if you enter a URL. a system was developed to automatically convert text-based addresses to numeric IP addresses. 115 | P a g e . They convert messages into packets that can travel across the communication channel.are difficult to remember.4” before a connection can be made. This system uses a “domain name server (DNS)” that converts text-based addresses to IP addresses. 3) Connection devices: These act as the interface between the sending and receiving devices and the communication channel. Your modem would be the “connection device” which would modify the message so that it could travel efficiently across the “communication channel” which is the telephone line. when you send an e-mail. Communication Systems “Communication Systems” are electronic systems that transmit data from one location to another. For example. It may be a physical cable or it can be wireless.103.com”. “198. Every communication system has four basic elements which are as follows: 1) Sending and receiving devices: These may be computers or specialized communication devices. 4) Data transmission specifications: These are procedures that coordinate the sending and receiving devices by defining the way in which the messages will be sent across the communication channel. your computer would be the “sending device”. How the message is modified and sent would be described in the “data transmission specifications”. say “www.example.
One category connects sending and receiving devices by providing a physical connection such as a wire or cable. fiber-optic cable is lighter and more reliable at transmitting data as compared to coaxial cable. 116 | P a g e .Communication Channels: You know that communication channels are an essential element of every communication system. They include telephone lines. A single twisted pair culminates in a wall jack into which you can plug your phone and computer. Compared to coaxial cable. coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable. Coaxial cable is a high-frequency transmission cable and consists of a single solid-copper core. There are two categories of communication channels. Fiber-optic cable transmits data as pulses of light through tiny tubes of glass. Telephone lines consist of twisted-pair cable which is made up of hundreds of copper wires. Coaxial cable is used to deliver television signals as well as to connect computers in a network. “Physical Connections” use a solid medium to connect sending and receiving devices. The other category is wireless.
Since the light waves travel in a straight line.Wireless Connections: Wireless connections use air to connect sending and receiving devices. Primary technologies used for wireless connections are infrared. printers. We see a large number of cables in our offices. “Microwave” communication uses high-frequency radio waves. They can be used to send and receive large volumes of data. One of the most common applications is to transfer data from a portable device such as a notebook computer or PDA to a desktop computer. etc. It aims to simplify data synchronization between Internet devices and other computers. Bluetooth is a small. “Bluetooth” is a short-range wireless standard that uses microwaves. It creates a wireless personal area network (PAN) and provides a way to connect and exchange information between two devices over distances of about 30 feet. “Satellite” communication uses satellites orbiting above the earth as microwave relay stations. We often have a hard time trying to figure out which cable needs to go where. Some users connect their notebook or handheld computers to a cellular telephone to access the Web. the waves are relayed by microwave stations with microwave dishes or antennas. “Broadcast radio” uses radio signals to communicate with wireless devices. mobile phones. sending and receiving devices must be in clear view of one another. broadcast radio. Cellular telephones and many Web-enabled devices use broadcast radio to place telephone calls and to connect to the Internet. Conceived initially by Ericsson. GPS devices use that information to determine the geographical location of the device. Most Web-enabled devices follow a standard known as “Wi-Fi (i. For longer distances. GPS devices provide navigational support in some automobiles. microwave and satellite.e. homes and everywhere else. The “Global Positioning System (GPS)” is a network of 24 satellites developed by the United States Department of Defense which continually sends location information to the earth. Satellites can amplify and relay microwave signals from one transmitter on the ground to another. Microwave is a good medium for sending data between buildings in a city or a large college campus. 117 | P a g e . “Bluetooth” is the name of a new technology that promises to change the way we use machines. wireless fidelity)”. Bluetooth is essentially a cable-replacement technology which tries to solve this problem. “Infrared” uses infrared light waves to communicate over short distances. cheap radio chip to be plugged into computers. They do not use any solid substances like wires and cables. They are sometimes mounted with a monitor to display maps and with speakers to provide spoken directions to the driver. Microwaves travel in a straight line and therefore can be transmitted across relatively short distances.
The speed at which modems transfer data is called “transfer rate”. Connection devices: We have seen that connection devices act as the interface between the sending and receiving devices and the communication channel. This is typically measured in “bits per second (bps)”. send and receive digital signals which are binary signals. 118 | P a g e . Telephones send and receive analog signals which are continuous electronic waves. A great deal of computer communication takes place over telephone lines. The modem thus enables digital microcomputers to communicate across analog telephone lines. “Modulation” is the process of converting digital signals to analog form.Let us look at a summary of communication channels. Computers. “Demodulation” is the process of converting analog signals to digital form. The various units to measure transfer speed are shown in the displayed chart. on the other hand. Modems: The word “modem” stands for modulator-demodulator.
Large corporations lease special high-speed lines from telephone companies which provide very high 119 | P a g e . PC Card and wireless.There are four basic types of modems: external. Unlike other modems. The “PC Card modem” is a credit card-sized expansion board that is inserted into portable computers. A telephone cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. The “internal modem” consists of a plug-in circuit board inside the system unit. It sends and receives signals through the air. Another cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. internal. A telephone cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. it does not use cables. Connection Service: Standard telephone lines and conventional modems provide a “dial-up service” which is quite slow. A “wireless modem” may be internal. The “external modem” stands outside the computer and is connected by a cable to the computer’s serial port. external or a PC Card.
While special high-speed lines are very expensive. “Cellular services” are used by mobile devices and laptops.capacity. T3 and T4 lines and do not require conventional modems. satellite and cellular services. “Digital subscriber line (DSL)” uses existing telephone lines to provide highspeed connections. These lines are known as T1. cable modems. These include DSL. there are other affordable connections which provide significantly higher capacity than a dial-up service. “Cable modems” use existing telephone cables to provide high-speed connections. These devices use “3G cellular networks” to download data from the Internet. Satellite/air connection services use satellites and the air to send data to users at faster rates than dial-up connections. 120 | P a g e . ADSL (asymmetric digital subscriber line) is one of the most widely used types of DSL. Let us compare typical user connection costs and speeds. T2.
Audio and video files require a wider bandwidth than text documents to be transmitted. “Voiceband” is used for standard telephone communication. There are three categories of bandwidth. This is also known as low bandwidth. Microcomputers with standard modems and dial-up service use this bandwidth. “Broadband” is the bandwidth used for high capacity transmissions. It indicates the volume of information that can move across the communication channel in a given time. 121 | P a g e . cable and satellite connections use this bandwidth. Specialized high-speed devices and microcomputers with DSL. Bandwidth: This is a measurement of the width or capacity of the communication channel. “Medium band” is the bandwidth used in special leased lines to connect minicomputers and mainframes as well as to transmit data over long distances.Data Transmission: Several factors such as bandwidth and protocols affect how data is transmitted.
Browsers A Web Browser is a software tool used to browse the Internet. This is how the PC establishes a connection to the Internet through an ISP. username. you can connect your Personal Computer (PC) to the Internet. there is widespread use of mobile and wireless communication devices for gaining access to the Internet. In this method. you need a device called the “Modem”. Besides these. You can connect your microcomputer by telephone or other telecommunications links to other computers and information sources almost anywhere. Some companies also offer free Internet access. The service provider gives you a software package. You can also connect to the Internet using a leased line. This is just the beginning of the “Wireless Revolution” which will change the way we communicate and use computer technology in a big way. They provide Internet connections with wireless modems and other wireless devices. you are linked to the world of larger computers and the Internet. In the last five years. “Wireless service providers” do not use telephone or cable lines. Using a telephone. They provide access through standard telephone lines or cable connections. An “Internet Service Provider” is a company that provides access to the Internet for a monthly fee. If a computer is part of a local area network (LAN) that has connectivity to the Internet. Examples are DSL. In the past. the data transmission rate is much higher. Set Top Boxes and other propriety solutions. wired devices were required to be able to connect to the Internet. The providers are already connected to the Internet and provide a path or connection for individuals to access the Internet. there are also other options for connecting to the Internet. Using the modem and dialer software. With this connection. Colleges and universities mostly provide free access to students. It is a special application program that brings information from any part of the world 122 | P a g e . “National Internet Service Providers” are providers who operate primarily on a National level.How Do We Connect? “Connectivity” is a concept related to using computer networks to link people and resources. you can access the Internet through the LAN. password and access phone number. They are basically large telecom companies that have nationwide coverage and operations. the PC connects to the server of an Internet Service Provider (ISP). To do so. Cable Modem. there has been a dramatic change in connectivity. Today.
This address is known as the Uniform Resource Locator or URL in short. playing audio and video files and running programs. Another way to navigate the web is to go the address bar and type what you are looking for. Each web site has a distinct. type the website address or URL in the address bar. It identifies the type of organization or what country the website is from. Most browsers have a Graphical User Interface (GUI). click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Internet Explorer”. This allows easy viewing of text. Navigating the Web Using Internet Explorer 7 Internet Explorer is a world-class browser that is designed to support various internet standards across a variety of platforms. Type “digital camera” and press “Enter”. It is the name of the server where the resource is located. The first part of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) presents the “protocol” used to connect to the resource. Internet Explorer automatically sends your query to a search service and displays the results.com” indicates a commercial site and “. Internet Explorer.in” indicates India. it is closely integrated with the Windows operating system. and animations. Netscape Navigator and Mozilla are some examples of the browser applications that are commonly used. It allows navigation from one page to another.com/ and press “Enter”. you see a long rectangular box called the “Address Bar”. With an Internet connection and Internet Explorer. If you do not see this icon. A browser does the work of connecting to the Internet and locating and displaying web pages. The protocol “http://” is the most widely used Web protocol.through the Internet to your computer screen. separate and unique address. http://www. You can connect directly to a web site by typing the URL of that site in the address bar or location bar of the web browser.microsoft. When you want to visit a website. Say you are looking for “digital cameras”. Since it is created by Microsoft. 123 | P a g e . you can find and view information about anything on the Web To start Internet Explorer. At the top. you can communicate with any computer over the Internet. For example “. images. click on the “Launch Internet Explorer Browser” icon on your desktop. for example. The URL of the web page is displayed in the address bar. The second part presents the “domain name”. Using a browser. Protocols are rules for exchanging data between computers. The last part of the domain name following the dot is called the “top-level domain (TLD)”.
Under “Tabs”. click the “Quick Tabs” button to the left of the first tab. Below the address bar. On the “Content” tab. Click on a thumbnail to view a particular website. the web page related to the link is opened. The Home Page of a website is the opening or main page of the website. you may enter your preferences under “Home page”. select “Tools → Internet Options”. Select “Tools → Internet Options”. To create a new tab. click “Settings”. When you click on the link. you may click the down arrow just to the right of the Forward button and select the webpage from the dropdown list. forms data. click “Settings”. you may enter the settings you require. You now see a menu displayed above the toolbar. Tabbed Browsing: Tabs enable you to have multiple websites open in one Internet Explorer window at one time. On the “General” tab. To access the Internet Explorer Tabbed Browsing options. click on the “X” to the right side of it. Selecting links: When you point to a link on a web page. You can quickly switch between open websites by simply clicking on the tabs. If you clicked the Back button and you want to move forward to the page you were on just before you clicked it. You can scroll through a web page using the horizontal and vertical scrollbars.To the right of the address bar. the pointer changes to a hand and the URL is shown in the status bar. you may use the “Forward” button. Quick Tabs: To see a thumbnail view of all the websites you have open in your tabs. The “Stop” button to its right is used to stop a page from loading. In the “Tabbed Browsing Settings” window. AutoComplete: Internet Explorer automatically records Web addresses. and passwords. you can see the “Refresh” button. select “Tools → Internet Options”. which is intended chiefly to greet visitors and provide information about the site or its owner. To quickly go back to a website you visited earlier. To close a tab. 124 | P a g e . click the “New Tab” button or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+T”. In the “AutoComplete Settings” window. To access the Internet Explorer AutoComplete options. Links may be in the form of underlined text. buttons or pictures. Home Page: The default page displayed when you start Internet Explorer is called the “Home Page”. You may change the Internet Explorer Home Page to a site of your preference. you can see a toolbar. Use the “Back” button to the left of the address bar to go to the previous page you were on. you may enter the settings you require. under “AutoComplete”. You may use this to reload a web page. Right-click on a blank space on the toolbar and select “Menu Bar”.
select the desired folder and click “Add”. For this. Select “Tools → Internet Options”. You may adjust the size of the frames by dragging the border between the frames. “Close the Favorites Center” icon. In the “Add Language” window. simply click on the “X” shaped. To view these pages in your preferred language. Adding items to the Favorites list: Go to the page that you want to add to your list. Using the Favorites Center Internet Explorer Favorites are used to save links to sites that you want to visit again. Viewing thumbnails: Thumbnail images are small images shown on a web page because of space limitations and the time required for downloading. The “Favorites” list contains all the favorites you have created. Now click “Add” in the “Add a Favorite” window. To place this favorite in an existing folder. If you speak several languages. Click on thumbnails to view related documents. You may organize your favorite pages in folders and save items under different folders. content will appear in the language that has the highest priority. 125 | P a g e . When you click on a link on one page included in a frame. If a Web site offers multiple languages. This list appears under “Favorites” when you click the “Favorites Center” button on the toolbar. rather than having to type the sites URL each time you want to visit it.. If you would like to display the Favorites Center at the left of your screen at all times.”. Alternatively. You may type a new name for the page in the “Name” text box. In the “Language Preference” window. Creating a list of favorites allows you to visit those sites with a single click. Enter a name for the new folder in the “Create a Folder” window and click “Create”. select the language you want to add and click “OK”. the related page is displayed in another frame. click “Languages”. you can arrange them in order of priority. click “New Folder”.Using frames: The browser area can be divided into different scrollable areas called frames. you may create a new folder for a favorite. you can add languages to your list of languages in Internet Explorer. Displaying web pages in other languages: Some Web sites offer their content in several languages. you may pin it to the window by clicking on the “Pin the Favorites Center” button. The “Add a Favorite” window is displayed. click “Add”. Click the “Add to Favorites” button on the toolbar and select “Add to Favorites. On the “General” tab. from the “Create in” drop-down list. To unpin it. Click “OK” in the other windows as well.
You may re-sort your History items by clicking on the arrow next to the "History" button and making your selection. address. the current page. such as your name. 126 | P a g e . To delete an item from the History List. You can also move items from one folder to another by using the “Move” button or dragging the item to the appropriate folder You may also use the Menu Bar to add items to your Favorites list and to organize your Favorites. right-click on it and select “Delete”. click the “History” button in the Favorites Center. Online Application Forms: Online Application Forms are forms that are given to the user to fill when connected to the Internet. you can login to your account and use all facilities available. pop-up menus or drop-down lists. A form may have text boxes. Preliminary validations are performed on some fields. The “Print” window is displayed. selected text. History items are displayed sorted by website.” and “Favorites → Organize Favorites” from the Menu Bar. select “File → Print” from the menu.. You can fill information in it and submit the form contents by clicking on buttons provided. Using the History list: Internet Explorer keeps track of the web pages you have previously visited in the form of history. You may print all pages. Some mandatory fields must be entered before the data is accepted. For this. To view the History list. you may have to enter your personal details while booking an airline ticket online. Once you have completed your registration. buttons. you may use the different buttons in the lower part to create. rename or delete a folder. Click “Yes” in the displayed window. You may then click on a website link to open the related page. a specific page or range of pages by making the appropriate selection under “Print Range”. phone number. check boxes. The form shown is used to register for a Yahoo mail account. Printing and Saving Web Pages Printing and saving web pages: To print the current page. and then click “Organize Favorites”. Using Forms Forms are part of the web page that can help you to enter data. click on one of the calendar icons. For example. select “Favorites → Add to Favorites. Click the “Add to Favorites” button. Click on one of the yellow icons to see what pages you visited at a particular site. In the “Organize Favorites” window.Organizing your Favorites: You may wish to organize your favorite pages by topic. and so on. Now. These must be filled in carefully before they are submitted.
In a keyword search. A search can be done by entering a keyword. The “Save As” window is displayed. Search services can be categorized into two types. there is a vast ocean of information available on the World Wide Web. Finding Information on the Web Using Search Services As you know. Right-click to display the pop-up menu. Saving an image from a page: You may wish to save only an image from a web page. Search engines are also huge databases of web sites. but typically offer no categories or differentiation between different types of material. You may choose a format for the page from the dropdown list in the “Save as type” field. The “Save Picture” window is displayed. The search engine compares your entry against its database and displays a list of “hits” in the form of hyperlinks to related web pages. a descriptive world or phrase or by browsing a topic list. you enter a keyword or phrase reflecting the information you want. Saving an entire web page: Select “File → Save As” from the menu. Click “Close” when the download is completed. The “Save Webpage” window is displayed. web directories and search engines. Right-click to display a pop-up menu. if you entered the keyword “travel” you get 127 | P a g e . Search engines provide two different search approaches: Keyword search and Directory search. you can use the Preview option. Web directories are databases of Internet sites that are organized by topics or subjects. select “File → Print Preview” from the menu. Search engines are also huge databases of web sites. You may save the web page with a new name by making changes in the “File name” field. Type a file name and then click “Save”. A number of search tools have been developed and are available on different web sites. position the mouse pointer over the image. but typically offer no categories or differentiation between different types of material. Now click “Save”. Choose a folder in which to save this image. Specify the location at which you wish to download the web page. Choose “Save Picture As”. Choose “Save Target As”. Search services help you to quickly locate information about a specific topic from multiple websites. For example. Web directories are databases of Internet sites that are organized by topics or subjects. web directories and search engines. Specify the location at which you wish to save your file. Saving a page without displaying it: Position the mouse pointer over the link to the web page you wish to save. Search services can be categorized into two types. For this.Previewing a web page: To have a look at how a page will look before it is printed. For this. Type a file name for the image and then click “Save”.
thousands of hits. These are ordered according to those sites most likely to contain the information requested and are usually in groups of 10. You may find relevant information on the web using “Subject Directories”. Subject directories are collections of Internet resources organized into subject categories. They are useful for looking for information on a specific subject or to gain familiarity with a topic. Advantages of subject directories are that they generally contain good quality sites and they save time since subject wise information is available. Let us have a look at the Google subject directory. Enter the URL “http://directory.google.com” in the address bar and press “Enter”. You can see the Google directory on your screen showing links to various subjects. Clicking on a subject will show you more detailed lists from which you may make your selections. Using the Search Box: One of the new features of Internet Explorer 7 is the “Search Box” located at the top right. You can search the internet using most search engines from the search box instead of going to other search engine sites. If you want to find something on a page you are currently on, click on the down arrow to the right of the magnifying glass and select “Find on this Page”. Enter your search criteria and click “Next”. Using the Search Box: One of the new features of Internet Explorer 7 is the “Search Box” located at the top right. You can search the internet using most search engines from the search box instead of going to other search engine sites. If you want to find something on a page you are currently on, click on the down arrow to the right of the magnifying glass and select “Find on this Page”. Enter your search criteria and click “Next”. You may change the default search engine if you wish. For this, click on the down arrow to the right of the magnifying glass and select “Change Search Defaults”. Click “Set Default” and then “OK” to make the search provider you just added as the default one. Metasearch Engines: When you research a topic, you may need to visit different web sites in order to use different search engines. This would be time-consuming and duplicate responses would be inevitable. “Metasearch Engines” offer an alternative. They are programs that automatically submit your search request to several search engines simultaneously. The metasearch engine receives the results, eliminates duplicates, orders the hits and provides the edited list to you. You can see a list of some metasearch engines available on the Web in the displayed table.
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Specialized Search Engines: These search engines focus on subject-specific web sites. They save your time by narrowing your search. For a list of a few specialized search engines, have a look at the displayed table.
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Content Evaluation: You must keep in mind that not all information available on the Web is accurate. In fact, anyone can publish content on the Web. Many sites such as Wikipedia.com, allow anyone to post new material, sometimes anonymously and without critical evaluation. To evaluate the accuracy of information found on the Web, you need to consider the following points. Authority: Is the author an expert on the subject? Is the web site an individual’s personal one or an official one? Accuracy: Has the information been critically reviewed for correctness? Does the web site provide a method of reporting inaccurate information? Objectivity: Is the information reported biased or based on actual facts? Does the author gain personally by convincing the reader or changing his opinion? Currency: Is the information up to date. Is the date when the site was updated specified? Google
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Click the links to visit the related web pages. Then press the “Google Search” button”. Click “Preferences” to enter your requirements. friends and family can stay in touch even when separated by thousands of miles. set the interface language and search for pages written in specific languages. This takes you straight to the most relevant website that Google finds for your query. the "Iam Feeling Lucky" site would be listed on top. electronic communication has become a standard and preferred way to stay in touch with suppliers. Type the keyword on which you wish to search in the search text box. You will not see the search results page at all. Click “Advanced Search” to enter your options. use more descriptive words as opposed to general ones. use multiple words and leave out non-essential words. Language Tools: Click “Language Tools” to specify your language preferences for a particular search. Click “even more” to see some more useful links. Communication Using E-Mail Using Web E-Mail Services You know that communication is the most popular Internet activity.com in the address box. Preferences: You may configure your search exactly as you want it. Click “more” to view additional links. The search results displayed have links to the pages containing matches to your desired keyword. Searching by Keyword: Some simple tips for entering keywords are be specific. Searching by Topic: The Google web site interface consists of many links to various topics and a search text box. At a business level. you might want to try Advanced Search.“Google” is one of the most popular search engines. Press “Enter” to display the Google home page. Advanced Search: Once you know the basics of Google search. Start the Internet Explorer browser and type www. 131 | P a g e . you can save this as your default search behavior on the “Preferences” page. If you typically search only pages in a specific language. I am Feeling Lucky: You may try using the "I am Feeling Lucky" button when you have entered your search terms. employees and customers. but if you do. which offers numerous options for making your searches more precise and getting more useful results. You can filter inappropriate material.google. The result displayed is page wise if the resulted list is big. At a personal level. You may click on the link of your choice.
com” is the name of the domain or server.com” in the address bar and press “Enter”. enables communication by sending and receiving written messages via a computer over the Internet. The use of e-mail in our country. In this. try a variation of the name. “yahoo. A complete e-mail address is normally in the form of “ahmed@yahoo. You have already seen how to fill in an online form. “ahmed” is the name of the person. There are basically two types of e-mail services you can use. type “www. The first step is to fill out your personal information. Hotmail. You need an e-mail program and a connection to the Internet. The most popular is the free web mail service that many web sites provide. it sends the message to his address. it is not necessary for the person to whom the e-mail has been sent to be available.E-mail. Indiatimes. When an e-mail is sent. etc. The website provides you with a unique user name and you can also specify a password. You see a form displayed on your screen. The mail sent by you is sent to the mail server. Creating an e-mail account is fairly simple. After you have chosen a name. click “Free Mail: Sign Up”. If the ID you select has already been taken by someone else. similarly every e-mail account has a unique address. Select a security question and enter a suitable answer. you have to create a password. To use the e-mail facility the user has to register with the web site providing the facility. all the mail that has been received is downloaded to his computer. low cost and absence of time restrictions. Then you may enter an alternate e-mail address if you have one.com.Yahoo. or electronic mail. To go to the Yahoo home page. The other is based on Post Office Protocol (POP3) using which you may download mails onto your computer or send mails stored on your hard disk. When the mail server identifies the recipient. Rediffmail. especially in urban areas.yahoo.com. Just as every web page has a unique address. E-mail has become very popular because of its speed. The web site has a registration page that will ask you to enter some information and also make you accept a user agreement. At the other end. 132 | P a g e . You will be asked to answer this question in case you forget your password. This is a very powerful tool for communication and a prime reason for the popularity of Internet. the identity of the recipient is verified and then the mail is forwarded.com. enter an ID which will act as both your login name and your email address. Let us create a free e-mail ID on Yahoo. Some of the examples are mail. When the recipient switches on his computer and connects to the mail service. or for his computer to be on.com.com. has increased rapidly in recent years.com”. Now. Next.
In the "Categories" list. The Mozilla Thunderbird e-mail program which is available for free download at “www. You can see this account under the “News” heading in the “Internet Accounts” window. and to post replies to them. Now. This indicates that you may subscribe to a newsgroup of your choice on the Microsoft news server. To start the Microsoft Outlook application.mozilla. to download and read news messages. enter your e-mail address. click "Go". In the "Commands" list. Microsoft Outlook automatically sets up the Windows Mail Newsreader. click “Add”. Adding a News Account: Let us add a new account. In Windows Mail. This newsreader is a Network News Transport Protocol (NNTP) newsreader. Using Newsgroups A newsgroup is a forum on the Internet for discussions on a specified range of subjects. Newsreaders are used to gain access to various types of newsgroups. Enter the server name and then click “Next”. Also. click on “Newsgroup Account” and then click “Next”. You may then close the “Customize” window. On the Standard toolbar click the "Toolbar Options" arrow. and then click "Customize". the CAN-SPAM Act has been enacted which requires that every marketing-related e-mail provides an opt-out option. Point to "Add or Remove Buttons". If you have not previously set up a newsreader. perform the following steps. Select “Tools → Accounts” from the menu. Select “Go → News” from the menu. When the option is selected. In the window displayed. Enter your name as you want it displayed and click “Next”. the recipient’s address is to be removed from future mailing lists. Click “Next”. click “Finish”. and drag it and place it in the "Go" menu. which you can use to download newsgroup content and then work with it when you are not connected to the Internet. you can see that there is a default news account named “Microsoft Communities”. Newsgroups are also called discussion groups. When “Congratulations” is displayed. In the “Internet Accounts” window. Here you are required to enter the Internet News Server Name.com” comes with built-in spam blocking software. a folder with this name is created in the list of folders in the left panel. In the United States of America. click "News". Click on the "Commands" tab. These programs use a variety of approaches to identify and eliminate spam. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Outlook 2007”. 134 | P a g e . If you do not find the “News” item in the “Go” menu of Microsoft Outlook.the development and use of “Spam Blockers”.
Click “Add Contact” after you are done. Click “OK” to confirm. You 135 | P a g e . In the “Instant Messaging Address” box enter your contact’s e-mail address. Google talk etc. It is similar to e-mail. enter your message in the “Personal invitation” box and check the box against “Also send an e-mail invitation to this contact”. Select “File → New → News Message” to create a new message to send to the complete group. Windows Live Messenger. Enter your e-mail address and password and then click “Sign In”. You see a window asking whether you would like to view a list of available newsgroups. To unsubscribe from a group. Click on a newsgroup name in the folder list to see a list of messages.Click “Close”. download the Windows Live Messenger and install it. Click the “Add a contact” button. Use “Ctrl+Click” to select multiple groups. If your contact does not have Windows Live Messenger. You can see that the contact is displayed in your list. click “Windows Live Messenger” to start the Windows Live Messenger. You may read any message you wish by double-clicking on it. you may click on the group you wish to subscribe to. Using Messengers for Instant Messaging Instant Messaging enables you to have a conversation with another person or a group of people concurrently. To use a messenger. Now. If both parties are online at the same time. Then click “Subscribe”. “Work” and “Notes” sections. Click “Reply Group” to send a reply to all members of a group and “Reply” to reply to the individual sender of the message. The list is downloaded and the “Newsgroup Subscriptions” window is displayed. The difference is that you can send and receive messages as soon as they are typed. right-click on its name and select “Unsubscribe”. On the “All” tab. Select “Start → All Programs”. ICQ. you can see which of your contacts are online and offline at any given time. The names of the newsgroups appear in the folder list. You may choose to reply to a message. you need to add his name to your list of contacts. it must first be downloaded from the Internet and installed on your computer. If you wish. Now click “OK”. you may add additional information in the “Contact”. To print this message. ensure that you are connected to the Internet and click “Yes”. Adding a Contact: Before you can chat with someone. There are different instant messengers available such as Yahoo messenger. select “File → Print” from the menu bar. In the contacts list. “Personal”. In the “Windows Live” folder. you can have a complete conversation. Since this list needs to be downloaded from the news server.
For this. Click on your name at the top of the screen. are symbols that help to convey emotion or additional meaning in a written statement. Click “Options”. After you have completed your chat. Click “OK” in the window that comes up. When you click on the name of a contact who is offline. you may close the conversation window by clicking “Show Menu” and selecting “File → Close”. click on the “Show Menu” icon to the right of the Paint Brush icon in the conversation window. When a contact comes online. When you click “Send”. also called “Smileys”. You can also send messages to contacts who are offline. You may send an emoticon along with your message. click on your name at the top of the screen. you are ready to begin your chat. In the same way. you are notified about it. Social Networking 136 | P a g e . Specifying Other Settings: You may specify other settings such as the way your name is displayed in a conversation.can chat with any contact who is online. messages from your contact are displayed on your screen. Type your message and then select an emoticon from the list. type your message and click “Send” or simply press “Enter”. click on your name at the top of the screen and then click on the status you wish. In the window displayed. In the “Save As” window. “Emoticons”. Changing the Color Scheme: You may change the color scheme of the Messenger application by clicking on the Paint Brush icon at the top of the main Messenger window and selecting a color of your choice. For this. Now select “File → Save”. editing contact details. Offline contacts will receive the messages once they come online. This message is displayed immediately on your contact’s screen. In the box at the bottom of the conversation window that comes up. You can see the complete conversation in the upper section of the “Conversation” window. In the main Messenger screen. Right-click on a contact’s name in the main window to perform various activities such as sending an e-mail. The new picture is then displayed. the emoticon is sent along with the text. deleting the contact etc. Click “Change display picture”. Saving your conversation: You may save your complete conversation. For this. you are informed about his status. double-click the name of an online contact. enter the file name in which you want to save it and press “Save”. you may click on the different categories in the left pane to specify related settings. Chatting with your contact: Now. “Out to lunch” etc. Changing your Status: You may wish to display a specific status against your name such as “Busy”. Changing the Display Picture: You may change the picture that is displayed against your name. Choose a picture and then click “OK” in the “Display Pictures” window.
When you join a social network by connecting to a reuniting site. For example. gender. For example. friend-of-a-friend and common interest. There are three basic categories of social networking sites: reuniting. For a summary of social networking sites. school name etc.e. you might join LinkedIn. If you wanted to locate or create a special interest group. a network could be started by an acquaintance who provides his profile information and list of friends. you might join Meetup. You could then visit his site to connect to his friends and join his list of friends as well. see the displayed table.One of the fastest growing uses of the Internet is “social networking” i. you provide profile information such as your age. if you are looking for business contacts. “Reuniting” sites are designed to connect people who have known one another but have lost touch. Two well-known friend-of-a-friend sites are Friendster and MySpace. Many sites even notify you when someone joins with parts of his profile matching yours. You must consider carefully what you are disclosing before providing information to any site or individual. Members can search the database to locate individuals. 137 | P a g e . connecting individuals to one another. “Friend-of-a-friend” sites are designed to bring together two people who do not know each other but share a common friend. This information is added to the site’s database. Two popular reuniting sites are Facebook and Classmates Online. “Common interest” sites bring together individuals that share common interests or hobbies.
You need to manually leaf through the pages to locate the required information. 138 | P a g e .DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Overview Introduction to Databases You have recently accepted a new job as an Employment Administrator with All Saints High School. Although the information is well maintained. the employment records are maintained on paper forms and stored in file cabinets organized alphabetically. Also making reports quickly is a difficult task. You are responsible for maintaining the employment records for all employees of the School. Currently. retrieving any kind of information is time consuming.
Here.accdb”. Tables store information. That file contains database objects. Queries. The table object is the basic object and has to be created first. the information in a database is stored in a table. you can also use queries to make changes to your database. Tables are made up of vertical columns (called fields) and horizontal rows (called records). which are simply the components of a database. you will learn how to create a database. Each row is a record which contains all the information about a person. and present information in many different ways. A relational database is the most widely used database structure. The tables are related or linked to one another by a common field. 139 | P a g e . In Access. Queries let you quickly perform an action on a table. thing or place. You can create as many tables as you need to store different types of information. access. However. The four main objects in an Access database are Tables. using Access 2007. Creating a Database Introduction to Access To start the Microsoft Access application. edit data. It is an electronic database management system which can store. manipulate. organize. print and preview data and much more. The software tool that you will use to accomplish the task you have been assigned will be Microsoft Access 2007.The school has recently purchased new computers and the management now wants to update the employee record system to an electronic database management system. Forms are windows that you create and arrange in order to easily view or change the information in a table. Typically. before any other objects are created. Usually. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Access 2007”. enter data. In the following labs. Forms and Reports. every database is stored in a single file which has the extension “. this action involves retrieving a piece of information. The first screen that appears is the “Getting Started with Microsoft Office Access” page. What is a database? : A database is an organized collection of related information. data is organized in linked tables. Access 2007 is a relational database management application that is used to create and analyze a database. Each column is a field which is the smallest unit of information about a record.
Reports help you print some or all of the information in a table. -You can quickly produce reports using some Access features. Another will contain information of all the departments in the School and a third one will contain the payroll of the employees. forms and reports are displayed as tabbed objects in the Access window. and more become available if you click one of the categories under “Template Categories” at the left of the Access window. You must understand the purpose of the database. The main table will include the employees’ basic information. delete and modify records from a table. -Your tables. By clicking the object tabs. The features of Access 2007 are as follows: -Once the data is entered in the database. what data each of them will contain and how will they be related. there are templates that can be used to track issues. how its grouped and sorted. You must know how the structure or layout of each table in the database must be. you can quickly search the table to locate a specific record based on the data in a field. Creating a New Database Creating a database entails several basic steps: planning. -It is easy to add. you decide to create several separate tables of data in the database. queries. For example. -Its capability to sort records in a table according to different fields can provide more meaningful information. -You can analyze the data in a table and perform calculations on different fields of data. creating. Access provides you with a wide variety of templates that are ready-to-use databases that contain all that is needed for performing a specific task. Several templates are displayed under “Featured Online Templates”. 140 | P a g e . You can choose where the information appears on the printed page. For this you must study the existing employee records. You must plan the design of your database in respect of how many tables will be required. Template databases can be used as they are. and how its formatted. entering and editing data and then previewing and printing. Planning is the first step in the development of a database. or keep a record of expenses. manage contacts. you can easily switch between various objects. or you can customize them to suit your needs. After studying the existing record keeping procedures and the reports that are created.
you may see the assignment titled “The User Interface” in the “Microsoft Word” topic.accdb”. double-click the object in the Navigation Pane. it is time to create it so that the data can be stored in it. 2) The Quick Access toolbar which displays icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. It also allows you to enter and edit the data. and Redo. You can also set keys and restrict the values entered here. Design view allows you to create or change a table. Creating a database: Now that you have designed the database. To open a database object. You see the familiar Microsoft Office 2007 user interface which consists of: 1) The Office Button which displays a menu containing commands for opening. you will create only the table containing the employee information. But you cannot change the data in design view. To apply a command to a database object. the names of your database objects such as tables. right-click the object and select an item from the context menu that appears. The two most commonly used views are “Datasheet View” and “Design View”. Change it to “Employee. When you open a database or create a new one. The Navigation Pane can be minimized into a vertical bar. In the “File New Database” window. To minimize the expanded Navigation Pane. a table named Table1 which is completely blank. The “View” icon in the “Views” group is used switch back and forth between the Datasheet view and the Design View. For more details on the Microsoft Office User Interface. printing. saving. to provide you with a larger work area. At the left. To expand the minimized Navigation Pane. Creating a Table Access provides different window formats called “Views” to display and work with the objects in a database. This indicates that you are 141 | P a g e . Click on the “Browse” icon to the right of the file name. Undo. form. Datasheet view shows the data in the database. Now click “Create”. In the panel at the right. you see the “Navigation Pane”. At the bottom of the screen you see the words “Datasheet View” on the “Status Bar”. the default database name is displayed in the “File Name” box. and configure the fields. forms and reports appear in the Navigation Pane. and closing a file. with no defined fields. Groups and Command buttons.For now. Access creates your first database object. Click “Blank Database” under “New Blank Database”. click on “Desktop” in the left panel and then click “OK”. click the arrow in the upper corner. You may specify the location where you wish to store your database. click the arrow at the top. or other database objects. 3) The Ribbon which has Task-oriented Tabs.
This view can be used to create and view the design of all types of database objects such as tables. etc. combinations of words and numbers. You must specify a primary key for all tables. you must create the structure of the table. Click on “View → Design View” in the “Views” group. You can now see the name of your table in the Navigation Pane on the left. Access automatically creates an index for the primary key. Let us first understand what is meant by a “Primary Key”. Enter the Table Name as “Emp Info” and click “OK”. which makes queries and other operations fast. numbers. Before defining the fields in a table. Field name: A field name is used to identify the data stored in a field. and that it is always unique. you need to enter a name for the table. Subject1. Access provides a number of data types to choose from. In Datasheet view. Phone No. Access automatically creates a primary key and assigns a field name of "ID" and the AutoNumber data type to it. Text: It is the default data type and is used to store text entries. forms. The name can consist of letters. meaning the fields that will hold the data. You may also create a table using this view. This view provides a row and column view of the data in tables. You can enter up to 255 characters in a text field. and search for data. It is important to choose the right kind of data type before you start entering data in the table. You will learn about the different data types shortly. You cannot start the name of a field with a space. You can see a small key to the left of the field name indicating that this field is the primary key of the table. Before you can enter data into a table. We shall use the “Design View” to create a table. an exclamation (!). Following are some examples of valid field names: First name. Click on the drop down menu button to select the “Data Type”. the default name “Table1” is displayed. Following are the data types you can use. add and delete data. queries and reports. A primary key is a field or set of fields in your table that provide Access with a unique identifier for every record. spaces. Examples are names and phone numbers. The “Emp Info” tab is displayed in the document window on the right. and queries. Data type: The data type defines the type of data the field will contain. Now let us begin creating the table structure. Access also ensures that every record has a non-blank primary key field. Type “Employee ID” as the field name and press “Enter”. In the “Save As” window. you can edit fields. and special characters. except a period (. like words.).now in datasheet view. When you create a new table. and brackets(). and numbers that are not used in calculations. 142 | P a g e . forms.
Click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar and switch to Datasheet View by clicking “View → Datasheet View” in the “Views” group. Switch back to Design View by clicking “View → Design View” in the “Views” group. OLE Object: This data type is used to store images. True or False. charts and other types of supported files to the records in your database. Hyperlink: This is used to store web addresses. AutoNumber: It is a unique. Birth date. Summary of a book is an example. Yes/No: This data type accepts only two values – Yes or No. Type the description wherever applicable. Date of joining. Price. spreadsheet files. Marks in an exam is an example. Fees. graphs etc. Giving this description is optional.Memo: It is used to store text that is too long to be stored in a Text field. Description: The “Description” text box is used to describe the field. It can be used for fields like Fees Paid. but is formatted to display decimal places and the currency symbol. Select the “Text” data type. Currency: This is similar to the Number data type. Pass. Format: Specifies how the data is displayed in the table and printed. The description that you had entered is displayed in the “Status Bar”. For example. etc. the default field size of the “Text” data type is 255. Attachment: This is used to store images. Date/Time: It is used for storage of date and time information. As you can see. For example. and On or Off. Information about the data type is displayed in the left panel and on the right hand side is the help box displaying information about the current task. A field property is a characteristic that helps define a field. When you select a data type. documents. its default properties are displayed under “Field Properties”. 143 | P a g e . etc. Number: It is used to store numbers only. Caption: Specifies a field caption or a prompt for the user to enter data. Each data type has its own set of field properties. Calculations can be performed on the numbers stored in a Number field. Some of the more common properties are as follows: Field Size: It decides the maximum number of characters that can be entered in the field. etc. sequential number that is automatically incremented by one whenever a new record is added to the table. Input mask: Simplifies data entry and controls what data is required and how it is to be displayed. documents.
it can be used to indicate that you know no value exists for a field. The “Photo” field is of a different type – you want to store the photo of the employee. Allow Zero Length: Specifies whether or not an entry containing no value is valid. The structure of your table is now ready. Click on the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. Select the “Data Type” of this field as “Date/Time” from the drop down menu. If you set it to “Yes”. This field property specifies whether an index is to be created on that field. sorting. Indexed: An index is used to speed up queries. Click in the “Format” property box and open the drop down list. Click with the mouse in the “Field Name” column to enter the next field name. So select the “Data Type” as “Attachment”. Click the “Field Size” property text box. Let us change the primary key back to “Employee ID” as before. But you cannot do so until you change the view. We used the Design View to define the structure. and grouping operations run against large amounts of data. Type ‘First Name’ and select “Text” as the “Data Type” from the drop down menu. Entering and Editing Data You can now start entering data in the table. You must save your table structure before you can start entering data into the table. Now. This value can be changed. In the same manner. Validation Rule: Restricts the data entry to meet certain conditions or requirements. 144 | P a g e . Do not make any other changes. Click on “View → Datasheet View” in the “Views” group. Click in the “Field Size” property box and change the field size to ’15’. Follow the same procedure for the next field – Date_Of_Joining. You may change the primary key simply by clicking on another field name and then clicking on the “Primary Key” icon in the “Tools” group. enter the information shown in the table until you come to the “Birth Date” field. Required: Specifies whether or not a value must be entered in a field before the record is stored. Validation Text: It is displayed when the validation rule is violated. We now need to switch to Datasheet View. Double-click on 255 to select it and type ‘4’ to change the field size.Default Value: It specifies a default value for a field to be automatically filled in at the time of data entry. You can see that the name given to the field with the data type Attachment has been replaced by a paperclip icon. Select “General Date”. let us change some of the defaults.
See that there is consistency in the data that you enter. Complete the information for the first record except for the “Photo” field. double-click in the attachment field. On the “Home tab”. Then click “OK”. Before printing it is advisable to preview it. For this. If you make a mistake while typing. Changing Column Width The data you have entered may not be completely visible in the Table’s column. You may adjust the column width. Then you must delete that employee’s record. Check that you type data exactly as it appears in the accompanying table. You can see the name of the picture in the “Attachments” window. Type the employee’s ID number. You have been informed by the HR department. in the “Records” group. Click “OK”. Now double-click on the name of the picture in the “Attachments” window. that an employee has resigned and is no longer an employee of the School. Deleting a record: Select the record to be deleted by clicking the “Record Selector”. To see that the picture has really been inserted. in the “Employee ID” column. Inserting a picture: The photo can be inserted as an attachment. You may drag with the mouse to select multiple records. you may adjust the column width to a specific number of characters. Preview and Print a Table The table is now ready and you want to print it. This displays the “Column Width” window where you can type the desired value. right-click a columns name and select “Column Width”.The insertion point can be seen in the first column of the first row. Previewing the table gives you an idea how the table will look after it is printed. position the mouse on the right border of a column header. This is the small box to the left of the record. Double-click in the attachment field to open the “Attachments” window. Then drag in the desired direction. that is. you may enter the date directly or use the Date Picker displayed at the right of the field. In the “Choose File” window. Use the right arrow key or press “Enter” to move to the next field. navigate to the location of the picture file. It displays the table in a reduced size so that you can see the layout. Click on the picture and then click “Open”. click “Delete”. For the date fields. Now click “Add”. Click “Yes” to delete the record. left or right until you get the desired width. The document will be printed using the default settings. use the “Backspace” key to delete characters to the left of the insertion point or the “Delete” key to delete characters to the right of the insertion point. You will be asked to confirm the deletion. If you want to 145 | P a g e . Click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. Alternatively. For this. Remember not to use any spaces before or after the data.
type ‘1’ and in the “To” field enter ‘5’. For example. two or multiple pages if there is more data than can fit on one or two pages. The table tab will close. Click on the Office Button and select “Close Database”. Access will prompt you to save them before closing.change some settings you may do so. Since you have just one table open presently. Click “Yes” to save changes. enter the page range. click “OK”. To close a table. to print pages 1 to 5. If you click “No” to discard changes. To close the preview. Select “Pages From” to specify the number of the pages you want to print. Closing a table: Multiple table tabs may be open at one time. to print pages 1 to 5. To print selected records. in the “Pages From:” field. select “Selected Record(s)”. you have to close the database. The “Print” window is displayed. click the “Close Print Preview” icon. You are now back to the “Getting 146 | P a g e . Close and Open a Table and Database You have finished working with the employee database for now and you want to stop working but continue later on. enter the page range. The “Print Range” section of the window lets you specify how much of the document you want to print. If you have made any changes that have not been saved. simply click on the “X” shaped icon at the right end in line with the table name. The page is displayed with a heading and date in the “Header” and the page number in the “Footer”. Closing the database: Next. The “Print Preview” tab appears when you view the table in the Print Preview mode. To print pages that are continuous. Check once again whether everything is as you want it and click on the “Print” icon. type ‘1’ and in the “To” field enter ‘5’. If you want to change the page orientation. You have to close the table and database that you have created and have been working on until now. Select “All” to print all records. in the “Pages From:” field. the table will close without saving the changes. After you have entered your print specifications. You can see the preview consisting of one. you may first click on the related tab to make it active. Select “Pages From” to specify the number of the pages you want to print. Clicking on “Cancel” will not close the window and you will be able to continue working. click “OK”. You may also print the table by clicking the Office Button and selecting “Print → Print” from the menu or use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+P”. select “Selected Record(s)”. To print selected records. For example. click on the “Landscape” icon in the “Page Layout” group. The “Print Range” section of the window lets you specify how much of the document you want to print. Select “All” to print all records. To print pages that are continuous. After you have entered your print specifications.
Sometimes. in the “Getting Started with Microsoft Office Access” page. you may accept the default name displayed or enter a new name. In the document pane. Let us modify the default name. Making a Copy of the Database You can make a copy of the complete database. you may need to copy only the structure of a table. This copy would be identical to the existing one complete with its objects and data.Started with Microsoft Office Access” page. Right click on the name of the “Emp Info” table in the Navigation Pane and select “Copy”. navigate to the location of your database and click “Open”. To open the “Emp Info” table. For this. Opening the database: When you need to work once again with the “Employee” database. In the “Save As” window. Let us make a copy of the table “Emp Info”. This time. This would save time in creating a new table which required similar fields but had different data to be entered. You may create a new database or open an existing one. you can see that only the structure of the table has been copied and there is no data contained in it. Now right click once again in the Navigation Pane and select “Paste”. In such a case. You may use the Copy-Paste method to copy both the data and structure of a table by selecting “Structure and Data” under the “Paste Options” in the “Paste Table As” window. If any database 147 | P a g e . you may not see the name of your database in this list. Click the table name in the Navigation Pane. In the “Open” window. select “Structure Only” under “Paste Options”. Sometimes. Now click the Office Button and select “Save As”. you may click the Office Button and then click the “Exit Access” button at the bottom right. You can see the new table displayed in the Navigation Pane and the data displayed in the document window on the right. click the Office Button and select “Save As → Access 2007 Database”. Enter the words “(with data)” at the end of the name and click “OK”. In the “Paste Table As” window. click on the database name in the list displayed under “Open Recent Database” on the right. Enter the words “(structure only)” at the end of the name and click “OK”. The table will open in Datasheet View. This is an alternative method to using the “Save As” option of the Office Button. Your Database window is displayed. click “More…” at the top of the list. including its structure and data. double-click the table name in the navigation pane. Making Copies of Database Objects Copying a database object: You can make a copy of an object in the database such as a table. Let us create another copy of the “Emp Info” table. To exit Access. Double click on the new table name in the Navigation Pane. we shall copy the structure only.
you have forgotten to add two fields! The PIN code number needs to be added to make the address complete and the gender of the employee also needs to go on record. The new database is created identical to the original database. You want all the records to display the name of the state in uppercase. click on the upper part of the “View” icon in the “Views” group on the “Design” tab. To define the format. This will display the PIN codes of all records in the same format.accdb” and click “Save”. So. enter the location and the name for the new database. you realize that there is no uniformity in the data entered in the “State” field.objects are open. You can see that all data in the “State” field is displayed in uppercase. Select “Insert Rows” in the “Tools” group on the “Design” tab. Now. say “Backup_Employee. Also. For example. For this. Move to the “Format” field property text box and type ‘>’. type ‘@@@ @@@’ with a space after the first three characters. Make the “State” field the current one by clicking on it. You can even add and delete fields. BS83DT will be displayed with a space between BS8 and 3DT. switch to Design View. Change to Datasheet View Click on “Yes” to save changes. 148 | P a g e . In the “Size” field property. Type ‘Pin Code’ and make its data type as “Text”. you have to enter the appropriate symbol in the “Field Properties” window. Make “Phone” the current field. The “Pin Code” field should be after the “State” field and the “Gender” field should be after the “Phone” field. you need to first change to Design View. To do so. you must insert those fields which you have missed while designing the database the first time. you see a window asking whether the objects can be closed. Click “Yes”. One is the “Pin Code” and the other is the “Gender” of the employee. Modifying a Table Customizing and Inserting Fields If you look through the records. In the “Save As” window. You can easily make all these changes and put restrictions on the way data is entered or displayed. you can use the four symbols used in the table shown. The field’s “Format” property can be defined to tell Access the way you want the data to be displayed. to change the “State” field’s format to display it in uppercase. To set the display format. type ‘7’ and in the “Format” field property text box. A row is inserted between the “State” and “Phone” fields.
So. You can also add validation text. Switch to Design View and make the “State” field the current one by clicking on it. An expression is a formula consisting of a combination of symbols that evaluates to a single value. The table above shows some examples of validity rule settings and corresponding messages. Similarly. Now switch to Datasheet View. which is an explanatory message that appears if the user enters invalid information in a field for which a validation rule has been set. Fill in these empty fields in all the records. Enter its “Data Type” as “Text”. “Field Size” as ‘1’ and “Format” as ‘>’. A default value is used to specify a value that is automatically entered in a field when a new record is added. Type ‘M’ in it. you observe that most of the employees are from “Bristol” State and that there are more males than females as employees. by setting the default value of the “Sate” field to “Bristol” and that of “Gender” to “F”. 149 | P a g e . While looking through the records. This is because of the “Default Value” property that you have set for these two fields. make the “Gender” field the current one and click on the “Default Value” property text box. Switch to “Datasheet” view. Click on the “Default Value” property text box and type “Bristol” in it.Repeat the procedure for inserting a row and adding the “Gender” field after the “Phone” field. Observe that the new blank record has the “State” and “Gender” fields already filled with values. Access displays a default message but it does not clearly explain the reason for the error. Setting the “Validity Check” option makes sure that the values entered by the user are valid for the field type. This value can either be accepted or another value can be entered by the user while adding a new record. You want the “Gender” field to accept only two values – “M” for male and “F” for female. Save the design changes related to default values. A validation rule is an expression that defines acceptable values. you can make data entry a bit quicker. If you do not give a message. The table is displayed with two new columns which have no data in them. Save the new table structure by clicking on the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar.
Now. When you make changes to the structure of a table. Access asks you if you want to check the existing data with the new validity rule. Click “OK” to continue. you often make changes that could result in the loss of data or existing data may become invalid. A warning message box is displayed saying that the data integrity rules have been changed. You will be asked to save the changes. Click “Yes”. Type the data shown in the table in the new record.Adding a Validity Rule: Switch to Design View and click on the “Gender” field. Press “Backspace” and enter valid text. The warning message is immediately displayed. Type ‘k’ or any other letter in either upper or lower case. click “No”. For now. switch to Datasheet View. The “State” and “Gender” fields are already filled with default values. type ‘ “M” Or “F” ’ and in the “Validation Text” property box. Now try entering an invalid value in the “Gender” field. 150 | P a g e . You may change them if required. In the “Validation Rule” property box. type ‘Please enter either “M” or “F” only. except ‘F’ or ‘M’.
You want to match the whole field. Check whether it the record you are looking for. Once you move to another record or move to another window. click in the “Last Name” field of the first record and select “Find”. Click “Find Next”. Click in the “Search Fields As Formatted” check box which finds data based on its display format. Clicking on the “Cancel” button. In the “Search” box. close the “Find and Replace” window and make the necessary changes in the “Last Name” and the address fields. 151 | P a g e . Your original data appears. you have to make changes in the “State” field. not part of it. In the “Find What” box. One is that the “State” names should all be shortened to 2 lettered names. The first occurrence of the search criteria specified is highlighted. using the “Undo” command will cancel the last action as long as you have not made any further changes to the table. “NORTHSIDE” with “NS” and so on. one of the employees. In the “Replace With” box. Click on the “Replace” tab and type “Bristol” in the “Find What” box. “Jenny Smith” is married and needs to change her “Last Name” and “Address”. The other is that.Finding and Replacing Data Finding and Replacing data: If you want to search for some information in the table and also replace it. The “Find” command locates all specified values in a field and the “Replace” command finds a value and automatically replaces it. select “All”. in the “Match” box. then click on the “Replace” button. type “Smith”. Use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Z” or click on the “Undo” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. The “Look In” box displays the “Last Name” field because the field was the current one when the command was given. The “State” field will already be selected in the “Look In” box. Now. Select “Whole Field” in the “Match” box and “All” in the “Search” box. the last name of the employee. That means you have to replace “Bristol” with “BS”. While in the “Datasheet” view. You want Access to find a perfect match to what you have typed in the “Find What” box. “EASTSIDE” with “ES”. If the text is found and it is the one you want to replace. So. Now. click in the “Match Case” check box and click “Find Next”. You need not do this manually. type ‘BS’. Click on the “Cancel” button if you do not want to perform any action. You may use the “Find and Replace” feature. select “Whole field”. so. If you make changes to a single record. The “Find and Replace” window is displayed with the “Find” tab selected. the “Undo” command has no effect. Finding and replacing data is fast and accurate but you have to be careful not to replace unintended values. you may use the “Find” and “Replace” icons in the “Find” group on the “Home” tab. So click in the “State” field and select “Replace”. If it is. cancels the command. you have been told to make two changes.
You also saw that the records in a table are arranged according to the primary key. “Whole Field” finds only data that is exactly the same. You can sort on one field or more than one adjacent field. Down. By default. the “Last Name” will be the field which you will use to sort records.e. But the Accounts department has requested for the employee list in alphabetical order. If you want to search the entire table. warning you that the replace operation cannot be undone. a search for “Smith” with the initial alphabet “S” in uppercase and “m-i-t-h” in lowercase will not display “SMITH” with all uppercase letters or “smith” with all lowercase letters. The “Search” box allows you to specify the direction to follow while searching. click on “Replace All”. The options are Up. In the “Default Value” property box. you had seen what a primary key is and what its importance is. “Any Part of Field” finds data anywhere in the field. So you need to make a change in the default value too since you now need “BS”. you had set the default value for the “State” field as “Bristol”. Let us have another look at the various options available in the “Find and Replace” window. Sorting: Sorting the data often helps in finding some particular information quickly. When you select multiple columns to sort. Access sorts records starting from the leftmost 152 | P a g e . A warning message is displayed by Access. you may select the name of the table from the list. In the “Match” list options. In Access. and All (which is the default). click on “Yes” because that’s what you want. You are asked whether you want to continue. you can sort data in ascending or descending order. How are you going to give it to them? To arrange the records in the table in alphabetical order. you can sort them on a single field – the field on the basis of which you want to arrange them. Switch to Design View and click in the “State” field. In this case. “Start of Field” finds data only at the beginning of the field. the search returns only those instances of the text that have the same case (i. type “BS” and switch to Datasheet View. Sorting Records In the first lab. uppercase or lowercase) as the specified text. Since you want to replace all the fields containing “BRISTOL” with “BS”. the data in all the fields containing “BRISTOL” is replaced with “BS”. Instantly. Save the changes made to the table. the “Look In” list contains the name of the field in which your cursor is currently positioned. You will see that the new record at the end has the default value changed to “BS”.The “State” field in the next record is highlighted. If you check the box against “Match Case”. If you remember. For example..
click in the “Last Name” field of any record. the temporary sort must be removed. The “Last Name” field moves up one row so that it is the second field in the field name list. Switch to Datasheet View to see the order of the fields. Tom’s record appears before Ted’s which is not in ascending alphabetical order. Select the “Ascending” icon in the “Sort & Filter” group on the “Home” tab again. They are sorted on the “Employee ID” field which is the primary key. so Ted’s record comes first and then comes Tom’s record. Then release the mouse. observe the order of the records before sorting. So. The records will again be displayed in the order of the “Employee ID” field. “Last Name” must be to the left of “First Name”. Drag to the right to select the next column – “First Name”. Observe the records of Tom and Ted now. Creating Forms Using the Form Wizard 153 | P a g e . sorting is done from the leftmost field. Click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar. Observe the order of records after sorting on the “Last Name” field. In the “Datasheet” view.column and moves to the right across the columns. Select the “Ascending” icon in the “Sort & Filter” group on the “Home” tab to display the records sorted by Last Name. To return to the primary key sort order. you need to select the two fields. Now. To change the order of fields. The cursor will change to a solid black arrow pointing downwards. Both the columns will be highlighted. To sort on multiple fields. You see that Ted and Tom are sorted by Last Name but not by “First Name”. The new sort order is saved with the table data and automatically applied every time you open the table. To sort first by “Last Name” and then by “First name”. select “Clear All Sorts” in the “Sort & Filter” group. To select the two columns. switch to Design View. position the mouse pointer in the column heading of “Last Name”. Click in the “Field Selector” of the “First Name” field. The records are displayed according to the changed order of fields. To sort on multiple fields. They are arranged alphabetically first by “Last Name” and then by “First Name”. you need to sort on multiple fields. Now drag the mouse down until you see a black line under the “Last Name” field. To remove the temporary sorting order. in Datasheet View. This is the small box to the left of the field name.
The field names are on the left with the corresponding data in boxes in front of them. “Columnar” is selected by default. Using the Form Wizard: Click on the “Create” tab.To close the form. one of your main objectives is to make the database easy to use. click “More Forms → Form Wizard”.Being the one to be in charge of the employee records database. type it and click “Finish”. where you are asked to give the form a name and save it. It is desirable for the onscreen form to be similar to the paper form filled in by each new employee when hired. the layout of the form is displayed. In the next step. Seeing the records at all times in the form of rows and columns can be tiring to the eyes. Select the fields from the list one by one. The information on this form will be used as an input source for the new record that will be added for the new employee. At the bottom of the form window is the record number indicator. The other two buttons below this. You can move one record up or down by clicking on the “Next record” or “Previous record” buttons respectively. as you may have realized can be used to move fields back into the “Available Fields” list. In the next step. In the “Forms” group. The “Form Wizard” window is displayed. The next step is the last step. The fields from the current table are displayed in the “Available Fields” list. Forms are based on a table and contain design control elements like descriptive text. Leave it as it is and click on “Next”. In the “Tables/Queries” list. Information regarding what you are supposed to do in each step is mentioned on the top in the “Form Wizard” window. The “First record“ button takes you to the first record and the “Last record” button takes you to the last one. To make it easy to view and use. the name of the current table “Emp Info” is displayed. Access provides a feature to create onscreen forms. It guides you through the steps required to create a form. you are asked to select the style of the form. The “Form Wizard” feature of Access makes it very easy to design forms. Read it so that you know what you are supposed to do in that step. titles. If not. labels. The form is displayed with the first record’s contents in it. lines. Select all the fields in the same manner as the first field and click on “Next”. click the close 154 | P a g e . boxes and pictures. Click on “Employee ID” and click on the button with “>” symbol on it. The field name is displayed in the “Selected Fields” list now. Select a suitable one and click “Next”. The button below this can be used to move all fields into the “Selected Fields” list. Click on the “New (blank) record” button to add new records. A form is a database object that is mainly used to enter and display records and make changes to existing records onscreen. “Emp Info” will be displayed by default.
Framing it correctly will give you the most accurate information. After you are done. Click on the field displaying the photo of the employee. click on the table name in the navigation pane and scroll if required. You will add this information using the form you created. Of course. Click on it and drag the picture to position it a little lower down in the form. Queries and Reports Using Queries To get any information. You see a box with a dotted outline enclosing the picture and the field label “Photo”. to see all the records that you have entered. the “State” and the “Gender” fields have their default values. Click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar to save your changes and close the form. The form with all blank boxes is displayed. To add records. You can see your form name displayed in the navigation pane on the left. Now. Now switch to Design View by selecting “View” in the “Views” group on the “Home” tab. to get information stored in the tables. 155 | P a g e . Click on the “New (blank) record” button at the bottom of the window. So framing a question correctly is important. Adding Records in a Form A new employee has recently joined the School and you need to input all related information into the database.button on the form. At the top left corner you see a four-headed arrow. Click on it and enter “Photograph”. “When is the train to Central Park?” you may get the most appropriate answer “It leaves on Tuesday morning at 6:30 am”. if you ask at the railway enquiry counter – “Is there a train to Central Park?” you will most probably not get the expected answer. Let us learn to modify the design of the form we created. you first need to open the form. click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar. you can enter and view as many records as you want. You may click on the tab names to switch between them. But if you ask. you have to put questions in the form of queries. The form will be displayed. it is necessary to frame a question. In this way. For example. You can see that both the form and the table are open on two separate tabs. Open the form once again by double clicking the form name in the Navigation Pane. double-click on the form name “Emp Info”. You can start typing the data of the new employee as shown in the accompanying figure. Now let us change the label “Photo”. In the navigation pane. In Access.
In the lower part. you can see all the fields of the table used for the query in a small window. If not. Switch to Design View by clicking on the upper part of the “View” icon in the “Views” group. the fields selected in the query are displayed. The query is displayed with all the records in the table. click on the “Home” tab. the “Emp Info” table is already selected. which you have already done. This is very interesting. who have been in service for at least five years. How are you going to specify this condition? You need to make some modifications in this query you have just created. accept the default name for the query or type a new one and click “Finish”. “City”. click “Query Wizard”. In the “Other” group. select it. which you are going to use. Queries are used to view data in different ways. “Last Name”. Select the following fields – “Employee ID”. Here. like any other database object. Queries can be used as a source for forms and reports because they are based on tables. you can run it any time you want to take a look at the actual data that meets your specifications. Crosstab query. Modifying a Query: There was nothing very different in this query. analyze and even change existing data. Using the Query Wizard: Click on the “Create” tab. While the query is open. you need to check their dates of joining the 156 | P a g e . A “Select” query retrieves the requested data from one or more tables and displays it in a query datasheet in the order you specify. you have a request from the Administrative department. Access saves each query in your database. “Address”. at the top. You will find this wizard similar to the one you used to create a form. Now. Action query and SQL query. Click “OK” to display the “Simple Query Wizard” window. But now. select them one by one and click on the “>” button. The “New Query” window is displayed with “Simple Query Wizard” selected. In the “Available Fields” list. In the document window. Once you’ve saved a query. Creating a query in Access is very much similar to creating a table or form. Click “Next”. To select the required fields. The most common is the “Select” query. In the “Tables/Queries” list. for a “5 Years Service Award” they want to give.Query: A query is a request for specific data in a database. they want a list of all employees. Parameter query. and “Phone”. “First Name”. There are five types of queries in Access: Select query. It was very simple. but with selected fields. to know about the employees who have been in service for 5 years or more. you see all the fields in the “Emp Info” table.
there is an option for grouping fields. SQL (Structured Query Language) is a powerful database language used in queries. click on the “Run” icon in the “Results” group on the “Design” tab. select “Table: Emp Info”. Access adds the “#” signs before and after the dates to identify the values in the expression as dates. Then. Now close the query tab. 157 | P a g e . Saving the query: You now need to save this modified query. “City”. Now close the query tab. It might be a simple listing of all fields or of selected fields based on a query. In the “Reports” group. and “Phone” one by one by clicking on the “>” button. Running a query: To see the result of this query. You must now specify a criterion for this field. “First Name”.organization. For this. You will be creating this address report based on the “Emp Info” table. For this. “Address”. It is displayed in the first blank box after the “Phone” field. Confirm that the “As” box has “Query” displayed in it. You will do this with the help of the “Report Wizard” that is provided by Access. click “Report Wizard”. In the next “Report Wizard” window. A report is a printed output generated from tables and queries. If you do not see the “Date_of_Joining field in the window at the top. double-click on this field. Creating Reports There is another request from the Administrative department – they need an address report of all employees sorted by name. As soon as you press “Enter”. In the Tables/Queries list. Using the Report Wizard: Click on the “Create” tab. Each query that you create has an underlying SQL statement. Type the name ‘5 Year Service’ in the “Save As” window. “Pin code”. as you did while selecting fields for the query. Specifying criteria: You need the list of employees who have been in service for at least five years. scroll down a bit. you need to modify the query by adding the “Date_of_Joining” field and specifying criteria. which you can view or edit by selecting “View → SQL View” in the “Views” group on the “Home” tab. Click “Next”. In the criteria row. type the condition as ‘>= 1/1/2001 AND < 1/1/2002’ and press “Enter”. “State”. which you are not going to need. so click “Next”. The records matching your criteria are displayed. click the Office Button and select “Save As”. Select fields “Last Name”. The “Report Wizard” window is displayed. Click “OK”.
you are asked about the layout of the fields and the page. Switch to Layout View by selecting “View → Layout View” in the “Views” group. you need to modify the report layout. the first thing you need to do is to exchange the order of the fields “First Name” and “Last Name”. In the next window. Then drag the right edge or lower edge of the box that appears to a suitable position. You can have the fields laid out as either columnar. click on it. click on “Preview the report” and click “Finish”. You need to make some changes. Similarly. click on it. You may find that the “State” field is too big for its two character contents. You can sort the records by up to four fields in either ascending or descending order. You can reduce its size and make space for the other fields.The next “Report Wizard” window asks for the sort order of the records to be printed in the report. Click on the heading “Last Name”. The preview of the report is displayed with the title and footer and all the records arranged in the specified sort order. tabular or justified and the page can be oriented either as a portrait or a landscape. close the report tab by clicking on the “X” shaped icon at the right end. Modifying Report Layout Modifying report layout: Double-click on the report name in the Navigation Pane. You can see that the complete column is shifted to the right. When the mouse pointer appears as a two-headed arrow. The next window is the last step of the wizard. If you see that a heading is not displayed completely. “Adjust the field width so all fields fit on a page” and click “Next”. 158 | P a g e . drag to the right to position it after the “First Name” column. Here enter the report title as “Employee Address List”. A box appears around it. So. the headings and contents of some fields are not displayed completely. Click in the check box that says. where the data is not displayed completely. Select a suitable one from the list and click on “Next”. The next window lets you select the style of the report. To make these changes. When the mouse pointer appears as a four-headed arrow. For now. drag the right edge of the box to a suitable size. You need the address list of employees in ascending order of “Last Name” and within that in ascending order of the “First Name”. Now. select “Last Name” as the first field and “First Name” as the second field and click “Next”. But if you see the report properly.
To see the preview. Select the printer from the “Name” list. You can see in the preview. Click “Next” once again. instead of the table. The “Print” window is displayed. Save the report either by using the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+S” or by clicking “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar. you have to follow all the same steps you performed to create a report from the table. Click in the check box that says. Click the Office Button and select “Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. If they are still not properly visible. The next “Report Wizard” window asks for the sort order of the records to be printed in the report. in ascending order of the “First Name”. You need the report in ascending order of the “Last Name” and within that. you may move and resize the fields again as required. in the “Report Wizard”. Select the query “5 years service” from the Table/Query list. Select a suitable one from the list and click “Next”. You can have the fields laid out as either columnar. Check if all the data contents are visible on the page. you will select the query. The next window is the last step of the wizard. select View → Print Preview” in the “Views” group. you can make use of the query you created to list those employees. The difference is that. Then close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. you are asked about the layout of the fields and the page. Printing a Report Printing a report: The report is now ready to be printed. To create a report from a query. In the “Reports” group. 159 | P a g e . To create this report. Creating a Report from a Query There is a requirement to print a report of all those employees who were listed for the five years service award. click on “Preview the report” and click “Finish”. Here give a report title as “5 Year Service Awards”. click “Report Wizard”. Click “OK”. all the records of employees who have worked for five years. The “Report Wizard” window is displayed. “Adjust the field width so all fields fit on a page” and click “Next”. The next window lets you select the style of the report. Click “Close Print Preview” to close the preview. Select the “Print Range” by clicking on “Pages From” and typing ‘1’ to ‘1’. Close the preview. tabular or justified and the page can be oriented either as a portrait or a landscape. Click on the “Create” tab. So. Add all fields in the “Available Fields” list by clicking on the “>>” button and click “Next”. select “Last Name” as the first field and “First Name” as the second field and click “Next”. In the next window.
open the database in “Exclusive” mode. In the “Database Tools” group. click “Encrypt with Password”. The steps to create and apply a password to your database are as follows. One of the first things you can do in this direction is to use a password for accessing your database. 160 | P a g e . your company has decided to give laptops to each of its key employees.Protecting the Database Using Passwords Assigning a password: Microsoft Office Access 2007 provides a number of features that can help make your data more secure. Store the password in a secure place from where you can recover it in case you forget it. Your database can now be accessed without a password the next time it is opened. schedules etc. Enter your password in the “Password Required” window and click “OK”. In the “Unset Database Password” window. Close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. Close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. Close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. So you do not have to worry anymore about sharing your Personal Computer. and then re-type it in the “Verify” box. You may exit Access by clicking on the Office Button and then clicking the “Exit Access” button. click on the Office Button and select “Open”. In the “Set Database Password” window. First. Click the “Database Tools” tab. In the “Open” window. Click the database file and then click the arrow next to the “Open” button and select “Open Exclusive”. Using a password: Open the password protected database as you open any other database. it cannot be retrieved. If you forget your password. PERSONAL INFORMATION MANAGER Getting started with Outlook Introduction to Microsoft Outlook Your cherished dream has come true. Your database is now open. You want to use tools to organize your contacts. For this. You have decided to use this opportunity to its maximum potential and are eager to personalize your work environment. click “Decrypt Database”. The “Password Required” window appears. type your password and click “OK”. Enter your password and click “OK”. Click the “Database Tools” tab. but away from access by unauthorized people. In the “Database Tools” group. type your password in the “Password” box. It is very important that you remember your password. navigate to the location of your database. Now click “OK”. Removing a password: Open the database in Exclusive mode.
we shall take a look at the calendar. To expand the minimized Navigation Pane. Calendar. The Navigation Pane can be minimized into a vertical button bar. Press “Enter”. Select the month from the calendar by using the arrows. Creating an Appointment Your immediate concern is to record all your important appointments in the calendar. Starting Microsoft Outlook: To start the Microsoft Outlook application. Let us create another appointment and enter more details. Your appointment has now been recorded. to provide you with a larger work area. The To-Do Bar on the right gives you a consolidated view of your calendar. Some of the important tasks that can be performed using Microsoft Outlook are maintaining a personal calendar of appointments. Click the button corresponding to “Calendar” in the navigation pane. you have an integrated solution for managing your time and information. Using Calendar When you open Microsoft Outlook 2007. The upper portion of the navigation pane contains “Category specific tools” for working with different types of information. events and meetings. By default an appointment is allotted half an hour. The “Untitled Appointment” window is displayed. The “Day” view. and Contacts etc. click the arrow in the upper corner. upcoming appointments. Let us create an Appointment. having today’s date and time divisions. is displayed in the information viewer on the right. To begin with. In the time slot type ‘Meeting with the client’. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Outlook 2007”. The bottom portion contains Category buttons for different tasks. click “View → To-Do Bar → Minimized”. This enables you to see a minimized view of the To-Do Bar at all times. To minimize the expanded Navigation Pane. It can be used to organize and track all types of information. If the To-Do Bar is not visible at any time. Select the day. and storing addresses. 161 | P a g e . you will see a navigation pane on the left which contains categories such as Mail. The calendar for the current month is displayed in the category specific tools window. click the arrow at the top. Click the “New” button on the Standard toolbar. Select the time slot of 6 pm for the appointment in the information viewer of the Outlook window. tasks and important mail enabling you to prioritize your work.With Microsoft Office Outlook 2007.
monthly or yearly. You can see that the recurring appointment has been recorded.Type ‘Meeting with maintenance people’ as the “Subject”. 162 | P a g e . You can specify details of the appointment in the “Appointment Recurrence” window. On the “Appointment” tab. In the text box below. Creating a recurring appointment There are some meetings which take place on a regular basis. Press the tab key and type ‘Factory Premises’ as the “Location”. Creating an event There is a two day exhibition for Product Promotions to be held in two weeks. “Recur every 1 week on Monday”. such as meetings with your Accounts Manager. In the “Show As” field. Click on “Save & Close” on the “Recurring Appointment” tab.Accounts Manager’ as the “Subject” and ‘Accounts office’ as the “Location”. Select “Out of Office”. Since it will last for at least 24 hours. In the “Untitled . Click the 9 am time slot. Click on Monday in the next week in the left panel. Select “Actions → New Recurring Appointment”. in the “Actions” group. Under “Range of recurrence” you may specify the time frame for your recurring appointment. The current setting is “No end date”. You can see that one hour has been allotted for this appointment. The current setting is “Weekly”. Select the end time “10:30 AM” from the drop-down list. select the amount of time in the “Reminder” list before the appointment when you want the reminder to appear. Let us keep this setting unchanged. you may select the way in which you want your appointment to appear in the Calendar. such an entry is called an Event. Select 7 pm as the “End time” from the drop-down list. You can also see the appointment on the To-Do Bar at the right. Under “Appointment time” you may set the start and end time of the appointment. in the “Options” group. To turn a reminder off. Now click the Monday of the next week and the following week on the calendar. You may keep this setting. Click it once again to return to the minimized form. Click “OK”. weekly. say ‘Take along the maintenance log file & purchase bills’. The “Out of Office” indicator is displayed at the left corner. Now click on the “Save & Close” button in the “Actions” group. You may click the To-Do Bar to expand it and view details. select “None”.Appointment” window type ‘Weekly meeting . Click on the “Today” tab in the Standard toolbar. Under “Recurrence pattern” you may specify the days in the week when the appointment is going to occur and also if it is going to occur daily. type your notes. You may wish to be reminded about your appointment by a bell.
This means that you may click on the related button to see the appointments on your calendar as you wish. Select the next day from the “End time” drop-down menu. Select “View → Current view”. Type ‘Product Promotion Exhibition’ as the “Subject”. To mark the calendar to show that you will be out of office during these days. you can view your calendar based on different criteria. you can view your calendar on Day/Week/Month basis. Set the “Reminder” to 2 days in the “Options” group” of the “Event” tab. select “Out of Office” from the “Show As” list. Changing the calendar view By default. Rightclick in any of the time slots and select “New All Day Event”. in the date navigator window. In addition. Creating a task list 163 | P a g e . Type ‘International Trade Center’ as the “Location”.Click on the Monday of two weeks later. Click on the “Save & Close” button in the “Actions” group.
Outlook 2007 offers you Color categories that allow you to group information in a way that allows you to find and track all information most effectively. such as a weekly report. Now enter the category name as “Time & Expenses” and click “OK”. percentage complete and categories. Meeting with the Accounts Department. Outlook has certain predefined categories. It includes different columns for priority. From the “Status” drop-down menu. For your weekly meetings with your assistants. Press “Enter”. subject. Enter today’s date as the “Start date”. Create the following tasks in a similar way: 1. If there are any tasks that have been entered previously. Type ‘Create presentation displays for Product Promotion’. 2. Creating a new category: Click “New” in the “Color Categories” window. select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. Click on “Save & Close”. You may make changes as per your requirements. Click “OK” Renaming a category: You may rename an existing color category to make it more meaningful. they are displayed. Let us enter the category name as “Personal”. Meeting with the maintenance staff. From the “Priority” drop-down menu choose the option “High”. Setting up Categories A category is a descriptive keyword or phrase to which you can assign related items. you have several tasks that need to be completed. Meeting at the Yoga Club. Select the Yellow Category and click “Rename”. Set the “% Complete” to 25%. The “Task” window is displayed. due date. select “View → Current View → Simple List”. A task can occur only once or happen on a recurring basis. This view shows detailed information about each task. Updating the status of a task: Double-click on a task’s “Subject”. To set up your categories. if necessary. To change the view to a simple list. Click in the “Click here to add a new Task” text box. Click on the “Tasks” button in the Navigation Pane.A task is a personal work related action item. Your task has now been recorded. To change the view to a detailed list. 164 | P a g e . Click in the “Due Date” text box and select a date from the calendar. select “Actions → Categorize → All Categories”. status. 3. choose the option “In Progress”.
To switch to the “Detailed List” view. From the drop-down list. You can now see that this task appears crossed out with “% Complete” as 100%. the tasks are arranged according to their due dates. select “Completed” and press “Enter”. right-click in the “Categories” column. To update the status of the task. assign the following categories to the tasks as follows: 1. Scroll the time line window to view all the tasks. Sorting tasks Sorting tasks is the process of rearranging items in ascending or descending order. Updating the task status You can update the status of the task at any time and specify the status and percentage completed. You see that the tasks are sorted in ascending order by Categories. select “Personal”. 165 | P a g e . In the “Detailed list” view. Now to return to the “Detailed list” view. Clicking in a column heading other than “Task Subject” sorts the list according to that column. You may click on the “Delete” icon on the Standard toolbar to delete a completed task from the list.Categorizing tasks: Select the task “Meeting at the Yoga Club” from the list. Using a task timeline In the Tasks Timeline view. You may also sort tasks by using the “Arrange By” option from the View menu. For example. Similarly. click on the column heading “Categories”. Click in the “Status” column next to a task. Meeting with the Accounts Department – Blue Category 2. The subject of the task is also displayed. For example. they are sorted in descending order. Meeting with the maintenance staff – Orange Category You can use the same categorization techniques for other Outlook item like appointments and mails. Select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. the “Status” column must be visible. To assign a category to this task. you might want to sort your tasks by Status or Due Date. The next time you click. each task will be represented by a task symbol. you can see this column in the “Detailed List” view. In this view. To change the view to “Task Timeline”. From the available categories list. Now the task has been assigned to the “Personal” category. select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. select “View → Current View → Task Timeline”. You may sort your tasks according to Subject by selecting “View → Arrange By → Subject”.
Using the Address Book What is an Address Book in Outlook The Address Book is an electronic book. Select and delete the user name from the left footer box. Here two styles are available. The “Print style” section specifies the format in which you want to print your task list. Creating Notes The “Notes” tool is used to create a reminder for yourself. The “Print range” section allows you to specify the rows in the table that are to be printed. Type the required message and then close the window. If necessary. Here you need to specify details about the Printer. Click on the “New” icon on the Standard toolbar. To display the preview in actual size. Notes are an electronic version of paper notes that you use to jot down quick reminders. Now. Click on the “Preview” button. Let us make some changes. Similarly. Click “OK”. Let us assume that you need to create a note to remind you to send an email message for an event. select the appropriate printer for your system from the “Name” drop-down list. Click on the “Header/Footer” tab.Printing tasks and calendar items Many times you may need to print out your task list and appointment calendar so that it is available during a meeting. You can choose to enter 166 | P a g e . Before printing it is always a good idea to take a preview of the document you want to print. Select “View → Current View → Active Appointments”. select “File → Print”. to print the appointments. Click “OK” in the “Print” window. A blank yellow colored note window is displayed. If everything is OK. Click the button corresponding to “Notes” in the navigation pane. Print range and Copies. click on the “Actual Size” icon in the toolbar. Confirm that the “Notes” view is set to “Icons”. which includes detailed information of all the people with whom you communicate. the Print style. Select “File → Print”. Click on the “Page Setup” button. The “Print” window is displayed. The “Copies” section allows you to enter the number of pages and copies. select “Calendar” in the Navigation pane. click on the “Print” button in the preview window. Type your name in the left header text box. “Table” or “Memo”. You can reopen the note and make changes to it by double-clicking on it.
“Addresses”. Like other outlook tools. You can view the entire contact list in the “Business Cards” format. Click the “New” button from the Standard toolbar. Type ‘Contacts’ in the “File name” text box. “Company”. You may also delete a contact by selecting “Edit → Delete” or pressing the “Delete” key after selecting the contact. Here. Enter the required information in the appropriate fields. Click “Next”. “Phone List”. This wizard guides you through the complete procedure. Importing & Exporting Contacts You may need to save your contacts to a file so that they are available for use in the future. click “Contacts” in the navigation pane. Several of the fields include drop-down lists that allow you to further customize the information for each contact. phone numbers. Choose “Personal Folder File (. “Phone numbers” etc. On the “Contact” tab. Adding and Removing Contacts To add a contact. Click “Next”. Click “OK”. The names are automatically listed in ascending alphabetical order. Click on the “Browse” button. you can see the “General” button of the “Show” group highlighted. Exporting contacts: Select “File → Import and Export”. “By Category”. 167 | P a g e . This is called “Importing”. The “Untitled . Specify the location where you wish to save the exported file in the “Open Personal Folders” window. The “Import and Export Wizard” window is displayed. email addresses. “Address Cards”. By referring to your address book you can contact or communicate quickly with any individual from the contact list. This file can then be used to copy details of your contacts to another location or another computer.different types of information such as business and home address. “By Company” and others. Click on the "Save & Close" button in the “Actions” group.Contact” window is displayed. birth-dates and anniversaries. right-click on the contact and select “Delete”. If you want to delete a particular contact from the contacts list. “Contacts” has several views like “Business Cards”. Click “Next”. Select the “Contacts” folder from the “Select the folder to export from” list. you can enter the basic contact information such as “Full Name”. By doubleclicking on the contact you may edit the information. This is called “Exporting”. Choose “Export to a file”.pst)” from the “Create a file of type” list box. nick names.
Click “Next”. first or last name. Choose “Personal Folder File (. Importing contacts: Select “File → Import and Export”. You may add contacts from different address books into your list. Creating and editing mailing lists A mailing list is a collection of contacts. Click “Next”. click “Select Members”. In the “Create Microsoft Personal Folders” window. type a name for the mailing list.Now click “Finish”. in the “Members” group. To quickly open a contact you have previously searched for. and then select the appropriate name. In the “Import and Export Wizard” window. Searching Address Books You can search for an address and the information associated with it in the address book. The contacts you entered are now saved in a file and will be available when you want to import them later. choose “Import from another program or file”. You can enter a partial name (such as “Hyosuke”). Select the “Contacts” folder from the “Select the folder to import from” list. In the “Find a contact” box on the Standard toolbar. On the “Distribution List” tab. select the 168 | P a g e . select “File → New → Distribution List”. Click on the “Browse” button. select the address book that contains the e-mail addresses you want in your distribution list. In the “Name” field. You can also enter new contacts. It provides an easy way to send messages to a group of people. click the arrow in the “Find a contact” drop-down list. In the list below. Now click “Finish”. you may select from three possibilities with regards to duplicates.pst)” from the “Select file type to import from” list. Select the appropriate option and click “Next”. click “OK”. type the name of the contact you want to find and press “Enter”. Since there is a possibility that your imported file may contain contacts which you already have. Creating a mailing list: To create a mailing list. Select the file from the appropriate location and click “Open”. The new contacts will be incorporated into the existing list. e-mail address and company name. Under “Address Book”. This list is saved with a name. Outlook will search all the available address books.
Now click “Save & Close”. click “Add New” in the “Members” group in the “Distribution List” window. The “Distribution List” window is displayed. click “New”. On the “Auto Account Setup” screen. Click “Mail” in the navigation pane.name. Adding other members: You may also add members that do not exist in your address books to your mailing list. You may create your mails offline and connect to the Internet only when you are ready to send them. You may disconnect from the Net and read your mails at leisure. You first need to set up your mail account. 169 | P a g e . enter your name and email address. You are holidaying in Malaysia and you want to send an e-mail to your friends back home. Editing a Mailing List: To make changes to your mailing list. either POP3 or IMAP depending on the type of mailbox you use. This mail can then be sent to all members of the list after completing other details. Click on “To” to display the “Select Names” window. check the box beside “Manually configure server settings or additional server types” and click “Next”. click “Mail” in the navigation pane. Using Outlook for E-Mailing Setting up a Mail Account A very important feature of Outlook is sending and receiving e-mail. Then click on the name of the mailing list and after that click “To”. all incoming mail can be stored on your hard disk. Under “Choose E-mail Service”. Now click “OK”. and then click “Members”. Select “Tools → Account Settings”. Creating Mails: To create a mail to send to all members of a mailing list. On the “E-mail” tab. For this. Under “Server Information”. You can see the name of the mailing list in the message window. The “Untitled Message” window is displayed. Additionally. select Account type. In the “Internet E-mail Settings” screen. simply click “Remove” in the “Members” group. POP3 is generally used. Let us delete a member from this list. under “User Information”. You can now make the changes you require. double-click on the list name in the “Contacts” folder. ensure that “Internet E-Mail” is selected and then click “Next”. The mailing list is saved in your “Contacts” folder by the name you give it. Enter details in the “Add New Member” window and click “OK”. and then click “OK”. Do this for each person you want to add to the distribution list. For this. Click the “New” button on the Standard toolbar. Now click “Save & Close” in the “Actions” group.
In the “Untitled Message” window. You may select multiple files by holding down the “Ctrl” key while you click each file. Select the appropriate “Address Book”. You may also directly type in e-mail addresses not included in your address book. Using Attachments Attachments are separate files that are sent along with your e-mail message. All files in a folder can also be selected by clicking “Organize” on the toolbar and then clicking “Select All”. database files. Click “Next”. the name is not visible to other recipients of the message. This brings up the “Select Names” window. including spreadsheets. Under “Logon Information”. and then click “Finish” on the “Congratulations!” screen. even sound recordings and graphic images. While composing the message. You can attach all sorts of files to an e-mail. check the box “My outgoing server (SMTP) requires authentication” and click “OK”. click on the Paperclip Icon in the “Include” group. The list of files attached is 170 | P a g e . They can be compared to a covering letter sent with a parcel or a birthday card sent along with a present. Specify the location and name of the picture files on your computer that you would like to attach. Use the “Cc ->” and “Bcc ->” buttons in the same way for entering the addresses to which you wish to send copies to. you must enter details such as the e-mail address of the recipient. Click the arrow next to the "New" button on the Standard toolbar and select "Mail Message". You may add multiple names to any of the fields. the subject and the content of the mail. word processor documents. If you add a recipients name using “Bcc”. type your message. Creating an E-mail Message Creating a Mail message: This is also known as “Composing” a mail. Click the “More Settings” button. On the “Outgoing Server” tab. To send an e-mail. Click “OK”. Now enter the subject and in the large white box below the subject field. Now click “Close”. enter your email address in the “User Name” field and the password for that account. Attachments do not form part of your e-mail message but they can be opened and viewed or edited by the e-mail recipient. Now. Ensure that the “Remember password” box is checked. Then click on a name from the list to whom you wish to send the mail and click the “To ->” button. “Cc” stands for carbon copy and “Bcc” stands for blind carbon copy. click on the "To:" button. Attaching a file: You now want to send some digital pictures of Malaysia along with your message.Enter the respective server names provided by your Internet Service Provider (ISP) in the “Incoming mail server” and “Outgoing mail server (SMTP)” fields. click “Insert”.
For example. It is very important to know how to view them. For this. You can see this folder in the left panel. simply click the attachment In the Reading Pane. One of your friends has written to you that she has paid your college fees since you are out of town. When you receive an attachment in a message. click the “Send” button. Receiving Mail Receiving Mail: By default. She has also written about submission dates for your projects. If you are not connected to the Internet. Drafts: You may create a draft of a mail and send it at a later stage. Here you can see details such as the sender’s name and the subject of the mail. you can preview it. your mail is stored in the “Outbox”. when you start Microsoft Outlook. and want to quickly see what the attachment contains without opening it. To return to the message body. Sending Mail After you have finished entering all information. then you must have the related software installed in order to see it. She has attached a picture of her visit to Malaysia last year. create a mail as described earlier. click on the mail whose content you wish to see. When you connect. Viewing and Saving an Attachment Viewing an attachment: You may also receive attachments from your friend like the ones you sent. right click on the attachment name and select “Open”. Your mail is now stored in the “Drafts” folder. You may also click the “Send/Receive” button when connected to send mails which are in the Outbox. Instead of clicking the “Send” button. click the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. You may remove incorrect file attachments by clicking them and pressing the “Delete” key. For this. In order to view an attached file. if you have received a picture as an e-mail attachment. You may also use the “Send/Receive” button to send and receive mail. You can now read the message displayed in the right panel which is the Reading Pane.displayed just below the Subject Field. mails from the Outbox are sent to the intended recipients. To open an attachment of a mail in your Inbox. all mails that you have received are deposited in your “Inbox”. click the “Message” button. A copy of all sent messages will be kept in your “Sent Items” folder. the recipient needs to have a copy of the software application that was used to create the attachment initially. You may edit your message at any time by clicking on the “Drafts” folder in the left panel and then double-clicking on the related message in the right panel. Reading Mail: In the center panel. Click on it to see a list of all mails received in the center panel. 171 | P a g e .
Printing Messages: To print a mail. enter details regarding the location where you wish to save the mail and click “Save”. 172 | P a g e . The “Subject” field displays the words “FW:” followed by the original subject. sender’s name etc. For this. A new mail message window is displayed with the original mail content and the subject. click on it and then click on the “Print” button on the Standard toolbar. You may also make any other changes to the message that you wish.Saving an attachment: To save an attachment of a mail in your Inbox. click on the Inbox folder and then click on the mail in the center panel. right click on the attachment name and select “Save As”. Now send it like any other mail. Now. For this. Forwarding a mail: You might want to convey the information related to the project submission dates to another friend. This may be changed if required. click on the mail from the Inbox and then click the “Forward” button. You can see that the recipients e-mail address and subject with the words “RE:” before it are already filled in. Specify the location to save the file and then click “Save”. Replying to and Forwarding a Mail Replying to a mail: You now want to thank your friend for paying your fees. Deleting Messages: To delete a mail. Enter your mail content and send it like any other mail. A new mail message window is displayed. subject. enter the e-mail address of the person you wish to send it to in the “To:” field. Handling mails in the Inbox Sorting Mails: You may sort the mails in your Inbox by selecting a suitable option by clicking on the “Arranged By:” button in the center panel. click on it and then click on the “Delete” button on the Standard toolbar. You may click on the box to the right of the “Arranged By:” field to reverse the sort order. The message will be deleted and moved to your “Deleted Items” folder. You may want to empty the Deleted Items folder to make free space for additional storage. You may sort your mails by date received. Let us edit the content to remove the statement regarding the payment of fees. You may make any changes you require. click on it and select “File → Save As” from the menu bar. In the “Save As” window. To reply to her mail. right-click on the folder name and select “Empty Deleted Items Folder” and then click “Yes” in the window that comes up. Saving Messages: To save a mail that you have received to another place on your hard disk. You may forward the mail that you have received. Now click the “Reply” button. Also. the original mail that you had received is appended at the end. You can also see the original sender’s name and e-mail address as well as the date and time it was originally received.
You can make your search more focused by clicking the “Expand the Query Builder” arrow. Windows Vista comes with software that will burn your CDs for you.also known as CD-R 2) Rewriteable CDs . Let us flag a mail in the Inbox. Let us use it to find a message in your Inbox. Calendar and Contacts. although you may add files over multiple sessions until the total space has been used. You can see that it gets added in the To-Do Bar. or To fields. such as Mail. To burn a CD you need both a CD burner and CD burning software. the related mail is displayed. You can use a flag to quickly create a follow-up item that can be tracked in the To-Do Bar. and then select the search fields you want from the list. MAKING IT WORK CD Writing What is CD Writing? FOR YOU CD Writing is also known as “Burning of a CD”. Simply type a word in the search box. A burned CD is a CD that has been written by using a process that involves using a device called a “CD Writer” or “CD Burner” to burn indentations into the CD. 173 | P a g e .Using Instant Search The “Instant Search” feature helps you to quickly find items in Microsoft Office Outlook 2007. All flagged mail items get added to the to-do bar making it easy for you to keep track of the tasks and mail that you need to reply to or act upon. On CD-RW disks. Using Flags Flags are very useful throughout Outlook. Click on the flag symbol next to an important mail. in your Inbox.also known as CD-RW On CD-R disks. Subject. There are two types of CDs: 1) Recordable CDs . You can use the same search techniques to find any Outlook item. the space can only be used once. and even in the Calendar. The reasons for burning a CD might be to create a backup of your files or simply to backup frequently used CDs. To display more search fields in the Query Builder. The moment a match is found. It is replaced by a tick and is removed from the To-Do Bar. click “Add Criteria”. The Instant Search pane is always available in all of your Outlook views. Body. Type your search text in the From. When you have taken the necessary action. you can click the flag once again.
and click “Next”. This is a convenient format if you need to copy a few files at a time. Open the folder that contains the files you want to write to the CD in another window. perform the following steps: Insert a writeable CD into your computers CD Writer. 174 | P a g e . Live File System discs enable you to copy individual files immediately to a disc. an empty disc folder opens. An empty disc folder opens. You may change the files in this folder if you wish. and then drag the files into the empty disc folder. In the window that appears. However. This is the “Source Drive”. Burning a CD using Windows Vista Using the Live File System format: To write a CD using the Live File System format. This format is advisable if you need to burn a large collection of files. It takes several minutes for the disc to be formatted in the Live File System format. In the window that appears. Open the folder that contains the files you want to burn. In the “Burn a disc” window. enter a name for this disc. Re-size and arrange the windows in such a way that both the “Source Drive” and the “Destination Drive” are visible on the screen. As you drag files into the disc folder. You may delete individual files or reformat the disc to create additional disc space when you use a rewriteable disc. This is the “Destination Drive”. Windows burns discs in the Live File System format. Now drag the files to be copied into the empty disc folder. CD-RW disks are also more expensive. click “Burn files to disc”. Let us delete one of the files. such as a music CD. By default. The files are copied to a temporary folder on your hard drive. Creating such a disk requires as much free space on your hard disk as the capacity of the disc you are burning. In the “Burn a disc” window. You may format a CD using either the “Live File System” or “Mastered” format. When the formatting is complete. CD-RW disks can only be used on CD-RW drives and not on ordinary CD-ROM read-only drives. enter a name for this disc and then click “Show formatting options”. perform the following steps: Insert a writeable CD into your computers CD Writer. they are copied automatically to the disc. Click “Mastered” and then click “Next”. Before you can copy files to a CD. Using the Mastered format: To write a CD using the Mastered format.the space can be erased and re-used many times. click “Burn files to disc”. the disc must first be prepared using a process called formatting. Mastered discs enable you to burn multiple files to a disc at one time.
“Adware” is a software package that 175 | P a g e . you can delete one or more files to make more room on the disc. click “Next”. A “Trojan Horse” is a malicious program that is disguised as or embedded within legitimate software. A computer virus behaves in a way similar to a biological virus. click on the file name. The term “virus” is often extended to refer to worms. click “Erase this disc”. Viruses are one of the several types of malicious software. “Spyware” is software designed to take control of another computer system without the consent of the owner. for example. on the toolbar. as their malicious activities are mostly confined within the target computer itself. or executable code that is not part of a file. When the disc burning is complete. press the “Delete” key. for example. The selected files are copied to the disc. To delete a specific file on a disk. To select more than one file.After you are sure about the files to be written to the CD. click “Next” Erasing a CD A rewriteable CD may be erased and written many times. burn these files to another disc”. To erase all files on a disc. You may write the same files to another CD by checking the box against “Yes. Trojan horses and other such software. Viruses generally do not affect network performance. and the infected file. An example of an executable file is a program. many other viruses are fairly benign or merely annoying. hold down the “Ctrl” key while you click the files you want. While viruses can be intentionally destructive. Now. another executable program. click “Burn to disc”. on the toolbar. A virus can infect different parts of the computer’s operating and file system. However. a worm is self-contained and does not need to be part of another program to spread itself. An “Identity Theft” is a harmful act by deliberately impersonating a person. by destroying data. whereas viruses infect or corrupt files on a targeted computer. Click “Finish” when the process is complete. In the window that is displayed. which spreads by inserting itself into living cells. and becomes part of. The insertion of a virus into the program is termed as an "infection". Now. using someone else’s credit card. If you use the Live File System format. the disc burner tray will open and you can remove the disc. Virus Protection What is a Computer Virus? A computer virus is a self-replicating computer program that spreads by inserting copies of itself into other executable code or documents. Worms harm the network and add to network traffic. A virus attaches itself to. is called a "host". COM or EXE file.
Even if CDs are read only. Such analysis may include data captures. AVG Antivirus and Quick Heal. Internet security suites are available to protect you against all these hazards. It controls how frequently your computer is scanned for viruses. Today. Onscreen instructions guide you through the installation process. Once installed. It continually works to ensure your security and privacy. identity theft and adware. Some of the popular antivirus packages are Norton Antivirus. Most commercial antivirus software uses both of these approaches. port monitoring and other methods. The second is identifying suspicious behavior from any computer program which might indicate infection. with an emphasis on the virus dictionary approach. “VirusScan” is one of the programs included in an Internet security suite. Antivirus software consists of computer programs that attempt to identify and eliminate computer viruses and other malicious software. displays. before copying data to your hard disk. You must keep your antivirus program updated by downloading the latest releases by your antivirus program vendor. has in turn expanded to cover worms and other threats such as spyware. It is important to regularly scan your computer using a good anti-virus program. Anti-virus software.e. Fortunately. This software typically uses two different techniques to accomplish this. it is compared to the profile of known viruses. The first step towards making your computer safe while you are on the Internet is to install an Internet security suite. the files on them may already be infected. moved into a protected area where it won’t cause any more harm). network-borne worms are more common than viruses. originally designed to protect computers from viruses.automatically plays. due to the popularity of the Internet. You are alerted when any possible threat is detected. the software is automatically activated each time you start your computer. 176 | P a g e . An infected file is either deleted or quarantined (i. MacAfee. This can be installed either by downloading from the Internet or from a disc provided by the vendor. Virus Protection Are you worried that the precious data computer on your computer could be destroyed due to a virus attack? Did you know that your private e-mail could also be intercepted by unauthorized persons? It is even possible for others to gain control over your computer system. The first is scanning all files to look for known viruses matching definitions in a virus dictionary. Always scan floppies and CDs for viruses. When a file is checked. or downloads advertising material to a computer.
To listen to music. Because these music files are compressed. You can hear the music as soon as your player starts receiving the stream. Using Windows Update: “Windows Update” is software designed to keep your computer current and more secure by automatically downloading and installing the latest security and feature updates from Microsoft. It allows access only to authorized users and applications. You may run Windows Update by connecting to the Internet and selecting “All Programs → Windows Update” from the Start menu. First.A “Personal Firewall” is a program that controls network traffic to and from a computer system. buying online is fast and convenient. If you hear a great song on the radio. All done Downloading Music Rather than traveling to a store to buy a music CD. However. By downloading from the Internet. 177 | P a g e . there is no download wait when streaming. There’s nothing worse than buying a CD after you have heard a good song. you may use your Windows Media Player or download other players such as Winamp and Real Player from the Internet. Second. A sound card and speakers (or earphones) are also required to hear audio. no files are left on your computer to take up space. Audio files in mp3 and Windows Media Audio (WMA) format are optimized for storing music in compressed format. a large hard drive is not required to store them. after the music has finished playing. “Privacy Service” is another program included in an Internet security suite that helps protect your privacy online. you can always copy music to a CD to free up space. Streaming has two advantages over downloading. Streaming requires a powerful computer and a fast connection since the file is not stored on your computer. You can use it to block certain Web sites. prevent sensitive information from being sent over the Internet and block unwanted advertisements. You may also listen to music online. if so desired. This means you can store thousands of songs without running out of hard drive space. Playing video or sound in real time as it is transferred to your computer over the World Wide Web is called “Streaming”. you can log onto one of the music sites and download it within seconds. you can choose to purchase individual songs. Getting More from Your Computer Listening to Music You can use your computer for lots more than just computational activities. only to find it’s the only good song in the album.
and they could be exposing your computer to viruses. Once a TV tuner card has been installed. there are others from which you can download legal music. click the “Stop” button.The best way to find the music you want on the internet is to use a search engine. You may include video clips from television as part of a presentation. Once downloaded. demodulator. Then select the channel. While downloading music. Many TV tuners can function as FM radios. You must specify the location on your computer to store the downloaded file. Like TV sets. double-click the file to play it. There are many popular sites for music lovers such as MusicSites. Most internal tuners do all the low level demodulation needed to convert a radio signal into an on-screen image using a hardware chip and do not need to use the CPU. each version is designed for the radio frequencies and video formats used in each country. You may capture a video playing in the TV window into a digital file.lycos. you will be prompted to type in a valid credit card number to pay for the music. even while running other applications. For this. A Download Manager window shows the progress of the download. you may view your favorite TV shows. If it is not a free download. For this. or distribution to other computer users. If you are downloading pirated digital files. and an analog-to-digital converter for analog TV. enabling the recording of television programs onto a hard disk. Once a song is found.net and music. Although many sites offer pirated music. To stop recording. The card contains a receiver. specify the location on your computer in which you wish to save the video clip by clicking the “Properties” button. Some cheaper tuners cannot do much of the signal processing and rely on the systems CPU for that task. Then click the “Record” button to start recording. TV Tuner Card A “TV tuner card” is a computer component that allows television signals to be received by a computer. By downloading music. Size and move the television window and control box window.com. listen to a sample to make sure it’s the one you want before downloading it. 178 | P a g e . you could be subject to steep fines or other penalties. It can be copied on CDs or a digital MP3 player so that you can take it wherever you wish. spyware and other unwanted software. This means that your computer can serve both as a computing device as well as a television. tuner. Broadcasts can also be digitally recorded by the computer for later replay. Most TV tuners also function as video capture cards. click the “TV” icon on the desktop. you may create a large music collection on your computer. you must respect copyright laws.
Today. It is a globally accepted wireless service for sending messages of up to 160 alphanumeric characters between mobile subscribers and external systems such as email. you may click on its image anytime during the presentation. These programs use a variety of approaches to identify and eliminate spam. SMS is a very popular service. messages are stored in the network and are delivered at the next available opportunity. paging. or from the Internet. often for products of questionable quality. click the “Movie” icon. Now in the “Media Clip” group. Choose “When Clicked” in the window displayed. You have to register with a site in order to send SMS using the interface provided. get-richquick schemes. using an "SMS gateway" website. A more effective approach has been the development and use of “Spam Blockers”. particularly among young people. Spam Blocking Software In an attempt to control spam. There are numerous sites providing paid SMS services.Once you have saved the video clip. We often receive many unwanted e-mails. This has limited impact because a lot of spam originates from other countries as well. What is Spam? E-mail. The Mozilla Thunderbird e-mail 179 | P a g e . Let us insert the clip in a presentation. SMS is used by organizations for marketing. There are others that provide this service free of cost as well. like many other valuable technologies does have some drawbacks. For this open the presentation file and click on the “Insert” tab. This unwelcome junk mail is called “spam”. sports news and much more. you may use it in any way you like. Then size and move the image of the clip as required. information about flight delays. or something similar. mail it as an attachment or include it in a presentation. These are mostly related to commercial advertising. current events. some countries have anti-spam laws as part of their legal system. PC to Mobile: Sending SMS SMS is an abbreviation for “Short Message Service”. This service is available on digital Global System for Mobile (GSM) networks allowing text messages to be sent and received via the network operators’ message center to your mobile phone. You require Internet connectivity and an SMS service provider to be able to send an SMS from your PC to a mobile phone. You may add it to a Web page. Navigate to your clip and press “OK”. To play the video clip. as well as for providing value-added services such as reminders for payments. If the phone is powered off or out of range. and voice mail systems.
You can verbally say commands that the computer will respond to. When you receive a message with remote images.e. 180 | P a g e . Thunderbird displays an alert stating that remote images have been blocked. you need to train it to recognize unwanted messages. click “Junk Settings”.mozilla. simply select it and click the “Not Junk” icon. This ability to accept voice input is called “Speech Recognition”. and you can dictate text to the computer. click “Junk Settings”. Then make a selection from “Personal Address Book” or “Collected Addresses” which contains the addresses of all viewed mail messages. Mozilla Thunderbird will become more efficient in recognizing spam and taking appropriate action. select “Tools → Account Settings” from the menu. To set up your computer for Windows Speech Recognition. under “Local Folders”. Thunderbird blocks remote images in messages. such as those of family and friends. To specify a white list. Creating a Junk Folder: You may choose to move new junk messages to a separate folder. you need to have a microphone connected to your computer. In the left panel. you have an alternative. By default. they will continue to send mails. under “Local Folders”. The spam indicator is then removed. a list of e-mail addresses that should never be blocked. Training Spam Blocking Software: After you install Mozilla Thunderbird. If at any time you decide that the message is not spam. After reviewing your actions for several weeks. When you have received a message in your Inbox which you consider to be spam. you need to do three things: set up your microphone. For this. Check the box against “Do not mark mail as junk if the sender is in:”. An icon appears between the Sender and Date fields indicating that the message is spam. select it and then click the “Junk” icon on the toolbar. If you do want to view the remote images.program which is available for free download at “www. all you need to do is click the "Show Images" or "Load Images" button that appears to the right of the alert message. What is Speech Recognition? Are you tired of typing lengthy documents using your keyboard? Now. Blocking Images: Some e-mail messages contain images that let spammers know that you have received them. Check the box against “Move new junk messages to:”. Similar messages will be marked as spam in future. In the left panel. For this select “Tools → Account Settings” from the menu.com” comes with built-in spam blocking software. learn how to talk to your computer. and the images in the message body are replaced with simple place-holders. Now click “OK”. Specifying Friends: You may create a “White List” i. Then make a selection for the location of the Junk folder and click “OK”. You can use your voice to control your computer. Once spammers know that your e-mail address is valid.
and train your computer to understand your speech. Speech Recognition is available only in English and a few other languages. Setting up your microphone: Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Ease of Access”. Now select “Speech Recognition Options → Set up microphone” and follow the instructions in the wizard. Learning to talk to your computer: Windows comes with a speech training tutorial to teach you the commands used with Speech Recognition. To run the tutorial, click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Ease of Access”. Now select “Speech Recognition Options → Take Speech Tutorial” and follow the instructions in the tutorial. Training your computer to recognize your speech: Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Ease of Access”. Now select “Speech Recognition Options → Train your computer to better understand you” and follow the instructions in the wizard. Controlling your computer: Speech Recognition listens and responds to your spoken commands. You can use Speech Recognition to run programs and interact with Windows. There are various commands you can use with Speech Recognition such as selecting a menu option, clicking or doubleclicking an item, switching to an open program, scrolling up and down and many more. Dictating text: You can use your voice to dictate text to your computer. For example, you can dictate text to fill out online forms or dictate text to a word processing program to type a letter. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Accessories”. Now select “Ease of Access → Windows Speech Recognition”. A window appears at the top of the screen which shows you the working of the speech recognition software. To start dictating, open the program you want to use or select the text box you want to dictate text into and then begin speaking. What is Digital Video Editing? In the past, when you needed to compile movies or required professionalquality editing of home videos, you required the services of photo labs or studios. You can now manage this on your own using special software. “Digital Video Editing” is the process of editing videos on a computer using digital video editing software. The process of Digital Video Editing involves three steps. 1. Input: Captured video and audio files are sent to the system unit for processing. 2. Editing: The files are subdivided into a series of clips that can be merged to form a new file and special effects can be added.
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3. Output: The edited video is stored on hard disks or optical disks for later viewing or additional editing. Windows Movie Maker Windows Movie Maker is a feature of Windows Vista that enables you to create home movies and slide shows on your computer, complete with professional-looking titles, transitions, effects, music, and even narration. You can also use Windows Movie Maker to publish your movies and share them with your friends and family. Start the application by clicking the “Start” button and selecting “All Programs → Windows Movie Maker”. On the left is the “Tasks pane” which you can use to perform common tasks related to Digital Video Editing. Capturing Video: You may import a video from your digital video camera to your computer. First, connect your camera in playback mode to your computer. Then, from the “Import” group in the Tasks pane, click “From digital video camera” and follow the on-screen instructions. The video on the camera tape is encoded into a video file and saved to your computer’s hard disk. The “Contents pane” in the center shows clips, effects, or transitions youre working with while you create your movie. The area at the bottom where you create and edit your movie is displayed in two views, the “Storyboard” and the “Timeline”. To switch views, use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl + T”. The storyboard is the default view. You can use this to look at the sequence or ordering of the clips and easily rearrange them. This view also lets you see any video effects or video transitions that have been added. Audio clips are not displayed on the storyboard, but you can see them in the timeline view. Editing a Movie: Each movie is stored as a separate project. If you make changes to a clip, those changes are only reflected in the current project; they do not affect the source file. You can drag clips and pictures from the Contents pane to the storyboard and arrange them for your current project. To add a special effect, click on “Effects” in the Task pane and drag the effect you require to the storyboard. A transition controls how your movie plays from one video clip or picture to the next. To add a transition, click on “Transition” and drag the transition to the transition cell between two clips or pictures. The preview monitor on the right enables you to view individual clips or an entire project. By using the preview monitor, you can preview your project before publishing it as a movie. You can also drag clips to the preview monitor to play them. You can use the buttons underneath the preview monitor to play or pause a clip, or to move a clip frame-by-frame. The “Split”
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button allows you to split a clip into two parts at the point displayed in the preview monitor. Publishing a Movie: Once you movie is complete, you may create a DVD to share it with others. For this you would need a DVD writer and some special software such as Sonic MyDVD or Windows DVD Maker. Insert a recordable DVD into your DVD writer. Then, from the “Publish to” group in the Tasks pane, click “Recordable CD” and complete the steps to publish your movie. Understanding Terms and Technologies Netizens Today, the Internet is an integral part of our lives. As a powerful communications medium, the Internet offers great possibilities for social change. The term “Netizen” is now used regularly. This word has been created using the two words “Net” and “Citizen”. So a Netizen is a citizen of the world, thanks to the global connectivity that the Internet offers. A Netizen is also known as a “Cybercitizen”. Netizens physically live in one country but are in contact with much of the world via the global computer network. Virtually, they live next door to every other single netizen in the world. Geographical distances do not have much significance since everyone exists in the same virtual space - Cyberspace. The term “Netizen” indicates civic responsibility and participation. Netizens try to be conducive to the Internets use and growth. They use the Internet to engage in various intellectual and social activities such as giving and receiving viewpoints and furnishing information. Blogs The term "blog" is a contraction of "Web log." A weblog is a journal or newsletter that is frequently updated and intended for general public use. Blogs have reshaped the web and enabled millions of people to have a voice and connect with others. A typical blog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, web pages, and other related media. Most blogs are primarily textual although some focus on photographs (photoblog), videos (vlog), or audio (podcasting) and are part of a wider network of social media. A blog gives you your own voice on the web. Its a place to collect and share things that you find interesting — whether its your political views, a personal diary, or links to web sites you want to remember. Blogs often provide commentary or news on a particular subject, such as food, politics, or local news; some function as personal online diaries. Journalists often use blogs to publish breaking news, while others reveal inner thoughts through blogs. There are three main features of a blog. The first is reverse chronological order. This means that latest entries are displayed at the top. The second feature is unfiltered content. Opinions are given freely without any
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It refers to a general type of broadcast program which consists of both "hard news" segments and interviews. Cyberspace 184 | P a g e . Examples include educational software for children that teach them to spell or count while playing games and CD-ROMs about machines that contain animations showing how the machines work. Other stories may deal with current trends such as a shift in political views or a change in the attitudes of teenagers. Edutainment is normally used to provide education related to one or more specific subjects. websites. On the other hand. It is a form of entertainment designed to educate as well as to amuse. The term “Edutainment” is used to distinguish regular computer games from more educational software.restrictions. games which involve problem solving experiences with gentle intelligent creatures may be referred to as edutainment. The third feature is comments. travel or shopping that are not actually "news" at all. music. Infotainment or “soft news” refers to a part of the news trade that provides information in a way that is considered entertaining to its viewers. It consists of an informal group of rules and ways of behaving on the Internet. computer and video games. They have videos and lessons that use edutainment as a basis for teaching in a more efficient and faster way. Edutainment “Edutainment” refers to educational entertainment or entertainmenteducation. etc. Edutainment seeks to instruct by using some familiar form of entertainment such as television programs. multimedia software. There are also blogs on edutainment that give the latest news and updates on available software. Infotainment is a combination of information and entertainment. Infotainment may include information related to topics such as health tips or gardening tips. Fast moving shooting games are not edutainment. Many non-fiction CD-ROM titles are classified as infotainment. legal or otherwise. Infotainment “Infotainment” is a term applied to software that seeks to inform and entertain simultaneously. along with celebrity interviews and human drama stories. Edutainment makes learning enjoyable. Comments can be made on any issue discussed on the blog or from outside. such as multimedia encyclopedias or reference disks. Netiquette “Netiquette” or Network etiquette is etiquette on the Internet. It attempts to minimize the dryness of regular news coverage by adding a certain amount of light-hearted or sensational style. films. Edutainment is also used to refer to the use of elearning modules to put across concepts in an entertaining manner.
Follow the same standards of behavior online that you follow in real life. Be tolerant and if you do decide to inform someone of a mistake. Be tolerant: Everyone makes mistakes -. but try not to hurt people’s feelings. when you accidentally post a note to a newsgroup five times. point it out politely and preferably by private email rather than in public.whether it involves a spelling error or asking a stupid question or giving an unnecessarily long answer. It now has an additional dimension. video clips. 185 | P a g e . Always try to be polite: You may stand up for yourself when you have been wronged. Give people the benefit of the doubt. Digital versions of books are available complete with pictures. Not knowing the rules for behaving properly online might result in unintentionally offending or misunderstanding someone. For example. Even if you are not a great singer. mechanics can know what parts needed to be replaced even before the car has come in for servicing. there are loads of gadgets and new technologies that can equip you to deal with nearly every personal or business contingency. under-the-hood diagnostics can be performed while a car is speeding along a track. There are chances that theyre stored at the other end and may be used for purposes that you did not intend. Let us have a look at some of the core rules of Netiquette. So. As a result. They should not misuse this to read private email.has its own culture. you may make use of a gadget to make your off-key singing sound really melodious! These are just a few of the huge advancements in technology. Respect the time and bandwidth of others: “Bandwidth” is the informationcarrying capacity of the channels that connect everyone in cyberspace. Some people in cyberspace such as system administrators have more power than others. For example. naturally you wouldn’t read anyone’s email. Technology Today Today. and sound. always be cautious with your words. you would wasting both bandwidth and the time of the people who have to check all copies of the posting. Reading is not what it used to be in the past. Respect the privacy of others: In the same way as you wouldn’t wish to snoop through your colleagues desk drawers. You must remember that your communication via email or on discussion groups involves written words. There’s a limit to the amount of data that can be carried at a given moment. Think before writing: The most important rule relevant to e-mail marketing is not to send promotional messages to anyone who has not agreed to receive them.
Till date. In the “Sharing Folders” window. VoIP allows users to not only talk but also broadcast video conferences via the Web. 2001. When he does so. There are different instant messengers available such as Yahoo messenger. even if one of you is offline. You and your contact can access all the files in the shared folder at any time. Using a Webcam: In addition to text communication. Windows Live Messenger. click the “Show Menu” icon at the right end of the toolbar in the Conversation window and select “Actions → Video → Start a Video Call”. click the “Show Menu” icon at the right end of the toolbar and select “File → Send a single file”.It is possible to easily contact and communicate with people you do not even know using technologies such as Instant Messaging (IM). Before you can share files with a contact. When your contact agrees to share the file. Instant Messaging enables you to have a conversation with another person or a group of people concurrently. Browse for the file you would like to share and click “Open”. To create a sharing folder. click the “Add Files” button. we learnt to send instant messages using Windows Live Messenger. both you and your contact need to have a microphone and speakers. the file is transferred to him. Your contact is given an option to accept the file. iPods. To hold a video conference. In the Conversation window. You may also drag the files you wish to share with your contact into the “Sharing Folders” window. both you and your contact must agree to share files with each other by creating sharing folders. When he does so. You may also exchange files with your contacts in the course of your conversation. In the displayed window. Google talk etc. Podcasting and RSS iPod: iPod is a brand of portable media players created by Apple and launched on October 23. Chatting and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). For this. If both parties are online at the same time. It is similar to e-mail. Your contact is given an option to accept the video conference. browse to the file you wish to share and press “Open”. Sharing Files: You can share files with your contacts by using the “Sharing Folders” feature. the video conference begins. ICQ. you can have a complete conversation. This enables you to see and hear your contact. The difference is that you can send and receive messages as soon as they are typed. Transferring files: In the “Internet” topic. Messenger allows you to have a voice or video conversation with an online contact. it is possibly the best-selling digital 186 | P a g e . click the “Show Menu” icon at the right end of the toolbar in the Conversation window and select “Actions → Create a sharing folder”. as well as Web cameras for video conferencing. both you and your contact can access it.
iTunes stores a music library on the users computer and can play and write music from a CD. Connect your iPod to your computer. “iPod touch” is a model which has a touch screen. First. can also serve as external data storage devices. The smaller iPods like “nano” and “shuffle” use flash memory which is a non-volatile memory device. “iPod classic” is a model which has a hard-drive. iPod is a music player and more. but to create a podcast or even to listen to one. you need to connect to “www.com” and follow the on-screen instructions for downloading and installing the iTunes software. it is not mandatory to possess an iPod. Insert a blank CD into your CD drive. Now select your playlist and click the “Play” button at the top to hear your music. Apples “iTunes” software is used to transfer music to the devices. The term “Podcast” is derived from the words ‘iPod and ‘broadcast. Click the “Create a playlist” button at the bottom-left corner and enter a name for your playlist. Digital media players are lightweight digital storage devices that do not require cassettes or disks. It also transfers photos. An important feature about podcasting is that you can subscribe to a series so that it automatically downloads on to your computer and MP3 player. You can also purchase digital music files from within iTunes. Select your playlist and click the “Burn Disc” button at the bottom right. iPods. You would need to have a CD Writer on your computer for this. Finding Music: Select “iTunes Store” in the left panel and follow the onscreen instructions to locate and purchase music files. and calendars to those iPod models that support them. They vary in size and features. games. Now click on the “Burn Disc” button once more. Devices in the iPod family are designed according to the latest demands and technology. 187 | P a g e . Uploading to a Digital Media Player: Another way to carry your favorite tunes is to upload them to your iPod using iTunes. you may create a custom CD. other than the iPod touch. Drag songs you would like to hear to your playlist. Creating a Custom CD: Using iTunes. or any portable music player . Click “Music” in the “Library” list in the left panel to view your songs. Podcasting: “Podcasting” is a new type of online media delivery which consists of free audio and video broadcasts.apple. Using iTunes: Let us learn how to use Apple’s iTunes software. They store music files internally. talk shows or anything else.audio player series in history. iTunes starts automatically. videos. podcasting allows you to download files onto your computer and MP3 player which can contain music. This is one of the ways in which you can take your favorite tunes with you. Put simply. click “Music” in the “Library” list and drag them to “iPod” in the left panel. To transfer individual music files.
mobile phones. radio programs and news stories and you may listen to them whenever and wherever you wish.Podcasting enables you to compile all your favorite music. RSS is a method of publishing content on frequently updated web sites. RSS Feeds: A “web feed” is a data format used for providing users with frequently updated content. Odeo. Podcasts are downloaded via a feed such as RSS. in general. users of cellular phones can buy a multi-purpose phone that can serve as a portable phone and also be used to get information from a computer. Such software is available for free download from the Internet. You can use podcasting software such as iTunes. Today. Wi-Fi: “Wi-Fi” is short for "Wireless Fidelity" and is a set of standards for wireless local area networks. 188 | P a g e . homes and everywhere else. This allows users to "subscribe" to a site so that they can quickly scan the updated headlines and then go to specific articles of interest. cheap radio chip to be plugged into computers. printers. It was originally developed for use by wireless devices and local networks but it is now used for Internet access as well. Using this technology. It aims to simplify data synchronization between Internet devices and other computers. with a short range. Conceived initially by Ericsson. have all mobile and fixed computer devices in total co-ordination. film reviews. We see a large number of cables in our offices. Podnova and Feedburner to subscribe to your favorite podcasts. Some browsers also include the RSS reading functions. Bluetooth vs. for Commentaries. Sportscasts and lots more. which will then be automatically downloaded for you. Juice. instructional and promotional material. It creates a wireless personal area network (PAN) and provides a way to connect and exchange information between two devices over distances of about 30 feet. Podcasts can be used for a number of different things such as creation of informational. Users access headlines and see web site updates via an RSS reader which is an application that displays a short summary and provides links to the full article on the Web site. Bluetooth is essentially a cable-replacement technology which tries to solve this problem. using the Internet. technologies like Podcasting empower you with a voice that can literally reach around the world. We often have a hard time trying to figure out which cable needs to go where. and. Bluetooth & Wi-Fi Technology “Bluetooth” is the name of a new technology that promises to change the way we use machines. They may also be used in story telling for children or the visually-impaired. etc. Short for Really Simple Syndication (or Rich Site Summary). Bluetooth and Wi-Fi have slightly different applications. Bluetooth is a small. It is a radio standard and communications protocol primarily designed for low power consumption.
Since its creation in 2001. It also depends on whether or not you want to share an Internet connection among all the computers on the network. 4) Run the “Set Up a Wireless Router or Access Point” wizard: If your network is wireless. Installing the Network: The steps to install the network are as follows. computers are commonly found in homes. It enables a faster connection. you may use it to share different resources. Using the Network: Once your network has been installed. you need a cable or DSL modem and an account with an Internet service provider (ISP). you need to set up the connection first. For this.Wi-Fi uses the same radio frequencies as Bluetooth. Home Networking Today. and offers better security than Bluetooth. modem. 3) Connect the computers: There are several ways to connect computers depending on the type of network adapters. printers and Internet access as well as to run multiplayer computer games. 2) Set up an Internet connection: If you want to use your network to share an Internet connection. Open the “Connect to the Internet” wizard and follow the instructions. It is the result of the combined efforts of an online community of people interested in building a high-quality encyclopedia in a spirit of mutual respect. Home networks allow multiple users to access the Internet at the same time. Popular Websites Wikipedia “Wikipedia” is one of the most popular reference sites on the Internet. 1) Install the Hardware: Install network adapters in the computers that need them by following the installation instruction manuals that come with the adapters. It covers greater distances. If you have more than one computer. Wikipedia has grown rapidly into one of the largest reference Web sites. It is a web-based free content. and Internet connection that you have. 189 | P a g e . It consists of 195 independent language editions sponsored by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. but requires more expensive hardware and higher power consumption. run the “Set up a Wireless Router or Access Point” wizard on the computer attached to the router. It offers quick understanding on various issues and current affairs. but with higher power resulting in a stronger connection. you can use a home network to share files and printers and play multiplayer computer games. multilingual encyclopedia written by contributors around the world. A home network is commonly used to share files.
com. Content is meticulously appraised and inappropriate changes are removed. called a “Wiki” where anybody can edit and add to an article. For example. So. This encyclopedia can be found at www. YouTube’s phenomenal appeal lies in its simplicity and global reach. you must include appropriate references. If you wish to look up additional Wikipedia pages. professional content is now being provided by some advertisers and media producers. Many people are constantly improving Wikipedia content. Select the language of your choice to go to the Main Page. and in other creative ways. and press enter or click “Go”. Here you will most likely find all the information you need. The visitors to this site are mostly teenagers and young adults.This is a special type of website. This will take you directly to Wikipedias most relevant article on the entered keyword.youtube. Let us click on “English”. click “Search” after you have entered your keyword. YouTube YouTube is a website that specializes in publishing user-posted video clips. On the lefthand side of the screen you can see a “search” box with two buttons under it labeled "Go" and "Search". Its slogan is “Broadcast Yourself” meaning that everyone is free to broadcast whatever they wish. if you add information to an article. Various people have used YouTube to achieve celebrity status by dancing. While much of the content consists of original amateur videos.com. Anyone is welcome to add information as long as they do so within Wikipedias editing policies. Simply click a link to view the related page. Browsing through the loads of available videos is simple and uploading your own video is almost as simple. Let us look for information related to the great scientist Albert Einstein. It is one of the top ten most popular websites on the Internet. Repeat offenders may be blocked from editing. There are a number of other video sharing sites but so far. using Wikipedia. YouTube discourages users from downloading videos to their own computers. you can research on any topic with great ease. posting video resumes. provided it is not potentially offensive. Started in 2005. preferring that they watch videos online. Type “Einstein” into the box. It can be found at www.wikipedia. the site was purchased one year later by Google. Unregistered users can watch most videos on the site. 190 | P a g e . singing. none of them have been able to match the cultural impact or enormous volumes of YouTube. while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos. You see a page which displays links to other pages.
*****THE END**** 191 | P a g e .Like most other social-networking sites. YouTube has been the focus of controversies related to some sensitive political and personal issues. the site has been banned in a few countries. Because of this.