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ALL ABOUT COMPUTERS
Introduction to Computers The purpose of this course is to help you become competent with computer technology. Computer competency refers to acquiring computer-related skills. They include the effective use of popular application packages and the Internet. Today, computer competency is undoubtedly a prerequisite in all walks of life. To begin with, you must understand the impact of computers in the world today. Computers are affecting our lives is some way or the other. Airline and railway reservations, telephone and electricity bills, banking, medical diagnoses, weather forecasts… the list of services using computers is almost endless. A computer is a device that allows you to input data, process data quickly and efficiently, receive outputs and store data. Thus a computer consists of one or more input devices, output devices, storage devices and a processing unit.
WINDOWS BASICS What is an Operating System? Mac
Other Operating Systems Mac OS: “Mac OS” is the trademarked name for a series of graphical user interface-based operating systems developed by Apple Inc. for their Macintosh line of computer systems. The Macintosh user experience is credited with popularizing the graphical user interface. It is a powerful, easyto-use operating system that is popular with professional graphic designers, desktop publishers and many home users. One of the latest versions of the Macintosh operating system is “Mac OS X”, also known as “Tiger”. It provides powerful features such as “Spotlight” and “Dashboard Widgets”. Spotlight is an advanced search tool that can rapidly locate files, folders, e-mail messages, addresses and much more. Dashboard
Widgets are specialized programs that constantly update and display information. The next version of Mac OS, “Leopard” includes “Boot Camp” which allows appropriately equipped Apple computers to use both Mac OS and Windows XP. UNIX and Linux: UNIX is a powerful multitasking operating system that was developed in 1969. It was originally designed to run on minicomputers in network environments. Now, it is also used by powerful microcomputers and Web servers. Linux is a popular version of UNIX. It was initially created as a hobby in 1991 by a graduate student, Linus Torvalds, at the University of Helsinki in Finland. He allowed free distribution of the operating system code and encouraged others to modify and further develop the code. Introduction to Windows Vista Windows Vista has a more elegant and sophisticated looked than all previous versions of Windows. The new Vista interface is great to look at, with a lot of added functionality making working in Vista a really pleasant experience -and a more secure one. Windows Aero: This is the graphical user interface for Windows Vista. Its name is a contraction of the words Authentic, Energetic, Reflective and Open. It includes new transparencies, live thumbnails, live icons and animations which are visually very appealing. Glass window borders and surfaces make the interface both professional and beautiful. Windows Sidebar: This is a long, vertical bar that is displayed on the side of your desktop. It contains mini-programs called gadgets, which offer information at a glance and provide easy access to frequently used tools. To add a gadget, right-click on the side bar and select “Add Gadget”. Now simply drag a gadget from the Gadget gallery onto the sidebar. To remove a gadget from the sidebar, move your mouse over it and click on the “X” sign next to it. Additional gadgets can also be downloaded from the Microsoft Gadgets website by clicking on “Get more gadgets online”. Search Boxes: Search boxes are prominently integrated into Windows Explorer, the Start menu, Control Panel, Windows Internet Explorer and Help. So no matter where you are, you can always search for related files, folders or information. Two types of searches are supported: Regular search, where a search is performed when you click the “Search” button, and Instant search, where the results are displayed immediately as you type.
e) “File compression programs” that reduce the size of files for easy storage and transfer over the Internet. d) “Backup programs” that make copies of files to be used in the event of the originals being lost. click “Change settings”. There are various utility programs such as: a) “Troubleshooting” or “diagnostic programs” that recognize and correct problems before they become serious.Utilities: “Utilities” are specialized programs designed to make computing easier. Disk Cleanup is used to remove unnecessary files on your hard disk to free up disk space and help your computer run faster. specify the file types that you wish to backup and click “Next”. Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel”. b) “Antivirus programs” that guard against programs that can damage your computer system. Specify the location where you wish to store the backup and click “Next”. 4| Page . The “Backup Status and Configuration” window is displayed. To backup specific files. and Disk Defragmenter is used to rearrange your files so that they are not broken up. you may use the “Back up files” button. Click “Change backup settings”. c) “Uninstall programs” that allow you to safely remove programs that you do not need from your hard disk. It helps to protect you from the effects of a disk failure. click “Back up your computer”. Specify how often and when you wish to take a backup. Now click “Save settings and start backup” to begin the backup process. In the displayed window. Backup “Backup” is a utility program included with Windows Vista that makes a copy of all or selected files that have been saved onto a disk. Click “Continue” in the “User Account Control” window. Under “System and Maintenance”. You may backup your entire computer by clicking “Back up computer”. To enter settings regarding where the backup is to be stored and which files are to be backed up. Windows Vista has maintenance utilities such as “Disk Cleanup” and “Disk Defragmenter”.
The disk cleanup process begins and the selected files are removed. “Disk Defragmenter” is a utility program that eliminates unnecessary fragments and rearranges files and unused disk space to optimize operations. However.Disk Cleanup When you surf the Web. into small parts that are stored wherever space is available. In the displayed window specify whether all files or only your files are to be cleaned up. “Disk Cleanup” is a utility that eliminates such files and frees up valuable disk space and improves system performance. sectors that are adjacent to each other. Each track is divided into wedge-shaped sections called sectors. You may modify the scheduled time for defragmentation by clicking “Modify schedule”. To specify which partitions of your hard disk you wish to defragment. this is not always possible and the file has to be broken up or fragmented. Verify the files and click “OK”. In the displayed window. A track is a concentric ring. click “Defragment now” and click “OK” in the displayed window. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Accessories → System Tools → Disk Cleanup”. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Accessories → System Tools → Disk Defragmenter”. many nonessential files are saved on your hard disk. click “Select volumes”. click “Delete Files”. the hard disk becomes highly fragmented and results in slower operations. it is reconstructed from the fragments. 5| Page . To start the defragmentation process. Click “Continue” in the “User Account Control” window. Disk Defragmenter Files are stored and organized on a disk according to “tracks” and “sectors”. After a period of time. Then select the drive you want to clean up and click “OK”. Whenever a file is retrieved.e. The space that will be made free by the cleanup is calculated and the files suggested for cleanup are displayed. The operating system tries to save a file on a single track across contiguous sectors i. It runs automatically at a scheduled time by default.
as well as clean up your hard disk. It is a quick evaluation that looks for typical PC problems and alerts you accordingly. Device Drivers: “Device drivers” are specialized programs designed to allow particular input or output devices to communicate with the rest of the computer system. “GoBack Personal Edition” can be used to restore system configurations. They protect existing files from damage when new programs are installed. Buying the package is less expensive than buying the programs separately. These suites also include programs that protect your system from dangerous programs called computer “viruses”. Virus protection programs set up a barrier to viruses attempting to enter a computer system. When a new device such as a mouse or a printer is added 6| Page .Utility Suites: A “Utility Program” performs a specific task. “Norton Utilities” is a collection of separate troubleshooting utilities that can be used to prevent and fix problems and improve system performance. “One Button Checkup” integrates several of the separate utilities. “Norton CleanSweep” is a collection of programs that help you to safely remove programs that you do not need. it is known as a “Utility Suite”. Three popular utility suites are McAfee Office. Viruses enter your computer in various ways such as opening e-mail attachments and downloading from the Internet. Norton SystemWorks The Norton SystemWorks utility suite includes the following: “Norton AntiVirus” is a collection of antivirus programs that can protect your system from different viruses. locate lost files and repair damaged files. These protection programs are loaded into memory and run continually in the background and monitor all operations looking for actions associated with viruses. They also compress and make backups of programs. When several utility programs are combined into a single package. Norton SystemWorks and V Communications. history files and cookies. Existing viruses are removed and the virus list is automatically updated so that your system is checked for the newest viruses. “Web CleanUp” is a collection of programs that remove unnecessary files from your computer such as temporary files.
to a computer system, a new device driver must be installed before it can be used. Each time the computer system is started, the operating system loads all device drivers into memory. Windows supplies many device drivers which are automatically installed when a new device is connected. If a particular device driver is not included with the Windows systems software, it is supplied by the manufacturer of the product. When a device driver needs to be manually installed, wizards provided by Window assist you in the process. For example, the “Add Printer” wizard provides step-by-step guidance for installing a driver for a printer. Ex.: Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel”. Under “Hardware and Sound”, click “Printer”. Click the “Add a printer” button on the toolbar to display the “Add Printer” wizard. Follow the onscreen instructions to install the driver. Sometimes, when your computer behaves unpredictably, you could try reinstalling or updating your device drivers. Windows makes it easy to update your drivers using “Windows Update”. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Windows Update”. In the left pane, click “Check for updates”. To see if updated drivers are available, click “View available updates”. Windows Update will list any updated drivers that are available for devices installed in your computer. If updates are available, click the driver that you want to install, and then click “Install”. Some of the security and safety features of Windows Vista are as follows: Windows Defender: This is a software product which is a part of Windows Vista. It is designed to prevent and remove spyware. Spyware on your computer could result in information being transmitted from your computer without your knowledge. Windows Firewall: This helps in guarding your computer against many types of malicious software. User Account Control: This is an infrastructure that requires user consent before allowing any action that requires administrative privileges such as installing new software or changing system settings. Parental controls: An administrator can apply parental control restrictions to other users on the computer. Facilities include web content blocking,
restrictions on what kind of games may be played and what programs may be executed. Exploring the Desktop Desktop When your computer is booted up and ready to use, the screen you see is called the “Desktop”. It is the background for all programs and contains the commands needed for accessing those programs. The background graphic is called “Wallpaper”. The desktop can be customized to suit individual needs.
Icon Another important graphic feature that you find on the desktop is an “Icon”. Icons are small pictures that are linked to programs. Most icons and toolbar buttons display a “Tool Tip” containing a brief description of the item when you rest the mouse pointer on it. Double-clicking on the icon runs the program or accesses the file and rightclicking accesses a menu offering options, actions and properties. Icons can be moved around on the desktop by clicking and dragging them. Vista’s live icons graphically depict the content of files stored on your computer.
Recycle Bin The "Recycle Bin" on the desktop serves as a trash can. When you delete a file or folder, it goes into the Recycle Bin where it stays until the bin is emptied. Double-clicking on the icon opens a window that shows you its contents. If you delete something you shouldn't have, you can find it in the Recycle Bin and restore it to its proper place. When the Recycle Bin is emptied, everything in it is permanently deleted.
Taskbar At the bottom of the screen, you see a long, thin bar which is called the “Taskbar”. The currently active tasks are displayed in the form of buttons on
the taskbar. When you move your mouse over a button, a thumbnail image of the window is displayed. The taskbar has a circular button displaying the Windows logo at one end and a clock on the other. The button at the left end is the "Start" button which is used to start a program, open a document, get help, find information and change the system settings. If you click on the "Start" button, a box called a “Menu” appears. This menu contains several items. Some of them have sub-items which can be accessed by clicking on them. You may see icons on the taskbar, too. These are called "Quick Launch" icons that allow one-click access to frequently used programs. The right end of the taskbar is the “Notification” area. In the “Notification” area, to the left of the clock are several icons that indicate the tools that are automatically started when you turn on your computer and are running in the background, such as antivirus protection. This area also temporarily displays icons while a tool is in use, such as a printer when printing is in progress.
Personalize your Desktop You may set different display properties for your desktop. Right click on the desktop and select “Personalize”. Changing the Wallpaper: You can make your desktop as attractive and colorful as you wish by setting a wallpaper of your choice. For this, click on “Desktop Background”. In the “Picture Location” box, select the location of the picture. Now from the pictures displayed, make your choice by clicking on it. You may use the “Browse” button to search for a background picture from another location not in the list. Specify how you want the picture to be positioned and click on “Change background color” to select a color to fill the space not used by the picture. You may also save a picture from a Web site as your desktop background. Right-click the picture and then click “Set as Background”. Setting a Screen Saver: A screen saver is a program that displays an image, animation, or just a blank screen on a computer after no input has been received for a certain length of time. Screen savers were originally designed to prevent damages (called burn-in) to CRT screens. The screens manufactured nowadays are much more resistant to damages. To set a screen saver, click on “Screen Saver” in the “Personalization” window. Now
so more items fit on the screen. Click “Preview” once again to see how the screen saver will look with the new settings. In this way. At lower resolutions. items appear smaller. Click “Preview” to see how the selected screen saver will appear on your monitor. specify the number of minutes of idle time after which you want the screen saver to start. To change the setting options for your screen saver. fewer items fit on the screen. Changing the Display Settings: You may change various settings related to the display of your monitor. At higher resolutions. Now select a different scheme from the “Scheme” list. Click on “Display Settings” in the “Personalization” window.select “3D Text” from the list. say “Good Morning!”. You may even specify a different pointer for a specific action. click “Settings”. In the “Custom Text” box enter some other text. 10 | P a g e . so more items fit on the screen. At lower resolutions. Click on “Busy” in the “Customize” box and then click “Browse”. You can see a variety of cursors displayed in the “Browse” window. move the slider to the resolution you want. but they are larger and easier to see. Now click “OK”. Screen resolution refers to the clarity of the text and images on your screen. you can see the way your mouse pointer will appear when different actions are performed. In the displayed figure. To clear the screen saver after it has started. Click on “Display Settings” in the “Personalization” window. but they are larger and easier to see. Click on one and then click “Open”. In the “Rotation Type” box. Changing the Display Settings: You may change various settings related to the display of your monitor. In the “Customize” box. you can see the recommended resolution based on the size of the monitor. Under “Resolution”. items appear smaller. Click on “Mouse Pointers” in the “Personalization” window. Click “OK” to save your settings. At higher resolutions. Under “Resolution”. Changing the Mouse Pointer: You may choose a different mouse pointer and also change the way it appears during activities such as clicking and selecting. In the displayed figure. In the “Wait” field. you can see the recommended resolution based on the size of the monitor. select “See-saw”. simply move your mouse or press any key. you may try using other screen savers and make changes to the related settings. Click “OK” to save your settings. move the slider to the resolution you want. fewer items fit on the screen. Screen resolution refers to the clarity of the text and images on your screen.
If the refresh rate is too low. The next part is the “Most frequently used programs list”. You can add programs to the pinned items list. Pointing to an item in the “Start” menu moves the selection cursor to the item and displays a pop-up description. Programs are added to the most frequently used programs list when you use them. as it is the starting point for most features on your computer. you 11 | P a g e . You may explore the various other options in the “Personalize” window to further personalize your Windows experience. Using Windows Vista The “Start” button is one of the most important features in Windows. As you learn more about Windows Vista. The first part is the “Pinned Items List”. The list of programs on the Start menu is divided into two parts. Windows colors and themes work best when you have your monitor set to 32-bit color. graphics. The programs on the pinned items list remain there and are always available for you to click to start them. a submenu with additional options is displayed. Click “Yes” in the displayed window and then click “OK”. Click the “Monitor” tab and make a selection from the “Screen refresh rate” box and click “Apply”. When you point to an item with an arrowhead symbol. Clicking an icon in the “Start” menu starts a program or accesses an item or feature immediately. From within “Pictures”. you will find there are many ways to perform the same task. To save your settings. A refresh rate of at least 75 hertz generally produces less flicker. click “OK” in the “Display Settings” window. Click “Advanced Settings”. It is a convenient place to store documents. the monitor can flicker. you may make a selection from the “Colors” box.To get the best color display from your monitor. Another consideration in getting the best possible display from your monitor is the screen refresh rate. you need to start application programs and access files you have created using these applications. To use your computer. or other files you want to access quickly. causing eye strain and headaches. Documents: “Documents” is your personal folder. Pictures: The “Pictures” folder in Windows Vista offers a variety of options for viewing and managing your digital pictures. Programs you have not recently used are removed from the list and replaced with the more recently used programs.
receive support and more. and year under “Date” to set the date. Language. From the Control Panel. and then click the arrows to increase or 12 | P a g e . The shortcuts are created automatically whenever you open a shared network resource. print photos or copy photos to a CD. click on the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Clock. and other resources on the network.can view photos at different sizes. Music: The “Music” folder is the place where Windows automatically saves all the audio clips you download from the Internet or save on your hard drive with Windows Media Player. you can access many support applications that enable you to customize the appearance and functionality of your computer system. printers. month. view a slide show. click on “Change date and time”. enter the correct time into the box under “Time”. To change only the hour. double-click the hour. mouse. obtain troubleshooting information. Changing the date and time manually: To make changes to the system date and time. the “Control Panel” and other system applications. Computer: This item in the “Start” menu is used to access drives. Now click the correct day. Windows uses these settings to identify when files are created or modified. as well as settings for the monitor display and sound. All Programs: Clicking “All Programs” opens a list of programs currently installed on your computer. rotate them. Network: “Network” displays shortcuts to shared computers. such as a printer or shared folder. To set the time. printers and modem. you can access hardware settings for the keyboard. To play a particular audio file that you have saved. Control Panel: Using the Control panel. Date and Time Settings The “System Date” and “System Time” are the date and time as maintained by the computer's internal clock. printers and other hardware. On the “Date and Time” tab. Help and Support: You can click “Help and Support” to learn how to use Windows Vista. and Region → Date and Time”. simply double-click on it.
For this.decrease the value. Minimize. Working with Windows A window is a rectangular section on the screen that is used to display information and other programs. Select your current time zone from the list and click “OK”. On the “Internet Time” tab. usually referred to as the local time. Most windows have the same basic parts:Title bar: This displays the name of the window which indicates which program is running. Each program that you open is opened in its own window. and close it. and Close buttons: These buttons reduce the window to a button on the task bar. Updating the Date and Time: You may also synchronize your computer clock by an Internet time server. Maximize. respectively Menu bar: This contains several items that that you can click to make choices in a program. Similarly you may change the value of the minutes. seconds and the AM/PM indicator. To change your time zone. Scroll bar: This lets you scroll the contents of the window to see information that is currently out of view. Using the buttons in the Title Bar you can 13 | P a g e . Enter the formats you require on the “Time” and “Date” tabs of the “Customize Regional Options” window. Select the appropriate server and then click “Update Now”. Now click “OK”. click on it. Changing the Time Zone: Time zones are areas of the Earth that have adopted the same standard time. select your current format and then click “Customize this format”. click “Change Settings”. Borders and corners: You can drag these with your mouse pointer to change the size of the window. If the box against “Synchronize with an Internet time server” is empty. make sure you are connected to the Internet. Sizing and Moving Windows: To make the desktop more workable. enlarge it to fill the whole screen. and Region → Regional and Language Options”. Select “Control Panel → Clock. you can move and size windows. On the “Formats” tab. Language. Changing the date and time display: You may change the way in which your computer displays the date and time. click “Change time zone” on the “Date and Time” tab.
Some menu controls are shown by an arrow next to a word or picture. allows you to select options to perform a task. whereas clicking the arrow opens a menu with more options. text boxes. Command buttons may also appear as small icons without any text. right-click on an empty area of the taskbar. Split buttons: These buttons change into two parts when you point to them. Data may be entered using push buttons. Command buttons: A command button performs an action when you click it. point to the title bar and drag the window to the new location on the desktop. Let us have a look at some of them. Dragging a corner changes the height and width simultaneously. it is unavailable and cannot be clicked. or perform other actions related to the working of the window. Menus: To keep the screen free of unnecessary items. combo boxes and other such controls. Moving a Window: To move a window. change settings. There are two types of scroll bars Vertical and Horizontal. Clicking the main part of the button performs a command. or “Show Windows Side by Side”. or provides you with information. If a command is shown in gray. Changing the Size of the Window: You can change the size of the window by pointing to the border of the window with your mouse and dragging to make it smaller or bigger. check boxes. menus are hidden until you click their titles in the “menu bar”. Scrolling a Window: When there is more information in a window than can be viewed on the screen. To scroll you can either click the arrow of the scroll bar or you can drag the scroll box to move the content within the window. Dialog Boxes: A dialog box is a special type of window that asks you a question. 14 | P a g e . scroll bars appear on the window. then choose one of the options “Cascade Windows”.minimize the window. Arranging windows automatically: You can also have the windows on your desktop automatically arranged. restore the window to the original size or close a window. maximize the window to its largest size. Windows Controls: Most windows have “controls” that allow you to select commands. To choose a command listed in a menu. To choose an arrangement. “Show Windows Stacked”. option buttons. click on it. list boxes.
A drop-down list shows only the currently selected option when it is closed. information is displayed on multiple tabs. In the “Search Help” text box. You can switch to a different tab by clicking on it. Click the “Start” button and then click “Help and Support” to display the “Windows Help and Support” window. The other options are displayed when you click the control. You may perform tasks related to Security. you may enter the keywords you wish to search on. Drop-down lists: These are similar to menus. Click on the magnifying glass or press “Enter” to display a list of related topics. Tabs: In some dialog boxes. you may search across multiple remote and online providers to get the most information for the topic that you are investigating. Text boxes: A text box is used to type textual information. List boxes: A list box displays a list of options that you can select from. Windows communities or from Microsoft Customer Support online. some or all of the options are displayed without having to open the list. The currently selected tab appears at the front. Under “Ask someone” you may click on the various links for additional assistance and support from friends. you can choose multiple options at the same time using check boxes. Using Help With Windows Vista Help features.Option buttons: Option buttons enable you to make one choice among multiple options. They are also called “radio buttons”. Maintenance and Troubleshooting by selecting appropriate options. options are available for selection instead of commands to be executed. Check boxes: Check boxes enable you to select one or more independent a single option only. You may click on any topic under “Find an answer” to see help for that topic. Unlike a drop-down list. Sliders: A slider enables you to adjust a setting along a range of values by dragging the slider toward the value that you want. 15 | P a g e . This is the most commonly used windows control. Here.
just click its taskbar button. “Computer” and “Document1”. This makes working with your computer more like you would actually work. Multiple windows can be open on the desktop at once. Click the button to see a menu of the items in the group. There are now three programs running at the same time. A new window opens on the desktop and the taskbar displays an additional button for this open window.Under “Information from Microsoft” you will find guidance on various tasks which will make your experience of working with Windows Vista smooth and convenient. the Microsoft Word document named “Document1”. allowing you to switch easily between tasks without having to put one away before beginning the other. Opening a New Window: Notice the “Document1” icon on the desktop. The newly opened window is automatically the active window and appears on top of other open windows on the desktop. You can tell it is the active window because the taskbar button and title bar appear dark whereas those of the inactive windows are dimmed. that is. On the Start menu click “Computer” and then “Help and Support”. Switching between windows: Using the taskbar: Each running program has a corresponding button on the taskbar. then select an item to make it the active window. but only one window is active at a time. As more windows are opened. To switch to a specific program. The window in which the program is running appears in front of the other windows. You can see that each program is displayed in its own window. the taskbar buttons resize themselves automatically to fit in the taskbar. The “Document1” window is the active window. Double-click on it. “Windows Help and Support”. 16 | P a g e . it appears in the size in which it was last used and at any location on the desktop. This indicates that clicking this link will open the associated item on your computer. Working with Multiple Windows The capability to run multiple programs at the same time is called “Multitasking”. When a new window is opened. If the taskbar becomes too crowded with buttons. then the buttons for the same program become grouped into a single button. in this case. This is now the “active” window. the window currently in use.
shuts down Windows and puts off your computer. Do not turn off the computer by pressing the power button as you may lose valuable data. click any part of a window in the stack to display that window. This closes all your open programs but does not put the computer off. Organizing Your Work Files and Folders 17 | P a g e . you see various options. Shutting down Windows Vista It is very important to shut down Windows Vista correctly. When you click the arrow next to the “Lock” button. Log Off: If you share the computer with someone else.Using ALT+TAB: You can cycle through all open windows and the desktop by holding down the “Alt” key and repeatedly pressing the “Tab” key. Release the Windows logo key to display the window at the front. It saves all open documents and programs. select “Log Off”. It closes all open programs. shuts down Windows and restarts the computer once again. Using Windows Flip 3D: This feature allows you to flip through a cascading stack of your open windows. Switch User: This enables you to switch to another user without closing the programs of the current user. Lock: This is used to lock the computer when you do not want anyone else to access your files. use this option. While holding down the Windows logo key. You may also click on the “Switch between windows” icon on the taskbar to enable the “Windows Flip 3D” feature. Let us see what each of them does. and then click the “Power” button in the lower right part of the Start menu. Sleep: Sleep is a power-saving state. click the “Start” button. Alternatively. press the “Tab” key repeatedly or rotate the mouse wheel to cycle through open windows. Release the “Alt” key to show the selected window. Shut Down: To shut down your computer completely. and allows you to resume working within seconds. This action puts your computer in “sleep” mode. Restart: This closes all open programs. To turn off your computer.
Using Computer To open the “Computer” window. A folder within a folder is known as a “Subfolder”. You can also search for and open files and folders. Pictures. a “file” is an item that contains a collection of related information. A “folder” is a container in which you can store files. When you move the mouse pointer into the area of the Folders list. you see a small triangle next to each folder which has subfolders. CD-ROM drive. A Folder System is also called a “Directory System”. Windows Vista offers “Live Icon” views of files and folders. You can view additional folders by clicking “Folders” at the bottom of the Navigation pane. At the top. click on the “Start” button and select “Computer”. folders created in the main folder appear indented below the main folder. When you click a location in the Navigation pane. It is a named area on a disk that is used to store related subfolders and files. Click the resulting triangle to collapse the expanded list. This displays the “Folders list”. click “Folders” again. and even songs. You know that Windows has some common folders such as Documents. Arranging files into logical groups makes it easy to locate any particular file. Click the “Organize” button to organize the contents of a folder. and gain access to options in the Control Panel to modify your computer settings. So a “Folder System” is made up of folders and subfolders. To close the Folders list. Click the triangle to expand the folder. Click “Layout” to specify whether to display Menus. Your computer represents files with icons. In the Folder List. The panel at the left is the Navigation pane. Examples of files are text documents. Some common file icons are displayed. and network drives.In a computer. digital pictures. a Details Pane. This displays the “Windows Explorer” which shows you the contents of your floppy disk. a Preview 18 | P a g e . the folder contents in the right panel change to display the contents of the location you clicked. commonly used folders are displayed under the heading “Favorite Links”. spreadsheets. Music and others that you can use to organize your files. where you can click any folder to navigate directly to it. By looking at a file icon. you can tell what kind of file it is. Subfolders appear indented below their parent folders. You can graphically view the content saved on your computer in ways that enable you to visualize what is inside a folder or file. hard disks.
Let us click on “Documents”. A folder icon with “New Folder” written next to it is displayed. and/or the Navigation Pane. For example. no matter which folder you are presently in.Pane. You can now see a menu with the items File. Working with Files 19 | P a g e . you can open a folder that contains a file you want to copy or move. Edit. List. You can use the context menu that appears on right-clicking the mouse to perform various functions. Working with Folders Creating Folders: Using the Folders list. you can copy. drag it to the Favorite Links area. Small Icons. Clicking again reverses the sort order from ascending to descending. move. You may type a new name for this folder. rename. Details and Tiles. Tools and Help. you may select the folder. Deleting Folders: When you no longer need a folder you can delete it. Renaming Folders: To rename a folder. Click the “Views” button to specify how you wish to view the contents of a folder. and then drag the file to another folder or drive. all the subfolders and files contained within the folder are removed. you may select the location where you wish to store your data files. Press the “Delete” key or select “File → Delete” from the menu bar. Folder and File Names: When a file or folder is created. View. Alternately. Confirm deletion by clicking “Yes” in the “Folder Delete” window. right-click and select “Rename”. If you delete a folder containing subfolders and files. and search for files and folders. Large Icons. click on the folder name and select “File → Rename” from the menu bar. These links let you open folders quickly. Select the folder that you wish to delete. Using Windows Explorer. The following characters cannot be used in a folder or file name: \ / : * ?><| If you think you will need to use a folder frequently. Let us select “Menu Bar”. Medium Icons. You can choose from the options: Extra Large Icons. To create a new folder. Sorting and Grouping Files and Folders: You may click on any column heading to sort the files by that column. it must be assigned a name. select “File → New → Folder” from the menu bar.
select the item to be copied or moved. click on the file name and select “Edit → Copy” from the menu bar. click “Select All” on the “Edit” menu. and then click a result to open it.txt”. 20 | P a g e . The “Move Items” window is displayed. the File Name and the Extension. Now click on the location you wish to move the file to and then click “Move”. If you do not know which folder to search. point the mouse to it and drag the pointer to the new location by keeping the mouse button pressed.The name of a file consists of two parts. To select all the files and folders in the window. For this. Moving a file: You may move a file from one location to another. Type in the Search box. Then. You may now drop the selection by releasing the mouse button. Finding Files: If you are looking for a specific file from a large number of files in a folder. you can use the Search box at the top to search the current folder.docx”. a document created using Microsoft Word 2007 is stored with the extension “. such as part of its name. Click on the folder you wish to copy it to. Renaming and deleting a file: A file can be renamed or deleted in the same way as a folder by clicking on it and selecting “File → Rename” and “File → Delete” respectively. For example. Selecting Multiple Files: When you want to copy or move several files into the same folder. Drag and Drop: All Windows applications have the ability to copy or move selections using the “Drag and Drop” feature. Different types of files are stored with different extensions. A copy of it is created at the new location. The file that was copied remains at the original location. you can select these files to copy or move them at the same time. you can use the Start menu to search instead. A file can also be copied to a folder by selecting ““Edit → Copy To Folder” from the menu bar and clicking on the appropriate folder in the “Copy Items” window. while a document created using Notepad is stored with the extension “. Type anything you can remember about the file. The file is removed from the original location and placed at the new one. click on the file name and select “Edit → Move To Folder” from the menu bar. Keep the “Ctrl” key pressed and then select multiple files. For this. Copying a file: You may make a copy of a file. To quickly select adjacent files you may similarly use the “Shift” key. First. Now select “Edit → Paste” from the menu bar. Now this file can be copied to one or more locations.
If you fail to save the file. To create a shortcut to your folder. re-size the “Notepad” window to an appropriate size. Take the mouse cursor to the beginning of your name and press “Enter” twice. you may specify the location 21 | P a g e . type your Name and then press “Enter”. You may use this shortcut to quickly access your data file location again. Saving Files: A permanent copy of the work you have created using an application program is stored as a file on the disk only when you save it. you can create a shortcut icon for the location and place it on the desktop. locate the folder you have created to save your work. Using Notepad: “Notepad” is a basic text editing program and it is most commonly used to view or edit text files. When the application first opens. In the “Font” window. a blank workspace is ready for you to begin typing to create a new document. A shortcut icon with an arrow at the bottom left appears on the desktop. all the changes you have made will be lost. For this. Press the “Up Arrow” key twice and then type the date. In the open Notepad. Formatting a Document: You may wish to change the way your text appears. Press “OK” to apply your selection to the complete text in your document. Point the mouse pointer to the folder name. right-click and select “Send To → Desktop (create shortcut)”. select “Format → Font” from the menu bar. In the “Save As” window. Type your Address and press “Enter” again. If necessary. select the font along with the style and size you require. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → Notepad”. The default name of the shortcut is the same as your folder name followed by the word “Shortcut”.Using Shortcuts You may need to use a particular file or folder stored on your computer frequently. To start Notepad. To access the location of this file quickly. Using Applications Using Notepad Some useful applications are available as a part of Windows Vista. Editing a Document: One of the advantages of using a computer is that you can edit the contents of your file. Select “File → Save As”.
Another way is to do this is by directly pressing “Ctrl+P”. A lightweight editor: Notepad is a basic text editor that you can use to create simple documents. You can delete tab stops by dragging them off the ruler. This method is called using a “Keyboard Shortcut”. A new blank document is displayed. WordPad includes many features and can be used to create and format large and complex text documents. The “Insert” 22 | P a g e . Each menu has different menu items. format bar. Because Notepad supports only very basic formatting. The “Edit” menu is used to perform tasks related to the content of your document such as entering and modifying your data. Using WordPad Using WordPad: “WordPad” is an application used to create rich text documents. Menus: Let us have a brief look at the different menus available on the menu bar. Printing a Document: Now. You may create. such as creating or saving a file. you cannot accidentally save special formatting in documents that need to remain pure text. Make the appropriate selections from the “Print” window and click “Print”. The “File” menu is used to perform tasks related to your document as a whole. The “Status Bar” provides additional information about the buttons and commands in WordPad. Toolbars: The buttons on the main “Toolbar” are shortcuts for common file management tasks. Click “Save”. status bar and the ruler. open.txt”. This is especially useful when creating HTML documents for a Web page because special characters or other formatting may not appear in your published Web page or may even cause errors. A tab stop specifies the place that the cursor stops at when you press the “Tab” key. you may want to print a copy of your document. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → WordPad”. Your file is stored with the extension “. Select “File → Print” from the menu bar. The “View” menu is used to specify whether or not you want to display the toolbar. To start WordPad. The buttons on the “Format Bar” are used to change the format of text. The “Ruler” is used to set tab stops by clicking on it where you want a tab stop to appear.where you wish to save the file and the name of the file. save and print your documents using this menu.
The title now appears in the selected color. you will make the title text bold and apply a color to it. Since you want to select the entire title. Formatting Text: You decide you want to improve the appearance of the title by applying various formatting effects to the text.menu is used to insert the date and time and other objects in your document. Editing text: After you have entered your text. Click the “Font Size” drop-down list button on the Format Bar and select the font size you wish. ready for you to begin entering text. Entering text: As you type. you may decide to remove a word. You can also select the text you want to delete and then press “Delete” to remove it. The first change you want to make to this document is to add a title. After looking over the text. To further enhance the appearance of the title. Now enter the title and press “Enter”. Font size is measured in points. you first need to select the text you want to format. the text automatically moves to the next line when it reaches the right edge of the margin. The insertion point is positioned at the top of the document. make the characters larger and display the characters in a color. which refers to the height of the character. drag from one end of the area of text to the other. A quicker way to select a word is to double-click on it. you would like to increase the font size. with a point equal to about 1/72 inch. 23 | P a g e . Before you can apply the formatting effects. Click the “Bold” button on the Format Bar to add a bold effect. The “Help” menu contains items through which you can get assistance whenever you require. You may use the “Center” button on the Format Bar to center the title. Click at the beginning of your text. This is called “Editing” text. The “Format” menu is used to enhance the appearance of your document content. This feature is called “Word Wrap”. Finally. Press “Enter” twice and then use the “Up Arrow” key to move the insertion point up. You want to center it between the margins. Click the “Color” button and select a color of your choice. Most documents use a font size of 10 or 12 point. you may need to make some modifications. To select text. The two most common means to remove text are to use the “Backspace” key to delete unwanted characters to the left of the insertion point. “Font size” refers to the height and width of printed characters. or the “Delete” key to remove characters to the right. you can click in the left margin of the line to select the entire line quickly.
Then click "Save" to save the file on the desktop. To copy text for writing to another location. is started. Finding and Replacing Text: To find or replace specific characters. and the file is opened and displayed in the workspace. To open this file. WordPad in this case. The “Save As” window appears on the screen. Copying and Deleting Text: To cut text that you want to move to another location. If you plan to use this file again shortly. Moving. select “Edit → Find” or “Edit → Replace” from the menu and specify your search criteria in the “Find what” field. If you want to replace that text with other text enter it in the “Replace with” field. You may refine your search by checking the boxes against “Match whole word only” to find whole words matching your search criteria and “Match case” to make your search specific to capital and small alphabets. select “File → Save As…” from the menu. Type the desired file name and select “Desktop” as the location to save the file. Notice that this icon does not display the arrow symbol that appears in shortcut icons. You may undo your actions by selecting “Edit → Undo” from the menu. and then select “Edit → Paste” from the menu. double-click on the file name on the desktop. and then select “Edit → Cut” from the menu. and then select “Edit → Copy” from the menu. select the text. The document icon for the WordPad file appears on the desktop. Your file is stored with the extension “. Let us now see some additional features of WordPad. This is because the file is actually stored in the desktop folder and the icon is not a shortcut to an object that is in another location. select the text. The file name is displayed in the title bar before the program name and the Windows taskbar displays a button for the open application.Saving a file to the Desktop: If you like how the document looks then you may save the document. You may click “Replace All” to replace all occurrences of the original text. Click “Replace” to replace the original text with the new text. To paste text you have cut or copied.rtf”. The associated program. place the insertion point where you want to paste the text. To save the document. you can save the file on the desktop using a new file name for easy access. Creating a graphic using Paint 24 | P a g e .
when we create a file. The tool you select is drawn when you drag or click in the drawing area. Since the file is blank. The “Save As” window is displayed. Since you want to use Paint to create the graphic. that you can add to the document you previously created using WordPad. In this case you will create a blank file called “New” on the desktop using the “24 bit Bitmap” image file type. First. A circle or 25 | P a g e . move the pointer to where you want the circle to begin. The white area in the workspace is the drawing area where you may create the drawing. When you move the mouse pointer into the drawing area. The pre-selected icon is the “Pencil” button. To start Paint. and then create and save the file. Your file is stored with the extension “. The text under the icon displays the default icon name "New". Specify the location as “Desktop” and then select the type of file you want to create from the “Save as type” list.Another application that is included with Windows is “Paint”. the desktop icon displays a blank square.bmp”. edit the drawing and so on. Let us create a logo for your organization. The Paint program is loaded with the blank file open. including a title bar. it changes to a plus (+). you need to draw the plot of grass below the tree. You may wish to create a blank file on the desktop. The mouse pointer appears as a pencil when this tool is selected and you are pointing to the drawing area. similar to the one shown above. The “Ellipse” tool creates an ellipse or circular shape. you need to select this application by clicking on the icon on the desktop. You can tell it is selected because it appears in a box. we open the application first. called a toolbox. Try to draw a picture of a palm tree. fill shapes with colors. Now. Generally. which is the picture of a palm tree. menu bar and status bar as you have seen in the other application programs. a drawing program that can be used to create and modify graphic images. Paint has many of the same features. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → Paint”. To begin drawing. By default the toolbox is displayed on the left edge of the window. Displayed at the top of the window is the color box that is used to add color to the graphic. The toolbox buttons are used to draw shapes. you are ready to open the file and create a graphic. The Paint program also includes a toolbar. Select “File → Save”.
the outline of the shape is created using the foreground color. You need to use the Airbrush tool for this purpose. You may change the foreground color to brown. drag with the right mouse button held down while spraying. while the inside of the shape is filled with the background color. Using the “Airbrush” Tool: Finally. For this you may need to erase sections of your drawings. Creating a Custom Color: Since the color selection of green colors on the palette is limited. To clean up the drawing. Double-click on a color in the color box. To set the background color. If you select colors before creating a shape. To use the background color. you can use the Eraser tool to delete the parts of the trunk you may not like. The last fill style creates an object without a border using the selected fill color. The “Edit Colors” window contains a palette of basic colors. Adding Color: You now want to fill the shape with a green color. The eraser uses the background colors. The first button draws an ellipse with an outline border in the selected fill color without filling the object. This tool also provides several "spray" shapes. displayed at the bottom of the toolbox. called “fill-style” buttons. This is the default selection and the setting you have used. The Brush tool creates broad lines of color as you drag. The brush applies the foreground color when you drag to create the shape. You have created a simple oval shape with a black outside borderline and white interior. The second button draws an outline border and also fills the object with the selected fill color. The color box consists of two areas. The Airbrush sprays with the foreground color. 26 | P a g e . You need to use the Brush tool to create the shape and apply the color at the same time. You may do this by selecting colors from the color box. you want to create the palm fronds. You need to delete the oval and replace it with another that contains color. the “select colors area” and the “color palette”. Using the “Brush” Tool: Next. you want to create two tree trunks. Notice the three additional buttons. you may create a custom color. Using different shapes can add interest to the drawing. Using the “Eraser”: You may make mistakes or to not like the appearance of your drawing.ellipse is created by dragging the mouse until the shape is displayed as you want it to appear. right-click in the color palette.
press the “Shift” key while dragging the pointer. Drawing a Curved Line: In the toolbox. Now you may apply this color to the fronds. Draw a straight line by dragging the pointer. The box below the matrix displays the selected color. Release the mouse button and repeat this step for a second arc. To draw a rectangle. click a fill style. The “Save” command saves the document as it appears onscreen to the same file name. click the “Polygon” icon. You can see a small picture of the graphic you created. Click on the page where you want one arc of the curve to be. You can also use the slider on the color gradient bar at the right to change the elements. The custom color automatically becomes the foreground color and replaces the originally selected green. Drag the mouse to draw the line. click the “Curve” icon. associated with the selected color. click the “Rectangle” icon to create a square-cornered shape. To draw the polygon. automatically replacing the original contents with the new contents. To define a custom color. Repeat these steps and double-click when done. At the bottom of the toolbox. Click “Define Custom Colors >>” to display the color area to the right. The green color you selected is the selected color in the “Basic colors” palette. hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer to draw a straight line. Click on the page where you want each new line segment to appear. You can only create two curves for each line. Drawing a Straight Line: In the toolbox. click the “Line” icon. Drawing a Polygon: In the toolbox. and then hold down the left mouse button to drag the pointer to adjust the curve. click a fill style. click a line width. To draw a square. hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer diagonally in the direction you want. 27 | P a g e . At the bottom of the toolbox click a line width. Let us now see some additional features of Paint. At the bottom of the toolbox. Your logo is now ready. you may click anywhere on the matrix.many of which are displayed in the color box. Press the “Shift” key while dragging to get a straight line. or click the “Rounded Rectangle” to create a round-cornered shape. Drawing a Rectangle or Square: In the toolbox. such as hue and saturation. This is a color matrix. Click “Add to Custom Colors” and then click “OK”. Now see the live icon representing your Paint document. At the bottom of the toolbox.
The insertion point appears at the center of the blank line. 28 | P a g e . Embedding an Object: You are now ready to insert the picture into the WordPad document. click the “Text” icon. An object can be inserted into another document by pasting. You would like the palm tree picture that is stored in the Clipboard to be centered at the top of the document. On the text toolbar. You can copy the entire picture or any part of the drawing by selecting an area. You can select an item from an open document and copy it to another location in the same or another document. The graphic of the palm tree that was stored in the Clipboard is pasted into the document. To do this. Since the drawing occupies almost the entire space.Typing and Formatting Text: In the toolbox. You will embed the palm tree object in the document. The “Paste” and “Paste Special” commands on the “Edit” menu are used to insert a copy from the Clipboard into a document. you may select the entire drawing area. you need to copy the graphic from Paint and insert it into the WordPad document. Copying between Applications Now you can insert the logo of your organization (the palm tree) into your WordPad document. You may also resize your picture by dragging the image resize handles that are located at the bottom right corner and along the sides of your picture. Select “Edit → Paste”. in this case the entire picture. Click inside the text frame to type text. size and style you require. select “Image → Attributes” from the menu. linking or embedding it. hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer diagonally to the size you want. You can adjust the size of any selected object by dragging the handles in the same manner as sizing windows. click the font. These indicate the object is selected and can be manipulated. Enter the dimensions you require. This is because the “Center” feature was in effect for the line the insertion point was on when the two new lines were created. Contents of the selected area are copied to the Clipboard. To create a text frame. Now you are positioned in the document where you want the picture inserted. A dotted line identifies the selected area. It is surrounded by a box and eight solid squares called “handles”. Changing the Picture Size: To change the size of your picture.
This allows you to edit the embedded graphic from within WordPad. The text frame displays an insertion point. the server application is opened within WordPad. you may decide you want to add some text inside the graphic. and the graphic appears in its own editing window. 29 | P a g e . You may want to add the company name to the grass area of the graphic. Previewing. the text of your document is still displayed. containing the palm tree. The color that is applied to the text is the foreground color. To edit an embedded object. The Text tool is used to add text to a Paint object. because it was the last-used application. Printing and Saving Although you still plan to make several formatting changes to the document. Before typing the text. If you do not like how your text box looks. To make the background the same as the grass. has not changed. The “Print Preview” feature displays each page of your document in a reduced size so you can check the layout. This indicates that the Paint program has not been opened a second time in its own application window. you can always use “Edit → Undo” from the menu and try it again. it is always a good idea to preview on screen how your document will appear when printed. Select “File → Print Preview” from the menu. You now have access to the Paint menu and toolbar so you can edit the object while you are still in the WordPad document. When adding text. You may verify that the original file created using Paint. you first create a box. you want to give a copy of the document to a friend to get feedback regarding the content and layout. WordPad is displayed again. you are not prompted to save the file before it is closed.Editing an Embedded Object: After looking at the inserted graphic. you can also choose a color for the text. Paint. It shows the default type style and size that will be used when you type the text entry. called a text frame and then type the text inside it. and the “Fonts” window is displayed. You may want to increase the font size to 14 point. you make the text frame transparent so that the background is visible. Notice that there is still only one Paint application button in the taskbar. you can open the object server by double-clicking on it. Also notice that the title bar still displays "WordPad" and if you scroll down. To save time and unnecessary printing and paper waste. Since no changes were made to the file.
type the next number in the calculation. Choose “Move Here” from the shortcut menu. such as addition and subtraction. Type other operators and numbers in the same way. The desktop should be cleared of all icons you created and should appear the same as when you started. subtraction. Performing a simple calculation: To perform a simple calculation involving addition. such as logarithms and factorials. The flyer looks good and does not appear to need any further modifications immediately. 30 | P a g e . multiplication or division. Finally. You may want to clear these from the desktop and move them to the folder where you store your data. The Preview window also includes its own toolbar. click the “Save” icon on the Toolbar. perform the following steps: First. “*” to multiply. To save the current document. You can now see that the file icons are no longer on the desktop and are now located in the selected folder. click “=” or press the “Enter” key to get your result. or “/” to divide. You can print the flyer directly from the Preview window using the “Print” button. click “+” to add. Using Calculator Using Calculator: “Calculator” is an application which performs functions parallel to a handheld calculator. To start Calculator. Cleaning up the desktop You have a few files stored on the desktop of your computer.The Preview window displays a reduced view of how the current page will appear when printed. After that. This view allows you to check your page layout before printing. Right-drag the selected icons to the right pane of the window. Finally you will remove the shortcut icon. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → Calculator”. Select “View → Refresh” from the menu to refresh the display of the window. “-” to subtract. Open the folder where you save your files. type the first number in the calculation. The functions of the different buttons on the Calculator are as displayed. It performs basic arithmetic. as well as functions found on a scientific calculator. Backspace --> Removes the last digit of the displayed number. Then. Double-click the shortcut icon you created to your data location.
programming calculations and statistical calculations for averages and standard deviation. Decimal. brochures. MC --> Clears the numbers in the memory. move paragraphs and reprint your document. You have a choice of four numbering systems: Hexadecimal.CE --> Clears the number displayed at that time. Performing a scientific calculation: Your calculator can be made into a full-functioned scientific calculator. faxes and even professional manuals. store. With a few keystrokes. M+ --> Adds the displayed number to the memory. select “View → Scientific” from the menu. % --> Calculates percentages. MS --> Stores numbers in the memory. for example. C --> Clears the entire calculation. the Scientific Calculator has complete trigonometrical calculations. Documents that you use often can be saved as templates. form letters. Creating and Editing a Document 31 | P a g e . retrieve and print part or all of a document. printing etc. Octal and Binary. Microsoft Word and OpenOffice. The activity of word processing includes typing text using the keyboard and using various facilities of formatting. modify. Through a word processor you can create. For this.org Writer are a few of the popular Word Processors. Word Processing Overview of Word Processing What is Word Processing? Typing text using a computer is commonly known as Word Processing. an invoice form. you can easily correct errors. 1/x --> Calculates the reciprocal of the displayed number. Sqrt --> Calculates the square root of the number on the screen. In addition to handling simple calculations. MR --> Recalls a number from the memory. editing. Word Processor Applications help you to create different types of written documents such as personal letters.
from the menu that appears. Clicking the Office Button displays the “File” menu. To add an additional command to the Quick Access toolbar. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Word 2007”. tables. integrated into it. and Redo. This contains commands for opening. You can add an icon to the toolbar by just clicking on an icon name. The Quick Access toolbar: This appears to the right of the Office Button near the top of the screen. Undo. etc. even beyond page limits to create a newspaper format. Microsoft Word contains numerous functions to assist you in creating perfectly styled documents. The Microsoft Office user interface is uniform across most of its components. 32 | P a g e . printing. The text frames can be linked anywhere. saving. Once the “New” icon is added. Additionally. Microsoft Word offers a wide variety of options to design documents. you can create various indexes and tables in text documents. and closing a file. Word comes with a variety of templates for almost every purpose. Text can be formatted multi-columnar and have text frames. You can define the structure and appearance of the indexes and tables according to your needs. The User Interface The User Interface is the way in which you interact with your computer. It consists of three main parts: 1) The Office Button 2) The Quick Access toolbar 3) The Ribbon The Office Button: This appears at the top-left corner of your screen. such as “New”.Introduction to Microsoft Word Microsoft Word is a complete Word Processor Application. click the arrow on the right. It is designed to put your most commonly used commands in a place where you can always find them. you can simply click on it when you need to create a new document. displaying icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. a file is called a “document”. To start the Microsoft Word application. You can also create your own templates. In Word. graphics.
and spacing properties. and index. Under “Choose commands from:” you can see a list of commands that you may add to your Quick Access toolbar. citations. bullets. This provides a detailed description of what the button does. The “Clipboard” group in turn has the “Paste”. and copy/paste. Click an icon and then click the “Add” button. It consists of:a) Task-oriented tabs. The “Page Layout” tab contains margin. “Paragraph”. “Copy” and “Format Painter” command buttons. b) Groups within each tab that break a task into subtasks. The “View” tab contains the view options for the document and is the location of the Switch Windows command to move between files open in that application. and text boxes. For example. such as pictures. table of contents.Now. right-click on it and select “Remove from Quick Access Toolbar”. 33 | P a g e . The “Insert” tab contains all items that can be inserted into the file. You can see that your chosen icons now appear on the Quick Access toolbar. click “More Commands”. Click “OK”. thesaurus. The “References” tab contains the most common items needed when generating a professional paper. “Font”. orientation. The “Review” tab contains spell check. clip art. the “Home” tab has the “Clipboard”. When you move your mouse over most command buttons. a “Super-tooltip” is displayed. You will gradually learn to use the commands on all the tabs. styles. including footnotes. The Ribbon: The Ribbon is a component of the Office Fluent user interface. and track changes. pages. To remove an icon. “Styles” and “Editing” groups. c) Command buttons in each group that carry out a command or display a menu of commands. “Cut”. The following Ribbon tabs are displayed in Word: The “Home” tab has common formatting commands. The “Mailings” tab contains the items needed for a mail merge.
You are required to create a document listing the special offers of your company. When you first start Word. You want your document to be attractive and at the same time informative. Creating New Documents Let us now learn to effectively use Microsoft Word using the following simple Case Study. showing the Key Tips for all the tabs. the Microsoft Office Button menu. Now click “Create” in the “New Document” window. At the right end of the Ribbon. You may use them when you are more familiar with the commands. you see a question mark symbol. You can hide the Ribbon if you wish to have more space to write. how to include all such features into your document. Every single command on the Ribbon. right-click anywhere on the Ribbon and choose “Minimize the Ribbon”. a new blank document is opened. Access keys: Access keys are another type of keyboard shortcut used to access the Ribbon. right-click any tab and choose the “Minimize the Ribbon” command again. the badges showing the Key Tips for the commands on that tab appear. The tabs. click the Office Button and select “New”. groups. To restore the Ribbon. and the Quick Access Toolbar has an access key. They relate directly to the tabs. 34 | P a g e . After you press a key to activate a particular tab. Clicking this brings up the Help window related to the Office application that you are using.Equivalent keyboard shortcuts are also displayed if applicable. When an existing word document is open. or badges. You are working for Global Tours and Travels. and other things that you see on the screen. We shall now learn step-bystep. You first need to press the “Alt” key. commands. and every access key is assigned a Key Tip. When you first launch most of the Microsoft Office applications you’ll find yourself in the Ribbons Home tab. For this. It is like a blank piece of paper that has certain default settings which are the most commonly used settings. You decide to create a document like the one displayed above. and command buttons change as you take on various activities. You then see little labels. to create a new blank document. which includes the most commonly-needed commands.
For now. Entering and Formatting Text Let us now enter text into a new document. press “Enter” once again.A “Template” is a pre-designed document designed for common purposes such as a fax. The "Live Preview" feature allows you to have a preview of how the selected font would affect the appearance of the text. To insert a blank line. without actually applying it. You may choose other underline styles and colors by clicking on the arrow to the right of the “Underline” icon. Similarly. Selecting Text: To select a section of text. Type "SPECIAL OFFERS". move your mouse over the different fonts displayed. To make existing text bold. Now type “Come to any of the offices”. from the drop-down menu. A “Font” is a design for a set of characters. It remains semi-transparent until you move your mouse pointer over it. you may change the Font Size. in the “Font” group. a "Mini Toolbar" is automatically displayed. Let us insert some more text. Justifying Text: 35 | P a g e . To change the color of the text click on the arrow next to the “Font Color” icon and select a color. Setting up the way a page of text will look by entering certain attributes is called “Formatting”. click at the point you want to begin and drag your cursor to the right and release it when you have reached the end of the selection. Underlining: To underline your text. You will be comfortable using it after you are more familiar with the Word application. click the “Italic” icon. To make the text appear in italics. select it and then click on the “Bold” icon. invoice or business letter. On the “Home” tab. When text is selected. on the “Home” tab. You may create a new document using standard templates provided by Word by clicking on a template name in the “New Document” window. click on the “Bold” icon in the “Font” group and begin text entry. Click on the font you would like. Press "Enter" once to come to the next line. It provides easy access to the most-used formatting commands. Changing the Font: Let us select the text “SPECIAL OFFERS” and change the font. Making text Bold: To enter text with a bold display. select it and then click on the “Underline” icon in the “Font” group. let us use the command buttons on the Ribbon.
tab stops and spaces. Align Text Right or Justify. Closing and Opening files Saving Documents: Your file is stored with the extension “. There are three ways to save a document. You may open a recently used document by clicking on the Office Button and then clicking a document name under the list of “Recent Documents” displayed on the right. Center. Closing a File: To close a file. folder and location for the file and then click “Save”. 36 | P a g e . Click the Office Button and select “Save”. the “Save As” window is displayed. 1. select the file and click “Open”. Enter the name. When you save a new file for the first time. Saving. In the “Paragraph” group.docx”. To remove the display. 3. you may select Align Text Left. You may use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+O”. click on this button once again. For this. line breaks. you may click on the “X” shaped icon at the top right corner of the window or use the keyboard shortcut “Alt+F4” to exit the Word application. click the Office Button and select “Close” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+W”. Opening Documents: There are many ways in which you can open a document. Then. navigate to the location of your document. Click the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. Moving through Text Moving through text using the Keyboard: You can use the arrow keys and other keys on the keyboard which are shown above to position the cursor at the location you want to type or modify text. 2. Alternatively. Click on Center. click the “Show/Hide” icon in the “Paragraph” group. Displaying formatting marks: You can display nonprinting characters in your text. such as paragraph marks. Using the shortcut keys “Ctrl+S”.Select the text you would like to justify. Alternatively. Changing Line Spacing: Select the text you would like to change the line spacing for. Click the “Line spacing” icon in the “Paragraph” group and make your selection. you may click the Office Button and select “Open”.
Using a Building Block: Let us insert this building block into another document. Now click “OK”. they are replaced by the text “First”. Click at the point where you wish to position the cursor. On the “Insert” tab. In the Create New Building Block window. Creating a Reusable Building Block: Select the text or graphic that you want to store as a reusable building block. You can see that the “Correct TWo INitial CApitals” option is checked. Click on a building block name and then click “Insert”. Using Automatic Editing Features Using AutoCorrect: You may use the numerous features provided by Microsoft Word to automatically correct your document. Now enter numeric “1st” in the “Replace” box and alphabetic “First” in the “With” box. Ensure that the box against the option is checked. You can even replace some text with alternate text as it is typed using the “Replace text as you type” option. Click “Gallery” to sort by gallery. Using AutoComplete: Another useful feature is “AutoComplete”. On the “Insert” tab. Now try typing the text “HAppy” with two initial capitals. Click the Office Button. When you type the digit “1” followed by the alphabets “s” and “t”. Building Blocks: Building Blocks in Word are designed specifically for the addition of frequently used content to your documents. type enough so that the name is different from that of any other building block and then press “F3”. say “Global Tours Logo”. Begin typing the unique name of the building block you created. and then click “Word Options”. it is shaped as an I-beam. in the “Text” group. enter a unique name for the building block in the “Name” field.Moving through text using the Mouse: You can use the mouse to move the insertion point to a specific location in a document. click “Quick Parts”. As it is typed. in the “Text” group. The building block is inserted. click “Quick Parts”. When you can use the mouse to move the insertion point. Select “AutoText” from the “Gallery” drop-down list. Click where you want to insert a building block in the document. These corrections are effected as you enter your text. you may check the boxes against the options you require. and then click “Building Blocks Organizer”. you can see that it is corrected. On the “AutoCorrect” tab. 37 | P a g e . Now click “Proofing” and then click the “AutoCorrect Options” button. and then click “Save Selection to Quick Part Gallery”.
Click the “Home” tab and select “Find” in the “Editing” group. Alternatively you may use the scrollbars on the right and bottom of your screen. 3. Let us move to a specific line number. Let us leave the default settings. Use the “Ctrl+Home” keys to go to the beginning of the document and the “Ctrl+End” keys to go to the end. Navigating a Document There are different ways you can move through your document. Now click “Proofing” and then check the boxes against the spelling and grammar checks you require. Now remove the word “Discounts” from the sentence. This results in a grammatically incorrect sentence. Once you correct the spelling. You may navigate to a specific item in your document. On the “Go To” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. the wavy line is removed. You can see that as soon as this word is entered. such as “January”. The green wavy line disappears since the sentence is grammatically correct once again. You may also use the “Page Up” and “Page Down” keys on your keyboard. Click “Close” in the “Find and Replace” window. You can also navigate to a specific page. Use the Up. 38 | P a g e . using the “Go To” tab of the “Find and Replace” window.When you begin typing in the name of a month. click the “Page Layout” tab and select “Line Numbers → Continuous” in the “Page Setup” group. Automatic Spelling and Grammar checking: Click the Office Button. Your cursor moves to the specified line. Re-enter “Discounts”. Right and Left Arrow keys on your keyboard. footnote. To display the line numbers in a document. Down. Word brings up a little box above the incomplete word. Some of them are as follows: 1. If you then press “Enter”. Simply click “OK”. Now enter the sentence “Discounts are available on international tickets” with the word “Discounts” incorrectly spelled. section. 4. endnote etc. Word automatically finishes the name. a green wavy underline appears. click “Line” in the “Go to what” list. and then click “Word Options”. Now enter the line number to which you wish to go and click the “Go To” button. it is underlined with a red wavy line. 2. These checks are enforced as you enter your text. This time.
To remove the display of line numbers. You may select from the various options available in the “Illustrations” group on the “Insert” tab. To move your 39 | P a g e . To remove individual characters. For this. The picture now appears in your document. You can reverse your last action by using the “Undo” command. location. color etc. Now to undo this action. You can also redo an action that has been undone. Click the “Picture” icon. click on the picture. In the “Insert Picture” dialog box. The line that was displayed is now deleted. you may decide they are not necessary after all. you may also use "Ctrl+Delete" for words to the right of the insertion point or "Ctrl+Backspace" for words to the left. you may select it and press “Delete”. Let us first delete a line of text. It is surrounded by eight boxes called “sizing handles”. click on that line and press “Delete”. you may press "Delete" for characters to the right of the insertion point and "Backspace" for characters to the left. you may select “Undo” from the Quick Access toolbar or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Z”. specify your picture and its location and click “Insert”. Undoing and Redoing Editing Changes: After making some changes. Click at the point where you wish to insert the picture. Editing a Document After entering the text of a document. Let us insert a picture from an existing file on the hard disk. To delete a blank line. The line is displayed once again. Point to a handle and drag with your mouse to the size you require. Working with graphics Inserting Graphics: You now wish to insert a picture of one of the buses of your company along with your company name. Select the entire line and press “Delete”. To delete an entire word. Selecting and Deleting Text: In order to delete a section of text. click the “Page Layout” tab and select “Line Numbers → None” in the “Page Setup” group. you would like to proof read it for accuracy and completeness and modify or edit the document as needed. Sizing and Moving Graphics: You may change the graphic that you have inserted in respect of size. select “Redo” from the Quick Access Toolbar or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Y”. To change the size.
The preview size will be adjusted accordingly. One Page: Click this icon to display one page in the preview window. The Print Preview tab appears when you view the current document in the Print Preview mode. In the “Number of copies” box.picture. you may select the name of the printer on which you wish to print the document. To specify the number of pages to view. To view a document in the Print Preview mode. Click the Office Button and select “Print” from the menu. Two Pages: Click this icon to display two pages in the preview window. 2. The “Print” window is displayed. click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. Zoom: The “Zoom” icon can also be used to specify the zoom percentage. In the “Name” field. 40 | P a g e . Printing a document: There are two ways to print a document: 1. This is particularly useful for documents which have only a small amount of text on the last page. Under “Print Range”. click the “Zoom” icon and select “Many pages”. To display Multiple Pages. Use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+P”. The Zoom level can be adjusted using the slider at the bottom right of the window. Drag the slider to the right or left as required. click on the icon below the “Many pages” button and drag towards the right and down. Let us have a look at few of the basic options you might need to change. Shrink One Page: Click this icon to prevent the document from being printed on an additional page. Default settings are displayed which are normally acceptable. you may specify how many copies of the document you wish to print. Previewing and Printing a Document Previewing a document: It is always a good practice to preview your document onscreen before you print it. place the cursor on the picture and drag with your mouse to the new location. you may specify whether you wish to print the entire document or a specific part.
1. On the “Review” tab. Some words. There are two ways to start the thesaurus. select “Thesaurus”. After you have entered your options. You can see that the incorrect spelling has been corrected. it determines which words in its dictionary are similarly spelled and displays a list of those words in the “Suggestions” box. You may add these words to the dictionary by clicking the “Add to Dictionary” button. 2. On the “Review” tab. such as proper nouns which are not really errors may be shown as spelling mistakes.Under “Zoom”. The “Spelling and Grammar” window appears only when a mistake is found. REVISING AND REFINING A DOCUMENT Revising a Document Spelling and Grammar checking: There are two ways you can do this: 1. It lets you print a document with one click but does not offer the flexibility to specify whether to print all or just part of your document. in the “Pages per sheet” box. select “Spelling & Grammar”. with the most likely match highlighted. Click on the correct spelling and then click “Change”. 41 | P a g e . 2. you may specify how many pages of your document you want printed on a sheet of paper. Press “Shift+F7”. in the “Proofing” group. number of copies and other such things. click “OK” to print the document. Thesaurus: The “Thesaurus” is a dictionary of synonyms which you can use to find words that are synonymous with a term. in the “Proofing” group. You may also select “Print→ Quick Print” from the Office Button menu. When the spelling checker encounters a word it doesn’t recognize. Use the keyboard shortcut “F7”. When the checking is completed. They are no longer displayed as spelling mistakes. you are informed accordingly. You may click “Options” in the “Spelling and Grammar” window to specify the spelling and grammar checks that you require.
leaving the original location unchanged. but any existing clipboard contents are overwritten. the “Copy-Paste” commands create a copy at the new location. You may use any of the following methods for pasting: 1. On the “Home” tab. Click on the arrow to the right of the search box. You may use any of the following methods: 1. Select “Copy” to copy the word which can be pasted to another location. 2. Copy and Look Up. select “Copy”. Then press “Ctrl+V” to paste. The contents are inserted at the position of the cursor. Any selected text or objects are replaced by the pasted contents. The document itself does not change. the word is inserted at the current cursor position. select “Paste”. Using Cut and Paste: You may decide to move a section lower down in your document.)” from the dropdown list below. in the “Clipboard” group. Now move lower down in the document and click where you want to place your selection. Paste: This command is used to insert the contents of the clipboard into the document. You may choose from the options Insert. Select “Thesaurus: English (U. enter your expression. 2. 2.S. Press “Ctrl+X”. Press “Ctrl+V”. Press “Ctrl+C”. select “Cut”. in the “Clipboard” group. moving it to the clipboard and then pasting it to a location of your choice. On the “Home” tab. in the “Clipboard” group. The “Cut-Paste” commands involve deleting the section from the document. Moving and Copying Selections Using Copy: Let us select some text for copying to the clipboard. When you select “Insert”. You may point to a synonym of your choice and specify the action you wish to perform by viewing the drop-down list. On the “Home” tab. You may use any of the following methods for cutting: 1. say “Contact”.You now see a panel on the right. In the “Search for:” text box. 42 | P a g e . For this select it and use “Cut” to move the selected section. A list of synonymous terms is displayed. Select “Look Up” to look up further variations of the selected word. On the other hand.
Now open a second Word document by clicking “New” in the Office Button menu. The next occurrence of the specified term after the current cursor position is selected. Enter some text. Paste the contents by clicking on “Paste” in the “Clipboard” group of the “Home” tab. Click “Select” in the “Editing group on the “Home” tab. Working with Multiple Documents Opening a Second Document: Save the current document by clicking the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. Finding and Replacing text Finding Text: You may search for a word or phrase in a document. Select “Find” from the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab or press “Ctrl+F” to display the “Find” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. Then. Click “Select All” from the menu displayed. Copying between Documents: The dormant program appears dimmed on the taskbar. Make it active by clicking on the taskbar. Let us now move the text back to its original location. First. say “office” and click “Find Next”. The previous document is the “dormant” program now. you may need to insert Page Breaks just before them so that they start on a new page. You may now drop the selection by releasing the mouse button. Move to the new document by clicking on the taskbar.Drag and Drop: All Windows applications have the ability to copy or move selections using the “Drag and Drop” feature. Inserting Page Breaks To control document paging so that important titles and headlines appear on the top of the pages. Let us leave our graphic on the first page and display the other text on the next page. point the mouse to it and drag the pointer to the new location by keeping the mouse button pressed. Click “Create” in the “New Document” window. place the cursor at the point where you want a new page to begin and click “Page Break” in the “Pages” group of the “Insert” tab. To insert a Page Break. A fixed page break is inserted and the cursor is now at the beginning of the new page. Alternatively. A blank document is displayed in a new window. Copy the contents by clicking “Copy” in the “Clipboard” group. Click “Find Next” once again. 43 | P a g e . This becomes the “active” program. you may use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Enter”. select the item to be copied or moved.
Click “OK”. This function provides many advanced options to help make your search as specific as necessary to find what you are looking for. You can see that your document is displayed with wider side margins. Inserting the Current Date Let us now insert the current date into this document. If you want the date to be automatically updated when the current date changes. Select from the “Portrait” or “Landscape” options. check the “Update automatically” box. select “Size” from the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. You may click on any of the 44 | P a g e . say “new office” in the “Replace with” field. Replace All: You may click this button to replace all occurrences of the search text by the specified new text. More: You may click this button to specify additional search options. Click “Undo” on the Quick Access toolbar to revert to the original margins. Entering the Page Size: To set the Page Size. Modifying Page Layout Changing Margin Settings: To set margins. Changing the Orientation: You may orient your document vertically or horizontally by clicking on “Orientation” from the “Page Setup” group of the “Page Layout” tab. Let us change the left and right margins to 4 inches each. A window appears showing the number of replacements made. On the “Margins” tab. Replace: You may click this button to replace the next occurrence of the search text by the specified new text. Enter the text you wish to find in the “Find what” field and the text with which you wish to replace it. Position the cursor above your text and select “Date & Time” from the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. select “Margins” from the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. Select the format you require. you may enter your requirements in one or more of the fields. This updating is seen when you next open your document.Finding and Replacing: You may search for a word or phrase in a document and replace it by some other text. You may click on any of the available options or click “Custom Margins” to enter your own specifications. Select “Replace” from the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab or press “Ctrl+H” to display the “Replace” tab of the “Find and Replace” window.
Then click on the “Page Layout” tab. Click “OK” to save your settings. You can see that this time. Let us learn to set the position of a tab stop in a blank document. If you do not see the horizontal ruler displayed just below the Ribbon. click the “View Ruler” button at the right corner. you may specify your indent requirements in the “Indent Left” and “Indent Right” boxes. Now enter the text as shown. enter “2 cm” and click “OK”. You can also use your mouse to set the tab stops in the “Ruler”. On the “Indents & Spacing” tab. In the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. You can quickly set tabs by clicking the ruler at the location you want your tab stop. In the “Paragraph” group. click “Tabs” to display the “Tabs” window. etc. it is advisable to use tabs rather than spaces to avoid problems with text alignment. Character Formatting in detail 45 | P a g e . This brings up the “Paragraph” window. Select a paragraph of text. Now enter the same text pressing the “Tab” key after each word. although this method is not as precise. You may also manually set the dimensions you require in the “Width” and “Height” fields. In the “Default tab stops” box. Press “Undo” twice on the Quick Access toolbar to remove these indents. Spacing: You may specify the spacing between paragraphs by adding space above or below selected paragraphs. Setting Tab Stops: A “Tab Stop” is the amount of spacing that is applied each time you press the “Tab” key. For this use the “Spacing Before” and “Spacing After” boxes in the “Paragraph” group on the “Page Layout” tab. A5. You can see on the ruler that each word appears at a distance of 2 cm from the other. the distance between the words is as per the new tab stops specified. On the “Paper” tab. click on the arrow at the bottom right. Paragraph Formatting in detail Indents: Indentation determines the distance of the paragraph from either the left or the right margin. you may use the “Decrease Indent” and “Increase Indent” icons in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab for indenting your text. from the drop-down list.available options or click “More Paper Sizes” to enter your own specifications. you may select the paper size from preset formats like A4. When more than a single space is required to be inserted between words. Alternatively. pressing the “Tab” key after each word.
Let us select “UPPERCASE”. “Continue Numbering” or “Set Numbering Value”. let us change the font color of a section of text. First. This brings up the “Font” window. Also. Now. drag it over the text to which you wish to apply the same format. Format Painter: You can copy the formatting applied to a section of text to another section. Highlighting: Select some text to highlight. Select the text “Time Table”. You may use a bulleted list or a numbered list. Giving all this information in a single document will crowd the document. Bulleted lists are normally used to list logically related information. Effects: On the “Home tab. you may decide to go in for a numbered list. Creating Lists You may want to display the information about the special offers that you have entered as an itemized list so that it stands out from the rest of the text. You can see that your mouse pointer changes to a paint brush. You may select an option from the menu displayed. You may specify effects for your text by checking the boxes against the effects you require on the “Font” tab. continue numbering or even skip some numbers from the previous list used. select it and click on the “Format Painter” icon on the “Home” tab in the “Clipboard” group. click on the “Change Case” icon from the “Font” group. the document will lose its clarity regarding the main information that it is meant to convey. A hyperlink is a connection to a location in the current 46 | P a g e . click on the arrow next to the “Numbering” icon in the “Paragraph” group of the “Home” tab and select a numbering style. You can see that your text is displayed with all capital letters. Your text now appears as a bulleted list. Numbered lists are normally used to convey a sequence of events. Click on the arrow next to the “Text Highlight Color” icon in the “Font” group and select a color.Changing the capitalization of text: You may change a portion of text in respect of case. So you may use a “Hyperlink”. Bulleted List: Select your text and then click on the arrow next to the “Bullets” icon in the “Paragraph” group of the “Home” tab and select a bullet style. Now to copy the formatting of this text. in the “Font” group. Simply right-click on the number and select from the options “Restart at”. click on the arrow at the bottom right. Using Hyperlinks Inserting Hyperlinks: You now want to give information related to the different routes and their timings. Now. In that case. Numbered List: Alternatively. This means you may specify which parts you want in capital letters and small letters. Joining and Separating Numbering: You have the option to restart numbering.
Under “Stars and Banners” select the “Double Wave” banner. Use any of them to display the “Insert Hyperlink” window. To view a document in the Print Preview mode. another document or to a Web site. Use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+K”. we shall use the text “Time Table” as a hyperlink. Inserting Shapes Word offers many predefined shapes that you can insert into your document. You may format the text by selecting it and using the mini toolbar displayed. Let us add some text to this banner. Now enter your text.docx” which contains the complete time table. You may also drag to place the shape at another location. click “Current Folder” and then click on “time_table. In this case. Select this text. right-click on it and select “Remove Hyperlink”. Place the cursor in your document at the point where you wish to insert the hyperlink. Let us insert a hyperlink to another document called “time_table. You now wish to insert a banner at the bottom of your document. This document exists in the same folder as your document. 2. click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. Because you wish to create a link to another document. Click “OK”. Editing while previewing Now you will preview your document to see if any changes are required. To make this banner more attractive. The Print Preview tab appears when you view the current document in the Print Preview mode. Removing Hyperlinks: To remove the hyperlink while retaining the text. You may use the sizing handles to modify the size of the shape. Click “Shapes” in the “Illustrations” group on the “Insert” tab to display the various shapes that you can use. make a selection from the “Shape Style” group. When you press the “Ctrl” key and click on this text. You now see that the hyperlink text is underlined.docx”. A hyperlink may be in the form of text or a graphic. There are two ways to insert a hyperlink: 1.document. you can view the time table document. Right click on the banner and select “Add Text”. 47 | P a g e . Drag your mouse to create your shape of the size you wish. Click the “Hyperlink” icon in the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab.
Let us insert an existing spreadsheet created using Microsoft Excel. Check the box against “Link to file” if you want your document to be updated whenever the file containing the inserted object is edited. You can easily change the level of an item in the hierarchy by simply increasing or decreasing the indent by using the “Tab” or “Backspace” keys respectively. click the “Multilevel List” icon and select a list style. Use the “Tab” key to go to the next level and “Shift+Tab” to move up one level. Different items are indented to represent their level in a document’s structure. uncheck the box against the “Magnifier” button in the “Preview” group on the Print Preview tab. select “Object” from the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab.When the mouse pointer moves over the document it is shaped as a magnifying glass with a plus sign. Click “Browse” and navigate to the file you wish to insert. In the “Object” window. in the “Paragraph” group. Make your changes and then click “Close Print Preview” to close the preview window. Click again to see it in a compressed size. You can edit the object later using the application which created the source file. Creating a multilevel list: Click where you want to begin your list. video clips. The mouse pointer changes to an “I” beam. It makes the hierarchy of items in a document very clear and easy to understand. a spreadsheet or even another word document into your current document. Click on the page you wish to magnify to see it in normal size. This indicates that you can now make changes to the text. Now enter your list. Inserting Objects You may insert external objects such as pictures. Click “OK” in the “Object” window. You may now save your changes. Now click “Insert”. You may create a new object to insert or insert an existing one from a file. You see that the object is now a part of your document Using Additional Word Features Creating Multilevel Lists A multilevel list shows the list items at different levels rather than at one level. For this. On the “Home” tab. click on the “Create from File” tab. When you wish to edit the document. Saving to a New Folder 48 | P a g e . Check the box against “Display as icon” if you want to display your object as an icon.
They are mostly for words that are not in the dictionary. The new folder is created as a subfolder in the active directory. and then click “Word Options”. At the bottom of the window. switch to the Print Layout view by selecting “Print Layout” from the “Document Views” group on the “View” tab. Type the name of the new folder in the “Name” field in the “New Folder” window and press “Enter”. make appropriate changes in the “File name” field and then click “Save”. Your document is now saved in the newly created folder. Using Click and Type: On a new blank page. check the boxes against “Hide spelling errors in this document only” and “Hide grammar errors in this document only” and click “OK”. Press “Save” to save your file with the same name in the new folder. you sometimes notice that many spelling and grammar errors are indicated by red and green wavy lines. As you move the mouse pointer over different areas. The chart displayed in the figure lists the different pointer shapes and formatting that is applied. You can still run spelling and grammar checks manually by using functions like “Spelling & Grammar” on the “Review” tab at any time you wish. Click “New Folder”. If you wish to change your file name. 49 | P a g e . The steps to save the file are: 1. Move the mouse pointer across the page and observe the change in it. Hiding Spelling and Grammar When you go through a document. Formatting Documents Automatically There are two ways in which you can format your document automatically. 3. you will save the multilevel list you have created in a folder on your disk. Enter the appropriate location where you wish to place the file in the “Save in” field. You will use this folder to hold related files. You may turn off the display of these errors if you do not wish to be distracted as you work. The red and green wavy lines are no longer displayed.Next. Click the Office Button. Now click “Proofing”. Click the Office button and select “Save As”. 2. the I-beam pointer displays an icon indicating the formatting that will be applied when you double-click at that location. You can create a new folder at the time you save a file.
The “Update Table of Contents” window is displayed. You can see in the displayed document that “Region 3” is not displayed in the table of contents. You may now press the “Ctrl” key and click on any heading to move to the related content in your document. Similarly. To see the complete list of styles click on the arrow at the bottom of the “Styles” group. Click “Insert Table of Contents” at the bottom of the window that comes up. select “Table of Contents”. in the “Table of Contents” group. A particular style can be applied to a heading or any other text to improve its appearance or make it stand out clearly. Your table of contents is ready. avoiding the need to enter blank lines. Select “Update entire table” and click “OK”. Simply click “OK”. This makes your document attractive as well as clear. You can now enter text which will be formatted as per the pointer shape. You may enter your specifications here. Click on a style to apply it to the selected text. You would need to update your table of contents. Select the main heading. in the “Styles” group select the “Heading1” style. You can now see “Region 3” in the table of contents. you may apply styles “Heading2” and “Heading3” to subsequent heading levels. Let us create a Table of Contents for the document you created in the previous assignment. Applying Styles: This is the second way in which you can format your document automatically. Doubleclick at the center of the document. The “Table of Contents” window appears. let us apply different styles to different heading levels. Formatting a Document Section 50 | P a g e . graphics or other items in a blank area of a document. Place the cursor at the beginning of the document. For now. It shows you at a glance.You can use this method to quickly insert text. the topics that are included in the document and makes it easier to locate information. select “Update Table”. Click on the “Table of Contents” tab. On the “Home” tab. On the “References” tab. In the document displayed. it is best to use the default settings. This style is now applied to your selected text. Creating a Table of Contents A Table of Contents is a listing of the topics that appear in a document with their associated page references. On the “References” tab. in the “Table of Contents” group. You may choose to update page numbers only or the entire table. Updating the Table of Contents Updating the Table of Contents: You may introduce new headings or move certain information to another page in your document at a later stage.
Footnotes appear at the end of each page and endnotes appear at the end of the document. Inserting a Footnote: To insert a footnote. Under “Section Breaks”. “Next Page” moves the section to the new page. location and format by clicking on the arrow at the bottom right of the “Footnotes” group. When you are done. “Continuous” creates the section at the cursor position. Deleting the text in the note does not delete the note. Adding Bookmarks 51 | P a g e . A reference mark is inserted at the point you selected and you are taken to the bottom of the page. Type your footnote. Using Footnotes and Endnotes Footnotes or Endnotes are used to explain. or provide references for text in a document. Click on the arrow at the bottom right of the “Page Setup” group. Let us select “Continuous”. “Odd Page” or “Even Page” starts the section on the next odd or even numbered page. To insert a section in your document. Formatting a section: Let us now make some changes to the section that you have created. simply delete the note reference mark in the document window. Position your cursor before the first point. you can create sections within the document and apply the formatting to the required section. meanings of difficult words are given in the form of footnotes. Under “Preview”. comment on. Sometimes. In the “Page Setup” window. select the type of section break you wish. A footnote or an endnote consists of two linked parts — the note reference mark and the corresponding note text. Let us consider the document we had created earlier. Click “OK”. You may make changes to your footnotes and endnotes in respect of numbering. position your cursor at the text you want the footnote to appear.You may need to apply specific formatting to only a part of your document. Deleting a Footnote or Endnote: When you want to delete a note. You can see that the text in the section after the cursor position gets indented as per the new left margin. Select “Insert Footnote” from the “Footnotes” group on the “References” tab. To do so. Endnotes: You may insert endnotes in the same way using the “Insert Endnote” button in the “Footnotes” group on the “References” tab. change the left margin to “5”. ensure that “This section” is selected in the “Apply to” field. select “Breaks” from the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. right-click the footnote and select “Go to Footnote” to take you back to the insertion point in the main body so you can continue working on your document.
Click on the figure you want to refer to. Showing Bookmarks: Click the Office Button. check the box against “Show bookmarks” and click “OK”. In the “Bookmark” window. You first must define a reference target for the cross-reference. Changing the Object Position: Click on the picture. Click on the bookmark and then click “Go To”. Now click “Advanced”. Click on the bookmark and then click “Delete”. Formatting Picture Layout Sometimes. select “Bookmark” from the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. Under “Picture Tools”. in the “Arrange” group. Adding a Bookmark: You now wish to insert a bookmark before the text “Contact Us”. Wrapping text around graphics: To change the way text wraps around the picture. Your text now appears by the side of the picture. You must now add a caption to this figure. and then click “Word Options”. If you have assigned a bookmark to a location. Then select “Bookmark” from the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. Under “Show document content”. but not among multiple documents. select “Position”. In contrast to hyperlinks. click on it and then click on the “Format” tab under “Picture Tools”. references allow you to move within a document. the bookmark appears as an Ibeam. This caption will be used for reference. Click “Close” in the “Bookmark” window. You can also set cross-references to the captions of charts and tables. Moving to a specific bookmark: Select “Bookmark” from the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. drawing or object in your document or type some text around it. you may need to change the position of a graphic. Deleting a Bookmark: To delete a bookmark. Move your mouse over the various options under “With Text Wrapping” and click on your choice. the bookmark appears in brackets on the screen. Clicking on the reference takes you to the referred location in the document. Your cursor now moves to the bookmark location. If you have assigned a bookmark to an item. Click before this text. enter a name for your bookmark and click “Add”. Select “Text Wrapping” in the “Arrange” group and choose a suitable option from the ones displayed.A Bookmark is used to mark a certain location in a document. You can define the wrapping style around an object. Referencing Figures Setting References: A cross-reference is a reference from one part of a document to related information in another part. It identifies a location in the document or a selection of text that you name for future reference. Select “Insert Caption” from 52 | P a g e . on the “Format” tab.
53 | P a g e . select the same number of rows or columns required to be inserted and then click on the appropriate icon. Creating a Simple Table A table is used to organize information into an easy-to-read format of horizontal rows and vertical columns. Enter your text. We have created a table with 2 rows and 5 columns. Select “Insert Below” to insert a row below the current row. Shifting Cells: You may shift a few cells or a complete row or column. Click on the arrow at the bottom right of the “Rows & Columns” group. Entering data: Click on a cell and enter your data. In the “Insert Cells” window. In the “Rows & Columns” group. Now let us insert a cross-reference for this reference. say “For your information. Inserting a Table: To insert a table. select “Shift Cells Right” and click “OK”. Your table is displayed on the screen. You may now press the “Ctrl” key and click on the caption to see the captioned picture. You see that the data has been moved to the right and a new blank column has been inserted. place the cursor on the top left corner and drag with your mouse to the new location. Similarly. Now click “Close”. Under “For which caption:” click on the appropriate caption and then click “Insert”. Click “OK”. enter the Table size in respect of number of rows and columns. In the “Caption” window. Under “Table Tools”. Select some cells which you would like to shift. Press “Tab” to move to the next cell. select “Insert Above” to insert a row above the current row. click on the “Layout” tab. drag the resize handle at the bottom right corner of the table to an appropriate location. Inserting additional rows and columns: To insert additional rows or columns at a later stage.the “Captions” group on the “References” tab. select “Figure” as “Reference type” and “Entire Caption” as “Insert reference to” from the respective drop-down lists. This displays the caption near your text. see “.This handle appears whenever the mouse pointer rests over the table. Position your cursor at an appropriate location. enter your caption. To insert multiple rows or columns. In the “Cross-reference” window. Select “Cross-reference” from the “Captions” group on the “References” tab. Moving a table: To move your table. click in the table. In the “Insert Table” window. select the position of the caption and press “OK”. Sizing a table: To quickly change the overall table size. select “Table” in the “Tables” group on the “Insert tab. You may drag with your mouse to specify the dimensions of the table or click “Insert Table”. “Insert Left” inserts a column to the left and “Insert Right” inserts a column to the right.
In the “Table Styles” group. click “Select”. Now. You may select the cells. and then click “Select Table”. you may make your selection. click the Layout tab. Simply click “OK” to see a sorted list. Select the first column and click the “Center” icon in the “Paragraph” group Borders: You may specify the border style for your table. let us leave the default options in the “Sort Text” window unchanged. The available auto formats consist of a combination of fonts. In the window that comes up.Formatting a table: This is similar to formatting a document. select the text and then click the “Sort” icon in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. For this click on the arrow next to the “Borders” icon and select “No Border”. click the “Design” tab. Under “Table Tools”. Under “Table Tools”. Click “OK”. Sorting a List: The “Sort” feature and various sorting options can also be used for non-tabled text. You can see that the data in the table is now sorted by Coach Number. Click in the table. In the “Sort” window. colors. 54 | P a g e . patterns. Move the pointer over the table until you see a four headed arrow at the top left corner. In the “Table Styles” group. Let us sort data contained in the time table document displayed. Using table Styles: A quicker way of applying formats to a table automatically is to use the Table Styles offered by Word. in the “Data” group. The same header and footer can be used throughout the document or different ones can be used in different sections. borders and alignment settings. on the “Layout” tab. you may select the options that you want. except that the formatting affects the selected cells only. click the “Design” tab. and use the different formatting options from the “Home” tab. data or numbers according to specified criteria in ascending or descending order. Now let us remove the borders of the table. Let us let the displayed field “Coach Number” remain as the field to sort by. For now. click “Sort”. click the arrow next to the “Borders” icon and select “Borders and Shading”. Under “Table Tools”. For this. Click in the table. Inserting a Header: Let us now add a header to the document you created previously. Inserting Headers and Footers Headers and footers provide information that typically appears at the top and bottom of each page in a document and helps the reader to locate information in a document. Sorting Data Word can quickly sort text. Click it to select the table. click on your choice in the “Style” box. Let us center the text in the first column of the table displayed. In the “Table” group. under “Table Tools”.
Under “Editing options”. A list of header styles is displayed. Similarly. click the Office Button. Enter the words “Style” and “Economy” in the second and third placeholders in the same way. it offers you the opportunity to make all similar formatting schemes identical to the format scheme that occurs most frequently. Press the “Tab” key twice and enter the name of your company in the header area. Now click on “Bottom of Page”. Now click “Close Header and Footer” on the “Design” tab and scroll down to see your footer. In the document displayed. special terms and abbreviations. right-click on it and select “Styles → Select Text with Similar Formatting”. The footer area becomes active. Now click “Advanced”. scroll down and click on “Bold Numbers 3”. Click the “Spelling & Grammar” icon in the “Proofing” group on the “Review” tab. Checking Formatting Inconsistencies: To turn on this feature. Word indicates formatting inconsistencies with a blue wavy underline. You may recall that you 55 | P a g e . The header area becomes active. You can see the words “East” and “West” highlighted as well. Click on the first one. Now. It identifies different formatting schemes that are very similar to each other. Select “Footer” in the “Header & Footer” group on the “Insert” tab and select the style “Blank (Three Columns)”. Respond appropriately to any other located errors. From the list displayed. Now click “Close Header and Footer” on the “Design” tab under “Header & Footer Tools”. For this. Inserting the page number at the bottom of the page overwrites a previously inserted footer.Select “Header” in the “Header & Footer” group on the “Insert” tab. and then click “Word Options”. select the word “North”. This is because all three words have been entered by applying a specific style. You now see the page number and number of pages displayed at the bottom right of the page. check the boxes against “Keep track of formatting” and “Mark formatting inconsistencies” and then click “OK”. select “Page Number” in the “Header & Footer” group on the “Insert” tab. inserting the page number at the top of the page overwrites a previously inserted header. Inserting the Page Number: You may insert the page number and the total number of pages in your document on every page of your document at a position of your choice. if any. Choose “Ignore All” for all proper names. Click in the first placeholder and enter the word “Comfort”. Checking the document After your document is ready. If the Format Consistency Checker finds at least two instances of a scheme that are identical. you may like to check it in respect of spelling and grammar as well as formatting consistency. if any. Click “Close Header and Footer” on the “Design” tab. Inserting a Footer: You may insert a “Footer” in the same way as the header.
The default column style is one column across the full width of the page. you can print a combination of page ranges and single pages. You may apply these column settings to the whole or part of the document. If you want. In the document displayed.learnt about applying styles in the assignment titled “Formatting Documents Automatically”. To print only selected pages in your document. You may select other settings for the size and display of the columns under “Width and spacing”. Selection: You may use this option to print only the selected areas or objects in the current document. select “All” to print the entire document. You may click on the number of columns you require. you need to click the Office Button and select “Print” from the menu. To print single pages. Your text is displayed in columnar format. Changing the Display of the Document Creating Newsletter Style Columns A newsletter is a common application for newspaper columns. use the format “3-6”. Click “OK” to print your document. Click “OK”. 10. To print a range of pages. Pages: You may use this option to print only the pages that you specify in the “Pages” field. 12”. Printing Selected Pages You know that to print a document. use the format “7. 8. Click “More Columns” to display the “Columns” window. In a newsletter. you may use either the “Current page” or “Pages” option under “Print Range”. narrow columns help the reader read the articles more quickly. Under “Print Range”. You may choose to ignore or remove the inconsistency from the different options displayed. Right click on this underline to display formatting suggestions. by using the format “3-6. Let us select “Two” as the number of columns under “Presets”. 9. Then. select “Columns” in the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. the word “South” has been entered using the size and font of an existing style without applying the style. Select the text that you wish to display in columnar format. Using Word Art 56 | P a g e . The “Print” window is displayed. 11”.
Then set the “Lines to drop” field as “2”. click “3-D Effects” once again and click the appropriate “Tilt” button on the right side of the displayed box. You can see that your text has been adjusted accordingly. Click “OK” to display the drop cap in your document. typically a file of names and addresses with a document to create new documents. Then click “OK”. Leave them unchanged for now. On the “Symbols” tab. The “Edit WordArt Text” window is displayed. select “Symbol” in the “Symbols” group on the “Insert” tab. font size and font style if you wish. Adding a Drop Cap Drop caps are the first character/s at the beginning of a paragraph that are enlarged. Let us use WordArt to enhance the heading of the document created. in the “Text” group. Click “More Symbols” to display the “Symbol” window. click on a symbol of your choice and click “Insert”. 3-D Effects: You may apply 3-D effects to your WordArt text. The symbol is inserted at the current cursor position. Then select “Drop Cap” in the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. Spacing: To modify the spacing between the characters of the WordArt. select “WordArt”. you may enhance your WordArt text. The names and 57 | P a g e . To select an effect. Let us use a drop cap in our document. You may change the font. The “WordArt Gallery” is displayed. Select the first letter “C” from the list of offers.WordArt is used to enhance your documents by changing the shape of text and adding special effects such as 3-D and shadows. click on “Spacing” in the “Text” group. Select the text “Special Offers”. On the “Insert” tab. Click on the “Format” tab under “WordArt Tools” to modify the WordArt as per your requirements. Now select “Tight”. Click on “Dropped” under “Position”. Inserting Symbols To insert Symbols or Special Characters in your document. You may also specify the font and the distance of the drop cap from your text. click on the left side of the displayed box. On the “Format” tab. Click on a style. Click “Drop Cap Options” to display the “Drop Cap” window. click “3-D Effects”. To change the direction of the 3-D effect. Then click “Close”. In this way. covering several lines. Using Mail Merge Using Mail Merge The Mail Merge feature combines a list of data.
The "New Address List" window is displayed. Previewing Letters: You now see a preview of the letter to the first person on your list. 58 | P a g e . Inserting Fields: Now. Enter the Title. Now click "Close". The "Save Address List" window appears. your letters to everyone are ready. A personal touch can be added by addressing each person by his individual name at the top of the document. Select "Type a new list" and then click "Create". click "Next" Creating a List: Let us create a list of people we wish to send our document to. enter the fields First Name and Last Name. Click "Next". you may add the items that you wish to be incorporated in it. The result is a personalized letter. Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. Set the document type to "Letters" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. First Name and Last Name of the first person. click "OK".addresses are entered (merged) into the document in the blank spaces provided. select "Use the current document". Starting the Wizard: Select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. You wish to mail your document about special offers to a large number of people. Now. Use the right and left arrows to preview letters to the others. Click "OK" in the "Mail Merge Recipients" window. Printing Mailing Labels Now that your letters are ready. You may make your selections from the windows that are displayed. Selecting the starting document: Now. Let us add the text at the beginning of our document as shown. then on "Insert". After you are done. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. say "List1" and click "Save". Enter your file name. Similarly. since you are ready with your letter. Enter a space. A wizard guides you and in a few steps. Make sure to insert a space between each field. You see that the field names are now inserted in your document. This is very simple using Word’s Mail Merge feature. you want to create labels for the envelopes. Click "New Entry" to add subsequent entries. Click after the word "Dear". We are now ready to insert the field names. Click on Title. Click "More items" to display the "Insert Merge Field" window. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". Printing or Editing Letters: You may now click "Print" to print your letters or click "Edit individual letters" to make changes to any letter. Click "Next" to complete the merge.
Then insert a space before each field in the first line. Here. you may add the names and address details on the labels. Now click “Close”. then on "Insert". The default location is the sub folder “My Data Sources” in the “Documents” folder. enter the fields First Name. Click on the name of the list in the box at the bottom and then click "Edit". Enter the Address Line 1. Similarly. move the Address Line 2 and City fields to the following lines. The "Label Options" window is displayed. Click "Update all labels". Address Line 1. Printing or Editing Labels: You may now click "Print" to print your labels or click "Edit individual labels" to make changes to any label. The "Mail Merge Recipients" window is displayed. Click "Next". Address Line 2 and City fields for all the people in the list. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. Arranging Fields: Let us now arrange the fields. Click "More items" to display the "Insert Merge Field" window. Select "Use an existing list" and then click "Browse". Click “Yes” to confirm the address details in the window that comes up. Selecting Recipients: You have a list of people you wish to send your document to. You see that the field names are inserted in your document. Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. Previewing Labels: You now see a preview of the labels. Click on the Title field. Similarly. For now. and the product number. select “Formtec” in the “Label vendors” box and "Formtec AT-7210" under Product Number and click "OK". Replicating Labels: You may copy the layout of the first label to the other labels. Now click “OK” and then click "Next". click "OK". Last Name. Now click "Label options". After you are done. Press “Enter” after the Last Name field to bring the Address Line 1 to the next line. the type of label product. Click on your list "List1" in the appropriate location and then click "Open". Address Line 2 and City. Set the document type to "Labels" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. Then click "Next". In the "Select Data Source" window. Inserting Fields: Now. Let us now include address details. Click "Next" to complete the merge.Starting the Wizard: In a new blank Word document. Use the right and left arrows to move between labels. navigate to the location of your list. Preparing and Printing Envelopes 59 | P a g e . You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. you may select the type of printer.
Merging for sending E-mails using Outlook You may also want to e-mail your document so as to reach out to a larger number of people. The "Envelope Options" window is displayed. Starting the Wizard: In a new blank Word document. Now click "Next". In the “Insert Address Block” window. Now click "Envelope options". Printing or Editing Envelopes: You may now click "Print" to print your envelopes or click "Edit individual envelopes" to make changes to any envelope. Click "Address block". your system must include a compatible e-mail program. For now. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. such as Microsoft Outlook. you may want to quickly address a single envelope instead of printing and pasting a label.Sometimes. Click "Next" to complete the merge. On the "Envelope options" tab. Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. as you did for labels. The "Mail Merge Recipients" window is displayed. Let us make envelopes for some of them. Selecting Recipients: You already have a list of people. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". Arranging your envelope: Let us use the "Address block" feature. Previewing Envelopes: You now see a preview of the first envelope. You may specify different settings related to the appearance and printing of the envelope on the "Envelope options" and "Printing options" tabs. You can use the Mail Merge task pane to create a group email distribution. Un-check the boxes in front of the names for which you do not want envelopes and then click "OK". 60 | P a g e . Use the right and left arrows to preview other envelopes. Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. You may use "More items" to insert any individual items you wish. simply click “OK”. click "Next". Set the document type to "E-mail messages" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. Set the document type to " Envelopes" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. Now. Starting the Wizard: Select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. Click “Next”. you make changes as required. In the "Select Data Source" window. select an appropriate Envelope size and click "OK". Select "Use an existing list" and then click "Browse". For this. This directly inserts all address fields on your envelope. click on "List1" and then click "Open". browse to the location of your list.
select the mail format you want to use. Just ensure that you have entered the e-mail addresses of the people on the list. Now click "Close". click on "List1" and then click "Open". under “Templates”. special formatting and styles. Click after the word "Dear". Let us create a new document based on an existing template. click "Next". Adding details: Just click on the parts marked in square brackets and enter your details. 61 | P a g e . Select "Use an existing list" and then click "Browse". The "Merge to E-mail" window is displayed. Under "Send records”. select "Use the current document". In the "Mail Merge Recipients" window. Previewing your messages: You now see a preview of the first e-mail message. since you are ready with your message. click "OK".Selecting the starting document: Now. key assignments. Click on First Name. Then. you may add the items that you wish to be incorporated in it. Selecting Recipients: You already have a list of people. Using Standard Templates Using a Template from Word Every Microsoft Word document is based on a template. verify that "Email_Address" is displayed. In the right left panel. page layout. Then click "OK". In the "Select Data Source" window. Brochures and Reports. menus. You may use any of the standard templates provided by Microsoft Word for your document such as Resumes. Click the Office Button and select “New” from the menu. then on "Insert". browse to the location of your list. In the "To" field. Inserting Fields: Now. In the "Mail format" field. Enter a space. You may make changes if required. Now click "Next". A template determines the basic structure for a document and contains document settings such as fonts. In the "Subject line" field. Click "More items" to display the "Insert Merge Field" window. Click "Next" to complete the merge. type the subject line you want to use for all the messages. Replace body text with your own text. A new document is displayed with pre-defined settings. click “Installed Templates” to see a list of templates. Use the right and left arrows to preview other messages. select the records you want to merge. Sending mails: You may now click "Electronic Mail" to send your e-mails. Now. click "Next". Let us use this list. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. Selecting the Template type: Click on the “Equity Letter” template and then press the “Create” button.
enter “Special Package” in the “File name” field and click “Save”. before you can start using some languages on your computer. If you see the “Classic View” displayed. Click on the plus sign in front of “Arabic (Saudi Arabia)”. In the “General” tab of the “Text Services and Input Languages” window. You can do this by configuring the language settings in the “Clock. let us add the Arabic language as an example. click “Control Panel Home”. SPREADSHEET Overview of Excel Introduction You have recently accepted a new job as an Administrative Assistant with All Saints High School. and Region” This displays the “Keyboards and Languages” tab of the “Regional and Language Options” window. you see a list of languages that Windows Vista has been configured to use. Now start typing your text. In the box at the bottom. Now. Your document is created based on the template you selected. Now. Language. To exit the Word application. Hence. you must configure Windows Vista to be able to use fonts specific to those languages. Using a Configured Language in Word Start the Microsoft Word application. click “OK” in the “Regional and Language Options” window. Click on the “EN” icon on the taskbar. Now click on the plus sign in front of the word “Keyboard” displayed below it. Click on the “Start” button. Now click “Word Document”. and Region” option of the “Control Panel”. In the “Save As” window. Click the Office Button and click on the arrow next to “Save As”. Word Processing in Other Languages Language Settings in Windows Vista Setting a language for the Windows Vista operating system: By default Windows Vista does not support entry in certain languages. You can see that your text appears in the new language. Now click “Change keyboards”. click the Office Button and then click the “Exit Word” button at the bottom right. In the “Add Input Language” window. Check the box next to the first keyboard type and click “OK”. the box at the top displays the default input language. Language. Click “Add” to add a new language. Then click “Control Panel”.Saving the document: You may save this file just like a normal document. Finally. click “Change keyboards or other input methods” under “Clock. Click on the “Arabic” language in the window that comes up. Currently the school records are maintained on paper 62 | P a g e . click “Apply” and then “OK” in the “Text Services and Input Languages” window.
You can create charts to represent data more effectively. whole or part of the spreadsheet can be printed. calculate and analyze data. The school has purchased new computers and it plans to computerize all administrative operations. .It is a general purpose electronic spreadsheet used to organize. . therefore there is no paper used. This data can be edited. new data can be added.All data is stored in the computer.forms and stored in file cabinets organized alphabetically. Although the information is well organized. update and delete data with a few keystrokes. The Microsoft Office user interface is uniform across most of its components. change. Features of Microsoft Excel 2007 Features of Microsoft Excel 2007: . . . You are responsible for maintaining the exam records of all students. You will prepare the Exam Record of students in Microsoft Excel 2007. A spreadsheet is like an accountant’s ledger. since you can add. and unwanted data can be deleted. consisting of rows and columns. Microsoft Excel is the world’s most widely-used spreadsheet program.It is very easy to manage. it still takes time to manually leaf through the folders to locate the information you need. It consists of three main parts: 1) The Office Button 2) The Quick Access toolbar 3) The Ribbon 63 | P a g e .You can create well-designed spreadsheets that produce accurate and professional-looking results. filled with numerical or textual data. It is mainly used for different type of calculations varying from very simple to complex. and is part of the Microsoft Office suite. Whenever a hard copy is required. An electronic spreadsheet or worksheet is made up of rows and columns. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Excel 2007”. To start the Microsoft Excel application. The User Interface The User Interface is the way in which you interact with your computer.
b) Groups within each tab that break a task into subtasks. filtering. For more details on the Microsoft Office User Interface. and Redo. Clicking the Office Button displays the “File” menu. The following Ribbon tabs are displayed in Excel: The “Home” tab has some of the most commonly used buttons. formatting your data. charts. This contains commands for opening. and hyperlinks. and other page settings. and closing a file. It is designed to put your most commonly used commands in a place where you can always find them. please refer to the following: Topic: Word Processing Lab: Creating and Editing a Document 64 | P a g e . It also has buttons that let you add comments to a worksheet and manage revisions. printing. You can specify margins. like those for cutting and pasting information. It consists of:a) Task-oriented tabs.The Office Button: This appears at the top-left corner of your screen. The Quick Access toolbar: This appears to the right of the Office Button near the top of the screen. The “Page Layout” tab helps you in getting your worksheet ready for the printer. The “Data” tab lets you get information from an outside source for analysis. like sorting. It also enables you to view several separate Excel spreadsheet files at the same time. Undo. The “Insert” tab lets you add special ingredients like tables. c) Command buttons in each group that carry out a command or display a menu of commands. and grouping. saving. The “View” tab lets you select from a variety of viewing options. It also includes tools for dealing with large amounts of information. displaying icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. and searching for important pieces of information with search tools. graphics. You will gradually learn to use the commands on all the tabs. The “Formulas” tab helps you build useful formulas that can resolve a great deal of problems. The “Review” tab contains proofing tools like spell check. paper orientation. The Ribbon: The Ribbon is a component of the Office Fluent user interface.
You can use the arrow keys to move left. Microsoft Excel automatically recalculates formulas when the cells that the formula depends on have changed. up or down. To move among the worksheets in your workbook.The number of the third row is obviously 3 and the name of the fifth column is E.… XFD and the rows are numbered from one onwards. Navigating the Excel Worksheet There are several methods for navigating a worksheet. the reference or address of the active cell appears in the Name Box. Cell address: The address of a cell is made up of two parts – the column name and the row number. Microsoft Office Excel 2007 supports up to 1 million rows and 16 thousand columns per worksheet. BB. To enable you to explore massive amounts of data in worksheets. The worksheet is divided into a grid of rows and columns. B. AB. The simplest way is to click the cell that you want to activate with the mouse. the address of that cell will be E3.048. chart sheets containing graphic pictures of your worksheet data. BA. the Excel 2007 grid is 1. C. …AZ. There are some keyboard shortcuts to navigate within the worksheet. It contains a collection of one or more worksheets and.… AA. At the bottom of the workbook window are tabs that give you instant access to other worksheets in the workbook. you need to click the worksheet tabs. use the vertical scroll bar on the right edge of the window or horizontal scroll bar at the bottom of the window. The columns are named as A. Each cell has its own address called the cell address. right. optionally. As you move from one cell to another.384 columns which works out to more than 17 billion cells. Suppose you want to refer to a cell in the third row and fifth column. To enter data in a cell. Excel also calculates workbooks each time they are opened. The intersection of a row and a column is called a cell. a single file or document is called a workbook. By default. A special feature of Excel is “AutoCalculate”. Specifically.Assignment: The User Interface Workbooks and Worksheets In Microsoft Excel 2007. 65 | P a g e . you must first move to the cell. To view the part of the worksheet that is currently not visible. Each worksheet can be used to organize different types of related information.576 rows by 16.
To activate a particular cell. When you finish entering data in one column. use the F5 function key or press “Ctrl+G”. You can also design and create your own workbook templates. Template: You may also create a new workbook using a template. a new blank Excel workbook is opened.. Click the Office Button and select “New”. A template file has an extension “. Balance Sheet. Now click “Create” in the “New Workbook” window. A template is a file that is provided by the application in a “ready to use” form.“Ctrl+End” to go to the cell in the last row and last column that contains data. Entering and Editing Data After you are presented with a blank worksheet. Click in cell A1 to activate it and type ‘Roll_No’ and press “Enter” to complete the entry. click in the cell you want to begin. activate cell B1 and repeat the same procedure as you did for column A. For example a Sales Report. you can enter data in it. Whenever you create a new workbook using a template. It is here that you will be entering the data. Expense Statement. The cell pointer will move down one row.xltx”. move to a cell where you want to enter data and type the entry using the keyboard. To enter data.Use the Home key to move to column A of the current row . etc. CREATING AND EDITING Creating a New Workbook When you first start Excel.Page Up and Page Down keys can be used to move up or down one screen . It includes predefined settings that can be used as a pattern to create many different types of workbooks. There is another way to create a new blank worksheet. Continue typing the data in column A as shown in the accompanying figure. Type the address of the cell you want to make active and click “OK”.Use “Ctrl+Home” to go the cell A1 and . To select a group of cells. the same default settings are used. 66 | P a g e . drag your cursor and release it when you have reached the end of the selection.
Below the Ribbon. The shape of the cursor will change to a double sided arrow pointing to the right and left.While entering the data in the “Name” column. You can use the formula bar to enter and edit data. Double click on the boundary while the cursor is a double sided arrow. To remove individual characters. Resizing the Formula or Name Box: To make it easier to view and edit a large amount of text in a cell. To accommodate long names. column C. Leave it as it is for now. or "X" to roll it back. you will see that the data overflows into the next column. We will see later on. Place the mouse on the boundary between the columns. For this. This is particularly useful when a cell contains a large amount of information. Now move the cursor to the point at which you want to edit the text. if you make a typing mistake. you see the Name Box on the left and the Formula Bar on the right. When you start typing in the formula box. that is. move your mouse over the bottom of the formula box until the pointer changes to a vertical twoheaded arrow and then drag with your mouse to where you want it. double-click on the cell. you can also resize the name box. You may make the changes you require. instead of editing directly in your worksheet. press "Delete" for characters to the right of the insertion point and "Backspace" for characters to the left. The width of the column will be automatically adjusted to the maximum length of characters in the column. To adjust the width of the name box move your mouse between the name box and the formula box until the pointer changes to a horizontal two-headed arrow and then drag with your mouse to where you want it. Click the checkmark to confirm your entry. use the “Backspace” key on the keyboard to erase the wrong character typed and continue typing. Correcting typing mistakes: While entering the data. To overwrite the contents of a cell simply make the cell active and type whatever you want to. To adjust the height of the formula box. You can also click and drag the mouse to adjust the width of the column. Enter data in all five columns as shown. Changing Column Width Now you will adjust the width of the column B. When the cursor 67 | P a g e . a checkmark and an "X" icon appear just to the left of the box. The “Delete” key on the keyboard can be used to clear the contents of a cell. You may wish to change only a part of the text in a cell. you can adjust the size of the formula box in the formula bar. how to adjust the column width. Move the mouse to the boundary between column B and column C in the bar where column names are given on top.
click the Office Button and select “Close”. Release the mouse when you reach cell E11. To do so. The name of the workbook appears in the “Title Bar”. you must make place on the worksheet. click and drag the mouse to widen the column as much as needed. Now close the file. Release the mouse when you reach cell E11. save it. You now have to add a heading to the worksheet. From the window that is displayed. you must make place on the worksheet. click the Office Button and select “Open” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+O”. To do so. As soon as you have opened a new file. click the Office Button and select “Save As”. Saving. It is a good practice to save a file often to prevent data loss due to unforeseen circumstances like power failure. You can also specify the width of the column by clicking on a column and selecting “Format → Column Width” in the “Cells” group on the “Home” tab. “Ctrl+S”. Closing and Opening a Workbook Now that all the data has been entered. Select the data from the cells to be moved and then select “Cut” in the “Clipboard” 68 | P a g e . click the Office Button and select “Save” or use the keyboard shortcut. Then click and drag the mouse up to the last cell containing data to be moved. You may also use the “Cut” and “Paste” commands to move cells.shape changes.xlsx”. Enter the column width and press “OK”. Keep saving it as you work. Another way to save is file is. To save a file. by placing the mouse in cell A1. The background color of the cells changes as you drag the mouse. Moving Cells You now have to add a heading to the worksheet. To close the file. The background color of the cells changes as you drag the mouse. by placing the mouse in cell A1. to click the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. To open an existing workbook. Then type ‘Exam Record’ in the box in front of the label “File name” and then click on the “Save” button. Then click and drag the mouse up to the last cell containing data to be moved. browse to select the file you want to open. Select all the data you have entered. to save it again. Now click “Open”. you must save the file. Once a file has been saved. The height of a row can be changed in a similar manner. Your file is stored with the extension “. Select all the data you have entered.
Using Formulas Formula: A formula is nothing but an expression that performs calculation on data contained in the worksheet. Click on the cell where you want to move your data and then click on the upper part of the “Paste” icon in the “Clipboard” group on the “Home” tab. To do this in Excel. a formula always begins with an equal sign (=) and uses arithmetic operators like +. addition and subtraction. division. as shown in the figure. including a description of each item. type ‘Marks’. In regular Mathematics. multiplication. Merge and center ‘Marks’ above the three subject marks as shown in the accompanying figure. and ^ to perform addition. When you begin typing a formula. Excel displays a drop-down list of matching items. In Excel. You will soon see how to bring the heading to the center of the data. A formula is evaluated from left to right and in the following order: percent. percent and exponentiation respectively. Select the cells C8 to E8 and right-click on the selection. Centering and Merging Cells To merge and centre headings:Type the headings in appropriate cells as shown in the accompanying figure. press Tab to enter it into your formula. *. Total Marks secured = Marks of Subject 1 + Marks of Subject 2 + Marks of Subject 3. 69 | P a g e . A moving border appears around the selection. one heading at a time You have to now insert cells to make place so that we can give a combined heading for the three subjects. they are evaluated from left to right. When you see the item you want. -. Select cells starting with A1 to E1 and click on the “Merge & Center” icon in the “Alignment” group on the “Home” tab. Formula AutoComplete: The Formula AutoComplete feature makes entering formulas very simple. Move the cursor down and type ‘=C10+D10+E10’ and press “Enter”. %. You now have to calculate the total marks for each student. all the selected cells are merged and the heading is centered. subtraction. The total of the marks for the three subjects is displayed in cell F10 as 248. As soon as you click on the icon. you have to make use of a formula. Move the data for ‘Roll_No’ and ‘Name’ one row down. Select “Insert” from the pop-up window and select “Shift cells down” from the “Insert” window. Let the text overflow into the neighboring cells. Type ‘Total’ in cell F8. If a formula contains operators of the same precedence. /. In the cell above Sub1. Exam Record and Class VIII – B. multiplication and division.group on the “Home” tab. Do the same for the other headings – . exponentiation.
But you don’t have to type the formula every time.You have now to calculate the percent marks for each student.to cancel the moving border. In the Formula Bar. Alternatively. another workbook or in a totally different application. Select all cells from F11 to G19. A non-adjacent range is two or more cells or ranges that are not adjoining. Type ‘Percent’ in cell G8.66667. a range. all related formulas are recalculated automatically. An adjacent range is a block of adjoining cells. Thus you can change the value in a cell and see the effect on other related cells. Duplicating Cell Contents You have to calculate the ‘Total’ and ‘Percent’ marks for all students in the same way. you may use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+C” or select “Copy” from the “Clipboard” group on the “Home” tab. The Percent marks for the three subjects are displayed in cell G10 as 82. You can see that the value in the “Percent” field is changed automatically. another worksheet. The formula for adding marks and calculating percent is copied from cells F10 and G10 respectively and pasted into all selected cells. Select cells F10 and G10. It shows “=C11+D11+E11”. This is called “Relative Cell Referencing”. You may also use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+V” or select “Paste” from the “Clipboard” group on the “Home” tab. can also be copied and pasted in a similar manner on the same worksheet. that is. Percentage = Marks secured multiplied by 100 and divided by the Maximum Marks. The formula can be copied and pasted in the other cells. This indicates that the contents have been copied. observe the formula you have pasted in cell F11. A moving border appears around the selection. What-If Analysis: If you change one or more numbers in your spreadsheet. 70 | P a g e . Range: A range is a selection of two or more cells. Right click in anywhere in the selection. The contents of several continuous cells. Let us change the marks of one student. Move the cursor down and type ‘=F10 * (100/300)’ which is the formula to calculate percentage and then press “Enter”. press Esc key. Select “Paste” from the pop-up window. Right-click anywhere in the selection Select “Copy” from the pop-up window. This is called “What-If Analysis”. In regular Mathematics. The cells in a range can be adjacent or non-adjacent. The formula in cell F12 is “=C12+D12+E12”. The row numbers have changed relative to the positions of the cells containing the formula.
The grades will be given as follows: Percent marks greater than or equal to 80. The result of the function is displayed in cell I10. In regular English. A grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 60. IF(G10>=60."PASS". In Excel. the student will be declared “PASSED”. A+ grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 75. IF(G10>=35. "A+". 71 | P a g e . =IF(G10>=80. “Copy” this function and “Paste” it in the cells from I11 to I19. Click on the cell A11 and drag to the cell A18. The grades for all students are displayed. Now select C14:F21. "FAIL"))))) Press “Enter”. press the “Ctrl” key and then click on the next two cells. The results for all students are displayed. IF(G10>=50. "C". The condition for a student to pass is that he must secure at least 35 percent marks. It is possible to nest multiple IF functions within one Excel formula. This is called “nested IF”. You have to decide whether a student has passed or failed. Click on the first cell. Press “Enter”. Using Functions A “Function” is a prewritten formula that performs calculations automatically."Pass". "B". B grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 50. You now have to give Grades to the students according to their marks. C grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 35. Let us learn to use a nested IF this time. =IF(G10>=35. This means a new “IF” statement is started inside another “IF” statement. Type the heading ‘Grade’ in cell I8 and type the function as shown in cell I10. “Copy” this function and “Paste” it in the cells from H11 to H19. an adjacent range is specified by giving the starting and ending cell addresses separated by a colon (:). you would write this condition as follows: If percentage is greater than or equal to 35. "A". otherwise he would be declared “FAILED”.) like A4.In formulas. You will again use the “IF” function to do so. Pass grade All others fail. "Fail"). you will use the “IF” function. C7. A non-adjacent range is specified by giving the cell addresses separated by a comma (. E9. The result of the function is displayed in cell H10. Let us select the range A11:A18 using the mouse. Type the heading ‘Result’ in cell H8 and type the function as shown in cell H10. IF(G10>=75.
the “Statistical” category will already be selected. It is written for you by Excel as =MAX (F10:F19) Now. and B24 respectively. To find the average marks. you have to use the “AVERAGE” function. Activate cell C23. and type ‘=Average (F10:F19)’ in it. Observe the formula bar to see how the function is written. click in the drop down box next to “Or select a category”. From the window that opens. Type ‘Maximum marks’. you can make use of some statistical functions. Type the range as ‘F10:F19’ next to “Number1” and click “OK”. The “Function Arguments” window is displayed. select “Statistical” from the “Or select a category” list. You can simply type the function you want to use in the cell.Now to find the maximum. The result is displayed in cell C24. to find the minimum marks. Press “Enter” to complete the entry. From the “Select a function” list. Select “Insert Function” in the “Function Library” group on the “Formulas” tab. Observe the formula bar to see how the function is written. If the category is something else. B23. From the “Select a function” list. Activate cell C24. The maximum number in the range is displayed in cell C22 as 262. The minimum number in the range is displayed in cell C23. Since the “MAX” function has been most recently used. Type the range as ’F10:F19’ next to”Number1” and click “OK”. you have to use “MIN” function. ‘Minimum marks’ and ‘Average marks’ in cells B22. select “MAX” from the alphabetical list of functions and click “OK”. The Function Arguments window is displayed. activate it. select “MIN” from the alphabetical list of functions and click “OK”. To insert a function in cell C22. It is written for you by Excel as =MIN (F10:F19) There is another way of using functions. 72 | P a g e . Here you can enter the numbers or the range from which you want to find the maximum number. minimum and average marks scored by the students. Enter the numbers or the range from which you want to find the minimum number. Select the “Statistical” category. Select “Insert Function” in the “Function Library” group on the “Formulas” tab. You can type all the functions in the same manner whenever you want to use them.
Now select “Thick Box Border” from the displayed list. While the headings are still selected. Click “OK”. You can choose from a variety of predefined styles by selecting “Cell Styles” in the “Styles” group on the “Home” tab. You want the percent marks to be displayed with only two decimal places. Changing the font color of the headings: Select all headings and click on the arrow next to the “Font Color” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. font set. To select all headings. 73 | P a g e . Decimal Places: The percent marks are displayed with many decimal places. To bring the headings to the center. Let us see how we can enhance our worksheet which looks quite plain. Adding a thick border: Select the range of cells from A8 to H19 and click on the arrow next to the “Borders” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. select range A8:H8 and range C9:E9. The accompanying figure shows an enhanced view of the worksheet.Formatting the Worksheet You can make your spreadsheet look more coordinated and professional by using Styles and Themes. Alignment: To bring the headings to the center. Select “Number” from the “Category” list and change “Decimal places” to 2. “Styles” are individual designs that can be applied to different parts of the document. A window of colors is displayed. The numbers in the “Percent” range are displayed with two decimal places. Select “Bodoni MT Black”. click on the “Center” icon in the “Alignment” group on the “Home” tab. A list of fonts is displayed. Now click on “Format Cells” and from the window that opens. Select “Format” in the “Cells” group on the “Home tab. you must first select all of them. click in cell A1. Hold down the Ctrl key and click in cells A4. A thick border is displayed around the entire range. click on the “Number” tab. A theme consists of a color palette. You may use the “Align Text Left” or “Align Text Right” icons to move the headings to the left or right if you wish. then click on the “Bold” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. You may access the theme gallery by selecting “Themes” in the “Themes” group on the “Page Layout” tab. All the headings are centered. The font and the font size of the heading are changed. “Themes” are universal designs that unify all of the styles. you can make them bold. The font color of all headings is displayed with the color Blue. Changing the “Font” and “Font Size” of the headings: Select cell A1 and click on the “Font” list in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. If the headings are not selected. select them first. Select “Blue”. and effects. Select the range of Percent marks. Then click on the “Font Size” list and select 14. With the Ctrl key still held down. A5.
Highlighting: To highlight the range of “Maximum, Minimum and Average Marks”, select the range B22:C24. Click on the “Fill Color” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. Select the color “Yellow”. The cell range is filled with the color Yellow. Indenting: To adjust the indenting of the contents of a cell, click on the cell. Then, in the “Alignment” group on the “Home” tab, click on the “Increase Indent” or “Decrease Indent” icon as required. Working with Graphics You now have to insert the logo of the School. To do so, activate cell G3 and select “Clip Art” in the “Illustrations” group on the “Insert” tab. In the “Clip Art” panel at the right, type ‘concepts’ in the “Search for:” box. Check in the boxes before “My Collections” and “Office Collections” in the drop down list of “Search in”. Click in the box before “Clip Art” in the drop down list of “Results should be” and click “Go”. Resizing the graphic image: Click on the “Bull’s Eye” image. It will be bigger in size. You have to resize it so that it occupies less space and looks proportionate to the rest of the data on the page. To resize it, click on the lower right corner handle of the image, and drag the mouse so that the image becomes smaller in size. Release the mouse when the image becomes the desired size. Entering the Date Inserting a row: Click on row number 7 on the left side. Right click and select “Insert”. One Row will be inserted. To insert multiple rows, select an equal number of rows. This means that when you select four rows, four more rows are inserted. Activate cell A7 and type ‘Date:’. Then place the cell pointer in cell B7 and select “Insert Function” in the “Function Library” group on the “Formulas” tab. Select “Date & Time” as category. Select “Date” as function and click “OK”. Type the “Year” as ‘2007’, “Month” as ‘02’ and “Day” as ‘21’ in the “Function Arguments” window. Click “OK”. The date is displayed as “2/21/2007” in cell B7. Formatting the date: To change the date format, right-click in cell B7 and select “Format cells”. The “Format Cells” window is displayed. Click on the “Number” tab. Select “Date” from the “Category” list and select the “Type” as “14-Mar-01”. The sample format is visible in the “Sample” box. Click “OK”. The date is displayed in the format 21-Feb-07. Previewing and Printing
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The worksheet is now ready. You can print it. Before getting a hard copy, you can preview the worksheet. If you do not like the way it looks, you can make more changes. To preview your worksheet, click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. The “Print Preview” tab appears when you view the worksheet in the Print Preview mode. Click “Close Print Preview” in the “Preview” group to close the preview. Everything seems to be OK. But the logo of the school needs to be moved up, in line with the school’s name. Moving the graphic image: Click and drag the “Bull’s Eye” image so that it is in line with the school’s name. Release the mouse when done. The image can also be moved by using the arrow keys on the keyboard by selecting it first. Click on the image to select it. Use the right arrow key to move the graphic image to the right, left arrow key to move it to the left and so on. Printing the worksheet: Click the Office Button and select “Print → Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. Select the printer name from the list in front of “Name”. Under “Print Range” enter “Pages From” as ‘1’ To ‘1’. Select “Active Sheet” under “Print what” and click “OK”. Sorting Data Excel can quickly sort text, data or numbers according to specified criteria in ascending or descending order. In the worksheet displayed you can see a list of people along with their ages. Let us sort this list according to the names. Click in any of the cells containing names and then click “Sort & Filter” in the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab. To sort the list in ascending order of names, click “Sort A to Z”. To sort it in descending order, click “Sort & Filter” and select “Sort Z to A”. Now, to sort this list according to the ages of the people, click in a cell containing an age and follow the same procedure. When you click the “Sort & Filter” icon, you see the options “Sort Smallest to Largest” and “Sort Largest to Smallest”. This is because previously it was an alphabetic list and now it is a list containing numbers that is being sorted. To sort the list in ascending order of ages, select “Sort Smallest to Largest”. Now if you had to sort the data in the worksheet containing student marks that you previously created in descending order of roll numbers, you would need to follow a slightly different procedure. This is because this worksheet contains headings and information other than simply data. First select all columns which contain data and then select “Sort & Filter → Sort Largest to Smallest” in the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab. Using Charts
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Learning about Charts
You have to present the exam results of the students of class VIII-B. The most easy and effective manner to do this would be to present it in the form of a chart. A chart is a visual representation of data and conveys the information in an easy to understand and attractive manner. There are different types of charts available in Microsoft Excel 2007 such as Column charts, Line charts, Bar charts, Area charts, Bubble charts and many more. You may select a suitable type depending on the data you want to chart and the emphasis you want the chart to impart. Here you will learn to make a single data series chart. Parts of a Chart: A chart has different parts as labeled in the accompanying image. Chart Title – The tile of the chart “Student Vs Marks”. Value Axis – The Y-axis on which the value is shown. Value Axis Title – The title “Marks”. Category Axis – The X-axis on which the category for which you have charted the values is shown. Category Axis Title – The title “Name” Chart Area – The entire area on which the chart is drawn. Legend – The legend, as in a map, shows which color is used to represent what: “Series 1” in this case. Creating a Chart To present the marks of all students as a chart, select the “Name” range (B11 to B20), hold down the “Ctrl” key and select the “Total” range (F11 to F20), without selecting the titles in cells B9 and F9. On the “Insert” tab, in the “Charts” group, select “Column”. Now select “Clustered Column”, the first image from the Chart sub-types displayed. You can now see the chart on your worksheet. You can make changes to your chart and enhance its appearance using various “Chart Tools”. If you do not see “Chart Tools” displayed on the Ribbon, click in the chart area to ensure that the chart is selected. Now, under “Chart Tools”, on the “Design” tab, select a suitable style from the “Chart Styles” group. Now let us add more details in our chart. For this we shall use the “Labels” group on the “Layout” tab under “Chart Tools”. Click “Chart Title” and select “Above Chart”. Now type the title ‘Student Vs Marks’. As you type, it appears
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Press “Enter”. Now. Your chart appears as a bar chart. Data Labels are used to label the elements of a chart with their actual data values. Modifying a Chart You may decide that you want to plot only the marks of Subject 1 in the chart. The “Select Data Source” window is displayed. select “Axis Titles → Primary Vertical Axis Title → Rotated Title”. type “Names” and press “Enter”. When the mouse pointer changes to a two-headed arrow. For this. to enter the description for the X-axis. drag to a suitable size. if some spelling mistakes have been made.in the Formula Bar at the top. select the cells that contain the data that you want to appear in the chart. Managing a Workbook Correcting Errors While entering data. To enter the description for the Y-axis. Now click “OK”. select it by clicking in the chart area. On the “Design” tab under “Chart Tools”. Select “Bar” in the left pane of the “Change Chart Type” window and then click “Clustered Bar” in the right pane. the spelling checker locates all misspelled words and proposes the correct spelling. Now click on the Office Button and then select “Print”. Select “Data Labels → Outside End”. Click on the “Format” tab under “Chart Tools”. 77 | P a g e . type “Marks” and press “Enter”. you can even change the Chart Type. select the data in the “Name” column and “Subject 1” column and click “OK” in the “Select Data Source” window. This time. select “Axis Titles → Primary Horizontal Axis Title → Title Below Axis”. You may explore the various other options on the “Format” tab to further enhance your chart. select “Change Chart Type” in the “Type” group. To print only the chart. click on the “Design” tab under “Chart Tools”. drag it to a position of your choice. You can now see the actual marks of each student. on your worksheet. You may enhance the appearance of your chart. After a chart has been created. Moving the chart: Click on the chart and when the mouse pointer changes to a four-headed arrow. The chart title is displayed above your chart. You can see that the chart displays the marks of Subject 1. Select a Shape Style from the “Shape Styles” group. Then select a WordArt Style from the “WordArt Styles” group. Now click “Select Data” in the “Data” group. Similarly. Sizing the chart: Click on the center of any side of the chart or at a corner.
Select “Spelling” in the “Proofing” group on the “Review” tab or use the keyboard shortcut “F7”. If the spelling is correct but shown as incorrect for some reason. The range copied from Sheet1 is pasted in cell A1 of Sheet2. You may also move or copy sheets with the mouse. Moving or copying sheets: Right click on the Sheet1 tab. Some words. The “Move or Copy” window is displayed. the spelling checker moves to the next word. Working with Sheets You want to make the exam record for another class now. In the “To book” list. The Sheet2 will be displayed. If a spelling is found to be wrong. If there are more than one occurrences of the same word spelt wrongly. A whole new worksheet with the same layout but with different data is ready. Select the “Paste” option. You may copy a sheet to another workbook. You can use the same format of the worksheet. From the “Before sheet” list.. On the sheet tabs below. click on the “Change All” button. You can also select the sheet before which you want to insert it. You may make changes in this sheet for another class. such as proper nouns which are not really errors may be shown as spelling mistakes. a message saying so is displayed. click in the “Create a copy” check box. When you click on any button such as “Change”.Place the cell pointer at the beginning of your worksheet or from wherever you want to start checking for errors. When the checking is completed for the entire worksheet. Select the “Move or Copy” option. Right-click on the selection and click on “Copy”. You may add these words to the dictionary by clicking the “Add to Dictionary” button. Select all headings in the range A1 to H10. All you need to do is to add data. click on “Ignore All” or “Ignore Once” whichever is appropriate. If you change a word which you did not want to. click on Sheet2. select the correct word from the suggestions list and click on the “Change” button. To copy the sheet. The “Spelling” window is displayed and one by one every word in your worksheet is checked. options are displayed in the “Suggestions” box from the spelling checker’s dictionary. select the sheet. Right-click in cell A1 of Sheet2. In that case. Simply copy them from one sheet to another. You do not have to type all the headings once again. Click a sheet you want move and drag it to the place you want to copy it and release the mouse 78 | P a g e . select the book you want to move the sheet to. click on “Undo Last”. “Ignore” etc.
Autofill recognizes and automatically extends data and alphanumeric headings as far as you specify. All the range you selected will be filled with names of months starting with January. To deselect the sheets. a number of options are displayed in the pop-up window. If you select “Insert”. a solid black triangle appears along with a blank page icon. the “Insert” window is displayed. another copy of the sheet is made. When you copy. Simply type the new name. the sheet will be moved to the new location. a chart or something else. You can name the sheet accordingly. You will see a black plus sign. it becomes difficult to remember what data is stored on each sheet. select all sheets. The name will be highlighted. hold down the “Ctrl” key while you drag a sheet. Other such autofill entries are . right click in any of the sheet tabs and select “Ungroup Sheets”. The name of the sheet is changed. For this. If you select “Delete”. 2000. delete. you can insert. A ‘+’ sign appears on the page icon while copying the sheet. Through the options in this window. Double-click on the name of the sheet.days of the week in short. When you release the mouse. from which you can select whether you want to insert a worksheet. move or copy. etc. Absolute reference: An absolute reference is a cell or range reference used in a formula whose location does not change when a formula is copied. to give you an idea of what data is stored on the sheet. To stop 79 | P a g e . Manage a sheet: When you right-click on the sheet tab. the current sheet will be deleted after confirmation. You may change the tab color of sheets to distinguish between the data stored on each sheet. This is the fill handle. rename. Move the mouse to the corner of the selection. number series like 1000. The number of the copy appears in brackets in the sheet tab Naming a sheet: When you have many sheets. Drag the mouse as far as you want the cells to fill and release the mouse. You can select all sheets by selecting the “Select all sheets” option.button. Using Autofill: Autofill is a feature of Microsoft Excel 2007 that makes entering a series of headings easier by logically repeating and extending the series. 3000. and change the tab color. To copy a sheet with the mouse. without opening the sheets. right-click on a sheet tab and select “Tab Color”. While you drag. Type the entry ‘January’ in a cell. names of the months in short.
Managing Large Sheets You already know the massive size of the worksheet in Microsoft Excel 2007. 20% of the Unit Test marks are to be calculated. more data will fit on the screen and vice versa. type a $ (dollar) character before the column and row number. the cell reference does not change. This is called referencing multiple sheets. Sheet1 has the value 100 in cell A1 and Sheet2 has the value 200 in cell A1. you have made the column and the row references absolute. By adding ‘$’ before ‘O’ and ‘2’. When a formula containing an absolute cell reference is copied to another row or column in the worksheet. enter “=Sheet1!A1+Sheet2! A1” and press “Enter”. To split the window vertically. Although the formula has been copied. to calculate 20% marks. Referencing multiple sheets: While working you may have to reference data from more than one sheet. You may copy the Roll Nos and the Names. while rows or columns in the non-scrolled area remain visible. the reference of cell O2 has remained constant. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the top row. At such times. For the Final exam. vertically or both horizontally and vertically. Splitting Panes: You can split the window either horizontally. you can change the display percentage of the sheet. But the problem comes when you need to refer to some other part while working in one part of the sheet. Thus “Sheet1!A1” refers to cell A1 on Sheet1. starting with cell ‘J1’.the automatic relative cell references. in the cell A1. Let us now go to Sheet3. At such times. Select “Zoom” in the “Zoom” group on the “View” tab. activate cell M6 and type ‘=L6 * $O$2’ in it. You can work in any part of the worksheet at any time. there can be data in a number of rows and columns all of which cannot be seen at the same time. You can then scroll in one area of the worksheet. Select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. Zooming the worksheet: In Microsoft Excel 2007. Now. This makes the cell reference absolute. Now. In the zoom window you may select a zoom percentage of your choice. If you reduce the percentage. Now both panes have a common vertical scroll bar but 80 | P a g e . you can view two areas of a worksheet and lock rows or columns in one area by splitting or freezing panes. You can see that the sum of the figures on the other two sheets is displayed here. but data for marks will have to be typed. Copy this formula from cell M6 to the remaining students and check the formula for each student in the “Formula Bar”. Here. Prepare the data as shown in the accompanying figure in the neighboring space.
you can see the information in those rows and/or columns at all times. To freeze the left pane of the window. You can see that three panes have appropriate vertical and horizontal scroll bars. if you click on the top left cell. select the appropriate options from those displayed on selection of “Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. Select “Freeze Panes → Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. selecting “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab results in a horizontal and vertical split. When a window is split both horizontally and vertically. or both. Let us assume that you wish to have the headings and roll numbers & names of the students visible always. 81 | P a g e . To freeze the top pane of the window. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the leftmost column. you can freeze either. you can see that the frozen panes are visible at all times. Moving using the horizontal scrollbar keeps the column numbers in the frozen pane unchanged. To remove the freeze. Freezing panes: With the “Freeze Panes” option. To split the window both horizontally as well as vertically. For this. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the top row. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the leftmost column. click the cell below and to the right of the row and column you want to freeze.individual horizontal scroll bars to enable you to move separately in the two panes. To split the window horizontally. To freeze the top row or first column. place the cell pointer in the appropriate cell where you want the split to appear. Now both panes have a common horizontal scroll bar but individual vertical scroll bars to enable you to move separately in the two panes. Moving using the vertical scrollbar keeps the row numbers in the frozen pane unchanged. select “Freeze Panes → Unfreeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. the top left pane freezes. regardless of where you are in the worksheet. Also. You can freeze information in the top and left panes of the window only. Select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. As you scroll through your worksheet. select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab once again. rows and columns. This means that. To remove a split. Select “Freeze Panes → Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. Select “Freeze Panes → Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. Select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab.
If you have say 15 pages in your workbook. Click in the “By changing cell” field and then click C16. how much he should have scored in the failed subject to score pass marks. you often come across situations. Activate cell F16. You now want to find out. type ‘105’ (the passing total marks) in the “To value” box. The default setting is “Portrait”. Select “WhatIf Analysis → Goal Seek” in the “Data Tools” group on the “Data” tab. During analysis. where you have to see the effects of changing selected factors in a worksheet. you can change the orientation of the page so that data can be fitted accordingly. the cell with the marks below pass level. The page number is usually given as the footer. Student with Roll Number 6 has failed. If there is more data to be fitted on one page. but not the input value the formula needs to get that result. Header and Footer: Before you print your data. It is a method which aids you in forecasting values. The marks in the failed subject are adjusted to 35. For example. you want to find out. If the data is not properly visible on the page. The header is usually the title you would give to the page. Click “OK”. if a student has failed. The value in cell C16 is adjusted to get the target value. Footers and Print Settings Page orientation: Depending on the area of the worksheet you want to print. you can change the page orientation to landscape. Click “OK”. you may change page orientation to “Landscape” by selecting “Orientation” in the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. The text that appears in the bottom margin of the page is called the Footer. containing the “Total” marks of the student. You can do this with Goal seek.Forecasting Values Goal Seek: One of the features of Microsoft Excel is analyzing data. If you know the result that you want from a formula. you can use the “Header & Footer” option to add the same header and footer on each page. The “Goal Seek Status” window is displayed. The text that appears in the top margin of the page is called the Header. The header and footer give additional information about the data on the page. how many marks he should have scored in that subject so that he would have secured a Pass grade. You can see that he has scored very poor marks in one of the three subjects. Headers. you may decide that the pages of your worksheet must have a header and footer. 82 | P a g e . you can use the Goal Seek feature. Click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. In the “Goal Seek” window.
click on “Page Number” in the “Header & Footer Elements” group. This displays another box to the right. Check the layout and close the preview by clicking “Close Print Preview” in the “Preview” group. Click on the Office Button and select “Print”. For this. a Graphics Presentation Program may also suggest layouts and color and animation schemes for different types of presentations and offer professionally designed templates to help you to create a presentation that is sure to hold the attention of your audience. A box is displayed at the center of the header area. select the name of the printer from the list in the “Name” field. With a few keystrokes you can quickly change. This will insert the date. text. movies and sounds. On the “Design” tab under “Header & Footer Tools”. You can print selected sheets in the workbook. We shall insert the page number in the box displayed. charts and tables. click on “Active sheet(s)” and then click “OK”. correct and update the presentation. Press “Tab” and then press the “Esc” key to complete creation of the footer. Click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”.Select “Header & Footer” in the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. Printing selected worksheets: You do not always need to print the entire workbook. Use the “Ctrl” key to select more than one sheet. you may enter the text “First Term Exam Report”. Now press the “Tab” key. Now click “Go to Footer” in the “Navigation” group. In the “Print What” section. Presentation Graphics Overview of Presentation Graphics Introduction to Presentation Graphics If you have to make a presentation to an audience and you want it to be good. you can choose from a variety of computer tools called Graphics Presentation Programs. Select all the sheets you want to print by clicking on the sheet tabs. An effective presentation puts your point across clearly and in an interesting manner. These programs are designed to help you to create an effective presentation. In addition. Here. whether to the Board of Directors of a company or to your fellow colleagues. In the “Print” window. 83 | P a g e . Graphics Presentation Programs include features to handle pictures. Press “Enter” and type ‘Class VIII B’ on the second line. click on “Current Date” in the “Header & Footer Elements” group.
You see the familiar Microsoft Office 2007 user interface which consists of: 1) The Office Button which displays a menu containing commands for opening. The “View” tab contains tools which help you view your presentation in the most suitable way.Each presentation is divided into slides. 2) The Quick Access toolbar which displays icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007”. You will gradually learn to use the commands on all the tabs. printing. saving. The “Slide Show” tab contains tools that control how the slide show is presented. The “Insert” tab contains the basic set of objects which you can insert into a slide. Creating a Presentation Using Installed Templates A “Template” is a pre-designed presentation designed for common purposes such as a photo album or a quiz show. Exploring Microsoft PowerPoint: To start the Microsoft PowerPoint application. You may create a new presentation using a template provided by PowerPoint. and Redo. The following Ribbon tabs are displayed in PowerPoint: The “Home” tab contains the basic formatting tools. and closing a file. Undo. you may see the assignment titled “The User Interface” in the “Microsoft Word” topic. The “Review” tab contains tools which help you proofread and correct a presentation. The “Design” tab contains tools to design your slides. Groups and Command buttons. 3) The Ribbon which has Task-oriented Tabs. The “Animations” tab contains tools to animate objects and create transitions between slides. Click on the Office Button and select “New”. Each slide shows a different screen to your audience. For more details on the Microsoft Office User Interface. 84 | P a g e .
Select “Slide Sorter” in the “Presentation Views” group. In this full-screen view. you can find various tools that control how the slide show is presented. making it easy to reorder. add. on the right you can see the “Slide Pane”. It has three working areas. This is an exclusive view of your slides in thumbnail form. you may select “Slide Show” in the “Presentation Views” group on the “View” tab or click the “Slide Show” button at the bottom right of the status bar. under “Templates”. like an actual slide show presentation. The “Outline” tab shows your slide text in outline form. you may use the options available on the “Slide Show” tab. you see your presentation the way your audience will. animated elements and transition effects will look in the actual show. On the left are the “Slides” and “Outline” tabs. When you have finished creating and editing your presentation. Slide Sorter View gives you an overall picture of it. movies. add or delete slides. you may specify the timing between the display of each slide and which slides are to be hidden during the presentation. This is the main editing view. or delete slides. This view takes up the full computer screen. For example. if you need to make changes to the way your slide show runs.In the left panel. You can make changes as required. PowerPoint Presentation Views Viewing a presentation: A “view” is a way of looking at a presentation. Slide Sorter View. Creating your First Slide 85 | P a g e . which displays a large view of the current slide. Now. You may also change the presentation views by clicking on the buttons displayed on the “Status Bar” at the bottom of the screen. To actually run a slide show. You can also rearrange. Here. You can see how your graphics. This makes it easy to navigate through your presentation and to see the effects of changes. Slide Sorter View: Click the “View” tab. Microsoft PowerPoint has three main views: Normal View. The “Slides” tab shows your slides as thumbnail-sized images while you edit. Click on a suitable one and then press the “Create” button. Slide Show View: Select “Slide Show” in the “Presentation Views” group or press “F5” on your keyboard. In the Normal View. On the bottom is the “Notes Pane” in which you can type notes that you want along with a slide. Click on the tab names to view the respective tabs. Normal View: Select “Normal” in the “Presentation Views” group. timings. click “Installed Templates” to see a list of templates. A new presentation is displayed with pre-defined settings. and Slide Show View.
Moving a placeholder: You may wish to change the position of your placeholder. In the “Themes” group. drag the rotation handle in the direction that you want to rotate it. Click in the first placeholder and type the name you want to give your presentation. and pictures.You are working for a company which offers various educational courses. Click on the “Design” tab. You can see a “Rotation Handle” which is a round arrow at the top of the placeholder. To move a placeholder. The sizing handles at the sides are used to adjust only the height or the width. you can drag to the location you wish. When the pointer becomes a four-headed arrow. you may make editing changes to your text on the Outline tab. These are simultaneously reflected in the Slide Pane. It can be used to rotate the placeholder to any angle. click in an area between the sizing handles on the side borders. You wish to create a presentation which introduces your company and tells about its numerous activities. These are called “Placeholders”. An insertion point is displayed to show your location in the text. Sizing a placeholder: The “Sizing Handles” at the sides and corners of the selection rectangle can be used to adjust the size of the placeholder. Saving and Opening a Presentation 86 | P a g e . You may need to change some of the text that you have entered on your slide. In the Slide Pane on the right. You may now edit the text as you wish. click on the arrow at the bottom right to see all available themes. In the existing slide. The title is now a selected object and is surrounded by a selection rectangle. Using the Outline Tab: Alternately. Sizing and Moving Placeholders You know that placeholders are boxes that are part of most slide layouts. you see a blank presentation in Normal View with the default name “Presentation1”. Click on the title text. tables. When you start PowerPoint. To rotate a placeholder. These boxes hold title and body text or objects such as charts. click on the text in the title. Dragging a corner sizing handle adjusts both the height and width at the same time. When you move your mouse over a sizing handle the pointer becomes a twoheaded arrow. you see two boxes. Editing in the Slide Pane: You may make changes directly in the slide pane. First. In the second placeholder type a subtitle. let us assume you need to make changes to the title. Applying a Theme: You may enhance the appearance of this slide which looks quite plain. Now click on a theme of your choice.
browse to the location of your presentation and click on the file name from the displayed list. In the “Illustrations” group. Click on the picture. Click on the picture name and then click “Insert”. such as text. Your file is stored with the extension “. Click on the picture name and then click “Insert”. Using a Slide Layout and Inserting Pictures A Slide Layout refers to the arrangement of elements. In the “Open” window. click on the lower part of the “New Slide” icon. in the “Insert Picture” window.To save your presentation. you may click the Office Button and select “Save”. Now click “Save”. In the “Picture Styles” group. Select a suitable one. click the picture icon. Similarly. As you did earlier. Now click the Office Button and select “Close” to close this file. create a slide using the “Picture with Caption” layout. Enhancing the Picture: You may make changes to the picture by using various Picture Tools. tables. click the Office Button and select “Open”. pictures. Enter the title and text as shown. Let us create a new slide by specifying a layout. Now click on the “Insert” tab. To display a picture of your company logo on your slide. browse to the location of your picture file. In the “Save As” window specify the location at which you wish to save your presentation. The available layouts are displayed. select “Picture”. You may also use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+S”. You may click on a style of your choice. In the “Slides” group. You may apply other effects to your picture by selecting from the various options available under “Picture Effects” in the “Picture Styles” group on the “Format” tab. You can see a new slide with the specified layout. charts and movies. Let us also insert the same picture on the first slide we created. You may use the default name for your presentation or enter a new one. Click the “Open” button to display the selected file on the screen. The picture is displayed on your slide in a placeholder. Click on the “Home” tab.pptx”. To open a file that you have previously saved. on a slide. Now click on the “Format” tab under “Picture Tools”. You may change the size and position as required. Enter the title and text as shown. Click on the first slide on the Slides tab in the left pane. To open a recently used presentation you may click the Office Button and then click on the presentation name in the list displayed under “Recent Documents”. browse to the location of your picture file. click on the “More” arrow to see all available picture styles. Changing Fonts and Formatting 87 | P a g e . In the “Insert Picture” window.
you may use the “Numbering” icon in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. Changing Page Properties: Select “Page Setup” in the “Page Setup” group on the “Design” tab.Changing Font and Font Size: Let us change the Font and Font Size of the text on the second slide. Click on the second slide on the Slides tab in the left pane. select the text and then click the arrow to the right of the “Bullets” icon in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. Now select “Spelling” in the “Proofing” group or use the keyboard shortcut “F7”. “Center” and “Align Text Right” icons in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. you may have unknowingly left several typing errors uncorrected. Select “Background Styles” in the “Background” group and make your selection. Formatting: Enhancing the appearance of the slide to make it more attractive. click on the “Review” tab. Underline and Text Shadow by clicking on the respective icons. readable and user-friendly is called formatting. You may select the desired Font and Font Size from the “Fonts” group. Select the text to be formatted by highlighting the text on the slide. Let us create such a list on the third slide. In this way you can check the spellings on all the slides of the presentation at one time. Make your selection from the various bullet styles displayed. click on the “Design” tab. Changing the Background Style: To change the background of your slides. Bullets and Numbering: You may enter text as a bulleted or numbered list. You may also change the color of the font by clicking on the arrow to the right of the “Font Color” icon and making your selection. In the window displayed you may specify the size and orientation of your slides and then click “OK”. Click on the third slide on the Slides tab in the left pane. you may select other effects such as Bold. 88 | P a g e . Now to create a bulleted list. Applying different formatting to characters and paragraphs can greatly enhance the appearance of the slide. Changing Alignment: You may change the alignment of text by clicking on the “Align Text Left”. Checking Spellings As you may have entered the information on previous slides. Similarly. Let us center the title of the slide. Now click on the “Home” tab. You will now observe that the text has changed to the new font of the size you selected. Changing Font Effects and Color: From the “Fonts” group. to create a numbered list. Italic. You may also increase or decrease the font size by clicking on the “Increase Font Size” and “Decrease Font Size” icons in the “Fonts” group. To correct the misspelled words.
Deleting a Slide: You may use either the Normal View or the Slide Sorter View to delete a slide. Moving and Deleting Slides Inserting a Slide: You know that you can insert a new slide by selecting “New Slide” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. To select multiple slides in a row. Moving a Slide: To move a slide in Normal View. Now click on the slide you wish to move and drag it to a new location. click on the slide after which you want the new slide on the “Slides” tab and then click on the “New Slide” icon.For each word that is misspelled. click “Ignore”. If you do not wish to change what you have typed. Let us move all slides back to their original positions. Let us revert to Normal View by clicking the “Normal” icon on the Status Bar. you may find it more convenient to use the Slide Sorter View to view all your slides and change their positions. Inserting. Running a Slide Show Running a Slide Show: Once all the slides are in the order that you want. you will be informed accordingly. press “Shift” before clicking the slide icon and then drag. select one or more slide icons on the “Slides” tab. Change to Slide Sorter View by clicking on the “Slide Sorter” button on the Status Bar at the bottom of the screen. click the slide icon on the “Slides” tab. When your entire presentation has been scanned. You may now select “Delete” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab or press the “Delete” key on your keyboard. Now to delete the blank slide that was just inserted. and drag to a new location. you may highlight one of the suggestions displayed or manually correct it yourself by typing in the correct word in the “Change to” box. Click “Change” to make the correction or “Change All” if there are multiple instances of the misspelled word in the presentation. To correct a word that is spelt incorrectly. If you have a large number of slides in your presentation. a dialog box will appear and will prompt you to effect suitable corrections. To insert a slide between two slides. You may choose “Ignore All” if the word appears many times throughout the presentation. you can see how your presentation would look when viewed by an audience to 89 | P a g e .
You may print all slides. Then click the “From Current Slide” icon in the “Start Slide Show” group on the “Slide Show” tab. In the window displayed. From the list displayed below. you may specify whether you wish to print the slides. you may wish give copies to your colleagues for their comments. the current slide only or any selection of slides. Printing a Presentation: Click the Office Button and select “Print → Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. you need to add the “Web Page Preview” command to the Quick Access toolbar. Print range: Under Print range you may specify which of the slides you want to print. it is always a good idea to preview onscreen how your slides will appear when printed. Click the “Outline” button at the bottom left to hide the left pane. Click “Close Print Preview” in the “Preview” group to close the preview. click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. Web Page Preview: To preview your presentation as a web page. click “Customize” in the left pane. Previewing and Printing a Presentation Previewing A Presentation: As you work with your slides. Clicking it displays your presentation as it would look in a web browser. Viewing the slide show from the current slide: To do so. select “Web Page Preview”. click on the “Slide Show” tab in the “Start Slide Show” group.run a presentation. You can see the “Web Page Preview” button on the Quick Access toolbar. click “From Beginning” or use the keyboard shortcut “F5” to view the complete presentation You may click or press the spacebar to move to the next slide. The “Print Preview” tab appears when you view the slide in the Print Preview mode. Under “Choose Commands from:” select “All Commands”. You may view all the slides by using the “Next Slide” and “Previous Slide” buttons at the bottom of the screen. The “Print” window is displayed. Now click “Add” and then click “OK”. click the slide icon from which you wish to view your slides. handouts. To see a preview of your slide in a window on the screen. notes pages or outline view. 90 | P a g e . Click on the Office Button and then click “PowerPoint Options”. To save time and unnecessary printing and waste of paper. Print what: Here. on the “Slides” tab.
Enter some text and click “Find Next”. Click on the “Home” tab. Click “Replace All” to replace all occurrences of the search text by the specified new text. Modifying and Refining a Presentation Finding and Replacing Text Finding Text: You may search for a word or phrase in your presentation. Finding and Replacing: Alternatively.Color/grayscale: Here. Find whole words only: You may check this box to search for whole words matching the search criteria. Enter your options and click “OK”. click “Find” or press “Ctrl+F” to display the “Find” window. In the “Text” group. click “Text Box". Replacing Text: Click "Replace". Creating a Text Box and Inserting a Hyperlink You may insert hyperlinks in your slides. First let us create a small text box below the text on the slide. To create a new text box click on the “Insert” tab. Match case: You may check this box for a case sensitive search. In the "Replace" window. Let us insert a hyperlink from the third slide to the first slide. Click on the third slide icon on the “Slides” tab. you may choose the color quality of the prints. Click on the slide below the existing text and drag with the mouse to draw the textbox. Inserting a text box: A text box is a container for text or graphics. to replace text you may select “Replace” from the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab or press “Ctrl+H” to display the “Replace” window. another document or to a Web site. A hyperlink is a connection to a location in the current document. 91 | P a g e . you may enter the new text in the "Replace with" field. Choosing the “Grayscale” or “Pure Black and White” option allows you to print without color. Click “Replace” to replace the current word with the new word. The next occurrence of the specified term after the current cursor position is selected. A window appears showing the number of replacements made. In the “Editing” group.
In the “Tables” group. Enter the headings and details in the other rows as shown. click “Hyperlink”. click on the “Insert” tab. As you type the text in the text box. You may select a style from the gallery displayed. click on “First Slide”. enter the number of rows and columns and click “OK”. Now click on the “Insert” tab. you can effectively communicate your message in a quick and simple way. Enter the text “Go to Slide 1”. You may select a table style from the gallery displayed. under “Link to:” click on “Place in This Document”. You can see that the hyperlink text is underlined. Let us change the style of the heading text. In the “Insert Hyperlink” window. Using SmartArt A “SmartArt” graphic is a visual representation of your information and ideas. You may size or move your table as required. Relationship and others. clicking on this link takes you to the first slide. In the “Links” group. Now click “OK”. Each category contains several different layouts. Using SmartArt graphics.Adding text to a text box: You will notice that the text box displays an insertion point. Select a suitable one. it is automatically resized as needed to display the entire entry. Select the text and then click “Quick Styles” in the “WordArt Styles” group on the “Design” tab under “Table Tools”. 92 | P a g e . click “Table”. You may enhance the appearance of the text in your table. A “Design” tab is displayed under “Table Tools”. In the “Insert Table” window. Cycle. When you run the slide show. Under “Select a place in this document”. Now you are ready to enter the table content. indicating that you can enter text in it. Create and Enhance a Table You may wish to display some data in tabular form in your presentation. Create a new slide using the “Blank” layout by selecting “New Slide” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. To insert a table. You may choose from various categories such as Process. You may also change the size and position of the text box by using the sizing handles. Hierarchy. Inserting a Hyperlink: Select the text entered in the text box. Click the arrow at the bottom right to view all the available styles. You may specify the dimensions of your table by dragging with the mouse or by clicking “Insert Table”.
Click on the slide containing the SmartArt graphic on the Slides tab. Alternatively. including art. Applying a SmartArt Style: A SmartArt Style is a combination of various effects that you can apply to the shapes in your SmartArt graphic to create a professionally designed look. in the “Search for” box. Let us first insert a small clip. you may click “Text Pane”. select a category. A “Clip” may be a single media file. This displays the text pane where you can enter your text. “Clip Art” refers to a ready-to-use picture. In the “SmartArt Styles” group on the “Design” tab under “SmartArt Tools”. Now click on the “Insert” tab. Since yours is a company having operations related to computers. Close the text pane by clicking the “X” icon at the top right corner. enter a word or phrase that describes the clip or the file name of the clip. let us look for a clip using the word “Computer”.Let us create a SmartArt graphic to describe the course structure of one of the courses offered. Now make your selection from the gallery displayed. click the arrow at the bottom right to view all the available styles and select a suitable one. For this. Inserting Clips and Clip Art You may insert “Clips” and “Clip Art” in your slides. You may select a suitable background style for your text box from the gallery displayed. A clip is a file that can contain sounds and animations. ensure that “All collections” are searched by checking the box against “Everywhere”. First create a new slide using the “Blank” layout. Now select a suitable graphic and click “OK”. in the “Results should be” list 93 | P a g e . click “Change Colors”. in the “Create Graphic” group on the “Design” tab. In the “Illustrations” group. In the panel displayed on the right. In the “Illustrations” group. Changing Colors: You may apply color variations to the shapes in your SmartArt graphic. In the “Search in” list box. click “Clip Art”. Let us search for clips of the type “Movies”. We shall insert a clip as well as Clip Art on one of our slides. Click on the “Insert” tab. Create a text box above the SmartArt graphic and enter the text as shown. In the graphic displayed on your slide. animation or movies. sound. you may enter text directly by clicking the text boxes. In the “SmartArt Styles” group. click “SmartArt”. Now click “Quick Styles” in the “Drawing” group on the “Home” tab. In the “Choose a SmartArt Graphic” window. under “SmartArt Tools.
To insert Clip Art. you may create a text box as shown in the slide in the figure. On the “Slides” tab. Changing the Presentation Design and Color Scheme Changing the Presentation Design: After you have created many slides. Let us now insert some Clip Art. check the box against “Movies”. Adding Text: To add text within the shape. In the “Drawing” group. Create a new slide using the “Blank” layout by clicking “New Slide” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. Ensure other boxes are unchecked.box. A number of related clips are displayed. For this. Now click “Go”. In the “Themes” group. To see the clip that you inserted actually playing. Create and Enhance Shapes PowerPoint offers many predefined shapes that you can insert into your document. you can see that the new theme has been applied to all the slides. simply start typing as shown in the figure. From the pictures displayed. You may change the size of the clip as required. Click on the “Design” tab. The entered text appears at the centre of your shape. click the “View” tab and select “Slide Show” in the “Presentation Views” group. Simply click on the one you wish to insert and drag it to a suitable place on your slide. To enter a title above the shape. “Clip Art” refers to a ready-to-use picture. check the box against “Clip Art” under “Results should be” and ensure other boxes are unchecked. Drag your mouse to create a shape of the size you wish. Click “Quick Styles” in the “Drawing” group and select a style from the gallery displayed. Under “Basic Shapes”. click “Shapes” to display the various shapes that you can use. you may decide to give a totally new look to your presentation. drag a suitable one onto your slide. click on the arrow at the bottom right to see all available themes. click on “Hexagon”. 94 | P a g e . You may size and position the shape as required. Now click “Go”. you need to run the slide show. Now click on a theme of your choice. Coloring the Shape: You may apply color to the shape by choosing from a variety of background styles.
click on the “More” arrow to see all the available transition styles. click on the graphic. If you move your mouse over them. On the “Animations” tab. Applying transition effects: A transition specifies how the display changes when you move from one slide to another. To associate a sound with your transition. You may click the “Preview” icon in the “Preview” group to view the transition effects for the current slide. Now click “Play” to view your animation. This ensures consistency and saves time. This results in the animation starting after the previous slide. in the “Transition to This Slide” group. whether on the click of the mouse or after a stipulated time by entering related details under “Advance Slide”. click in the “Animate” list box and select “Fly In”. click “Custom Animation” in the “Animations” group. You may specify how you wish to move to the next slide. You can see it is surrounded by a box. The “Slide Master” is used to make global changes to the slides in your presentation. Applying animation to an object: Let us add some animation effects to the graphic in the slide shown. You may select a color scheme by clicking on it. It is applied to all slides. To see the Slide Master. Now. In the "Presentation Views" group. In the “Animations” group. 95 | P a g e . You can see the various available layouts when you click on the lower part of the “New Slide” icon in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. Click on a suitable one. First. click on “Colors” in the “Themes” group on the “Design” tab. You can view the animation effect right away on your slide. In PowerPoint build effects are animations to slide contents. select one from the “Transition Sound” list box. click the arrow in the list box below the “Speed” list box and select “Start After Previous”. Now click on the “Animations” tab. You can see a number of slide icons in the left pane. screen tips explain they are masters for different layouts. In the panel at the right. click “Slide Master”. Changing the Slide Master You know that slides can be created using different layouts. Click the “Apply to All” button if you want the same transition effects for all slides. Adding Animation and Other Effects “Animation” refers to the addition of special visual or sound effects to your slides. click on the “View” tab.Changing the Color Scheme: To change the color scheme.
Print range: Under Print range you may specify which of the slides you want to print. click the “View” tab. Slides per page: Select the number of slides you wish to print on one page. you can see that all the slides with the “Blank” layout have the new background style applied. To view your notes page. Order: Select the order of printing the slides. 96 | P a g e . Printing Handouts: Click the Office Button and select “Print → Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. Click “Background Styles” in the “Background” group on the “Slide Master” tab and select a suitable one. You may also use this view to enter or edit notes by clicking in the lower placeholder. You see the master slide in the right pane. Print what: Select “Handouts”. The “Print” window is displayed. Let us select 4. Let us select “Vertical”. whether horizontal or vertical. Click “Notes Page” in the “Presentation Views” group.Click on the slide icon related to the “Blank Layout”. six. Scale to fit paper: Check this box to print the slides of a size suitable to fit on the sheet of paper. or nine miniature slides on a page. Printing Handouts You can print your presentation in the form of handouts with one. On the “Slides” tab. Now close the Master View by clicking on “Close Master View” in the “Close” group. Creating Notes Pages You can create “Notes Pages” that include extra notes for yourself while you give your presentation. In Normal View. the current slide only or any selection of slides. Any change made to this slide will be reflected on all slides created using the “Blank” layout. These can be used by your audience to follow along as you give your presentation or for future reference. use the “Notes Pane” at the bottom of the slide to write notes about your slide. or for your audience. three. four. Let us change the background style. You may print all slides. two.
a company logo or the presentation title to the top of a handout or notes page in your presentation. Select any other options that you want and then click “Apply”. Hiding the Footer: To hide the footer on a specific slide. or to bottom of a slide. Click “Apply” or “Apply to all”. check the appropriate boxes. In the “Slides” group. Hiding a Slide: If there is a slide that you do not want to display to a particular audience. select “Header & Footer”. time and slide number on the slide. click “New Slide” and click “Duplicate Selected Slides” below the layouts displayed. To display the same footer information on all slides. select the “Header” or “Footer” check box. and then type the text that you want to appear at the top or bottom of each notes page or handout. check the box against “Don’t show on title slide”. select “Header & Footer”. if you need to duplicate a slide. click the slide icon on the “Slides” tab. Duplicating and Hiding Slides Duplicating a Slide: In a presentation. In the “Text” group. To hide a slide. Using Headers and Footers Headers and Footers are used to add information such as slide numbers. Adding a Footer to a Slide: Click the “Insert” tab. handout or notes page. right-click the slide on the “Slides” tab and select “Hide Slide”. Click the “Insert” tab and in the “Text” group. Click “Preview” to view your handouts onscreen and “Print” to print them. On the “Slides” tab. on the “Notes and Handouts” tab. On the “Slide” tab in the “Header and Footer” window. the time and date. and then type the text that you want to appear at the bottom of the slide in the center. To insert the date. 97 | P a g e . Duplicating a slide creates a copy of the selected slide and places it directly after the selected slide. check the box against “Footer”.Frame slides: Check this box to print the slides with an outer frame. Adding a Header or Footer to a Handout or Notes Page: In the “Header and Footer” window. you may hide the slide. click the slide you wish to copy. Click the “Home” tab. click “Apply to All”. clear the “Footer” check box and click “Apply”. On the “Slide” tab of the “Header and Footer” window. To hide the footer on the title slide. it can be quite easily achieved.
Then on the Ribbon. you may wish to include some related documentation with the file. Also. right-click on the slide and select “Pointer Options” from the menu displayed. You can then move your mouse and use it as a pen on your slide. and keywords that identify topics or other important information in the file. There is another way in which you can hide a slide. Right-click on a slide during the slide show. if someone has a question about a previous slide. you can go backwards and redisplay it. These may be a descriptive title. click on the “Summary” tab. Click the “Hide Slide” icon on the Ribbon once again to show the hidden slide. 98 | P a g e . “Last Viewed” and “Go to Slide” options to move between slides. and then click “Hide Slide”. underline an important point or draw checkmarks next to items that you have covered. you may decide the color of this pen by using the “Ink Color” option. Annotate a slide show: During your presentation. Learning to Control and Annotate a Slide Show Navigating the Slide Show: Running the slide show and practicing how to control the slide show helps you have a smooth presentation. “Previous”. the subject. this slide will not be displayed. click the “Slide Show” tab and select “Hide Slide” in the “Set Up” group. Documenting a File Documenting a file: Document properties are details about a file that help identify it. To show a slide that you have previously hidden. The hidden slide icon with the slide number inside appears next to the slide that you have hidden. Now click “OK” and close the Document Information Panel. Before saving the completed presentation. Click on the slide that you wish to hide on the “Slides” tab in the left pane.The hidden slide icon with the slide number inside appears next to the slide that you have hidden. Enter your details on this tab. Click the Office Button and select “Prepare → Properties” from the menu. In the window displayed. Let us select “Ballpoint Pen”. In the “Document Information Panel”. the author name. “Advanced Properties”. For this. A menu is displayed as shown. click the arrow next to “Document Properties” to select the set of properties that you want to change. When you run your presentation. For example. Use the “Next”. you may want to point to an important word. The hidden slide icon is then removed. for example. right-click the slide that you want to show. You may move to any slide in your presentation.
This has two tabs. Click the Office Button and select “Save As” and enter the new file name and location. The copied slide will be inserted in the presentation after the current slide. Click “Save”. Let us use an action button to play a sound in the slide shown in the figure. on the “Slides” tab. Copying a slide: You may want to copy the slide which describes a course structure from your presentation to a new presentation. Your original presentation does not get affected. themes etc that you require. Now you may make changes to the new presentation as required. right-click the slide to be copied and select “Copy”. simply save the presentation with a new name. select “Blank Presentation” and press the “Create” button. click on the “Sound” icon. In the “Illustrations” group. Saving the new presentation: Before you make any additional changes. 99 | P a g e . Let us use the “Mouse Click” tab. If you want to use all slides from a presentation in a new presentation. Adding Action Buttons You may add action buttons on your slides to perform functions such as playing sounds. Right-click the first slide in the new presentation and select “Paste”. moving to another slide or running another program when you click on them. Select “Chime” from the list of sounds. you may save the file as a new presentation.Using Advanced Presentation Features Creating a New Presentation from Existing Slides To make the task of creating a new presentation easier. Click the “Insert” tab. As the names suggest. To do this. Specify the location and the new file name in the “Save As” window and click “Save”. click “Shapes”. In the “New Presentation” window. Save the file by clicking the Office button and selecting “Save”. Check the box against “Play sound”. Under “Action Buttons”. The “Action Settings” window is displayed. You may make any changes with respect to colors. Now drag with the mouse to create the button of the size you require. the actions specified are performed when the mouse is clicked on the button and moved over the button respectively. “Mouse Click” and “Mouse Over”. Now create a new presentation by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “New”. you may use the slides from one of your existing presentations.
a message box displays the total time for the presentation and asks you to confirm that you wish to keep the recorded slide timings. The “Rehearsal” toolbar appears. Delivering Presentations Rehearsing timing: Before delivering a presentation. If you do not want the slides in your presentation to advance automatically as per the slide timings recorded. the slides advance automatically as per these settings. Now when you run your slide show. select “Rehearse Timings”. Internet Internet Basics What is a Network? When computers are connected to each other.During the slide show. your presentation can be delivered and you are ready to impress your audience. Click the “Slide Show” tab. Click “Next” to move to the next slide. Click “Yes”. it is important to rehearse the timing. on the “Slide Show” tab. so that you are sure that it fits within a certain time frame. PowerPoint includes a timing feature that records the length of time spent on each slide and the total presentation time while you are rehearsing. Now. when you click on this button you can hear the sound of a chime. A network may consist of just two computers next to each other or can even extend to a large number of computers located in different parts of the world. in the “Set Up” group. and you can see the timing in the “Slide Time box” at the right. they form a network. click the Office Button and then click the “Exit PowerPoint” button at the bottom right. clear the “Use Rehearsed Timings” check box. You may use the recorded times to advance the slides automatically when you actually give your presentation. You may perform various actions using action buttons such as moving to another slide or running another program. After you set the time for the last slide. 100 | P a g e . In the “Set Up” group. To exit the PowerPoint application. “Slide Sorter” view appears and displays the time of each slide in your presentation.
usually a minicomputer or a mainframe. a client is a user’s microcomputer. 101 | P a g e . Now that you are familiar with the terminology related to computer networks. A dedicated server is a computer that specializes in performing specific tasks. Host Computer: This is a large centralized computer. you need to get familiar with certain terms which are as follows: Node: This is a device that is connected to a network. Hub: This is the central node for other nodes. Computers in a network can be set up in different ways to suit the needs of users. Typically. To understand computer networks. computer systems at different locations are networked to a main or centralized computer. Distributed Processing: This is a system where computing power is located and shared at different locations. It could be any device such as a data storage device. In decentralized organizations. Network interface cards (NIC): These are expansion cards located within the system unit that connect the computer to a network. and are quite powerful. Network Administrator: This is a person who is a computer specialist responsible for efficient operation of the network and implementation of new networks.A “computer network” is a communication system that connects two or more computers so that they can exchange information and share resources. They are sometimes referred to as “LAN adapters”. Client: This is a node that uses a resource from another node. Server: This is a node that shares resources with other nodes. a printer or a computer. Network operating systems (NOS): They control and coordinate activities such as electronic communication and resource sharing between the computers and devices on a network. A non-dedicated server can function as both a client and a server. let us have a look at the types of networks. Dedicated servers are typically used for websites that have high traffic. It may be a server or simply a connection point for cables from other nodes.
ring and hierarchical. Typically. The network types based on the geographical area they serve are local area. These LANs are called “Home Networks” and allow different computers to share resources. This is called the network’s topology. When this is done over longer distances. They are used to link microcomputers and share printers and other resources. the network is known as a Local Area Network or LAN for short. Wide Area Networks (WANs) are countrywide and worldwide networks. The nodes of a LAN are in close physical proximity. Each connecting device is asked or 102 | P a g e . Usually when computers in one office are connected to one another. Network Architecture: This describes how a network is arranged and how resources are coordinated and shared. Network architecture encompasses network configurations and strategies. LANs span distances less than a mile and are owned by individual organizations. Networks may also be citywide and even international. metropolitan area and wide area networks. bus. All communications pass through the central unit and control is maintained by “polling”.Network Types: Different types of channels allow different kinds of networks to be formed. Configurations describe the physical arrangement of the network while strategies define how information and resources are shared. the Internet which spans the entire globe. Unlike a LAN. The four principal network topologies are star. they are now being commonly used by individuals in their homes. including a common internet connection. MANs span distances up to 100 miles. The hub may be a host computer or file server. While LANs have been widely used within organizations for years. within the same building. a number of small computers or peripheral devices are linked to a central unit which is the “network hub”. Configurations: A network can be configured or arranged in several ways. They are frequently used as links between office buildings that are located throughout a city. the network is known as WAN which stands for Wide Area Network. The widest of all WANs is of course. A “Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)” is the next step up from the LAN. Telephone lines for example may connect communications equipment within a home or building. They use microwave relays and satellites to reach users over long distances. They provide access to regional service (MAN) providers and span distances greater than 100 miles. a MAN is jointly owned by a group of organizations or by a network service provider who charges a fee to provide network services. In a “star network”.
each device is connected to two other devices. Distributed data processing is possible using a ring network. processing power is centralized in one large computer. In a “ring network”. In a “terminal network”. For example. just like a star network. The minicomputers are in turn connected to the corporation’s mainframe which contains data accessible to all. The “hierarchical network” consists of several computers linked to a central host computer. nodes have equal authority and can act as both clients and servers. “Client/server networks” are based on specialization and use one computer to coordinate and supply services to other nodes on the network. microcomputers in a department are connected to individual departmental minicomputers. The star topology is commonly used to link microcomputers to a mainframe containing an organization’s database. A hierarchical network is useful in centralized organizations. This means that multiple users can share resources (or time) on a central computer. forming a ring. This arrangement is commonly used for sharing data stored on different microcomputers. 103 | P a g e . microcomputers may obtain files from other microcomputers as well as provide files to them. client/server and peer-to-peer. The most common network strategies are terminal. there is no host computer and each device handles its own communications. However. There is no central computer and messages are passed around the ring till they reach the correct destination. Processing tasks can be performed at different locations and programs. Each device examines information as it passes along the bus to see whether it is the intended recipient. Strategies: Every network has a strategy of coordinating the sharing of information and resources. An advantage of the star topology is that it can be used to support a “timesharing system”. The nodes are either terminals with little or no processing capabilities or microcomputers running special software that allows them to act as terminals.“polled” whether it has a message to send and is allowed to send its message in turn. For example. In a “peer-to-peer network”. data and resources can be shared. Client nodes request the services. In a “bus network”. All communications travel along a common connecting cable called a “bus” or “backbone”. Many airline reservation systems are terminal networks. usually a mainframe. these computers are also hosts to smaller computers or peripheral devices. Server nodes coordinate and supply specialized services and access to resources. Client/server networks are widely used on the Internet.
a firewall can also restrict data from flowing out of a network. pricing structures etc. History of Internet: In the second half of the decade from 1960 to 1970. hardware or a combination of both. They provide e-mail and other services accessible only to those within the organization. 104 | P a g e . The purpose is to increase efficiency and reduce costs. Such networks are known as “Intranets” and may or may not be connected to the Internet. Communication within and between organizations is supported using intranets and extranets. or part of an intranet. which can be accessed by certain external users via the Internet. Entry into extranets is controlled by usernames and passwords which establish the identity of the user and grant access to the areas of the extranet that he is entitled to view. may be made available to suppliers or potential customers using an extranet. intranets use browsers. Intranets: Many organizations have internal networks similar to the Internet which have web pages that contain company information. web sites and web pages. It then decides whether it is safe to allow a message or file to pass into or out of the organization’s network. The main points of difference between an intranet and extranet are as follows: 1) An intranet is a private network within an organization while an extranet is a private network that connects more than one organization. All communications between the internal network and the outside world must pass through it. Extranets: An “Extranet” is an intranet. Thus the Internet can be termed as a Network of Networks. Firewalls: A “firewall” is a system that secures a network. What is Internet? The word “Internet” is derived from the word inter-networking which means connecting different networks together. the United States Department of Defense began a project on computer networks. shielding it from access by unauthorized users. An Intranet is accessible only from within the organization. Internet technologies are applied to integrate all these networks. operating systems and strategies. mediating traffic between a protected network and the Internet. 2) Like the public Internet. Firewalls can be implemented in software. newsletters. Most organizational firewalls include a special computer called a “proxy server”. prices. Extranets are used by some organizations to allow suppliers and others limited access to their networks. and from where standard forms can be downloaded.Organizational Internets: Most large organizations have a wide range of network configurations. It acts as a gatekeeper. In addition to preventing unrestricted access into a network. Specific information such as product ranges. online order forms etc.
wireless telephones and even satellites. Government Departments and Research Centers also began using this network. new independent centers were created in different places. 105 | P a g e . Instead of having a central system of limited machines. Universities. By 1993 the concept of Internet had changed completely. This led to the birth of the modern Internet. after 1970. Gradually.This project was named ARPANET. researchers developed a new set of rules called Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol or TCP/IP. To send data along telephone lines. The roots of the giant network called Internet can be traced back to this project.
“Shopping” is one of the fastest-growing Internet applications. companionship and many other opportunities on the Internet. You can access some of the world’s largest libraries directly from your home computer. Using the Internet. music and games is available using the Internet. “Education” or “e-learning” which supports flexible learning anywhere. “Searching” for all types of information has become very convenient using the Internet. “Entertainment” in different forms such as movies. You have additional options such as live concerts. advertisement and news.Today the Internet has become a popular medium for information. Some courses are free while others have to be paid for. You can have access to entertainment. information. 106 | P a g e . You can take classes on various subjects. playing. education. It has become a popular medium for business. shopping. book clubs and more. you can search for bargains and make purchases or simply window shop or look for the latest fashions. movie previews. You can find the latest local. national and international news using the Internet. anytime for anyone is possible due to the Internet.
monetary transactions are also being carried out. These include the inability to provide immediate delivery of goods. a seller is not required to maintain a physical inventory of goods and products are shipped directly from warehouses. The Internet offers a chance to survey a wide variety of products. From the seller’s perspective. e-commerce is the buying and selling of goods over the Internet. While there are numerous advantages of e-commerce. With the help of Internet. the costs associated with operating a retail store can be eliminated. there are some disadvantages too. the inability to “try on” prospective purchases and questions relating to the security of online payments.Transactions of large industries are also effected over the Internet. Electronic Commerce i. it offers the convenience of purchasing at any hour of the day or night.e. It does away with the need to physically travel to the seller’s location. The Internet offers a chance to reach out to a larger number of customers. This is known as e-commerce. For a buyer. 107 | P a g e . Also.
“www. In “Web auctions”.consumersearch. This arrangement often eliminates the wholesaler by allowing manufacturers to sell directly to customers. There are three basic types of e-commerce: 1) “Business-to-consumer (B2C)” involves the sale of a product or service to the general public or end users.epinions. you need to check his reputation before placing an order. you have to place the order and make the payment. “Online shopping” as you know includes buying and selling consumer goods over the Internet. There are two basic types of Web auction sites: 108 | P a g e .com” and “www. You may visit vendor review sites such as “www. 1) Consult product review sites: These sites offer evaluations or opinions on products. transferring funds. Security of your credit card number is important.com/privatepayments”. The three most widely used B2C applications are as follows: “Online banking” enables customers to perform various banking operations such as accessing account information. 3) Consult vendor review sites: Even if a vendor offers attractive prices. You may consider payment options from sites such as “www.americanexpress. 2) Use a shopping bot: A shopping bot is an automated shopping assistant that searches the Internet for the best price of a product.com”. it would be useful to keep the following suggestions in mind.bizrate.shopping. paying bills and applying for loans without having to visit the bank.com”. Existing retail stores use B2C e-commerce to reach out to customers through the Web.private. buy and sell stocks and bonds over the Internet.Tips on how to shop online: When you shop online.com” are examples of review sites on the Web. 2) The second type of e-commerce “Consumer-to-consumer (C2C)” involves individuals selling to individuals.mysimon.gomez.com” and “www.yahoo. You can enlist it to compare prices.com” and “www. This is done in the form of classified ads or an auction. “Online stock trading” allows investors to research. 4) Select a payment option: Once you have selected the product and the vendor.buy. Two well-known shopping bots are located at “www.com” and “www. sellers post descriptions of products at a web site and buyers submit bids electronically.
3) “Digital cash” is electronic currency that only exists online. 3) The third type of e-commerce “Business-to-business (B2B)” involves the sale of a product or service from one business to another. b) “Person-to-person auction sites” provide a forum for buyers and sellers. Sellers convert it to regular currency through the bank. They facilitate the bidding process but are not involved in completing transactions and verifying the authenticity of the goods sold. This is typically a manufacturer-supplier relationship. Security: The single greatest challenge for e-commerce is the development of fast.a) “Auction house sites” sell directly to bidders. the purchased item is dispatched by the seller. But credit card fraud over the Internet by criminals known as “Carders” is a major concern for both buyers and sellers. Buyers purchase digital cash from a bank that specializes in electronic currency and use it to purchase goods. For a list of digital cash providers. The buyer mails a cheque to the seller. secure and reliable payment methods for purchased goods. a furniture manufacturer would require raw material such as wood. 109 | P a g e . Buyers and sellers need to be cautious while interacting with these sites. 2) “Credit card” purchases are faster and more convenient. The merchandise presented is typically from a company’s surplus stock. This method is more secure than credit cards. see the displayed figure. If it is a valid cheque. You can often get bargain prices and these sites are generally considered safe places to shop. paint and varnish which he would purchase from the related suppliers. The three basic payment options are as follows: 1) “Cheques” are the most traditional and cheque purchases take the longest time to complete. For example. It is a system that allows a person to pay for goods or services by transmitting a number from one computer to another.
Excel and PowerPoint. “Downloading” is the process of copying a file from a computer on the 110 | P a g e . When you exit the program. it is automatically deleted from your hard disk. Web-based applications: Normally application programs are owned by individuals and organizations and stored on the computer’s hard disk. The ASP downloads a copy of the requested application to your computer’s hard disk drive from where you can run it. Some utilities facilitate sharing resources over the Internet while others enhance the capabilities of your browser. File transfer protocol (FTP): FTP is an Internet standard for transferring files.Web Utilities: Utilities are programs that make computing easier. A “web-based application” is a software package that can be accessed through a web browser. Most application service providers (ASPs) charge a fee to access and use their applications. To use a web-based application. you must connect to the ASP’s web site. “Web Utilities” are specialized utility programs that make using the Internet and Web easier and safer. This free service provides access to programs similar to Microsoft’s Word. The aim of “web-based services” such as ThinkFree is to free users from owning and storing applications.
Windows Media Player from Microsoft. RealPlayer from RealNetworks and Shockwave from Adobe. This is called “uploading”.Internet and saving it on your computer. Many web sites require you to have some plug-ins in order to view their content fully. Additionally. The Internet has a lot of content which is not suitable for unrestricted viewing. you may visit some of the sites listed in the displayed figure. To learn more about plug-ins and how to download them. Some widely used plug-ins include Acrobat Reader from Adobe. QuickTime from Apple. Some plug-ins are included in browsers and operating systems. these programs can 111 | P a g e . You can also use FTP to copy files from your computer to another computer on the Internet. Filters: “Filters” are programs that block access to selected sites. Plug-ins: “Plug-ins” are programs that are automatically started and operate as part of your browser. These are used for a variety of purposes ranging from viewing and printing documents to playing audio and video files. Filters allow parents of young children as well as organizations to block access to certain sites and set time limits. Others need to be installed before they can be used by your browser.
Internet Security Suites: An “Internet security suite” is a collection of utility programs designed to maintain your security and privacy while you are on the Web. These programs control spam. provide filters and much more. you can also chat 112 | P a g e . Two of the best known Internet security suites are from McAfee and Norton. Chatting with your friends in virtual chat rooms is another facility that is available. protect against computer viruses. chat groups and newsgroups. For a list of some of the best known filters. have a look at the displayed figure. Today. Using Internet you can communicate with or find out about what is happening in any part of the world. It is popularly known as the "Information Highway" which is used as a versatile means for information sharing. You may chat using the keyboard. data files. and programs with any other user. using voice chat. Anyone with access to the Internet can exchange text.generate reports regarding time spent on the Internet as well as at individual web sites.
org. The Internet is the actual physical network made up of wires. Examples are Electronic Mail (e-mail). When you connect to this network you are described as being “online”. cables and satellites. Newsgroups. Communications: Computer communications is the process of sharing data. The Web is a multimedia interface to the resources available on the Internet. The name of its website is http://www. programs and information between two or more computers. the European Laboratory for Particle Physics. listen to sound files. The World Wide Web Consortium now manages it. You can access the World Wide Web on the Internet by using any browser application such as Mozilla. File Transfer Protocol (FTP). but they are not the same thing. exchange voice data and view programs that run on practically any software in the world. Internet Telephone: This provides a low cost alternative to long distance telephone calls using electronic voice delivery. “live” electronic communication between two or more individuals. Internet Explorer. It is easy to get the Internet and the Web confused. This means that web pages consist of multiple media such as text. Instant Messaging: This supports direct. view images. What is WWW? The World Wide Web (WWW) is information organized in the form of Web pages containing text and graphic images. There are a large number of applications that can be used on the Internet for various purposes. E-mail: This provides a fast and efficient alternative to traditional mail by sending and receiving electronic documents. 113 | P a g e . World Wide Web (WWW or Web) and Instant Messaging. video. Telnet to connect to another computer.w3. Netscape. The World Wide Web was originally developed in 1990 at CERN. Mailing lists. animations and videos. graphics. Electronic Commerce: This means buying and selling goods electronically. etc. Some of the applications that depend on communication systems are as follows.with the other person as if you were talking on the telephone. A web page is simply a document formatted in a standard language known as Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). Chat groups. It contains hypertext links represented by underlined text and images that lead to related information. animation and sound. You can retrieve documents. You can also play different games on the Internet. It connects millions of computers and resources throughout the world.
This ensures uniformity among users using various types of computer systems. the information to be transmitted is broken down in the form of small packets. displaying graphics. Protocols are used to create an Internet connection for your computer and they handle the data transfer over network lines. Statistical Information and Personal Information. These addresses are used to deliver e-mail and to locate web sites. providing interactive games and more. Educational. A network also has components called “Routers” that help choose the best path for an individual packet to travel and reach its destination. This may be done by following hyperlinks. TCP/IP: The essential features of this protocol involve: 1) Identifying sending and receiving devices AND 2) Reformatting information for transmission across the Internet. The Internet uses some rules or standard set of protocols for communication between computers. News. Java applets are used for presenting animation. The other protocols are Point to Point Protocol (PPP) and Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP). TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the name of the core protocol used on the Internet. in the course of learning something. Because these numeric addresses 114 | P a g e . The packets are reassembled at the destination to get the original information. Information Flow Over the Internet Sending and receiving devices follow a set of communication rules for the exchange of information. You may even move between pages at random. or just having fun. either from a search or through a series of linked pages. These rules for exchanging data between computers are known as “protocols”. Identification: Every computer on the Internet has a unique numeric address called an “IP address (internet protocol address)”. Advocacy (to influence readers to support a cause or idea). The information on WWW can be classified in different categories based on the type of their content such as Business and Commercial. Using this protocol. "Web Surfing" means moving through different web pages.Web pages also can contain special programs called “applets” that are generally written in a programming language such as Java. Each packet contains the address of its destination computer as well as the computer of its origin.
com”. 4) Data transmission specifications: These are procedures that coordinate the sending and receiving devices by defining the way in which the messages will be sent across the communication channel.4” before a connection can be made. a system was developed to automatically convert text-based addresses to numeric IP addresses. At the receiving end. 3) Connection devices: These act as the interface between the sending and receiving devices and the communication channel. “198. a DNS might translate it to an IP address say. They convert messages into packets that can travel across the communication channel. It may be a physical cable or it can be wireless. For example. Communication Systems “Communication Systems” are electronic systems that transmit data from one location to another. when you send an e-mail. say “www. For example. 2) Communication channel: This is the actual medium that carries the message. another modem modifies it once again so that it can be displayed on the “receiving device” which would be another computer.132. This system uses a “domain name server (DNS)” that converts text-based addresses to IP addresses.are difficult to remember. 115 | P a g e .example. Your modem would be the “connection device” which would modify the message so that it could travel efficiently across the “communication channel” which is the telephone line. your computer would be the “sending device”.103. How the message is modified and sent would be described in the “data transmission specifications”. Every communication system has four basic elements which are as follows: 1) Sending and receiving devices: These may be computers or specialized communication devices. if you enter a URL.
There are two categories of communication channels. Coaxial cable is a high-frequency transmission cable and consists of a single solid-copper core. Coaxial cable is used to deliver television signals as well as to connect computers in a network. They include telephone lines. fiber-optic cable is lighter and more reliable at transmitting data as compared to coaxial cable. Fiber-optic cable transmits data as pulses of light through tiny tubes of glass. A single twisted pair culminates in a wall jack into which you can plug your phone and computer. The other category is wireless. One category connects sending and receiving devices by providing a physical connection such as a wire or cable. Telephone lines consist of twisted-pair cable which is made up of hundreds of copper wires. 116 | P a g e . “Physical Connections” use a solid medium to connect sending and receiving devices. Compared to coaxial cable.Communication Channels: You know that communication channels are an essential element of every communication system. coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable.
“Bluetooth” is the name of a new technology that promises to change the way we use machines. Bluetooth is a small. 117 | P a g e . Some users connect their notebook or handheld computers to a cellular telephone to access the Web. We often have a hard time trying to figure out which cable needs to go where. For longer distances. They can be used to send and receive large volumes of data. microwave and satellite. GPS devices use that information to determine the geographical location of the device. “Infrared” uses infrared light waves to communicate over short distances. Bluetooth is essentially a cable-replacement technology which tries to solve this problem. Microwaves travel in a straight line and therefore can be transmitted across relatively short distances. “Bluetooth” is a short-range wireless standard that uses microwaves. “Microwave” communication uses high-frequency radio waves. GPS devices provide navigational support in some automobiles. Conceived initially by Ericsson. It aims to simplify data synchronization between Internet devices and other computers. Primary technologies used for wireless connections are infrared. homes and everywhere else. “Broadcast radio” uses radio signals to communicate with wireless devices. We see a large number of cables in our offices.Wireless Connections: Wireless connections use air to connect sending and receiving devices. Since the light waves travel in a straight line. the waves are relayed by microwave stations with microwave dishes or antennas. Most Web-enabled devices follow a standard known as “Wi-Fi (i. wireless fidelity)”. Satellites can amplify and relay microwave signals from one transmitter on the ground to another. One of the most common applications is to transfer data from a portable device such as a notebook computer or PDA to a desktop computer. They are sometimes mounted with a monitor to display maps and with speakers to provide spoken directions to the driver. mobile phones. It creates a wireless personal area network (PAN) and provides a way to connect and exchange information between two devices over distances of about 30 feet. broadcast radio. Microwave is a good medium for sending data between buildings in a city or a large college campus. etc. “Satellite” communication uses satellites orbiting above the earth as microwave relay stations. printers.e. They do not use any solid substances like wires and cables. cheap radio chip to be plugged into computers. The “Global Positioning System (GPS)” is a network of 24 satellites developed by the United States Department of Defense which continually sends location information to the earth. sending and receiving devices must be in clear view of one another. Cellular telephones and many Web-enabled devices use broadcast radio to place telephone calls and to connect to the Internet.
Let us look at a summary of communication channels. The modem thus enables digital microcomputers to communicate across analog telephone lines. A great deal of computer communication takes place over telephone lines. The speed at which modems transfer data is called “transfer rate”. Modems: The word “modem” stands for modulator-demodulator. “Modulation” is the process of converting digital signals to analog form. Computers. Telephones send and receive analog signals which are continuous electronic waves. “Demodulation” is the process of converting analog signals to digital form. 118 | P a g e . on the other hand. The various units to measure transfer speed are shown in the displayed chart. Connection devices: We have seen that connection devices act as the interface between the sending and receiving devices and the communication channel. This is typically measured in “bits per second (bps)”. send and receive digital signals which are binary signals.
it does not use cables. A telephone cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. internal. Large corporations lease special high-speed lines from telephone companies which provide very high 119 | P a g e . The “PC Card modem” is a credit card-sized expansion board that is inserted into portable computers. The “internal modem” consists of a plug-in circuit board inside the system unit. A “wireless modem” may be internal. A telephone cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. PC Card and wireless.There are four basic types of modems: external. external or a PC Card. Unlike other modems. Another cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. Connection Service: Standard telephone lines and conventional modems provide a “dial-up service” which is quite slow. It sends and receives signals through the air. The “external modem” stands outside the computer and is connected by a cable to the computer’s serial port.
satellite and cellular services. “Cable modems” use existing telephone cables to provide high-speed connections. T2. “Cellular services” are used by mobile devices and laptops. These devices use “3G cellular networks” to download data from the Internet.capacity. “Digital subscriber line (DSL)” uses existing telephone lines to provide highspeed connections. While special high-speed lines are very expensive. Let us compare typical user connection costs and speeds. ADSL (asymmetric digital subscriber line) is one of the most widely used types of DSL. there are other affordable connections which provide significantly higher capacity than a dial-up service. 120 | P a g e . These lines are known as T1. Satellite/air connection services use satellites and the air to send data to users at faster rates than dial-up connections. cable modems. T3 and T4 lines and do not require conventional modems. These include DSL.
Data Transmission: Several factors such as bandwidth and protocols affect how data is transmitted. This is also known as low bandwidth. cable and satellite connections use this bandwidth. “Medium band” is the bandwidth used in special leased lines to connect minicomputers and mainframes as well as to transmit data over long distances. Bandwidth: This is a measurement of the width or capacity of the communication channel. Microcomputers with standard modems and dial-up service use this bandwidth. “Voiceband” is used for standard telephone communication. Specialized high-speed devices and microcomputers with DSL. 121 | P a g e . It indicates the volume of information that can move across the communication channel in a given time. Audio and video files require a wider bandwidth than text documents to be transmitted. There are three categories of bandwidth. “Broadband” is the bandwidth used for high capacity transmissions.
Set Top Boxes and other propriety solutions. Browsers A Web Browser is a software tool used to browse the Internet. You can also connect to the Internet using a leased line. They are basically large telecom companies that have nationwide coverage and operations. there has been a dramatic change in connectivity. Examples are DSL. “National Internet Service Providers” are providers who operate primarily on a National level. The service provider gives you a software package. you need a device called the “Modem”. With this connection. wired devices were required to be able to connect to the Internet. password and access phone number. Using a telephone. you can access the Internet through the LAN. To do so. there is widespread use of mobile and wireless communication devices for gaining access to the Internet. You can connect your microcomputer by telephone or other telecommunications links to other computers and information sources almost anywhere. Cable Modem. The providers are already connected to the Internet and provide a path or connection for individuals to access the Internet. “Wireless service providers” do not use telephone or cable lines. the PC connects to the server of an Internet Service Provider (ISP). They provide Internet connections with wireless modems and other wireless devices. This is just the beginning of the “Wireless Revolution” which will change the way we communicate and use computer technology in a big way. Besides these. the data transmission rate is much higher. In the past.How Do We Connect? “Connectivity” is a concept related to using computer networks to link people and resources. If a computer is part of a local area network (LAN) that has connectivity to the Internet. username. Today. An “Internet Service Provider” is a company that provides access to the Internet for a monthly fee. Using the modem and dialer software. They provide access through standard telephone lines or cable connections. In the last five years. Colleges and universities mostly provide free access to students. Some companies also offer free Internet access. This is how the PC establishes a connection to the Internet through an ISP. It is a special application program that brings information from any part of the world 122 | P a g e . there are also other options for connecting to the Internet. you are linked to the world of larger computers and the Internet. you can connect your Personal Computer (PC) to the Internet. In this method.
With an Internet connection and Internet Explorer. Using a browser. When you want to visit a website. Each web site has a distinct. images. It is the name of the server where the resource is located. Netscape Navigator and Mozilla are some examples of the browser applications that are commonly used.microsoft. This address is known as the Uniform Resource Locator or URL in short. Internet Explorer automatically sends your query to a search service and displays the results. Most browsers have a Graphical User Interface (GUI). It identifies the type of organization or what country the website is from. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Internet Explorer”. You can connect directly to a web site by typing the URL of that site in the address bar or location bar of the web browser. For example “. The URL of the web page is displayed in the address bar. Since it is created by Microsoft. This allows easy viewing of text. Say you are looking for “digital cameras”. you can communicate with any computer over the Internet. It allows navigation from one page to another. If you do not see this icon.through the Internet to your computer screen. The second part presents the “domain name”. playing audio and video files and running programs. separate and unique address. click on the “Launch Internet Explorer Browser” icon on your desktop. A browser does the work of connecting to the Internet and locating and displaying web pages. 123 | P a g e . Type “digital camera” and press “Enter”. The first part of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) presents the “protocol” used to connect to the resource. Protocols are rules for exchanging data between computers. type the website address or URL in the address bar. you can find and view information about anything on the Web To start Internet Explorer. it is closely integrated with the Windows operating system.in” indicates India. and animations. http://www.com” indicates a commercial site and “. Navigating the Web Using Internet Explorer 7 Internet Explorer is a world-class browser that is designed to support various internet standards across a variety of platforms. The protocol “http://” is the most widely used Web protocol. Internet Explorer. The last part of the domain name following the dot is called the “top-level domain (TLD)”.com/ and press “Enter”. Another way to navigate the web is to go the address bar and type what you are looking for. At the top. for example. you see a long rectangular box called the “Address Bar”.
Quick Tabs: To see a thumbnail view of all the websites you have open in your tabs. you may enter the settings you require. click the “Quick Tabs” button to the left of the first tab. To access the Internet Explorer Tabbed Browsing options. Under “Tabs”. select “Tools → Internet Options”. you may click the down arrow just to the right of the Forward button and select the webpage from the dropdown list. you may enter the settings you require. Home Page: The default page displayed when you start Internet Explorer is called the “Home Page”. To quickly go back to a website you visited earlier.To the right of the address bar. In the “AutoComplete Settings” window. click on the “X” to the right side of it. which is intended chiefly to greet visitors and provide information about the site or its owner. Below the address bar. you may use the “Forward” button. AutoComplete: Internet Explorer automatically records Web addresses. 124 | P a g e . You may use this to reload a web page. Select “Tools → Internet Options”. Use the “Back” button to the left of the address bar to go to the previous page you were on. The “Stop” button to its right is used to stop a page from loading. On the “Content” tab. You now see a menu displayed above the toolbar. To close a tab. You can scroll through a web page using the horizontal and vertical scrollbars. the web page related to the link is opened. you may enter your preferences under “Home page”. forms data. click “Settings”. click the “New Tab” button or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+T”. under “AutoComplete”. If you clicked the Back button and you want to move forward to the page you were on just before you clicked it. Tabbed Browsing: Tabs enable you to have multiple websites open in one Internet Explorer window at one time. The Home Page of a website is the opening or main page of the website. select “Tools → Internet Options”. You can quickly switch between open websites by simply clicking on the tabs. you can see a toolbar. you can see the “Refresh” button. To create a new tab. click “Settings”. the pointer changes to a hand and the URL is shown in the status bar. You may change the Internet Explorer Home Page to a site of your preference. Selecting links: When you point to a link on a web page. buttons or pictures. and passwords. On the “General” tab. To access the Internet Explorer AutoComplete options. In the “Tabbed Browsing Settings” window. Right-click on a blank space on the toolbar and select “Menu Bar”. Links may be in the form of underlined text. Click on a thumbnail to view a particular website. When you click on the link.
you can arrange them in order of priority. click “New Folder”.Using frames: The browser area can be divided into different scrollable areas called frames. Click on thumbnails to view related documents. Click “OK” in the other windows as well. the related page is displayed in another frame. you may pin it to the window by clicking on the “Pin the Favorites Center” button. rather than having to type the sites URL each time you want to visit it. Now click “Add” in the “Add a Favorite” window. Adding items to the Favorites list: Go to the page that you want to add to your list. select the desired folder and click “Add”. click “Languages”. You may adjust the size of the frames by dragging the border between the frames. Enter a name for the new folder in the “Create a Folder” window and click “Create”. Click the “Add to Favorites” button on the toolbar and select “Add to Favorites. Viewing thumbnails: Thumbnail images are small images shown on a web page because of space limitations and the time required for downloading. On the “General” tab. In the “Language Preference” window.. Using the Favorites Center Internet Explorer Favorites are used to save links to sites that you want to visit again. If a Web site offers multiple languages. To unpin it. 125 | P a g e . To view these pages in your preferred language. For this. To place this favorite in an existing folder. This list appears under “Favorites” when you click the “Favorites Center” button on the toolbar. “Close the Favorites Center” icon. Displaying web pages in other languages: Some Web sites offer their content in several languages. When you click on a link on one page included in a frame. You may organize your favorite pages in folders and save items under different folders. If you speak several languages. In the “Add Language” window. you can add languages to your list of languages in Internet Explorer. You may type a new name for the page in the “Name” text box. simply click on the “X” shaped.”. you may create a new folder for a favorite. click “Add”. from the “Create in” drop-down list. content will appear in the language that has the highest priority. If you would like to display the Favorites Center at the left of your screen at all times. Creating a list of favorites allows you to visit those sites with a single click. select the language you want to add and click “OK”. The “Add a Favorite” window is displayed. The “Favorites” list contains all the favorites you have created. Select “Tools → Internet Options”. Alternatively.
Preliminary validations are performed on some fields. You may re-sort your History items by clicking on the arrow next to the "History" button and making your selection. click the “History” button in the Favorites Center. you may use the different buttons in the lower part to create. In the “Organize Favorites” window. right-click on it and select “Delete”. selected text. such as your name. the current page. To delete an item from the History List. phone number. and so on.Organizing your Favorites: You may wish to organize your favorite pages by topic. pop-up menus or drop-down lists. you may have to enter your personal details while booking an airline ticket online. check boxes. Online Application Forms: Online Application Forms are forms that are given to the user to fill when connected to the Internet. Printing and Saving Web Pages Printing and saving web pages: To print the current page. To view the History list. select “File → Print” from the menu. Click the “Add to Favorites” button.. Click “Yes” in the displayed window. You may print all pages. You can also move items from one folder to another by using the “Move” button or dragging the item to the appropriate folder You may also use the Menu Bar to add items to your Favorites list and to organize your Favorites. For this. The “Print” window is displayed. Some mandatory fields must be entered before the data is accepted. you can login to your account and use all facilities available. The form shown is used to register for a Yahoo mail account. These must be filled in carefully before they are submitted.” and “Favorites → Organize Favorites” from the Menu Bar. 126 | P a g e . A form may have text boxes. You can fill information in it and submit the form contents by clicking on buttons provided. click on one of the calendar icons. Once you have completed your registration. Using the History list: Internet Explorer keeps track of the web pages you have previously visited in the form of history. Using Forms Forms are part of the web page that can help you to enter data. address. buttons. Now. a specific page or range of pages by making the appropriate selection under “Print Range”. You may then click on a website link to open the related page. History items are displayed sorted by website. rename or delete a folder. For example. and then click “Organize Favorites”. select “Favorites → Add to Favorites. Click on one of the yellow icons to see what pages you visited at a particular site.
For example. For this. Right-click to display a pop-up menu. select “File → Print Preview” from the menu. if you entered the keyword “travel” you get 127 | P a g e . Type a file name for the image and then click “Save”. but typically offer no categories or differentiation between different types of material. Specify the location at which you wish to save your file. web directories and search engines. Click “Close” when the download is completed. Search services can be categorized into two types. Search services help you to quickly locate information about a specific topic from multiple websites. Search engines are also huge databases of web sites. web directories and search engines. Finding Information on the Web Using Search Services As you know. Type a file name and then click “Save”. Choose a folder in which to save this image. Search services can be categorized into two types. you enter a keyword or phrase reflecting the information you want. Saving a page without displaying it: Position the mouse pointer over the link to the web page you wish to save. For this. but typically offer no categories or differentiation between different types of material. The “Save As” window is displayed. The search engine compares your entry against its database and displays a list of “hits” in the form of hyperlinks to related web pages. there is a vast ocean of information available on the World Wide Web. You may save the web page with a new name by making changes in the “File name” field. In a keyword search. Specify the location at which you wish to download the web page. a descriptive world or phrase or by browsing a topic list.Previewing a web page: To have a look at how a page will look before it is printed. Web directories are databases of Internet sites that are organized by topics or subjects. A number of search tools have been developed and are available on different web sites. Saving an entire web page: Select “File → Save As” from the menu. The “Save Webpage” window is displayed. you can use the Preview option. The “Save Picture” window is displayed. Search engines provide two different search approaches: Keyword search and Directory search. Search engines are also huge databases of web sites. Saving an image from a page: You may wish to save only an image from a web page. position the mouse pointer over the image. You may choose a format for the page from the dropdown list in the “Save as type” field. Right-click to display the pop-up menu. A search can be done by entering a keyword. Choose “Save Picture As”. Web directories are databases of Internet sites that are organized by topics or subjects. Choose “Save Target As”. Now click “Save”.
thousands of hits. These are ordered according to those sites most likely to contain the information requested and are usually in groups of 10. You may find relevant information on the web using “Subject Directories”. Subject directories are collections of Internet resources organized into subject categories. They are useful for looking for information on a specific subject or to gain familiarity with a topic. Advantages of subject directories are that they generally contain good quality sites and they save time since subject wise information is available. Let us have a look at the Google subject directory. Enter the URL “http://directory.google.com” in the address bar and press “Enter”. You can see the Google directory on your screen showing links to various subjects. Clicking on a subject will show you more detailed lists from which you may make your selections. Using the Search Box: One of the new features of Internet Explorer 7 is the “Search Box” located at the top right. You can search the internet using most search engines from the search box instead of going to other search engine sites. If you want to find something on a page you are currently on, click on the down arrow to the right of the magnifying glass and select “Find on this Page”. Enter your search criteria and click “Next”. Using the Search Box: One of the new features of Internet Explorer 7 is the “Search Box” located at the top right. You can search the internet using most search engines from the search box instead of going to other search engine sites. If you want to find something on a page you are currently on, click on the down arrow to the right of the magnifying glass and select “Find on this Page”. Enter your search criteria and click “Next”. You may change the default search engine if you wish. For this, click on the down arrow to the right of the magnifying glass and select “Change Search Defaults”. Click “Set Default” and then “OK” to make the search provider you just added as the default one. Metasearch Engines: When you research a topic, you may need to visit different web sites in order to use different search engines. This would be time-consuming and duplicate responses would be inevitable. “Metasearch Engines” offer an alternative. They are programs that automatically submit your search request to several search engines simultaneously. The metasearch engine receives the results, eliminates duplicates, orders the hits and provides the edited list to you. You can see a list of some metasearch engines available on the Web in the displayed table.
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Specialized Search Engines: These search engines focus on subject-specific web sites. They save your time by narrowing your search. For a list of a few specialized search engines, have a look at the displayed table.
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Content Evaluation: You must keep in mind that not all information available on the Web is accurate. In fact, anyone can publish content on the Web. Many sites such as Wikipedia.com, allow anyone to post new material, sometimes anonymously and without critical evaluation. To evaluate the accuracy of information found on the Web, you need to consider the following points. Authority: Is the author an expert on the subject? Is the web site an individual’s personal one or an official one? Accuracy: Has the information been critically reviewed for correctness? Does the web site provide a method of reporting inaccurate information? Objectivity: Is the information reported biased or based on actual facts? Does the author gain personally by convincing the reader or changing his opinion? Currency: Is the information up to date. Is the date when the site was updated specified? Google
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Type the keyword on which you wish to search in the search text box. friends and family can stay in touch even when separated by thousands of miles. At a personal level. Language Tools: Click “Language Tools” to specify your language preferences for a particular search. Start the Internet Explorer browser and type www. You may click on the link of your choice. This takes you straight to the most relevant website that Google finds for your query. the "Iam Feeling Lucky" site would be listed on top. you might want to try Advanced Search. Click “more” to view additional links. electronic communication has become a standard and preferred way to stay in touch with suppliers. Communication Using E-Mail Using Web E-Mail Services You know that communication is the most popular Internet activity. which offers numerous options for making your searches more precise and getting more useful results. use more descriptive words as opposed to general ones. set the interface language and search for pages written in specific languages. The result displayed is page wise if the resulted list is big.com in the address box. Preferences: You may configure your search exactly as you want it. Advanced Search: Once you know the basics of Google search. You can filter inappropriate material. You will not see the search results page at all. Press “Enter” to display the Google home page. Click “Advanced Search” to enter your options. Click “even more” to see some more useful links. Click the links to visit the related web pages.google. Then press the “Google Search” button”. I am Feeling Lucky: You may try using the "I am Feeling Lucky" button when you have entered your search terms. but if you do. you can save this as your default search behavior on the “Preferences” page. Click “Preferences” to enter your requirements. employees and customers. 131 | P a g e . At a business level. Searching by Keyword: Some simple tips for entering keywords are be specific. Searching by Topic: The Google web site interface consists of many links to various topics and a search text box. If you typically search only pages in a specific language.“Google” is one of the most popular search engines. The search results displayed have links to the pages containing matches to your desired keyword. use multiple words and leave out non-essential words.
At the other end. it is not necessary for the person to whom the e-mail has been sent to be available. E-mail has become very popular because of its speed. or electronic mail. In this. If the ID you select has already been taken by someone else. low cost and absence of time restrictions.com.E-mail. Some of the examples are mail. When the mail server identifies the recipient. has increased rapidly in recent years. enables communication by sending and receiving written messages via a computer over the Internet.com” in the address bar and press “Enter”. Creating an e-mail account is fairly simple. To go to the Yahoo home page. etc.com”. The website provides you with a unique user name and you can also specify a password. Next.com. The most popular is the free web mail service that many web sites provide. the identity of the recipient is verified and then the mail is forwarded. When the recipient switches on his computer and connects to the mail service. This is a very powerful tool for communication and a prime reason for the popularity of Internet.com” is the name of the domain or server. The use of e-mail in our country.com. or for his computer to be on. You will be asked to answer this question in case you forget your password. 132 | P a g e . When an e-mail is sent. The other is based on Post Office Protocol (POP3) using which you may download mails onto your computer or send mails stored on your hard disk.com. all the mail that has been received is downloaded to his computer. try a variation of the name. type “www. The first step is to fill out your personal information. A complete e-mail address is normally in the form of “ahmed@yahoo. You see a form displayed on your screen. To use the e-mail facility the user has to register with the web site providing the facility. After you have chosen a name. it sends the message to his address. “ahmed” is the name of the person. Rediffmail. similarly every e-mail account has a unique address. enter an ID which will act as both your login name and your email address.com. The web site has a registration page that will ask you to enter some information and also make you accept a user agreement. Indiatimes. Hotmail.yahoo. You need an e-mail program and a connection to the Internet. click “Free Mail: Sign Up”.Yahoo. especially in urban areas. Just as every web page has a unique address. There are basically two types of e-mail services you can use. you have to create a password. Select a security question and enter a suitable answer. You have already seen how to fill in an online form. The mail sent by you is sent to the mail server. “yahoo. Let us create a free e-mail ID on Yahoo. Now. Then you may enter an alternate e-mail address if you have one.
The Mozilla Thunderbird e-mail program which is available for free download at “www. To start the Microsoft Outlook application. In Windows Mail. the recipient’s address is to be removed from future mailing lists. 134 | P a g e . Newsgroups are also called discussion groups. and drag it and place it in the "Go" menu. click on “Newsgroup Account” and then click “Next”. Microsoft Outlook automatically sets up the Windows Mail Newsreader. Using Newsgroups A newsgroup is a forum on the Internet for discussions on a specified range of subjects. click “Finish”. to download and read news messages. Select “Tools → Accounts” from the menu. When the option is selected. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Outlook 2007”. click "Go". In the "Categories" list. In the window displayed.com” comes with built-in spam blocking software. If you have not previously set up a newsreader. Click on the "Commands" tab. click “Add”. These programs use a variety of approaches to identify and eliminate spam. Newsreaders are used to gain access to various types of newsgroups. On the Standard toolbar click the "Toolbar Options" arrow.mozilla. This indicates that you may subscribe to a newsgroup of your choice on the Microsoft news server. If you do not find the “News” item in the “Go” menu of Microsoft Outlook. In the United States of America. Now. and to post replies to them. Point to "Add or Remove Buttons". Select “Go → News” from the menu. When “Congratulations” is displayed. you can see that there is a default news account named “Microsoft Communities”. which you can use to download newsgroup content and then work with it when you are not connected to the Internet.the development and use of “Spam Blockers”. In the “Internet Accounts” window. the CAN-SPAM Act has been enacted which requires that every marketing-related e-mail provides an opt-out option. perform the following steps. Enter your name as you want it displayed and click “Next”. click "News". and then click "Customize". Click “Next”. You can see this account under the “News” heading in the “Internet Accounts” window. enter your e-mail address. In the "Commands" list. Here you are required to enter the Internet News Server Name. Adding a News Account: Let us add a new account. a folder with this name is created in the list of folders in the left panel. This newsreader is a Network News Transport Protocol (NNTP) newsreader. You may then close the “Customize” window. Enter the server name and then click “Next”. Also.
In the contacts list. You may read any message you wish by double-clicking on it. you can have a complete conversation. You can see that the contact is displayed in your list. Click “Add Contact” after you are done. The list is downloaded and the “Newsgroup Subscriptions” window is displayed. Select “Start → All Programs”. right-click on its name and select “Unsubscribe”. Click on a newsgroup name in the folder list to see a list of messages. you can see which of your contacts are online and offline at any given time. On the “All” tab. Use “Ctrl+Click” to select multiple groups. The difference is that you can send and receive messages as soon as they are typed. Windows Live Messenger. Click “OK” to confirm. ensure that you are connected to the Internet and click “Yes”. you need to add his name to your list of contacts. To print this message. enter your message in the “Personal invitation” box and check the box against “Also send an e-mail invitation to this contact”. Since this list needs to be downloaded from the news server. click “Windows Live Messenger” to start the Windows Live Messenger. Then click “Subscribe”. If both parties are online at the same time. select “File → Print” from the menu bar. Now click “OK”. In the “Windows Live” folder. Select “File → New → News Message” to create a new message to send to the complete group. If you wish.Click “Close”. Click “Reply Group” to send a reply to all members of a group and “Reply” to reply to the individual sender of the message. To use a messenger. You may choose to reply to a message. Adding a Contact: Before you can chat with someone. ICQ. You 135 | P a g e . Now. To unsubscribe from a group. Google talk etc. “Work” and “Notes” sections. you may click on the group you wish to subscribe to. Using Messengers for Instant Messaging Instant Messaging enables you to have a conversation with another person or a group of people concurrently. If your contact does not have Windows Live Messenger. Enter your e-mail address and password and then click “Sign In”. The names of the newsgroups appear in the folder list. it must first be downloaded from the Internet and installed on your computer. you may add additional information in the “Contact”. In the “Instant Messaging Address” box enter your contact’s e-mail address. There are different instant messengers available such as Yahoo messenger. It is similar to e-mail. You see a window asking whether you would like to view a list of available newsgroups. download the Windows Live Messenger and install it. “Personal”. Click the “Add a contact” button.
deleting the contact etc. This message is displayed immediately on your contact’s screen. click on your name at the top of the screen. enter the file name in which you want to save it and press “Save”. Click on your name at the top of the screen. Click “OK” in the window that comes up. Click “Options”. Right-click on a contact’s name in the main window to perform various activities such as sending an e-mail. For this. Social Networking 136 | P a g e . messages from your contact are displayed on your screen. Type your message and then select an emoticon from the list. Now select “File → Save”. click on your name at the top of the screen and then click on the status you wish. In the main Messenger screen. In the same way. In the “Save As” window. “Emoticons”. You can see the complete conversation in the upper section of the “Conversation” window. When a contact comes online. Choose a picture and then click “OK” in the “Display Pictures” window. also called “Smileys”. The new picture is then displayed. Specifying Other Settings: You may specify other settings such as the way your name is displayed in a conversation. you are informed about his status. When you click on the name of a contact who is offline. type your message and click “Send” or simply press “Enter”. Changing your Status: You may wish to display a specific status against your name such as “Busy”. Changing the Display Picture: You may change the picture that is displayed against your name. are symbols that help to convey emotion or additional meaning in a written statement. editing contact details. Chatting with your contact: Now. Offline contacts will receive the messages once they come online. For this. you may click on the different categories in the left pane to specify related settings. “Out to lunch” etc. After you have completed your chat. you are notified about it. Click “Change display picture”. Saving your conversation: You may save your complete conversation.can chat with any contact who is online. Changing the Color Scheme: You may change the color scheme of the Messenger application by clicking on the Paint Brush icon at the top of the main Messenger window and selecting a color of your choice. In the window displayed. You may send an emoticon along with your message. you may close the conversation window by clicking “Show Menu” and selecting “File → Close”. In the box at the bottom of the conversation window that comes up. the emoticon is sent along with the text. click on the “Show Menu” icon to the right of the Paint Brush icon in the conversation window. You can also send messages to contacts who are offline. you are ready to begin your chat. double-click the name of an online contact. When you click “Send”. For this.
There are three basic categories of social networking sites: reuniting. This information is added to the site’s database. 137 | P a g e . school name etc. For a summary of social networking sites. you might join LinkedIn. friend-of-a-friend and common interest. you might join Meetup. For example.One of the fastest growing uses of the Internet is “social networking” i. “Friend-of-a-friend” sites are designed to bring together two people who do not know each other but share a common friend. Many sites even notify you when someone joins with parts of his profile matching yours. Two popular reuniting sites are Facebook and Classmates Online. see the displayed table. Two well-known friend-of-a-friend sites are Friendster and MySpace. If you wanted to locate or create a special interest group. “Common interest” sites bring together individuals that share common interests or hobbies. For example. gender. connecting individuals to one another. You must consider carefully what you are disclosing before providing information to any site or individual. “Reuniting” sites are designed to connect people who have known one another but have lost touch.e. You could then visit his site to connect to his friends and join his list of friends as well. if you are looking for business contacts. Members can search the database to locate individuals. a network could be started by an acquaintance who provides his profile information and list of friends. When you join a social network by connecting to a reuniting site. you provide profile information such as your age.
138 | P a g e . You need to manually leaf through the pages to locate the required information. You are responsible for maintaining the employment records for all employees of the School. Also making reports quickly is a difficult task.DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Overview Introduction to Databases You have recently accepted a new job as an Employment Administrator with All Saints High School. the employment records are maintained on paper forms and stored in file cabinets organized alphabetically. Although the information is well maintained. Currently. retrieving any kind of information is time consuming.
The four main objects in an Access database are Tables. enter data. Tables are made up of vertical columns (called fields) and horizontal rows (called records). you can also use queries to make changes to your database. In the following labs. thing or place.The school has recently purchased new computers and the management now wants to update the employee record system to an electronic database management system. What is a database? : A database is an organized collection of related information. You can create as many tables as you need to store different types of information. Typically. and present information in many different ways. 139 | P a g e . Creating a Database Introduction to Access To start the Microsoft Access application. you will learn how to create a database. data is organized in linked tables. A relational database is the most widely used database structure. However. manipulate. Tables store information. It is an electronic database management system which can store. using Access 2007. Forms and Reports. access. Here. Each column is a field which is the smallest unit of information about a record. print and preview data and much more. The table object is the basic object and has to be created first. Each row is a record which contains all the information about a person. Usually. edit data. That file contains database objects. before any other objects are created. The first screen that appears is the “Getting Started with Microsoft Office Access” page. Queries. The tables are related or linked to one another by a common field.accdb”. this action involves retrieving a piece of information. the information in a database is stored in a table. Queries let you quickly perform an action on a table. every database is stored in a single file which has the extension “. The software tool that you will use to accomplish the task you have been assigned will be Microsoft Access 2007. organize. Forms are windows that you create and arrange in order to easily view or change the information in a table. which are simply the components of a database. In Access. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Access 2007”. Access 2007 is a relational database management application that is used to create and analyze a database.
-Its capability to sort records in a table according to different fields can provide more meaningful information. manage contacts. Access provides you with a wide variety of templates that are ready-to-use databases that contain all that is needed for performing a specific task. You must know how the structure or layout of each table in the database must be. You must understand the purpose of the database. After studying the existing record keeping procedures and the reports that are created. and more become available if you click one of the categories under “Template Categories” at the left of the Access window. The main table will include the employees’ basic information. For this you must study the existing employee records. Creating a New Database Creating a database entails several basic steps: planning. Another will contain information of all the departments in the School and a third one will contain the payroll of the employees. -Your tables. you decide to create several separate tables of data in the database. you can quickly search the table to locate a specific record based on the data in a field. there are templates that can be used to track issues. what data each of them will contain and how will they be related. or keep a record of expenses. entering and editing data and then previewing and printing.Reports help you print some or all of the information in a table. 140 | P a g e . how its grouped and sorted. The features of Access 2007 are as follows: -Once the data is entered in the database. -It is easy to add. -You can quickly produce reports using some Access features. You can choose where the information appears on the printed page. Planning is the first step in the development of a database. delete and modify records from a table. Several templates are displayed under “Featured Online Templates”. you can easily switch between various objects. and how its formatted. or you can customize them to suit your needs. For example. creating. Template databases can be used as they are. You must plan the design of your database in respect of how many tables will be required. -You can analyze the data in a table and perform calculations on different fields of data. forms and reports are displayed as tabbed objects in the Access window. By clicking the object tabs. queries.
For now. and configure the fields. to provide you with a larger work area. the names of your database objects such as tables. click the arrow in the upper corner. In the panel at the right. Datasheet view shows the data in the database. and Redo. form. printing. or other database objects. The Navigation Pane can be minimized into a vertical bar. The “View” icon in the “Views” group is used switch back and forth between the Datasheet view and the Design View. 2) The Quick Access toolbar which displays icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. you see the “Navigation Pane”. and closing a file. To open a database object. Undo. For more details on the Microsoft Office User Interface. Design view allows you to create or change a table. you may see the assignment titled “The User Interface” in the “Microsoft Word” topic. It also allows you to enter and edit the data. Click on the “Browse” icon to the right of the file name. it is time to create it so that the data can be stored in it. Groups and Command buttons. Click “Blank Database” under “New Blank Database”. At the left.accdb”. Access creates your first database object. forms and reports appear in the Navigation Pane. But you cannot change the data in design view. You may specify the location where you wish to store your database. click the arrow at the top. with no defined fields. When you open a database or create a new one. At the bottom of the screen you see the words “Datasheet View” on the “Status Bar”. This indicates that you are 141 | P a g e . the default database name is displayed in the “File Name” box. You can also set keys and restrict the values entered here. In the “File New Database” window. You see the familiar Microsoft Office 2007 user interface which consists of: 1) The Office Button which displays a menu containing commands for opening. Creating a database: Now that you have designed the database. Creating a Table Access provides different window formats called “Views” to display and work with the objects in a database. click on “Desktop” in the left panel and then click “OK”. To expand the minimized Navigation Pane. 3) The Ribbon which has Task-oriented Tabs. right-click the object and select an item from the context menu that appears. Now click “Create”. To apply a command to a database object. you will create only the table containing the employee information. saving. Change it to “Employee. double-click the object in the Navigation Pane. The two most commonly used views are “Datasheet View” and “Design View”. To minimize the expanded Navigation Pane. a table named Table1 which is completely blank.
Access also ensures that every record has a non-blank primary key field. This view provides a row and column view of the data in tables. Access automatically creates a primary key and assigns a field name of "ID" and the AutoNumber data type to it. You may also create a table using this view. You will learn about the different data types shortly.now in datasheet view. an exclamation (!). Type “Employee ID” as the field name and press “Enter”. It is important to choose the right kind of data type before you start entering data in the table. you must create the structure of the table. Click on “View → Design View” in the “Views” group. Examples are names and phone numbers. In the “Save As” window. and brackets(). and search for data. etc. You must specify a primary key for all tables. spaces. A primary key is a field or set of fields in your table that provide Access with a unique identifier for every record. and that it is always unique. forms. Access automatically creates an index for the primary key. Field name: A field name is used to identify the data stored in a field. Click on the drop down menu button to select the “Data Type”. Before you can enter data into a table. In Datasheet view. queries and reports. except a period (. We shall use the “Design View” to create a table. This view can be used to create and view the design of all types of database objects such as tables.). Text: It is the default data type and is used to store text entries. Before defining the fields in a table. Now let us begin creating the table structure. combinations of words and numbers. like words. Phone No. and numbers that are not used in calculations. The “Emp Info” tab is displayed in the document window on the right. 142 | P a g e . Following are some examples of valid field names: First name. You can enter up to 255 characters in a text field. The name can consist of letters. and queries. Access provides a number of data types to choose from. meaning the fields that will hold the data. Enter the Table Name as “Emp Info” and click “OK”. Let us first understand what is meant by a “Primary Key”. You can see a small key to the left of the field name indicating that this field is the primary key of the table. When you create a new table. Following are the data types you can use. Subject1. add and delete data. Data type: The data type defines the type of data the field will contain. You can now see the name of your table in the Navigation Pane on the left. and special characters. the default name “Table1” is displayed. numbers. you can edit fields. forms. You cannot start the name of a field with a space. which makes queries and other operations fast. you need to enter a name for the table.
documents. Calculations can be performed on the numbers stored in a Number field. Date/Time: It is used for storage of date and time information. Select the “Text” data type. Switch back to Design View by clicking “View → Design View” in the “Views” group. sequential number that is automatically incremented by one whenever a new record is added to the table. Date of joining. 143 | P a g e . its default properties are displayed under “Field Properties”. OLE Object: This data type is used to store images. Pass. etc. documents. True or False. A field property is a characteristic that helps define a field. Description: The “Description” text box is used to describe the field. Summary of a book is an example. Birth date. Information about the data type is displayed in the left panel and on the right hand side is the help box displaying information about the current task. When you select a data type. Format: Specifies how the data is displayed in the table and printed. AutoNumber: It is a unique. Each data type has its own set of field properties. Some of the more common properties are as follows: Field Size: It decides the maximum number of characters that can be entered in the field. Currency: This is similar to the Number data type. charts and other types of supported files to the records in your database. Input mask: Simplifies data entry and controls what data is required and how it is to be displayed. graphs etc. and On or Off. For example. Giving this description is optional. Type the description wherever applicable. It can be used for fields like Fees Paid. Caption: Specifies a field caption or a prompt for the user to enter data. As you can see. Hyperlink: This is used to store web addresses. etc. Click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar and switch to Datasheet View by clicking “View → Datasheet View” in the “Views” group. the default field size of the “Text” data type is 255. Number: It is used to store numbers only. but is formatted to display decimal places and the currency symbol. Marks in an exam is an example.Memo: It is used to store text that is too long to be stored in a Text field. etc. Yes/No: This data type accepts only two values – Yes or No. spreadsheet files. Attachment: This is used to store images. Price. Fees. For example. The description that you had entered is displayed in the “Status Bar”.
Allow Zero Length: Specifies whether or not an entry containing no value is valid. and grouping operations run against large amounts of data. Click in the “Field Size” property box and change the field size to ’15’. Click with the mouse in the “Field Name” column to enter the next field name. Select the “Data Type” of this field as “Date/Time” from the drop down menu. So select the “Data Type” as “Attachment”. You may change the primary key simply by clicking on another field name and then clicking on the “Primary Key” icon in the “Tools” group. Follow the same procedure for the next field – Date_Of_Joining. The structure of your table is now ready. Select “General Date”.Default Value: It specifies a default value for a field to be automatically filled in at the time of data entry. sorting. it can be used to indicate that you know no value exists for a field. Click on the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. let us change some of the defaults. We used the Design View to define the structure. The “Photo” field is of a different type – you want to store the photo of the employee. 144 | P a g e . Validation Rule: Restricts the data entry to meet certain conditions or requirements. Required: Specifies whether or not a value must be entered in a field before the record is stored. But you cannot do so until you change the view. Indexed: An index is used to speed up queries. You must save your table structure before you can start entering data into the table. If you set it to “Yes”. Click on “View → Datasheet View” in the “Views” group. Validation Text: It is displayed when the validation rule is violated. You can see that the name given to the field with the data type Attachment has been replaced by a paperclip icon. Do not make any other changes. Click the “Field Size” property text box. This field property specifies whether an index is to be created on that field. Click in the “Format” property box and open the drop down list. Type ‘First Name’ and select “Text” as the “Data Type” from the drop down menu. In the same manner. enter the information shown in the table until you come to the “Birth Date” field. Double-click on 255 to select it and type ‘4’ to change the field size. Now. Entering and Editing Data You can now start entering data in the table. Let us change the primary key back to “Employee ID” as before. This value can be changed. We now need to switch to Datasheet View.
Then drag in the desired direction. Click “OK”. You have been informed by the HR department. that an employee has resigned and is no longer an employee of the School. The document will be printed using the default settings. Now double-click on the name of the picture in the “Attachments” window. Double-click in the attachment field to open the “Attachments” window. double-click in the attachment field. Before printing it is advisable to preview it. click “Delete”. See that there is consistency in the data that you enter. right-click a columns name and select “Column Width”. For this. Remember not to use any spaces before or after the data. in the “Records” group. Click on the picture and then click “Open”. Then click “OK”. Complete the information for the first record except for the “Photo” field. For this. Use the right arrow key or press “Enter” to move to the next field. It displays the table in a reduced size so that you can see the layout. use the “Backspace” key to delete characters to the left of the insertion point or the “Delete” key to delete characters to the right of the insertion point. For the date fields. This is the small box to the left of the record. Click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. position the mouse on the right border of a column header. Previewing the table gives you an idea how the table will look after it is printed. Changing Column Width The data you have entered may not be completely visible in the Table’s column. Inserting a picture: The photo can be inserted as an attachment. This displays the “Column Width” window where you can type the desired value. Deleting a record: Select the record to be deleted by clicking the “Record Selector”. you may adjust the column width to a specific number of characters. you may enter the date directly or use the Date Picker displayed at the right of the field. If you make a mistake while typing. In the “Choose File” window. You may adjust the column width. left or right until you get the desired width. Type the employee’s ID number. Click “Yes” to delete the record. Preview and Print a Table The table is now ready and you want to print it. navigate to the location of the picture file. Then you must delete that employee’s record. On the “Home tab”. Alternatively. If you want to 145 | P a g e . that is. in the “Employee ID” column. To see that the picture has really been inserted. You can see the name of the picture in the “Attachments” window. Check that you type data exactly as it appears in the accompanying table.The insertion point can be seen in the first column of the first row. You may drag with the mouse to select multiple records. You will be asked to confirm the deletion. Now click “Add”.
To close the preview. The “Print Range” section of the window lets you specify how much of the document you want to print. type ‘1’ and in the “To” field enter ‘5’. Select “All” to print all records. to print pages 1 to 5. simply click on the “X” shaped icon at the right end in line with the table name. To print pages that are continuous. Check once again whether everything is as you want it and click on the “Print” icon. click the “Close Print Preview” icon. Since you have just one table open presently. To print selected records. For example. The “Print Preview” tab appears when you view the table in the Print Preview mode. type ‘1’ and in the “To” field enter ‘5’. Clicking on “Cancel” will not close the window and you will be able to continue working. For example.change some settings you may do so. enter the page range. Select “Pages From” to specify the number of the pages you want to print. Closing a table: Multiple table tabs may be open at one time. you have to close the database. Select “All” to print all records. select “Selected Record(s)”. two or multiple pages if there is more data than can fit on one or two pages. enter the page range. To close a table. If you click “No” to discard changes. The “Print Range” section of the window lets you specify how much of the document you want to print. Select “Pages From” to specify the number of the pages you want to print. You are now back to the “Getting 146 | P a g e . select “Selected Record(s)”. in the “Pages From:” field. You have to close the table and database that you have created and have been working on until now. click on the “Landscape” icon in the “Page Layout” group. the table will close without saving the changes. click “OK”. The page is displayed with a heading and date in the “Header” and the page number in the “Footer”. After you have entered your print specifications. you may first click on the related tab to make it active. Close and Open a Table and Database You have finished working with the employee database for now and you want to stop working but continue later on. You can see the preview consisting of one. Closing the database: Next. To print selected records. in the “Pages From:” field. To print pages that are continuous. If you have made any changes that have not been saved. After you have entered your print specifications. click “OK”. The “Print” window is displayed. Click “Yes” to save changes. Access will prompt you to save them before closing. to print pages 1 to 5. If you want to change the page orientation. Click on the Office Button and select “Close Database”. The table tab will close. You may also print the table by clicking the Office Button and selecting “Print → Print” from the menu or use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+P”.
Enter the words “(structure only)” at the end of the name and click “OK”. This is an alternative method to using the “Save As” option of the Office Button. This would save time in creating a new table which required similar fields but had different data to be entered. In such a case. To open the “Emp Info” table. If any database 147 | P a g e . Click the table name in the Navigation Pane. Let us modify the default name. This copy would be identical to the existing one complete with its objects and data. Sometimes. You may create a new database or open an existing one. you may not see the name of your database in this list. To exit Access. navigate to the location of your database and click “Open”. In the “Paste Table As” window. Opening the database: When you need to work once again with the “Employee” database. Making a Copy of the Database You can make a copy of the complete database. Sometimes. select “Structure Only” under “Paste Options”. click “More…” at the top of the list. click the Office Button and select “Save As → Access 2007 Database”. Making Copies of Database Objects Copying a database object: You can make a copy of an object in the database such as a table. Now right click once again in the Navigation Pane and select “Paste”.Started with Microsoft Office Access” page. Let us make a copy of the table “Emp Info”. Your Database window is displayed. you may accept the default name displayed or enter a new name. The table will open in Datasheet View. You can see the new table displayed in the Navigation Pane and the data displayed in the document window on the right. Enter the words “(with data)” at the end of the name and click “OK”. you may click the Office Button and then click the “Exit Access” button at the bottom right. Now click the Office Button and select “Save As”. In the “Save As” window. in the “Getting Started with Microsoft Office Access” page. you may need to copy only the structure of a table. we shall copy the structure only. Right click on the name of the “Emp Info” table in the Navigation Pane and select “Copy”. For this. In the document pane. click on the database name in the list displayed under “Open Recent Database” on the right. This time. Let us create another copy of the “Emp Info” table. double-click the table name in the navigation pane. In the “Open” window. including its structure and data. Double click on the new table name in the Navigation Pane. you can see that only the structure of the table has been copied and there is no data contained in it. You may use the Copy-Paste method to copy both the data and structure of a table by selecting “Structure and Data” under the “Paste Options” in the “Paste Table As” window.
To define the format. to change the “State” field’s format to display it in uppercase. you can use the four symbols used in the table shown. you need to first change to Design View. switch to Design View. Make the “State” field the current one by clicking on it. You want all the records to display the name of the state in uppercase. Type ‘Pin Code’ and make its data type as “Text”. You can even add and delete fields. The field’s “Format” property can be defined to tell Access the way you want the data to be displayed. So. You can easily make all these changes and put restrictions on the way data is entered or displayed.objects are open. A row is inserted between the “State” and “Phone” fields. Modifying a Table Customizing and Inserting Fields If you look through the records. For this. you see a window asking whether the objects can be closed. you have to enter the appropriate symbol in the “Field Properties” window. Now. type ‘@@@ @@@’ with a space after the first three characters. Change to Datasheet View Click on “Yes” to save changes. Select “Insert Rows” in the “Tools” group on the “Design” tab. click on the upper part of the “View” icon in the “Views” group on the “Design” tab. The “Pin Code” field should be after the “State” field and the “Gender” field should be after the “Phone” field. enter the location and the name for the new database.accdb” and click “Save”. For example. BS83DT will be displayed with a space between BS8 and 3DT. Click “Yes”. Move to the “Format” field property text box and type ‘>’. In the “Size” field property. You can see that all data in the “State” field is displayed in uppercase. you have forgotten to add two fields! The PIN code number needs to be added to make the address complete and the gender of the employee also needs to go on record. One is the “Pin Code” and the other is the “Gender” of the employee. This will display the PIN codes of all records in the same format. Also. you must insert those fields which you have missed while designing the database the first time. In the “Save As” window. To set the display format. say “Backup_Employee. Make “Phone” the current field. The new database is created identical to the original database. 148 | P a g e . type ‘7’ and in the “Format” field property text box. you realize that there is no uniformity in the data entered in the “State” field. To do so.
you can make data entry a bit quicker. So. A validation rule is an expression that defines acceptable values. Save the new table structure by clicking on the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. you observe that most of the employees are from “Bristol” State and that there are more males than females as employees. The table is displayed with two new columns which have no data in them. Similarly. You can also add validation text. Observe that the new blank record has the “State” and “Gender” fields already filled with values. Save the design changes related to default values. An expression is a formula consisting of a combination of symbols that evaluates to a single value. Access displays a default message but it does not clearly explain the reason for the error. “Field Size” as ‘1’ and “Format” as ‘>’. Now switch to Datasheet View. This value can either be accepted or another value can be entered by the user while adding a new record. This is because of the “Default Value” property that you have set for these two fields. Fill in these empty fields in all the records. Click on the “Default Value” property text box and type “Bristol” in it. by setting the default value of the “Sate” field to “Bristol” and that of “Gender” to “F”. Switch to “Datasheet” view.Repeat the procedure for inserting a row and adding the “Gender” field after the “Phone” field. A default value is used to specify a value that is automatically entered in a field when a new record is added. Type ‘M’ in it. While looking through the records. Setting the “Validity Check” option makes sure that the values entered by the user are valid for the field type. Enter its “Data Type” as “Text”. Switch to Design View and make the “State” field the current one by clicking on it. You want the “Gender” field to accept only two values – “M” for male and “F” for female. 149 | P a g e . which is an explanatory message that appears if the user enters invalid information in a field for which a validation rule has been set. make the “Gender” field the current one and click on the “Default Value” property text box. The table above shows some examples of validity rule settings and corresponding messages. If you do not give a message.
type ‘Please enter either “M” or “F” only. The warning message is immediately displayed. 150 | P a g e . you often make changes that could result in the loss of data or existing data may become invalid. Now. Click “OK” to continue. You will be asked to save the changes. A warning message box is displayed saying that the data integrity rules have been changed. Press “Backspace” and enter valid text.Adding a Validity Rule: Switch to Design View and click on the “Gender” field. type ‘ “M” Or “F” ’ and in the “Validation Text” property box. Click “Yes”. Type ‘k’ or any other letter in either upper or lower case. For now. switch to Datasheet View. The “State” and “Gender” fields are already filled with default values. Now try entering an invalid value in the “Gender” field. except ‘F’ or ‘M’. You may change them if required. Type the data shown in the table in the new record. When you make changes to the structure of a table. Access asks you if you want to check the existing data with the new validity rule. click “No”. In the “Validation Rule” property box.
One is that the “State” names should all be shortened to 2 lettered names. cancels the command. not part of it. Your original data appears. That means you have to replace “Bristol” with “BS”. Click on the “Cancel” button if you do not want to perform any action. So. The “Find” command locates all specified values in a field and the “Replace” command finds a value and automatically replaces it. In the “Replace With” box. click in the “Match Case” check box and click “Find Next”. Now. you have been told to make two changes. Use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Z” or click on the “Undo” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. “EASTSIDE” with “ES”. While in the “Datasheet” view. You may use the “Find and Replace” feature. Clicking on the “Cancel” button. the last name of the employee. Finding and replacing data is fast and accurate but you have to be careful not to replace unintended values. type “Smith”. close the “Find and Replace” window and make the necessary changes in the “Last Name” and the address fields. The “Find and Replace” window is displayed with the “Find” tab selected. The other is that. So click in the “State” field and select “Replace”. If the text is found and it is the one you want to replace. The “Look In” box displays the “Last Name” field because the field was the current one when the command was given. You need not do this manually. select “All”. Click on the “Replace” tab and type “Bristol” in the “Find What” box. “NORTHSIDE” with “NS” and so on. Select “Whole Field” in the “Match” box and “All” in the “Search” box. The first occurrence of the search criteria specified is highlighted. type ‘BS’. Click “Find Next”. one of the employees. the “Undo” command has no effect. You want to match the whole field. Once you move to another record or move to another window. in the “Match” box. using the “Undo” command will cancel the last action as long as you have not made any further changes to the table. The “State” field will already be selected in the “Look In” box. then click on the “Replace” button.Finding and Replacing Data Finding and Replacing data: If you want to search for some information in the table and also replace it. In the “Search” box. Now. “Jenny Smith” is married and needs to change her “Last Name” and “Address”. 151 | P a g e . you may use the “Find” and “Replace” icons in the “Find” group on the “Home” tab. Click in the “Search Fields As Formatted” check box which finds data based on its display format. you have to make changes in the “State” field. select “Whole field”. so. click in the “Last Name” field of the first record and select “Find”. You want Access to find a perfect match to what you have typed in the “Find What” box. Check whether it the record you are looking for. In the “Find What” box. If it is. If you make changes to a single record.
How are you going to give it to them? To arrange the records in the table in alphabetical order. you had set the default value for the “State” field as “Bristol”.. you can sort them on a single field – the field on the basis of which you want to arrange them. you can sort data in ascending or descending order. Save the changes made to the table. Switch to Design View and click in the “State” field. the “Look In” list contains the name of the field in which your cursor is currently positioned. you may select the name of the table from the list. click on “Yes” because that’s what you want. click on “Replace All”.The “State” field in the next record is highlighted. the data in all the fields containing “BRISTOL” is replaced with “BS”. If you check the box against “Match Case”. Down. type “BS” and switch to Datasheet View. In the “Match” list options. But the Accounts department has requested for the employee list in alphabetical order. Sorting Records In the first lab. “Start of Field” finds data only at the beginning of the field. Let us have another look at the various options available in the “Find and Replace” window. You will see that the new record at the end has the default value changed to “BS”. Since you want to replace all the fields containing “BRISTOL” with “BS”. Sorting: Sorting the data often helps in finding some particular information quickly. and All (which is the default). Access sorts records starting from the leftmost 152 | P a g e . When you select multiple columns to sort. By default. “Whole Field” finds only data that is exactly the same. In the “Default Value” property box. warning you that the replace operation cannot be undone. So you need to make a change in the default value too since you now need “BS”. uppercase or lowercase) as the specified text. Instantly. you had seen what a primary key is and what its importance is. You can sort on one field or more than one adjacent field. The “Search” box allows you to specify the direction to follow while searching. “Any Part of Field” finds data anywhere in the field. You are asked whether you want to continue. the search returns only those instances of the text that have the same case (i. In this case. The options are Up. the “Last Name” will be the field which you will use to sort records.e. A warning message is displayed by Access. a search for “Smith” with the initial alphabet “S” in uppercase and “m-i-t-h” in lowercase will not display “SMITH” with all uppercase letters or “smith” with all lowercase letters. You also saw that the records in a table are arranged according to the primary key. In Access. For example. If you want to search the entire table. If you remember.
They are sorted on the “Employee ID” field which is the primary key. Creating Forms Using the Form Wizard 153 | P a g e . To sort first by “Last Name” and then by “First name”. To remove the temporary sorting order. Both the columns will be highlighted. Observe the order of records after sorting on the “Last Name” field. the temporary sort must be removed. you need to select the two fields. The cursor will change to a solid black arrow pointing downwards. observe the order of the records before sorting. switch to Design View. select “Clear All Sorts” in the “Sort & Filter” group. To sort on multiple fields. in Datasheet View. sorting is done from the leftmost field. click in the “Last Name” field of any record.column and moves to the right across the columns. Switch to Datasheet View to see the order of the fields. Drag to the right to select the next column – “First Name”. Observe the records of Tom and Ted now. The “Last Name” field moves up one row so that it is the second field in the field name list. Tom’s record appears before Ted’s which is not in ascending alphabetical order. To change the order of fields. Now. Select the “Ascending” icon in the “Sort & Filter” group on the “Home” tab to display the records sorted by Last Name. They are arranged alphabetically first by “Last Name” and then by “First Name”. so Ted’s record comes first and then comes Tom’s record. So. “Last Name” must be to the left of “First Name”. The new sort order is saved with the table data and automatically applied every time you open the table. To sort on multiple fields. In the “Datasheet” view. Click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar. Select the “Ascending” icon in the “Sort & Filter” group on the “Home” tab again. To return to the primary key sort order. Then release the mouse. The records will again be displayed in the order of the “Employee ID” field. This is the small box to the left of the field name. To select the two columns. The records are displayed according to the changed order of fields. position the mouse pointer in the column heading of “Last Name”. You see that Ted and Tom are sorted by Last Name but not by “First Name”. Now drag the mouse down until you see a black line under the “Last Name” field. you need to sort on multiple fields. Click in the “Field Selector” of the “First Name” field.
The field names are on the left with the corresponding data in boxes in front of them. Click on the “New (blank) record” button to add new records. The form is displayed with the first record’s contents in it. “Emp Info” will be displayed by default. The other two buttons below this. The “First record“ button takes you to the first record and the “Last record” button takes you to the last one. In the “Forms” group. In the next step. labels. you are asked to select the style of the form. Seeing the records at all times in the form of rows and columns can be tiring to the eyes. click the close 154 | P a g e .Being the one to be in charge of the employee records database. Leave it as it is and click on “Next”. Using the Form Wizard: Click on the “Create” tab. titles. click “More Forms → Form Wizard”. the layout of the form is displayed. The field name is displayed in the “Selected Fields” list now. The next step is the last step. At the bottom of the form window is the record number indicator. boxes and pictures. Forms are based on a table and contain design control elements like descriptive text. The button below this can be used to move all fields into the “Selected Fields” list. “Columnar” is selected by default. Select all the fields in the same manner as the first field and click on “Next”. Click on “Employee ID” and click on the button with “>” symbol on it. The “Form Wizard” window is displayed. It guides you through the steps required to create a form.To close the form. The fields from the current table are displayed in the “Available Fields” list. type it and click “Finish”. In the next step. To make it easy to view and use. The information on this form will be used as an input source for the new record that will be added for the new employee. If not. where you are asked to give the form a name and save it. as you may have realized can be used to move fields back into the “Available Fields” list. You can move one record up or down by clicking on the “Next record” or “Previous record” buttons respectively. Access provides a feature to create onscreen forms. Select the fields from the list one by one. lines. The “Form Wizard” feature of Access makes it very easy to design forms. In the “Tables/Queries” list. the name of the current table “Emp Info” is displayed. Information regarding what you are supposed to do in each step is mentioned on the top in the “Form Wizard” window. one of your main objectives is to make the database easy to use. A form is a database object that is mainly used to enter and display records and make changes to existing records onscreen. Select a suitable one and click “Next”. It is desirable for the onscreen form to be similar to the paper form filled in by each new employee when hired. Read it so that you know what you are supposed to do in that step.
Framing it correctly will give you the most accurate information. click on the table name in the navigation pane and scroll if required. Click on it and drag the picture to position it a little lower down in the form. Adding Records in a Form A new employee has recently joined the School and you need to input all related information into the database. to see all the records that you have entered. For example. At the top left corner you see a four-headed arrow. In this way. Click on it and enter “Photograph”. to get information stored in the tables. Now switch to Design View by selecting “View” in the “Views” group on the “Home” tab. Let us learn to modify the design of the form we created. You can see that both the form and the table are open on two separate tabs. In the navigation pane. you can enter and view as many records as you want. Open the form once again by double clicking the form name in the Navigation Pane. “When is the train to Central Park?” you may get the most appropriate answer “It leaves on Tuesday morning at 6:30 am”. Click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar to save your changes and close the form. the “State” and the “Gender” fields have their default values. The form will be displayed. You may click on the tab names to switch between them. After you are done. if you ask at the railway enquiry counter – “Is there a train to Central Park?” you will most probably not get the expected answer. You will add this information using the form you created. double-click on the form name “Emp Info”. You can see your form name displayed in the navigation pane on the left. click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar. Click on the field displaying the photo of the employee. Of course. To add records. So framing a question correctly is important. In Access. you have to put questions in the form of queries. 155 | P a g e . But if you ask. You see a box with a dotted outline enclosing the picture and the field label “Photo”. You can start typing the data of the new employee as shown in the accompanying figure. you first need to open the form. The form with all blank boxes is displayed.button on the form. Now. Queries and Reports Using Queries To get any information. Now let us change the label “Photo”. it is necessary to frame a question. Click on the “New (blank) record” button at the bottom of the window.
which you are going to use. Here. This is very interesting. While the query is open. Switch to Design View by clicking on the upper part of the “View” icon in the “Views” group. the fields selected in the query are displayed. you see all the fields in the “Emp Info” table. “Last Name”. The “New Query” window is displayed with “Simple Query Wizard” selected. “Address”. Using the Query Wizard: Click on the “Create” tab. In the lower part. click on the “Home” tab. To select the required fields. How are you going to specify this condition? You need to make some modifications in this query you have just created. Crosstab query. for a “5 Years Service Award” they want to give. Click “Next”. Select the following fields – “Employee ID”. There are five types of queries in Access: Select query. Action query and SQL query. Access saves each query in your database.Query: A query is a request for specific data in a database. analyze and even change existing data. “City”. Queries are used to view data in different ways. who have been in service for at least five years. you need to check their dates of joining the 156 | P a g e . which you have already done. select it. and “Phone”. select them one by one and click on the “>” button. like any other database object. Now. you can see all the fields of the table used for the query in a small window. Click “OK” to display the “Simple Query Wizard” window. the “Emp Info” table is already selected. If not. “First Name”. Once you’ve saved a query. but with selected fields. you have a request from the Administrative department. In the document window. click “Query Wizard”. Queries can be used as a source for forms and reports because they are based on tables. A “Select” query retrieves the requested data from one or more tables and displays it in a query datasheet in the order you specify. But now. Creating a query in Access is very much similar to creating a table or form. Parameter query. accept the default name for the query or type a new one and click “Finish”. you can run it any time you want to take a look at the actual data that meets your specifications. at the top. The query is displayed with all the records in the table. In the “Tables/Queries” list. to know about the employees who have been in service for 5 years or more. It was very simple. In the “Other” group. In the “Available Fields” list. they want a list of all employees. Modifying a Query: There was nothing very different in this query. You will find this wizard similar to the one you used to create a form. The most common is the “Select” query.
and “Phone” one by one by clicking on the “>” button. 157 | P a g e . It might be a simple listing of all fields or of selected fields based on a query. Specifying criteria: You need the list of employees who have been in service for at least five years. Each query that you create has an underlying SQL statement. Click “OK”. as you did while selecting fields for the query. Running a query: To see the result of this query. Access adds the “#” signs before and after the dates to identify the values in the expression as dates. “Pin code”. Confirm that the “As” box has “Query” displayed in it. Saving the query: You now need to save this modified query. Using the Report Wizard: Click on the “Create” tab. which you can view or edit by selecting “View → SQL View” in the “Views” group on the “Home” tab. select “Table: Emp Info”. You will be creating this address report based on the “Emp Info” table. so click “Next”. “State”. Then. In the next “Report Wizard” window. In the criteria row. The records matching your criteria are displayed. You must now specify a criterion for this field. “Address”. In the Tables/Queries list. click “Report Wizard”. Select fields “Last Name”. click on the “Run” icon in the “Results” group on the “Design” tab. double-click on this field. A report is a printed output generated from tables and queries. For this. If you do not see the “Date_of_Joining field in the window at the top. SQL (Structured Query Language) is a powerful database language used in queries. The “Report Wizard” window is displayed. Click “Next”. there is an option for grouping fields. click the Office Button and select “Save As”. You will do this with the help of the “Report Wizard” that is provided by Access. For this. scroll down a bit. which you are not going to need. Creating Reports There is another request from the Administrative department – they need an address report of all employees sorted by name. As soon as you press “Enter”. It is displayed in the first blank box after the “Phone” field. Now close the query tab. you need to modify the query by adding the “Date_of_Joining” field and specifying criteria. Now close the query tab. In the “Reports” group. “First Name”. Type the name ‘5 Year Service’ in the “Save As” window. type the condition as ‘>= 1/1/2001 AND < 1/1/2002’ and press “Enter”. “City”.organization.
click on it. Similarly. 158 | P a g e . But if you see the report properly. you are asked about the layout of the fields and the page.The next “Report Wizard” window asks for the sort order of the records to be printed in the report. A box appears around it. You need to make some changes. So. the first thing you need to do is to exchange the order of the fields “First Name” and “Last Name”. drag the right edge of the box to a suitable size. For now. click on “Preview the report” and click “Finish”. You can see that the complete column is shifted to the right. you need to modify the report layout. The next window is the last step of the wizard. Modifying Report Layout Modifying report layout: Double-click on the report name in the Navigation Pane. click on it. select “Last Name” as the first field and “First Name” as the second field and click “Next”. You can sort the records by up to four fields in either ascending or descending order. The preview of the report is displayed with the title and footer and all the records arranged in the specified sort order. tabular or justified and the page can be oriented either as a portrait or a landscape. Click in the check box that says. The next window lets you select the style of the report. Now. “Adjust the field width so all fields fit on a page” and click “Next”. To make these changes. You can reduce its size and make space for the other fields. drag to the right to position it after the “First Name” column. Switch to Layout View by selecting “View → Layout View” in the “Views” group. You may find that the “State” field is too big for its two character contents. When the mouse pointer appears as a two-headed arrow. Here enter the report title as “Employee Address List”. Then drag the right edge or lower edge of the box that appears to a suitable position. Select a suitable one from the list and click on “Next”. If you see that a heading is not displayed completely. where the data is not displayed completely. Click on the heading “Last Name”. You need the address list of employees in ascending order of “Last Name” and within that in ascending order of the “First Name”. When the mouse pointer appears as a four-headed arrow. In the next window. the headings and contents of some fields are not displayed completely. close the report tab by clicking on the “X” shaped icon at the right end. You can have the fields laid out as either columnar.
159 | P a g e . Select a suitable one from the list and click “Next”. Select the “Print Range” by clicking on “Pages From” and typing ‘1’ to ‘1’. You can have the fields laid out as either columnar. you will select the query. “Adjust the field width so all fields fit on a page” and click “Next”. The next window lets you select the style of the report. you have to follow all the same steps you performed to create a report from the table. If they are still not properly visible. Creating a Report from a Query There is a requirement to print a report of all those employees who were listed for the five years service award. tabular or justified and the page can be oriented either as a portrait or a landscape. Click “Close Print Preview” to close the preview. in the “Report Wizard”. In the “Reports” group. The “Print” window is displayed. You need the report in ascending order of the “Last Name” and within that.To see the preview. Here give a report title as “5 Year Service Awards”. To create this report. In the next window. The next “Report Wizard” window asks for the sort order of the records to be printed in the report. select “Last Name” as the first field and “First Name” as the second field and click “Next”. The next window is the last step of the wizard. The difference is that. Click in the check box that says. in ascending order of the “First Name”. The “Report Wizard” window is displayed. you may move and resize the fields again as required. Printing a Report Printing a report: The report is now ready to be printed. all the records of employees who have worked for five years. Close the preview. select View → Print Preview” in the “Views” group. So. Select the printer from the “Name” list. Click “OK”. To create a report from a query. You can see in the preview. you are asked about the layout of the fields and the page. Add all fields in the “Available Fields” list by clicking on the “>>” button and click “Next”. click “Report Wizard”. Select the query “5 years service” from the Table/Query list. Save the report either by using the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+S” or by clicking “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar. instead of the table. Then close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. Click the Office Button and select “Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. Click on the “Create” tab. Check if all the data contents are visible on the page. you can make use of the query you created to list those employees. click on “Preview the report” and click “Finish”. Click “Next” once again.
Store the password in a secure place from where you can recover it in case you forget it. You want to use tools to organize your contacts. Now click “OK”. and then re-type it in the “Verify” box. it cannot be retrieved. your company has decided to give laptops to each of its key employees. Enter your password in the “Password Required” window and click “OK”. In the “Database Tools” group. One of the first things you can do in this direction is to use a password for accessing your database. First. Removing a password: Open the database in Exclusive mode. In the “Unset Database Password” window. 160 | P a g e . type your password and click “OK”. Click the database file and then click the arrow next to the “Open” button and select “Open Exclusive”. Enter your password and click “OK”. navigate to the location of your database. Close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. If you forget your password. Your database is now open. type your password in the “Password” box. click “Decrypt Database”. click “Encrypt with Password”. It is very important that you remember your password. You may exit Access by clicking on the Office Button and then clicking the “Exit Access” button. You have decided to use this opportunity to its maximum potential and are eager to personalize your work environment. Your database can now be accessed without a password the next time it is opened. but away from access by unauthorized people. For this. Using a password: Open the password protected database as you open any other database. In the “Database Tools” group. In the “Set Database Password” window. Click the “Database Tools” tab. The “Password Required” window appears. schedules etc. In the “Open” window. Close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”.Protecting the Database Using Passwords Assigning a password: Microsoft Office Access 2007 provides a number of features that can help make your data more secure. click on the Office Button and select “Open”. Close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. PERSONAL INFORMATION MANAGER Getting started with Outlook Introduction to Microsoft Outlook Your cherished dream has come true. The steps to create and apply a password to your database are as follows. open the database in “Exclusive” mode. So you do not have to worry anymore about sharing your Personal Computer. Click the “Database Tools” tab.
upcoming appointments. click the arrow in the upper corner. Some of the important tasks that can be performed using Microsoft Outlook are maintaining a personal calendar of appointments. Let us create another appointment and enter more details. To minimize the expanded Navigation Pane. Let us create an Appointment. Select the day. Starting Microsoft Outlook: To start the Microsoft Outlook application. This enables you to see a minimized view of the To-Do Bar at all times. In the time slot type ‘Meeting with the client’. we shall take a look at the calendar. To begin with. you have an integrated solution for managing your time and information. Using Calendar When you open Microsoft Outlook 2007. Click the button corresponding to “Calendar” in the navigation pane. If the To-Do Bar is not visible at any time. The Navigation Pane can be minimized into a vertical button bar. It can be used to organize and track all types of information. is displayed in the information viewer on the right. The To-Do Bar on the right gives you a consolidated view of your calendar. you will see a navigation pane on the left which contains categories such as Mail. The upper portion of the navigation pane contains “Category specific tools” for working with different types of information. Press “Enter”. Select the month from the calendar by using the arrows. By default an appointment is allotted half an hour. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Outlook 2007”. To expand the minimized Navigation Pane. having today’s date and time divisions. 161 | P a g e . tasks and important mail enabling you to prioritize your work. click “View → To-Do Bar → Minimized”. click the arrow at the top.With Microsoft Office Outlook 2007. events and meetings. Calendar. and storing addresses. Select the time slot of 6 pm for the appointment in the information viewer of the Outlook window. Your appointment has now been recorded. to provide you with a larger work area. The “Day” view. The calendar for the current month is displayed in the category specific tools window. The “Untitled Appointment” window is displayed. and Contacts etc. Creating an Appointment Your immediate concern is to record all your important appointments in the calendar. The bottom portion contains Category buttons for different tasks. Click the “New” button on the Standard toolbar.
select “None”. In the text box below. You can specify details of the appointment in the “Appointment Recurrence” window. You can see that one hour has been allotted for this appointment. Click on the “Today” tab in the Standard toolbar. In the “Show As” field. Under “Appointment time” you may set the start and end time of the appointment. type your notes. Let us keep this setting unchanged. such as meetings with your Accounts Manager. you may select the way in which you want your appointment to appear in the Calendar. Since it will last for at least 24 hours. The current setting is “No end date”. You may click the To-Do Bar to expand it and view details. in the “Actions” group. 162 | P a g e . Creating an event There is a two day exhibition for Product Promotions to be held in two weeks. Select “Actions → New Recurring Appointment”. say ‘Take along the maintenance log file & purchase bills’. You can also see the appointment on the To-Do Bar at the right. On the “Appointment” tab. Press the tab key and type ‘Factory Premises’ as the “Location”. You may keep this setting. Select 7 pm as the “End time” from the drop-down list. weekly. The current setting is “Weekly”. “Recur every 1 week on Monday”. Now click on the “Save & Close” button in the “Actions” group. Click the 9 am time slot. Click “OK”. You can see that the recurring appointment has been recorded. Select the end time “10:30 AM” from the drop-down list. The “Out of Office” indicator is displayed at the left corner. Click on “Save & Close” on the “Recurring Appointment” tab. Click it once again to return to the minimized form. Under “Range of recurrence” you may specify the time frame for your recurring appointment. In the “Untitled . Under “Recurrence pattern” you may specify the days in the week when the appointment is going to occur and also if it is going to occur daily. select the amount of time in the “Reminder” list before the appointment when you want the reminder to appear. You may wish to be reminded about your appointment by a bell. monthly or yearly. Select “Out of Office”. Now click the Monday of the next week and the following week on the calendar. To turn a reminder off. such an entry is called an Event. in the “Options” group. Creating a recurring appointment There are some meetings which take place on a regular basis. Click on Monday in the next week in the left panel.Accounts Manager’ as the “Subject” and ‘Accounts office’ as the “Location”.Appointment” window type ‘Weekly meeting .Type ‘Meeting with maintenance people’ as the “Subject”.
in the date navigator window. This means that you may click on the related button to see the appointments on your calendar as you wish. Select “View → Current view”. Set the “Reminder” to 2 days in the “Options” group” of the “Event” tab. To mark the calendar to show that you will be out of office during these days. Changing the calendar view By default. you can view your calendar based on different criteria. Select the next day from the “End time” drop-down menu. Click on the “Save & Close” button in the “Actions” group. In addition. Rightclick in any of the time slots and select “New All Day Event”. you can view your calendar on Day/Week/Month basis. Type ‘International Trade Center’ as the “Location”.Click on the Monday of two weeks later. Type ‘Product Promotion Exhibition’ as the “Subject”. Creating a task list 163 | P a g e . select “Out of Office” from the “Show As” list.
From the “Priority” drop-down menu choose the option “High”. select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. This view shows detailed information about each task. 3. select “View → Current View → Simple List”.A task is a personal work related action item. Outlook has certain predefined categories. Create the following tasks in a similar way: 1. A task can occur only once or happen on a recurring basis. Click “OK” Renaming a category: You may rename an existing color category to make it more meaningful. Creating a new category: Click “New” in the “Color Categories” window. Meeting with the maintenance staff. Click on “Save & Close”. Type ‘Create presentation displays for Product Promotion’. Your task has now been recorded. To set up your categories. they are displayed. Click in the “Click here to add a new Task” text box. such as a weekly report. Click in the “Due Date” text box and select a date from the calendar. due date. To change the view to a simple list. subject. 2. select “Actions → Categorize → All Categories”. Setting up Categories A category is a descriptive keyword or phrase to which you can assign related items. To change the view to a detailed list. status. if necessary. choose the option “In Progress”. 164 | P a g e . Outlook 2007 offers you Color categories that allow you to group information in a way that allows you to find and track all information most effectively. You may make changes as per your requirements. Now enter the category name as “Time & Expenses” and click “OK”. The “Task” window is displayed. Click on the “Tasks” button in the Navigation Pane. Meeting at the Yoga Club. It includes different columns for priority. Updating the status of a task: Double-click on a task’s “Subject”. For your weekly meetings with your assistants. Select the Yellow Category and click “Rename”. Let us enter the category name as “Personal”. Press “Enter”. Meeting with the Accounts Department. Set the “% Complete” to 25%. From the “Status” drop-down menu. percentage complete and categories. If there are any tasks that have been entered previously. you have several tasks that need to be completed. Enter today’s date as the “Start date”.
Click in the “Status” column next to a task.Categorizing tasks: Select the task “Meeting at the Yoga Club” from the list. Scroll the time line window to view all the tasks. you might want to sort your tasks by Status or Due Date. To assign a category to this task. select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. right-click in the “Categories” column. the tasks are arranged according to their due dates. select “Personal”. You may sort your tasks according to Subject by selecting “View → Arrange By → Subject”. In this view. Now to return to the “Detailed list” view. select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. From the available categories list. Using a task timeline In the Tasks Timeline view. you can see this column in the “Detailed List” view. Updating the task status You can update the status of the task at any time and specify the status and percentage completed. To change the view to “Task Timeline”. Clicking in a column heading other than “Task Subject” sorts the list according to that column. The subject of the task is also displayed. select “Completed” and press “Enter”. 165 | P a g e . they are sorted in descending order. Similarly. Meeting with the Accounts Department – Blue Category 2. You may click on the “Delete” icon on the Standard toolbar to delete a completed task from the list. From the drop-down list. In the “Detailed list” view. click on the column heading “Categories”. Meeting with the maintenance staff – Orange Category You can use the same categorization techniques for other Outlook item like appointments and mails. To switch to the “Detailed List” view. assign the following categories to the tasks as follows: 1. For example. You may also sort tasks by using the “Arrange By” option from the View menu. Now the task has been assigned to the “Personal” category. Sorting tasks Sorting tasks is the process of rearranging items in ascending or descending order. For example. To update the status of the task. Select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. You see that the tasks are sorted in ascending order by Categories. select “View → Current View → Task Timeline”. The next time you click. the “Status” column must be visible. each task will be represented by a task symbol. You can now see that this task appears crossed out with “% Complete” as 100%.
Click “OK” in the “Print” window. To display the preview in actual size. Confirm that the “Notes” view is set to “Icons”. which includes detailed information of all the people with whom you communicate. Click on the “Preview” button. Type the required message and then close the window. Here two styles are available. You can choose to enter 166 | P a g e . Select and delete the user name from the left footer box. Similarly. You can reopen the note and make changes to it by double-clicking on it. The “Print” window is displayed. Here you need to specify details about the Printer. A blank yellow colored note window is displayed. If necessary. Click the button corresponding to “Notes” in the navigation pane. Creating Notes The “Notes” tool is used to create a reminder for yourself. Print range and Copies. Click on the “Header/Footer” tab. select “File → Print”. The “Print range” section allows you to specify the rows in the table that are to be printed. Select “View → Current View → Active Appointments”. Notes are an electronic version of paper notes that you use to jot down quick reminders. select “Calendar” in the Navigation pane. click on the “Actual Size” icon in the toolbar. Using the Address Book What is an Address Book in Outlook The Address Book is an electronic book. The “Copies” section allows you to enter the number of pages and copies. Click on the “Page Setup” button. If everything is OK. Let us make some changes. click on the “Print” button in the preview window. Click “OK”. “Table” or “Memo”.Printing tasks and calendar items Many times you may need to print out your task list and appointment calendar so that it is available during a meeting. to print the appointments. Before printing it is always a good idea to take a preview of the document you want to print. The “Print style” section specifies the format in which you want to print your task list. Select “File → Print”. the Print style. select the appropriate printer for your system from the “Name” drop-down list. Let us assume that you need to create a note to remind you to send an email message for an event. Type your name in the left header text box. Now. Click on the “New” icon on the Standard toolbar.
This file can then be used to copy details of your contacts to another location or another computer. Choose “Personal Folder File (. “Phone List”. Here. right-click on the contact and select “Delete”. Exporting contacts: Select “File → Import and Export”. On the “Contact” tab. If you want to delete a particular contact from the contacts list. The “Untitled .different types of information such as business and home address. Click “Next”. you can see the “General” button of the “Show” group highlighted. Specify the location where you wish to save the exported file in the “Open Personal Folders” window. Several of the fields include drop-down lists that allow you to further customize the information for each contact. Like other outlook tools. Click “OK”. Click “Next”. email addresses. Select the “Contacts” folder from the “Select the folder to export from” list. “By Category”. By referring to your address book you can contact or communicate quickly with any individual from the contact list. you can enter the basic contact information such as “Full Name”. birth-dates and anniversaries. 167 | P a g e . “Addresses”. Adding and Removing Contacts To add a contact. You can view the entire contact list in the “Business Cards” format. “By Company” and others. Importing & Exporting Contacts You may need to save your contacts to a file so that they are available for use in the future. Click the “New” button from the Standard toolbar. “Address Cards”. Choose “Export to a file”. click “Contacts” in the navigation pane. Enter the required information in the appropriate fields. This is called “Importing”. Click “Next”. The names are automatically listed in ascending alphabetical order. Type ‘Contacts’ in the “File name” text box.Contact” window is displayed. By doubleclicking on the contact you may edit the information. “Phone numbers” etc.pst)” from the “Create a file of type” list box. nick names. This is called “Exporting”. phone numbers. “Company”. This wizard guides you through the complete procedure. You may also delete a contact by selecting “Edit → Delete” or pressing the “Delete” key after selecting the contact. “Contacts” has several views like “Business Cards”. Click on the "Save & Close" button in the “Actions” group. Click on the “Browse” button. The “Import and Export Wizard” window is displayed.
Choose “Personal Folder File (. The new contacts will be incorporated into the existing list. select “File → New → Distribution List”. You can also enter new contacts. In the “Name” field. first or last name. click the arrow in the “Find a contact” drop-down list. In the “Find a contact” box on the Standard toolbar. In the “Create Microsoft Personal Folders” window. In the “Import and Export Wizard” window. This list is saved with a name. To quickly open a contact you have previously searched for. select the address book that contains the e-mail addresses you want in your distribution list. Creating a mailing list: To create a mailing list. Select the “Contacts” folder from the “Select the folder to import from” list. Outlook will search all the available address books. Importing contacts: Select “File → Import and Export”. Searching Address Books You can search for an address and the information associated with it in the address book. It provides an easy way to send messages to a group of people. choose “Import from another program or file”. You may add contacts from different address books into your list. Under “Address Book”. In the list below. in the “Members” group. type a name for the mailing list. Since there is a possibility that your imported file may contain contacts which you already have. Click on the “Browse” button. click “OK”. Now click “Finish”. select the 168 | P a g e . and then select the appropriate name. You can enter a partial name (such as “Hyosuke”). type the name of the contact you want to find and press “Enter”. Select the file from the appropriate location and click “Open”. you may select from three possibilities with regards to duplicates. Select the appropriate option and click “Next”. On the “Distribution List” tab. Creating and editing mailing lists A mailing list is a collection of contacts.Now click “Finish”. Click “Next”. click “Select Members”. Click “Next”.pst)” from the “Select file type to import from” list. e-mail address and company name. The contacts you entered are now saved in a file and will be available when you want to import them later.
either POP3 or IMAP depending on the type of mailbox you use. Under “Choose E-mail Service”. Click “Mail” in the navigation pane. click “Add New” in the “Members” group in the “Distribution List” window. simply click “Remove” in the “Members” group. On the “Auto Account Setup” screen. Then click on the name of the mailing list and after that click “To”. You may create your mails offline and connect to the Internet only when you are ready to send them.name. Now click “Save & Close” in the “Actions” group. Now click “OK”. For this. Editing a Mailing List: To make changes to your mailing list. POP3 is generally used. ensure that “Internet E-Mail” is selected and then click “Next”. select Account type. You first need to set up your mail account. Click on “To” to display the “Select Names” window. click “Mail” in the navigation pane. all incoming mail can be stored on your hard disk. You may disconnect from the Net and read your mails at leisure. Additionally. Using Outlook for E-Mailing Setting up a Mail Account A very important feature of Outlook is sending and receiving e-mail. and then click “OK”. Do this for each person you want to add to the distribution list. This mail can then be sent to all members of the list after completing other details. check the box beside “Manually configure server settings or additional server types” and click “Next”. click “New”. Click the “New” button on the Standard toolbar. The mailing list is saved in your “Contacts” folder by the name you give it. Under “Server Information”. Let us delete a member from this list. 169 | P a g e . Select “Tools → Account Settings”. In the “Internet E-mail Settings” screen. Adding other members: You may also add members that do not exist in your address books to your mailing list. The “Untitled Message” window is displayed. The “Distribution List” window is displayed. Enter details in the “Add New Member” window and click “OK”. under “User Information”. Creating Mails: To create a mail to send to all members of a mailing list. enter your name and email address. For this. and then click “Members”. Now click “Save & Close”. You can see the name of the mailing list in the message window. You are holidaying in Malaysia and you want to send an e-mail to your friends back home. On the “E-mail” tab. double-click on the list name in the “Contacts” folder. You can now make the changes you require.
Click “OK”. Using Attachments Attachments are separate files that are sent along with your e-mail message. word processor documents. Click the arrow next to the "New" button on the Standard toolbar and select "Mail Message". click “Insert”. To send an e-mail. In the “Untitled Message” window. click on the Paperclip Icon in the “Include” group. Creating an E-mail Message Creating a Mail message: This is also known as “Composing” a mail. click on the "To:" button. “Cc” stands for carbon copy and “Bcc” stands for blind carbon copy. They can be compared to a covering letter sent with a parcel or a birthday card sent along with a present. the subject and the content of the mail. even sound recordings and graphic images. While composing the message. you must enter details such as the e-mail address of the recipient. and then click “Finish” on the “Congratulations!” screen. Under “Logon Information”. Ensure that the “Remember password” box is checked. You may add multiple names to any of the fields.Enter the respective server names provided by your Internet Service Provider (ISP) in the “Incoming mail server” and “Outgoing mail server (SMTP)” fields. Attaching a file: You now want to send some digital pictures of Malaysia along with your message. You may also directly type in e-mail addresses not included in your address book. The list of files attached is 170 | P a g e . Now click “Close”. Now. Attachments do not form part of your e-mail message but they can be opened and viewed or edited by the e-mail recipient. Use the “Cc ->” and “Bcc ->” buttons in the same way for entering the addresses to which you wish to send copies to. You may select multiple files by holding down the “Ctrl” key while you click each file. Specify the location and name of the picture files on your computer that you would like to attach. enter your email address in the “User Name” field and the password for that account. Then click on a name from the list to whom you wish to send the mail and click the “To ->” button. Click “Next”. On the “Outgoing Server” tab. Click the “More Settings” button. This brings up the “Select Names” window. You can attach all sorts of files to an e-mail. the name is not visible to other recipients of the message. database files. type your message. If you add a recipients name using “Bcc”. Now enter the subject and in the large white box below the subject field. All files in a folder can also be selected by clicking “Organize” on the toolbar and then clicking “Select All”. Select the appropriate “Address Book”. including spreadsheets. check the box “My outgoing server (SMTP) requires authentication” and click “OK”.
When you connect. Receiving Mail Receiving Mail: By default. Click on it to see a list of all mails received in the center panel. click the “Send” button. One of your friends has written to you that she has paid your college fees since you are out of town. When you receive an attachment in a message. the recipient needs to have a copy of the software application that was used to create the attachment initially. Viewing and Saving an Attachment Viewing an attachment: You may also receive attachments from your friend like the ones you sent. mails from the Outbox are sent to the intended recipients. 171 | P a g e . If you are not connected to the Internet. when you start Microsoft Outlook. Here you can see details such as the sender’s name and the subject of the mail. In order to view an attached file. You can now read the message displayed in the right panel which is the Reading Pane. She has attached a picture of her visit to Malaysia last year. You can see this folder in the left panel. right click on the attachment name and select “Open”. To return to the message body. You may also use the “Send/Receive” button to send and receive mail. You may edit your message at any time by clicking on the “Drafts” folder in the left panel and then double-clicking on the related message in the right panel. click the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. Your mail is now stored in the “Drafts” folder. To open an attachment of a mail in your Inbox. Drafts: You may create a draft of a mail and send it at a later stage.displayed just below the Subject Field. click on the mail whose content you wish to see. For this. A copy of all sent messages will be kept in your “Sent Items” folder. create a mail as described earlier. all mails that you have received are deposited in your “Inbox”. She has also written about submission dates for your projects. You may also click the “Send/Receive” button when connected to send mails which are in the Outbox. For this. For example. Instead of clicking the “Send” button. You may remove incorrect file attachments by clicking them and pressing the “Delete” key. Reading Mail: In the center panel. Sending Mail After you have finished entering all information. you can preview it. simply click the attachment In the Reading Pane. if you have received a picture as an e-mail attachment. then you must have the related software installed in order to see it. click the “Message” button. It is very important to know how to view them. your mail is stored in the “Outbox”. and want to quickly see what the attachment contains without opening it.
For this. Handling mails in the Inbox Sorting Mails: You may sort the mails in your Inbox by selecting a suitable option by clicking on the “Arranged By:” button in the center panel. A new mail message window is displayed. You may want to empty the Deleted Items folder to make free space for additional storage. You may sort your mails by date received. To reply to her mail. A new mail message window is displayed with the original mail content and the subject. Now send it like any other mail. You can see that the recipients e-mail address and subject with the words “RE:” before it are already filled in. Enter your mail content and send it like any other mail. click on it and then click on the “Delete” button on the Standard toolbar. Let us edit the content to remove the statement regarding the payment of fees. Replying to and Forwarding a Mail Replying to a mail: You now want to thank your friend for paying your fees. click on the Inbox folder and then click on the mail in the center panel. Now click the “Reply” button. Saving Messages: To save a mail that you have received to another place on your hard disk. enter details regarding the location where you wish to save the mail and click “Save”. Now. You may make any changes you require. You may forward the mail that you have received. Also. Forwarding a mail: You might want to convey the information related to the project submission dates to another friend. This may be changed if required. 172 | P a g e . click on it and select “File → Save As” from the menu bar. enter the e-mail address of the person you wish to send it to in the “To:” field. Printing Messages: To print a mail. click on it and then click on the “Print” button on the Standard toolbar. The “Subject” field displays the words “FW:” followed by the original subject. the original mail that you had received is appended at the end. You may click on the box to the right of the “Arranged By:” field to reverse the sort order. sender’s name etc. Deleting Messages: To delete a mail. click on the mail from the Inbox and then click the “Forward” button. right-click on the folder name and select “Empty Deleted Items Folder” and then click “Yes” in the window that comes up. right click on the attachment name and select “Save As”. You can also see the original sender’s name and e-mail address as well as the date and time it was originally received. subject.Saving an attachment: To save an attachment of a mail in your Inbox. You may also make any other changes to the message that you wish. For this. The message will be deleted and moved to your “Deleted Items” folder. Specify the location to save the file and then click “Save”. In the “Save As” window.
On CD-RW disks. Windows Vista comes with software that will burn your CDs for you. Let us flag a mail in the Inbox. although you may add files over multiple sessions until the total space has been used. and then select the search fields you want from the list. To display more search fields in the Query Builder. You can use the same search techniques to find any Outlook item. such as Mail. in your Inbox. The moment a match is found. It is replaced by a tick and is removed from the To-Do Bar. you can click the flag once again. Subject. To burn a CD you need both a CD burner and CD burning software. the related mail is displayed. You can see that it gets added in the To-Do Bar. click “Add Criteria”. the space can only be used once. Calendar and Contacts. When you have taken the necessary action.also known as CD-RW On CD-R disks. or To fields. and even in the Calendar. You can make your search more focused by clicking the “Expand the Query Builder” arrow. All flagged mail items get added to the to-do bar making it easy for you to keep track of the tasks and mail that you need to reply to or act upon. You can use a flag to quickly create a follow-up item that can be tracked in the To-Do Bar. The reasons for burning a CD might be to create a backup of your files or simply to backup frequently used CDs. 173 | P a g e . Body. Type your search text in the From. MAKING IT WORK CD Writing What is CD Writing? FOR YOU CD Writing is also known as “Burning of a CD”. Using Flags Flags are very useful throughout Outlook. Let us use it to find a message in your Inbox. Simply type a word in the search box. A burned CD is a CD that has been written by using a process that involves using a device called a “CD Writer” or “CD Burner” to burn indentations into the CD. Click on the flag symbol next to an important mail.Using Instant Search The “Instant Search” feature helps you to quickly find items in Microsoft Office Outlook 2007.also known as CD-R 2) Rewriteable CDs . There are two types of CDs: 1) Recordable CDs . The Instant Search pane is always available in all of your Outlook views.
Using the Mastered format: To write a CD using the Mastered format. As you drag files into the disc folder. Open the folder that contains the files you want to burn. In the “Burn a disc” window. click “Burn files to disc”. This is the “Destination Drive”. You may change the files in this folder if you wish. This is the “Source Drive”. Let us delete one of the files. Re-size and arrange the windows in such a way that both the “Source Drive” and the “Destination Drive” are visible on the screen. In the window that appears. You may delete individual files or reformat the disc to create additional disc space when you use a rewriteable disc. CD-RW disks are also more expensive. This is a convenient format if you need to copy a few files at a time.the space can be erased and re-used many times. and click “Next”. enter a name for this disc. an empty disc folder opens. Click “Mastered” and then click “Next”. enter a name for this disc and then click “Show formatting options”. Mastered discs enable you to burn multiple files to a disc at one time. CD-RW disks can only be used on CD-RW drives and not on ordinary CD-ROM read-only drives. Creating such a disk requires as much free space on your hard disk as the capacity of the disc you are burning. perform the following steps: Insert a writeable CD into your computers CD Writer. Live File System discs enable you to copy individual files immediately to a disc. By default. they are copied automatically to the disc. perform the following steps: Insert a writeable CD into your computers CD Writer. and then drag the files into the empty disc folder. When the formatting is complete. An empty disc folder opens. such as a music CD. This format is advisable if you need to burn a large collection of files. Open the folder that contains the files you want to write to the CD in another window. Windows burns discs in the Live File System format. You may format a CD using either the “Live File System” or “Mastered” format. The files are copied to a temporary folder on your hard drive. click “Burn files to disc”. It takes several minutes for the disc to be formatted in the Live File System format. Now drag the files to be copied into the empty disc folder. Burning a CD using Windows Vista Using the Live File System format: To write a CD using the Live File System format. 174 | P a g e . Before you can copy files to a CD. In the window that appears. In the “Burn a disc” window. the disc must first be prepared using a process called formatting. However.
However. the disc burner tray will open and you can remove the disc. The selected files are copied to the disc. In the window that is displayed. If you use the Live File System format. An example of an executable file is a program. Worms harm the network and add to network traffic. hold down the “Ctrl” key while you click the files you want. Now. click “Burn to disc”. and becomes part of. Trojan horses and other such software. While viruses can be intentionally destructive. A virus attaches itself to. click “Next” Erasing a CD A rewriteable CD may be erased and written many times. A “Trojan Horse” is a malicious program that is disguised as or embedded within legitimate software.After you are sure about the files to be written to the CD. An “Identity Theft” is a harmful act by deliberately impersonating a person. A computer virus behaves in a way similar to a biological virus. click “Next”. Viruses generally do not affect network performance. “Spyware” is software designed to take control of another computer system without the consent of the owner. “Adware” is a software package that 175 | P a g e . by destroying data. for example. burn these files to another disc”. on the toolbar. To delete a specific file on a disk. which spreads by inserting itself into living cells. The insertion of a virus into the program is termed as an "infection". you can delete one or more files to make more room on the disc. Virus Protection What is a Computer Virus? A computer virus is a self-replicating computer program that spreads by inserting copies of itself into other executable code or documents. Click “Finish” when the process is complete. whereas viruses infect or corrupt files on a targeted computer. another executable program. To erase all files on a disc. A virus can infect different parts of the computer’s operating and file system. The term “virus” is often extended to refer to worms. many other viruses are fairly benign or merely annoying. a worm is self-contained and does not need to be part of another program to spread itself. When the disc burning is complete. You may write the same files to another CD by checking the box against “Yes. or executable code that is not part of a file. on the toolbar. using someone else’s credit card. for example. click “Erase this disc”. press the “Delete” key. Viruses are one of the several types of malicious software. To select more than one file. as their malicious activities are mostly confined within the target computer itself. is called a "host". click on the file name. and the infected file. COM or EXE file. Now.
You are alerted when any possible threat is detected. Once installed. Internet security suites are available to protect you against all these hazards. Anti-virus software. 176 | P a g e . Always scan floppies and CDs for viruses. Onscreen instructions guide you through the installation process. Most commercial antivirus software uses both of these approaches. or downloads advertising material to a computer. Fortunately. identity theft and adware. Such analysis may include data captures. Some of the popular antivirus packages are Norton Antivirus. due to the popularity of the Internet. “VirusScan” is one of the programs included in an Internet security suite. network-borne worms are more common than viruses. An infected file is either deleted or quarantined (i. port monitoring and other methods. it is compared to the profile of known viruses.automatically plays. moved into a protected area where it won’t cause any more harm). Antivirus software consists of computer programs that attempt to identify and eliminate computer viruses and other malicious software. The first step towards making your computer safe while you are on the Internet is to install an Internet security suite. displays. It continually works to ensure your security and privacy. Even if CDs are read only. originally designed to protect computers from viruses. It controls how frequently your computer is scanned for viruses. When a file is checked. before copying data to your hard disk. The first is scanning all files to look for known viruses matching definitions in a virus dictionary. MacAfee. the software is automatically activated each time you start your computer.e. the files on them may already be infected. You must keep your antivirus program updated by downloading the latest releases by your antivirus program vendor. It is important to regularly scan your computer using a good anti-virus program. has in turn expanded to cover worms and other threats such as spyware. AVG Antivirus and Quick Heal. Today. This can be installed either by downloading from the Internet or from a disc provided by the vendor. The second is identifying suspicious behavior from any computer program which might indicate infection. with an emphasis on the virus dictionary approach. Virus Protection Are you worried that the precious data computer on your computer could be destroyed due to a virus attack? Did you know that your private e-mail could also be intercepted by unauthorized persons? It is even possible for others to gain control over your computer system. This software typically uses two different techniques to accomplish this.
If you hear a great song on the radio. Second. you can always copy music to a CD to free up space. It allows access only to authorized users and applications. You can use it to block certain Web sites. no files are left on your computer to take up space. You can hear the music as soon as your player starts receiving the stream. you may use your Windows Media Player or download other players such as Winamp and Real Player from the Internet. a large hard drive is not required to store them. First. only to find it’s the only good song in the album. if so desired. All done Downloading Music Rather than traveling to a store to buy a music CD. 177 | P a g e .A “Personal Firewall” is a program that controls network traffic to and from a computer system. This means you can store thousands of songs without running out of hard drive space. There’s nothing worse than buying a CD after you have heard a good song. Playing video or sound in real time as it is transferred to your computer over the World Wide Web is called “Streaming”. Audio files in mp3 and Windows Media Audio (WMA) format are optimized for storing music in compressed format. buying online is fast and convenient. after the music has finished playing. By downloading from the Internet. Getting More from Your Computer Listening to Music You can use your computer for lots more than just computational activities. To listen to music. Using Windows Update: “Windows Update” is software designed to keep your computer current and more secure by automatically downloading and installing the latest security and feature updates from Microsoft. A sound card and speakers (or earphones) are also required to hear audio. You may also listen to music online. you can log onto one of the music sites and download it within seconds. Streaming requires a powerful computer and a fast connection since the file is not stored on your computer. Because these music files are compressed. However. “Privacy Service” is another program included in an Internet security suite that helps protect your privacy online. Streaming has two advantages over downloading. you can choose to purchase individual songs. prevent sensitive information from being sent over the Internet and block unwanted advertisements. You may run Windows Update by connecting to the Internet and selecting “All Programs → Windows Update” from the Start menu. there is no download wait when streaming.
there are others from which you can download legal music. you may view your favorite TV shows. If it is not a free download. even while running other applications. Broadcasts can also be digitally recorded by the computer for later replay. Some cheaper tuners cannot do much of the signal processing and rely on the systems CPU for that task. and an analog-to-digital converter for analog TV. By downloading music. or distribution to other computer users. Most internal tuners do all the low level demodulation needed to convert a radio signal into an on-screen image using a hardware chip and do not need to use the CPU. click the “Stop” button. double-click the file to play it. Although many sites offer pirated music. you may create a large music collection on your computer. Size and move the television window and control box window. Many TV tuners can function as FM radios. For this. There are many popular sites for music lovers such as MusicSites. Once a song is found. It can be copied on CDs or a digital MP3 player so that you can take it wherever you wish.The best way to find the music you want on the internet is to use a search engine. Once a TV tuner card has been installed. specify the location on your computer in which you wish to save the video clip by clicking the “Properties” button. enabling the recording of television programs onto a hard disk. Then click the “Record” button to start recording. Most TV tuners also function as video capture cards. A Download Manager window shows the progress of the download. You must specify the location on your computer to store the downloaded file. spyware and other unwanted software. Once downloaded.lycos. For this. To stop recording. Like TV sets. This means that your computer can serve both as a computing device as well as a television. Then select the channel. TV Tuner Card A “TV tuner card” is a computer component that allows television signals to be received by a computer. 178 | P a g e . While downloading music. and they could be exposing your computer to viruses. each version is designed for the radio frequencies and video formats used in each country. You may include video clips from television as part of a presentation. listen to a sample to make sure it’s the one you want before downloading it. tuner. The card contains a receiver. click the “TV” icon on the desktop.com. you could be subject to steep fines or other penalties. demodulator.net and music. you will be prompted to type in a valid credit card number to pay for the music. You may capture a video playing in the TV window into a digital file. If you are downloading pirated digital files. you must respect copyright laws.
Choose “When Clicked” in the window displayed. You have to register with a site in order to send SMS using the interface provided. you may use it in any way you like. What is Spam? E-mail. Now in the “Media Clip” group. click the “Movie” icon. messages are stored in the network and are delivered at the next available opportunity. SMS is used by organizations for marketing. This unwelcome junk mail is called “spam”. paging. some countries have anti-spam laws as part of their legal system. information about flight delays. Let us insert the clip in a presentation. SMS is a very popular service. mail it as an attachment or include it in a presentation. You require Internet connectivity and an SMS service provider to be able to send an SMS from your PC to a mobile phone. There are others that provide this service free of cost as well. These are mostly related to commercial advertising. current events. To play the video clip. Spam Blocking Software In an attempt to control spam. If the phone is powered off or out of range. get-richquick schemes.Once you have saved the video clip. as well as for providing value-added services such as reminders for payments. There are numerous sites providing paid SMS services. Today. Then size and move the image of the clip as required. like many other valuable technologies does have some drawbacks. This service is available on digital Global System for Mobile (GSM) networks allowing text messages to be sent and received via the network operators’ message center to your mobile phone. and voice mail systems. or something similar. often for products of questionable quality. We often receive many unwanted e-mails. It is a globally accepted wireless service for sending messages of up to 160 alphanumeric characters between mobile subscribers and external systems such as email. using an "SMS gateway" website. A more effective approach has been the development and use of “Spam Blockers”. Navigate to your clip and press “OK”. This has limited impact because a lot of spam originates from other countries as well. For this open the presentation file and click on the “Insert” tab. The Mozilla Thunderbird e-mail 179 | P a g e . sports news and much more. These programs use a variety of approaches to identify and eliminate spam. particularly among young people. PC to Mobile: Sending SMS SMS is an abbreviation for “Short Message Service”. You may add it to a Web page. you may click on its image anytime during the presentation. or from the Internet.
If you do want to view the remote images. a list of e-mail addresses that should never be blocked. you have an alternative. click “Junk Settings”. Then make a selection for the location of the Junk folder and click “OK”. Then make a selection from “Personal Address Book” or “Collected Addresses” which contains the addresses of all viewed mail messages.com” comes with built-in spam blocking software. Similar messages will be marked as spam in future. Specifying Friends: You may create a “White List” i. Thunderbird blocks remote images in messages. When you receive a message with remote images. Check the box against “Do not mark mail as junk if the sender is in:”. You can use your voice to control your computer. In the left panel. Blocking Images: Some e-mail messages contain images that let spammers know that you have received them. When you have received a message in your Inbox which you consider to be spam. For this select “Tools → Account Settings” from the menu. An icon appears between the Sender and Date fields indicating that the message is spam. Training Spam Blocking Software: After you install Mozilla Thunderbird. You can verbally say commands that the computer will respond to. This ability to accept voice input is called “Speech Recognition”. select “Tools → Account Settings” from the menu. you need to do three things: set up your microphone. and the images in the message body are replaced with simple place-holders. Once spammers know that your e-mail address is valid. To specify a white list. and you can dictate text to the computer. select it and then click the “Junk” icon on the toolbar. Thunderbird displays an alert stating that remote images have been blocked. What is Speech Recognition? Are you tired of typing lengthy documents using your keyboard? Now. If at any time you decide that the message is not spam. Now click “OK”. Check the box against “Move new junk messages to:”. learn how to talk to your computer. Creating a Junk Folder: You may choose to move new junk messages to a separate folder. For this. click “Junk Settings”. After reviewing your actions for several weeks. under “Local Folders”. 180 | P a g e . you need to have a microphone connected to your computer. you need to train it to recognize unwanted messages. all you need to do is click the "Show Images" or "Load Images" button that appears to the right of the alert message. In the left panel.mozilla. under “Local Folders”.program which is available for free download at “www. simply select it and click the “Not Junk” icon. such as those of family and friends. Mozilla Thunderbird will become more efficient in recognizing spam and taking appropriate action. To set up your computer for Windows Speech Recognition.e. they will continue to send mails. The spam indicator is then removed. By default.
and train your computer to understand your speech. Speech Recognition is available only in English and a few other languages. Setting up your microphone: Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Ease of Access”. Now select “Speech Recognition Options → Set up microphone” and follow the instructions in the wizard. Learning to talk to your computer: Windows comes with a speech training tutorial to teach you the commands used with Speech Recognition. To run the tutorial, click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Ease of Access”. Now select “Speech Recognition Options → Take Speech Tutorial” and follow the instructions in the tutorial. Training your computer to recognize your speech: Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Ease of Access”. Now select “Speech Recognition Options → Train your computer to better understand you” and follow the instructions in the wizard. Controlling your computer: Speech Recognition listens and responds to your spoken commands. You can use Speech Recognition to run programs and interact with Windows. There are various commands you can use with Speech Recognition such as selecting a menu option, clicking or doubleclicking an item, switching to an open program, scrolling up and down and many more. Dictating text: You can use your voice to dictate text to your computer. For example, you can dictate text to fill out online forms or dictate text to a word processing program to type a letter. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Accessories”. Now select “Ease of Access → Windows Speech Recognition”. A window appears at the top of the screen which shows you the working of the speech recognition software. To start dictating, open the program you want to use or select the text box you want to dictate text into and then begin speaking. What is Digital Video Editing? In the past, when you needed to compile movies or required professionalquality editing of home videos, you required the services of photo labs or studios. You can now manage this on your own using special software. “Digital Video Editing” is the process of editing videos on a computer using digital video editing software. The process of Digital Video Editing involves three steps. 1. Input: Captured video and audio files are sent to the system unit for processing. 2. Editing: The files are subdivided into a series of clips that can be merged to form a new file and special effects can be added.
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3. Output: The edited video is stored on hard disks or optical disks for later viewing or additional editing. Windows Movie Maker Windows Movie Maker is a feature of Windows Vista that enables you to create home movies and slide shows on your computer, complete with professional-looking titles, transitions, effects, music, and even narration. You can also use Windows Movie Maker to publish your movies and share them with your friends and family. Start the application by clicking the “Start” button and selecting “All Programs → Windows Movie Maker”. On the left is the “Tasks pane” which you can use to perform common tasks related to Digital Video Editing. Capturing Video: You may import a video from your digital video camera to your computer. First, connect your camera in playback mode to your computer. Then, from the “Import” group in the Tasks pane, click “From digital video camera” and follow the on-screen instructions. The video on the camera tape is encoded into a video file and saved to your computer’s hard disk. The “Contents pane” in the center shows clips, effects, or transitions youre working with while you create your movie. The area at the bottom where you create and edit your movie is displayed in two views, the “Storyboard” and the “Timeline”. To switch views, use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl + T”. The storyboard is the default view. You can use this to look at the sequence or ordering of the clips and easily rearrange them. This view also lets you see any video effects or video transitions that have been added. Audio clips are not displayed on the storyboard, but you can see them in the timeline view. Editing a Movie: Each movie is stored as a separate project. If you make changes to a clip, those changes are only reflected in the current project; they do not affect the source file. You can drag clips and pictures from the Contents pane to the storyboard and arrange them for your current project. To add a special effect, click on “Effects” in the Task pane and drag the effect you require to the storyboard. A transition controls how your movie plays from one video clip or picture to the next. To add a transition, click on “Transition” and drag the transition to the transition cell between two clips or pictures. The preview monitor on the right enables you to view individual clips or an entire project. By using the preview monitor, you can preview your project before publishing it as a movie. You can also drag clips to the preview monitor to play them. You can use the buttons underneath the preview monitor to play or pause a clip, or to move a clip frame-by-frame. The “Split”
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button allows you to split a clip into two parts at the point displayed in the preview monitor. Publishing a Movie: Once you movie is complete, you may create a DVD to share it with others. For this you would need a DVD writer and some special software such as Sonic MyDVD or Windows DVD Maker. Insert a recordable DVD into your DVD writer. Then, from the “Publish to” group in the Tasks pane, click “Recordable CD” and complete the steps to publish your movie. Understanding Terms and Technologies Netizens Today, the Internet is an integral part of our lives. As a powerful communications medium, the Internet offers great possibilities for social change. The term “Netizen” is now used regularly. This word has been created using the two words “Net” and “Citizen”. So a Netizen is a citizen of the world, thanks to the global connectivity that the Internet offers. A Netizen is also known as a “Cybercitizen”. Netizens physically live in one country but are in contact with much of the world via the global computer network. Virtually, they live next door to every other single netizen in the world. Geographical distances do not have much significance since everyone exists in the same virtual space - Cyberspace. The term “Netizen” indicates civic responsibility and participation. Netizens try to be conducive to the Internets use and growth. They use the Internet to engage in various intellectual and social activities such as giving and receiving viewpoints and furnishing information. Blogs The term "blog" is a contraction of "Web log." A weblog is a journal or newsletter that is frequently updated and intended for general public use. Blogs have reshaped the web and enabled millions of people to have a voice and connect with others. A typical blog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, web pages, and other related media. Most blogs are primarily textual although some focus on photographs (photoblog), videos (vlog), or audio (podcasting) and are part of a wider network of social media. A blog gives you your own voice on the web. Its a place to collect and share things that you find interesting — whether its your political views, a personal diary, or links to web sites you want to remember. Blogs often provide commentary or news on a particular subject, such as food, politics, or local news; some function as personal online diaries. Journalists often use blogs to publish breaking news, while others reveal inner thoughts through blogs. There are three main features of a blog. The first is reverse chronological order. This means that latest entries are displayed at the top. The second feature is unfiltered content. Opinions are given freely without any
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games which involve problem solving experiences with gentle intelligent creatures may be referred to as edutainment. computer and video games. such as multimedia encyclopedias or reference disks. It consists of an informal group of rules and ways of behaving on the Internet. multimedia software. films. Edutainment makes learning enjoyable. along with celebrity interviews and human drama stories. Infotainment may include information related to topics such as health tips or gardening tips. The term “Edutainment” is used to distinguish regular computer games from more educational software. travel or shopping that are not actually "news" at all. legal or otherwise. Infotainment “Infotainment” is a term applied to software that seeks to inform and entertain simultaneously. Cyberspace 184 | P a g e . Comments can be made on any issue discussed on the blog or from outside. etc. Other stories may deal with current trends such as a shift in political views or a change in the attitudes of teenagers. websites. They have videos and lessons that use edutainment as a basis for teaching in a more efficient and faster way. Edutainment is also used to refer to the use of elearning modules to put across concepts in an entertaining manner. There are also blogs on edutainment that give the latest news and updates on available software. Many non-fiction CD-ROM titles are classified as infotainment. It refers to a general type of broadcast program which consists of both "hard news" segments and interviews. It attempts to minimize the dryness of regular news coverage by adding a certain amount of light-hearted or sensational style. Examples include educational software for children that teach them to spell or count while playing games and CD-ROMs about machines that contain animations showing how the machines work. The third feature is comments. Edutainment seeks to instruct by using some familiar form of entertainment such as television programs. On the other hand. Fast moving shooting games are not edutainment. It is a form of entertainment designed to educate as well as to amuse. music.restrictions. Netiquette “Netiquette” or Network etiquette is etiquette on the Internet. Edutainment is normally used to provide education related to one or more specific subjects. Edutainment “Edutainment” refers to educational entertainment or entertainmenteducation. Infotainment or “soft news” refers to a part of the news trade that provides information in a way that is considered entertaining to its viewers. Infotainment is a combination of information and entertainment.
Respect the time and bandwidth of others: “Bandwidth” is the informationcarrying capacity of the channels that connect everyone in cyberspace.has its own culture.whether it involves a spelling error or asking a stupid question or giving an unnecessarily long answer. They should not misuse this to read private email. you would wasting both bandwidth and the time of the people who have to check all copies of the posting. Think before writing: The most important rule relevant to e-mail marketing is not to send promotional messages to anyone who has not agreed to receive them. There are chances that theyre stored at the other end and may be used for purposes that you did not intend. when you accidentally post a note to a newsgroup five times. mechanics can know what parts needed to be replaced even before the car has come in for servicing. 185 | P a g e . It now has an additional dimension. For example. point it out politely and preferably by private email rather than in public. Always try to be polite: You may stand up for yourself when you have been wronged. under-the-hood diagnostics can be performed while a car is speeding along a track. always be cautious with your words. Respect the privacy of others: In the same way as you wouldn’t wish to snoop through your colleagues desk drawers. Digital versions of books are available complete with pictures. video clips. You must remember that your communication via email or on discussion groups involves written words. Some people in cyberspace such as system administrators have more power than others. Reading is not what it used to be in the past. As a result. Follow the same standards of behavior online that you follow in real life. but try not to hurt people’s feelings. and sound. you may make use of a gadget to make your off-key singing sound really melodious! These are just a few of the huge advancements in technology. There’s a limit to the amount of data that can be carried at a given moment. there are loads of gadgets and new technologies that can equip you to deal with nearly every personal or business contingency. naturally you wouldn’t read anyone’s email. Technology Today Today. For example. Be tolerant: Everyone makes mistakes -. Not knowing the rules for behaving properly online might result in unintentionally offending or misunderstanding someone. Even if you are not a great singer. Give people the benefit of the doubt. Be tolerant and if you do decide to inform someone of a mistake. So. Let us have a look at some of the core rules of Netiquette.
If both parties are online at the same time. To hold a video conference. both you and your contact can access it. In the displayed window. Windows Live Messenger. VoIP allows users to not only talk but also broadcast video conferences via the Web. even if one of you is offline. Google talk etc. Browse for the file you would like to share and click “Open”. iPods. When your contact agrees to share the file. You may also drag the files you wish to share with your contact into the “Sharing Folders” window. Your contact is given an option to accept the file. Till date. Using a Webcam: In addition to text communication. It is similar to e-mail. For this. click the “Show Menu” icon at the right end of the toolbar and select “File → Send a single file”. You may also exchange files with your contacts in the course of your conversation. both you and your contact need to have a microphone and speakers. the video conference begins. Transferring files: In the “Internet” topic. In the “Sharing Folders” window. There are different instant messengers available such as Yahoo messenger. both you and your contact must agree to share files with each other by creating sharing folders. When he does so. The difference is that you can send and receive messages as soon as they are typed. we learnt to send instant messages using Windows Live Messenger. Podcasting and RSS iPod: iPod is a brand of portable media players created by Apple and launched on October 23. it is possibly the best-selling digital 186 | P a g e . Chatting and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). 2001. click the “Show Menu” icon at the right end of the toolbar in the Conversation window and select “Actions → Create a sharing folder”. This enables you to see and hear your contact. Before you can share files with a contact. Instant Messaging enables you to have a conversation with another person or a group of people concurrently. Messenger allows you to have a voice or video conversation with an online contact. ICQ. as well as Web cameras for video conferencing. the file is transferred to him. click the “Add Files” button. In the Conversation window. To create a sharing folder. you can have a complete conversation. Your contact is given an option to accept the video conference. browse to the file you wish to share and press “Open”. When he does so. You and your contact can access all the files in the shared folder at any time. click the “Show Menu” icon at the right end of the toolbar in the Conversation window and select “Actions → Video → Start a Video Call”. Sharing Files: You can share files with your contacts by using the “Sharing Folders” feature.It is possible to easily contact and communicate with people you do not even know using technologies such as Instant Messaging (IM).
other than the iPod touch. Finding Music: Select “iTunes Store” in the left panel and follow the onscreen instructions to locate and purchase music files. but to create a podcast or even to listen to one. iPod is a music player and more. iPods. To transfer individual music files. An important feature about podcasting is that you can subscribe to a series so that it automatically downloads on to your computer and MP3 player. games. Put simply. “iPod classic” is a model which has a hard-drive. You would need to have a CD Writer on your computer for this.audio player series in history. It also transfers photos. They store music files internally. Creating a Custom CD: Using iTunes. Drag songs you would like to hear to your playlist. Now click on the “Burn Disc” button once more. Click “Music” in the “Library” list in the left panel to view your songs. 187 | P a g e . Uploading to a Digital Media Player: Another way to carry your favorite tunes is to upload them to your iPod using iTunes. You can also purchase digital music files from within iTunes. Podcasting: “Podcasting” is a new type of online media delivery which consists of free audio and video broadcasts. you may create a custom CD. This is one of the ways in which you can take your favorite tunes with you. Select your playlist and click the “Burn Disc” button at the bottom right. and calendars to those iPod models that support them.com” and follow the on-screen instructions for downloading and installing the iTunes software. “iPod touch” is a model which has a touch screen.apple. Click the “Create a playlist” button at the bottom-left corner and enter a name for your playlist. Apples “iTunes” software is used to transfer music to the devices. videos. The term “Podcast” is derived from the words ‘iPod and ‘broadcast. iTunes stores a music library on the users computer and can play and write music from a CD. First. podcasting allows you to download files onto your computer and MP3 player which can contain music. you need to connect to “www. Digital media players are lightweight digital storage devices that do not require cassettes or disks. They vary in size and features. Devices in the iPod family are designed according to the latest demands and technology. iTunes starts automatically. Insert a blank CD into your CD drive. can also serve as external data storage devices. or any portable music player . Using iTunes: Let us learn how to use Apple’s iTunes software. it is not mandatory to possess an iPod. The smaller iPods like “nano” and “shuffle” use flash memory which is a non-volatile memory device. talk shows or anything else. click “Music” in the “Library” list and drag them to “iPod” in the left panel. Connect your iPod to your computer. Now select your playlist and click the “Play” button at the top to hear your music.
etc. using the Internet. We often have a hard time trying to figure out which cable needs to go where. We see a large number of cables in our offices. Such software is available for free download from the Internet. It is a radio standard and communications protocol primarily designed for low power consumption. in general. have all mobile and fixed computer devices in total co-ordination. Juice. Some browsers also include the RSS reading functions. instructional and promotional material. Bluetooth is essentially a cable-replacement technology which tries to solve this problem. cheap radio chip to be plugged into computers. Podcasts can be used for a number of different things such as creation of informational. mobile phones. radio programs and news stories and you may listen to them whenever and wherever you wish. It aims to simplify data synchronization between Internet devices and other computers. Using this technology. printers. Bluetooth and Wi-Fi have slightly different applications. RSS Feeds: A “web feed” is a data format used for providing users with frequently updated content. This allows users to "subscribe" to a site so that they can quickly scan the updated headlines and then go to specific articles of interest. RSS is a method of publishing content on frequently updated web sites. Podcasts are downloaded via a feed such as RSS. Users access headlines and see web site updates via an RSS reader which is an application that displays a short summary and provides links to the full article on the Web site. Sportscasts and lots more. 188 | P a g e . Short for Really Simple Syndication (or Rich Site Summary). homes and everywhere else. They may also be used in story telling for children or the visually-impaired. technologies like Podcasting empower you with a voice that can literally reach around the world. Podnova and Feedburner to subscribe to your favorite podcasts. Odeo. Bluetooth is a small. You can use podcasting software such as iTunes. Bluetooth vs. with a short range.Podcasting enables you to compile all your favorite music. users of cellular phones can buy a multi-purpose phone that can serve as a portable phone and also be used to get information from a computer. film reviews. It was originally developed for use by wireless devices and local networks but it is now used for Internet access as well. Wi-Fi: “Wi-Fi” is short for "Wireless Fidelity" and is a set of standards for wireless local area networks. Today. which will then be automatically downloaded for you. Conceived initially by Ericsson. for Commentaries. and. Bluetooth & Wi-Fi Technology “Bluetooth” is the name of a new technology that promises to change the way we use machines. It creates a wireless personal area network (PAN) and provides a way to connect and exchange information between two devices over distances of about 30 feet.
and Internet connection that you have. If you have more than one computer. 4) Run the “Set Up a Wireless Router or Access Point” wizard: If your network is wireless. 3) Connect the computers: There are several ways to connect computers depending on the type of network adapters. 1) Install the Hardware: Install network adapters in the computers that need them by following the installation instruction manuals that come with the adapters. Installing the Network: The steps to install the network are as follows. It is a web-based free content. Home Networking Today. Since its creation in 2001. 189 | P a g e . Wikipedia has grown rapidly into one of the largest reference Web sites. It offers quick understanding on various issues and current affairs. and offers better security than Bluetooth.Wi-Fi uses the same radio frequencies as Bluetooth. you may use it to share different resources. Popular Websites Wikipedia “Wikipedia” is one of the most popular reference sites on the Internet. but requires more expensive hardware and higher power consumption. you need to set up the connection first. For this. Home networks allow multiple users to access the Internet at the same time. you can use a home network to share files and printers and play multiplayer computer games. Using the Network: Once your network has been installed. It is the result of the combined efforts of an online community of people interested in building a high-quality encyclopedia in a spirit of mutual respect. multilingual encyclopedia written by contributors around the world. Open the “Connect to the Internet” wizard and follow the instructions. A home network is commonly used to share files. It consists of 195 independent language editions sponsored by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. It also depends on whether or not you want to share an Internet connection among all the computers on the network. computers are commonly found in homes. It covers greater distances. 2) Set up an Internet connection: If you want to use your network to share an Internet connection. but with higher power resulting in a stronger connection. It enables a faster connection. printers and Internet access as well as to run multiplayer computer games. you need a cable or DSL modem and an account with an Internet service provider (ISP). run the “Set up a Wireless Router or Access Point” wizard on the computer attached to the router. modem.
Started in 2005. If you wish to look up additional Wikipedia pages. 190 | P a g e .youtube. YouTube discourages users from downloading videos to their own computers. provided it is not potentially offensive. Its slogan is “Broadcast Yourself” meaning that everyone is free to broadcast whatever they wish. posting video resumes. Here you will most likely find all the information you need. Let us click on “English”. It is one of the top ten most popular websites on the Internet. YouTube’s phenomenal appeal lies in its simplicity and global reach.This is a special type of website. This encyclopedia can be found at www. click “Search” after you have entered your keyword. Various people have used YouTube to achieve celebrity status by dancing. Many people are constantly improving Wikipedia content. Select the language of your choice to go to the Main Page.wikipedia. singing. Simply click a link to view the related page. preferring that they watch videos online. While much of the content consists of original amateur videos. you must include appropriate references. the site was purchased one year later by Google. while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos. The visitors to this site are mostly teenagers and young adults. and in other creative ways. if you add information to an article. So. using Wikipedia. It can be found at www. professional content is now being provided by some advertisers and media producers. and press enter or click “Go”. This will take you directly to Wikipedias most relevant article on the entered keyword. Content is meticulously appraised and inappropriate changes are removed. There are a number of other video sharing sites but so far. you can research on any topic with great ease. Repeat offenders may be blocked from editing. Browsing through the loads of available videos is simple and uploading your own video is almost as simple. You see a page which displays links to other pages. none of them have been able to match the cultural impact or enormous volumes of YouTube. Type “Einstein” into the box. Unregistered users can watch most videos on the site. YouTube YouTube is a website that specializes in publishing user-posted video clips.com. For example. Anyone is welcome to add information as long as they do so within Wikipedias editing policies. On the lefthand side of the screen you can see a “search” box with two buttons under it labeled "Go" and "Search". called a “Wiki” where anybody can edit and add to an article.com. Let us look for information related to the great scientist Albert Einstein.
*****THE END**** 191 | P a g e . YouTube has been the focus of controversies related to some sensitive political and personal issues. the site has been banned in a few countries.Like most other social-networking sites. Because of this.
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