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ALL ABOUT COMPUTERS
Introduction to Computers The purpose of this course is to help you become competent with computer technology. Computer competency refers to acquiring computer-related skills. They include the effective use of popular application packages and the Internet. Today, computer competency is undoubtedly a prerequisite in all walks of life. To begin with, you must understand the impact of computers in the world today. Computers are affecting our lives is some way or the other. Airline and railway reservations, telephone and electricity bills, banking, medical diagnoses, weather forecasts… the list of services using computers is almost endless. A computer is a device that allows you to input data, process data quickly and efficiently, receive outputs and store data. Thus a computer consists of one or more input devices, output devices, storage devices and a processing unit.
WINDOWS BASICS What is an Operating System? Mac
Other Operating Systems Mac OS: “Mac OS” is the trademarked name for a series of graphical user interface-based operating systems developed by Apple Inc. for their Macintosh line of computer systems. The Macintosh user experience is credited with popularizing the graphical user interface. It is a powerful, easyto-use operating system that is popular with professional graphic designers, desktop publishers and many home users. One of the latest versions of the Macintosh operating system is “Mac OS X”, also known as “Tiger”. It provides powerful features such as “Spotlight” and “Dashboard Widgets”. Spotlight is an advanced search tool that can rapidly locate files, folders, e-mail messages, addresses and much more. Dashboard
Widgets are specialized programs that constantly update and display information. The next version of Mac OS, “Leopard” includes “Boot Camp” which allows appropriately equipped Apple computers to use both Mac OS and Windows XP. UNIX and Linux: UNIX is a powerful multitasking operating system that was developed in 1969. It was originally designed to run on minicomputers in network environments. Now, it is also used by powerful microcomputers and Web servers. Linux is a popular version of UNIX. It was initially created as a hobby in 1991 by a graduate student, Linus Torvalds, at the University of Helsinki in Finland. He allowed free distribution of the operating system code and encouraged others to modify and further develop the code. Introduction to Windows Vista Windows Vista has a more elegant and sophisticated looked than all previous versions of Windows. The new Vista interface is great to look at, with a lot of added functionality making working in Vista a really pleasant experience -and a more secure one. Windows Aero: This is the graphical user interface for Windows Vista. Its name is a contraction of the words Authentic, Energetic, Reflective and Open. It includes new transparencies, live thumbnails, live icons and animations which are visually very appealing. Glass window borders and surfaces make the interface both professional and beautiful. Windows Sidebar: This is a long, vertical bar that is displayed on the side of your desktop. It contains mini-programs called gadgets, which offer information at a glance and provide easy access to frequently used tools. To add a gadget, right-click on the side bar and select “Add Gadget”. Now simply drag a gadget from the Gadget gallery onto the sidebar. To remove a gadget from the sidebar, move your mouse over it and click on the “X” sign next to it. Additional gadgets can also be downloaded from the Microsoft Gadgets website by clicking on “Get more gadgets online”. Search Boxes: Search boxes are prominently integrated into Windows Explorer, the Start menu, Control Panel, Windows Internet Explorer and Help. So no matter where you are, you can always search for related files, folders or information. Two types of searches are supported: Regular search, where a search is performed when you click the “Search” button, and Instant search, where the results are displayed immediately as you type.
It helps to protect you from the effects of a disk failure. To enter settings regarding where the backup is to be stored and which files are to be backed up. Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel”. You may backup your entire computer by clicking “Back up computer”. 4| Page . The “Backup Status and Configuration” window is displayed. Click “Continue” in the “User Account Control” window. click “Back up your computer”. c) “Uninstall programs” that allow you to safely remove programs that you do not need from your hard disk. b) “Antivirus programs” that guard against programs that can damage your computer system. specify the file types that you wish to backup and click “Next”. click “Change settings”. In the displayed window. e) “File compression programs” that reduce the size of files for easy storage and transfer over the Internet.Utilities: “Utilities” are specialized programs designed to make computing easier. Specify the location where you wish to store the backup and click “Next”. Now click “Save settings and start backup” to begin the backup process. and Disk Defragmenter is used to rearrange your files so that they are not broken up. There are various utility programs such as: a) “Troubleshooting” or “diagnostic programs” that recognize and correct problems before they become serious. you may use the “Back up files” button. Disk Cleanup is used to remove unnecessary files on your hard disk to free up disk space and help your computer run faster. Backup “Backup” is a utility program included with Windows Vista that makes a copy of all or selected files that have been saved onto a disk. Windows Vista has maintenance utilities such as “Disk Cleanup” and “Disk Defragmenter”. d) “Backup programs” that make copies of files to be used in the event of the originals being lost. Specify how often and when you wish to take a backup. To backup specific files. Under “System and Maintenance”. Click “Change backup settings”.
After a period of time. “Disk Cleanup” is a utility that eliminates such files and frees up valuable disk space and improves system performance. Disk Defragmenter Files are stored and organized on a disk according to “tracks” and “sectors”. The space that will be made free by the cleanup is calculated and the files suggested for cleanup are displayed. click “Defragment now” and click “OK” in the displayed window. However. Then select the drive you want to clean up and click “OK”. click “Select volumes”. 5| Page . It runs automatically at a scheduled time by default. Each track is divided into wedge-shaped sections called sectors. A track is a concentric ring. many nonessential files are saved on your hard disk. into small parts that are stored wherever space is available. “Disk Defragmenter” is a utility program that eliminates unnecessary fragments and rearranges files and unused disk space to optimize operations. the hard disk becomes highly fragmented and results in slower operations.Disk Cleanup When you surf the Web.e. To specify which partitions of your hard disk you wish to defragment. Whenever a file is retrieved. The operating system tries to save a file on a single track across contiguous sectors i. click “Delete Files”. Click “Continue” in the “User Account Control” window. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Accessories → System Tools → Disk Cleanup”. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Accessories → System Tools → Disk Defragmenter”. You may modify the scheduled time for defragmentation by clicking “Modify schedule”. In the displayed window specify whether all files or only your files are to be cleaned up. this is not always possible and the file has to be broken up or fragmented. it is reconstructed from the fragments. sectors that are adjacent to each other. Verify the files and click “OK”. In the displayed window. The disk cleanup process begins and the selected files are removed. To start the defragmentation process.
When a new device such as a mouse or a printer is added 6| Page . “GoBack Personal Edition” can be used to restore system configurations. Buying the package is less expensive than buying the programs separately. Norton SystemWorks and V Communications. Viruses enter your computer in various ways such as opening e-mail attachments and downloading from the Internet. Existing viruses are removed and the virus list is automatically updated so that your system is checked for the newest viruses. These suites also include programs that protect your system from dangerous programs called computer “viruses”. locate lost files and repair damaged files. “One Button Checkup” integrates several of the separate utilities. “Norton CleanSweep” is a collection of programs that help you to safely remove programs that you do not need. It is a quick evaluation that looks for typical PC problems and alerts you accordingly. Virus protection programs set up a barrier to viruses attempting to enter a computer system. “Norton Utilities” is a collection of separate troubleshooting utilities that can be used to prevent and fix problems and improve system performance. These protection programs are loaded into memory and run continually in the background and monitor all operations looking for actions associated with viruses. as well as clean up your hard disk.Utility Suites: A “Utility Program” performs a specific task. Device Drivers: “Device drivers” are specialized programs designed to allow particular input or output devices to communicate with the rest of the computer system. it is known as a “Utility Suite”. They protect existing files from damage when new programs are installed. history files and cookies. They also compress and make backups of programs. Three popular utility suites are McAfee Office. “Web CleanUp” is a collection of programs that remove unnecessary files from your computer such as temporary files. Norton SystemWorks The Norton SystemWorks utility suite includes the following: “Norton AntiVirus” is a collection of antivirus programs that can protect your system from different viruses. When several utility programs are combined into a single package.
to a computer system, a new device driver must be installed before it can be used. Each time the computer system is started, the operating system loads all device drivers into memory. Windows supplies many device drivers which are automatically installed when a new device is connected. If a particular device driver is not included with the Windows systems software, it is supplied by the manufacturer of the product. When a device driver needs to be manually installed, wizards provided by Window assist you in the process. For example, the “Add Printer” wizard provides step-by-step guidance for installing a driver for a printer. Ex.: Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel”. Under “Hardware and Sound”, click “Printer”. Click the “Add a printer” button on the toolbar to display the “Add Printer” wizard. Follow the onscreen instructions to install the driver. Sometimes, when your computer behaves unpredictably, you could try reinstalling or updating your device drivers. Windows makes it easy to update your drivers using “Windows Update”. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Windows Update”. In the left pane, click “Check for updates”. To see if updated drivers are available, click “View available updates”. Windows Update will list any updated drivers that are available for devices installed in your computer. If updates are available, click the driver that you want to install, and then click “Install”. Some of the security and safety features of Windows Vista are as follows: Windows Defender: This is a software product which is a part of Windows Vista. It is designed to prevent and remove spyware. Spyware on your computer could result in information being transmitted from your computer without your knowledge. Windows Firewall: This helps in guarding your computer against many types of malicious software. User Account Control: This is an infrastructure that requires user consent before allowing any action that requires administrative privileges such as installing new software or changing system settings. Parental controls: An administrator can apply parental control restrictions to other users on the computer. Facilities include web content blocking,
restrictions on what kind of games may be played and what programs may be executed. Exploring the Desktop Desktop When your computer is booted up and ready to use, the screen you see is called the “Desktop”. It is the background for all programs and contains the commands needed for accessing those programs. The background graphic is called “Wallpaper”. The desktop can be customized to suit individual needs.
Icon Another important graphic feature that you find on the desktop is an “Icon”. Icons are small pictures that are linked to programs. Most icons and toolbar buttons display a “Tool Tip” containing a brief description of the item when you rest the mouse pointer on it. Double-clicking on the icon runs the program or accesses the file and rightclicking accesses a menu offering options, actions and properties. Icons can be moved around on the desktop by clicking and dragging them. Vista’s live icons graphically depict the content of files stored on your computer.
Recycle Bin The "Recycle Bin" on the desktop serves as a trash can. When you delete a file or folder, it goes into the Recycle Bin where it stays until the bin is emptied. Double-clicking on the icon opens a window that shows you its contents. If you delete something you shouldn't have, you can find it in the Recycle Bin and restore it to its proper place. When the Recycle Bin is emptied, everything in it is permanently deleted.
Taskbar At the bottom of the screen, you see a long, thin bar which is called the “Taskbar”. The currently active tasks are displayed in the form of buttons on
the taskbar. When you move your mouse over a button, a thumbnail image of the window is displayed. The taskbar has a circular button displaying the Windows logo at one end and a clock on the other. The button at the left end is the "Start" button which is used to start a program, open a document, get help, find information and change the system settings. If you click on the "Start" button, a box called a “Menu” appears. This menu contains several items. Some of them have sub-items which can be accessed by clicking on them. You may see icons on the taskbar, too. These are called "Quick Launch" icons that allow one-click access to frequently used programs. The right end of the taskbar is the “Notification” area. In the “Notification” area, to the left of the clock are several icons that indicate the tools that are automatically started when you turn on your computer and are running in the background, such as antivirus protection. This area also temporarily displays icons while a tool is in use, such as a printer when printing is in progress.
Personalize your Desktop You may set different display properties for your desktop. Right click on the desktop and select “Personalize”. Changing the Wallpaper: You can make your desktop as attractive and colorful as you wish by setting a wallpaper of your choice. For this, click on “Desktop Background”. In the “Picture Location” box, select the location of the picture. Now from the pictures displayed, make your choice by clicking on it. You may use the “Browse” button to search for a background picture from another location not in the list. Specify how you want the picture to be positioned and click on “Change background color” to select a color to fill the space not used by the picture. You may also save a picture from a Web site as your desktop background. Right-click the picture and then click “Set as Background”. Setting a Screen Saver: A screen saver is a program that displays an image, animation, or just a blank screen on a computer after no input has been received for a certain length of time. Screen savers were originally designed to prevent damages (called burn-in) to CRT screens. The screens manufactured nowadays are much more resistant to damages. To set a screen saver, click on “Screen Saver” in the “Personalization” window. Now
Screen resolution refers to the clarity of the text and images on your screen. In the “Customize” box. Now select a different scheme from the “Scheme” list. In the displayed figure. you can see the recommended resolution based on the size of the monitor. Changing the Mouse Pointer: You may choose a different mouse pointer and also change the way it appears during activities such as clicking and selecting. Click on “Display Settings” in the “Personalization” window. Changing the Display Settings: You may change various settings related to the display of your monitor. move the slider to the resolution you want. say “Good Morning!”. fewer items fit on the screen. you can see the way your mouse pointer will appear when different actions are performed. click “Settings”. At lower resolutions. Now click “OK”. At higher resolutions. fewer items fit on the screen. 10 | P a g e . so more items fit on the screen. but they are larger and easier to see. simply move your mouse or press any key. you can see the recommended resolution based on the size of the monitor. In the “Wait” field. Under “Resolution”. items appear smaller. To clear the screen saver after it has started. In the “Custom Text” box enter some other text.select “3D Text” from the list. items appear smaller. Click “OK” to save your settings. you may try using other screen savers and make changes to the related settings. select “See-saw”. but they are larger and easier to see. At lower resolutions. At higher resolutions. so more items fit on the screen. Click on “Mouse Pointers” in the “Personalization” window. Click “OK” to save your settings. Click on one and then click “Open”. To change the setting options for your screen saver. Click on “Display Settings” in the “Personalization” window. In this way. In the displayed figure. specify the number of minutes of idle time after which you want the screen saver to start. You can see a variety of cursors displayed in the “Browse” window. Click “Preview” to see how the selected screen saver will appear on your monitor. Screen resolution refers to the clarity of the text and images on your screen. In the “Rotation Type” box. Changing the Display Settings: You may change various settings related to the display of your monitor. Under “Resolution”. Click “Preview” once again to see how the screen saver will look with the new settings. You may even specify a different pointer for a specific action. Click on “Busy” in the “Customize” box and then click “Browse”. move the slider to the resolution you want.
Programs are added to the most frequently used programs list when you use them. graphics. The next part is the “Most frequently used programs list”. The first part is the “Pinned Items List”. You can add programs to the pinned items list. Documents: “Documents” is your personal folder. Pointing to an item in the “Start” menu moves the selection cursor to the item and displays a pop-up description. causing eye strain and headaches. or other files you want to access quickly. Clicking an icon in the “Start” menu starts a program or accesses an item or feature immediately. As you learn more about Windows Vista. Click “Yes” in the displayed window and then click “OK”. When you point to an item with an arrowhead symbol. a submenu with additional options is displayed. you 11 | P a g e . From within “Pictures”. Using Windows Vista The “Start” button is one of the most important features in Windows. You may explore the various other options in the “Personalize” window to further personalize your Windows experience. The programs on the pinned items list remain there and are always available for you to click to start them. To save your settings. If the refresh rate is too low. Programs you have not recently used are removed from the list and replaced with the more recently used programs. The list of programs on the Start menu is divided into two parts. you will find there are many ways to perform the same task. Click “Advanced Settings”. To use your computer. the monitor can flicker. as it is the starting point for most features on your computer. It is a convenient place to store documents. Click the “Monitor” tab and make a selection from the “Screen refresh rate” box and click “Apply”. click “OK” in the “Display Settings” window. A refresh rate of at least 75 hertz generally produces less flicker. Windows colors and themes work best when you have your monitor set to 32-bit color. Another consideration in getting the best possible display from your monitor is the screen refresh rate.To get the best color display from your monitor. you need to start application programs and access files you have created using these applications. you may make a selection from the “Colors” box. Pictures: The “Pictures” folder in Windows Vista offers a variety of options for viewing and managing your digital pictures.
The shortcuts are created automatically whenever you open a shared network resource. view a slide show. month. you can access hardware settings for the keyboard. enter the correct time into the box under “Time”. Changing the date and time manually: To make changes to the system date and time. Language. Network: “Network” displays shortcuts to shared computers. All Programs: Clicking “All Programs” opens a list of programs currently installed on your computer. obtain troubleshooting information. Computer: This item in the “Start” menu is used to access drives. and other resources on the network. click on the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Clock. Music: The “Music” folder is the place where Windows automatically saves all the audio clips you download from the Internet or save on your hard drive with Windows Media Player. To play a particular audio file that you have saved. and then click the arrows to increase or 12 | P a g e . mouse. printers and other hardware. print photos or copy photos to a CD. Now click the correct day.can view photos at different sizes. simply double-click on it. printers. click on “Change date and time”. receive support and more. printers and modem. Date and Time Settings The “System Date” and “System Time” are the date and time as maintained by the computer's internal clock. On the “Date and Time” tab. rotate them. To set the time. and Region → Date and Time”. To change only the hour. and year under “Date” to set the date. From the Control Panel. Windows uses these settings to identify when files are created or modified. Control Panel: Using the Control panel. such as a printer or shared folder. the “Control Panel” and other system applications. you can access many support applications that enable you to customize the appearance and functionality of your computer system. Help and Support: You can click “Help and Support” to learn how to use Windows Vista. double-click the hour. as well as settings for the monitor display and sound.
Each program that you open is opened in its own window. and Close buttons: These buttons reduce the window to a button on the task bar. and Region → Regional and Language Options”. Changing the date and time display: You may change the way in which your computer displays the date and time. Language. On the “Internet Time” tab. Most windows have the same basic parts:Title bar: This displays the name of the window which indicates which program is running. Select your current time zone from the list and click “OK”. Updating the Date and Time: You may also synchronize your computer clock by an Internet time server. Scroll bar: This lets you scroll the contents of the window to see information that is currently out of view. enlarge it to fill the whole screen. Now click “OK”. Using the buttons in the Title Bar you can 13 | P a g e . Select “Control Panel → Clock. click “Change time zone” on the “Date and Time” tab. usually referred to as the local time. seconds and the AM/PM indicator. Similarly you may change the value of the minutes. Changing the Time Zone: Time zones are areas of the Earth that have adopted the same standard time. click “Change Settings”. click on it. For this.decrease the value. select your current format and then click “Customize this format”. If the box against “Synchronize with an Internet time server” is empty. To change your time zone. and close it. respectively Menu bar: This contains several items that that you can click to make choices in a program. Working with Windows A window is a rectangular section on the screen that is used to display information and other programs. Sizing and Moving Windows: To make the desktop more workable. Maximize. Minimize. Select the appropriate server and then click “Update Now”. Enter the formats you require on the “Time” and “Date” tabs of the “Customize Regional Options” window. you can move and size windows. Borders and corners: You can drag these with your mouse pointer to change the size of the window. make sure you are connected to the Internet. On the “Formats” tab.
check boxes. or provides you with information. Dialog Boxes: A dialog box is a special type of window that asks you a question. whereas clicking the arrow opens a menu with more options. list boxes. Command buttons: A command button performs an action when you click it. Windows Controls: Most windows have “controls” that allow you to select commands. Split buttons: These buttons change into two parts when you point to them. Scrolling a Window: When there is more information in a window than can be viewed on the screen. To scroll you can either click the arrow of the scroll bar or you can drag the scroll box to move the content within the window. change settings. or perform other actions related to the working of the window. maximize the window to its largest size. 14 | P a g e . “Show Windows Stacked”. point to the title bar and drag the window to the new location on the desktop. Changing the Size of the Window: You can change the size of the window by pointing to the border of the window with your mouse and dragging to make it smaller or bigger. allows you to select options to perform a task. restore the window to the original size or close a window. or “Show Windows Side by Side”. Some menu controls are shown by an arrow next to a word or picture. it is unavailable and cannot be clicked. Dragging a corner changes the height and width simultaneously. Clicking the main part of the button performs a command. If a command is shown in gray. scroll bars appear on the window. To choose a command listed in a menu.minimize the window. then choose one of the options “Cascade Windows”. Menus: To keep the screen free of unnecessary items. right-click on an empty area of the taskbar. combo boxes and other such controls. There are two types of scroll bars Vertical and Horizontal. Let us have a look at some of them. click on it. Data may be entered using push buttons. option buttons. Command buttons may also appear as small icons without any text. To choose an arrangement. text boxes. Arranging windows automatically: You can also have the windows on your desktop automatically arranged. Moving a Window: To move a window. menus are hidden until you click their titles in the “menu bar”.
Click on the magnifying glass or press “Enter” to display a list of related topics. Drop-down lists: These are similar to menus. A drop-down list shows only the currently selected option when it is closed. In the “Search Help” text box. The other options are displayed when you click the control. information is displayed on multiple tabs.Option buttons: Option buttons enable you to make one choice among multiple options. The currently selected tab appears at the front. You can switch to a different tab by clicking on it. Click the “Start” button and then click “Help and Support” to display the “Windows Help and Support” window. You may perform tasks related to Security. Using Help With Windows Vista Help features. you can choose multiple options at the same time using check boxes. Check boxes: Check boxes enable you to select one or more independent a single option only. You may click on any topic under “Find an answer” to see help for that topic. 15 | P a g e . List boxes: A list box displays a list of options that you can select from. Text boxes: A text box is used to type textual information. Windows communities or from Microsoft Customer Support online. Maintenance and Troubleshooting by selecting appropriate options. This is the most commonly used windows control. Under “Ask someone” you may click on the various links for additional assistance and support from friends. you may search across multiple remote and online providers to get the most information for the topic that you are investigating. They are also called “radio buttons”. you may enter the keywords you wish to search on. options are available for selection instead of commands to be executed. Sliders: A slider enables you to adjust a setting along a range of values by dragging the slider toward the value that you want. Unlike a drop-down list. Here. some or all of the options are displayed without having to open the list. Tabs: In some dialog boxes.
This indicates that clicking this link will open the associated item on your computer. You can tell it is the active window because the taskbar button and title bar appear dark whereas those of the inactive windows are dimmed. Opening a New Window: Notice the “Document1” icon on the desktop.Under “Information from Microsoft” you will find guidance on various tasks which will make your experience of working with Windows Vista smooth and convenient. then the buttons for the same program become grouped into a single button. Switching between windows: Using the taskbar: Each running program has a corresponding button on the taskbar. the taskbar buttons resize themselves automatically to fit in the taskbar. You can see that each program is displayed in its own window. On the Start menu click “Computer” and then “Help and Support”. Working with Multiple Windows The capability to run multiple programs at the same time is called “Multitasking”. “Computer” and “Document1”. This is now the “active” window. that is. in this case. allowing you to switch easily between tasks without having to put one away before beginning the other. Multiple windows can be open on the desktop at once. A new window opens on the desktop and the taskbar displays an additional button for this open window. “Windows Help and Support”. There are now three programs running at the same time. it appears in the size in which it was last used and at any location on the desktop. the window currently in use. then select an item to make it the active window. This makes working with your computer more like you would actually work. If the taskbar becomes too crowded with buttons. just click its taskbar button. Double-click on it. To switch to a specific program. the Microsoft Word document named “Document1”. As more windows are opened. The newly opened window is automatically the active window and appears on top of other open windows on the desktop. The window in which the program is running appears in front of the other windows. Click the button to see a menu of the items in the group. but only one window is active at a time. 16 | P a g e . The “Document1” window is the active window. When a new window is opened.
Shutting down Windows Vista It is very important to shut down Windows Vista correctly. Alternatively. To turn off your computer. Do not turn off the computer by pressing the power button as you may lose valuable data. click any part of a window in the stack to display that window. While holding down the Windows logo key. Switch User: This enables you to switch to another user without closing the programs of the current user. Let us see what each of them does. This action puts your computer in “sleep” mode. Log Off: If you share the computer with someone else. It saves all open documents and programs.Using ALT+TAB: You can cycle through all open windows and the desktop by holding down the “Alt” key and repeatedly pressing the “Tab” key. Shut Down: To shut down your computer completely. Organizing Your Work Files and Folders 17 | P a g e . click the “Start” button. Lock: This is used to lock the computer when you do not want anyone else to access your files. You may also click on the “Switch between windows” icon on the taskbar to enable the “Windows Flip 3D” feature. This closes all your open programs but does not put the computer off. When you click the arrow next to the “Lock” button. Restart: This closes all open programs. Release the Windows logo key to display the window at the front. you see various options. select “Log Off”. It closes all open programs. Release the “Alt” key to show the selected window. shuts down Windows and puts off your computer. shuts down Windows and restarts the computer once again. press the “Tab” key repeatedly or rotate the mouse wheel to cycle through open windows. Sleep: Sleep is a power-saving state. use this option. Using Windows Flip 3D: This feature allows you to flip through a cascading stack of your open windows. and then click the “Power” button in the lower right part of the Start menu. and allows you to resume working within seconds.
To close the Folders list. It is a named area on a disk that is used to store related subfolders and files. In the Folder List. Click the triangle to expand the folder. the folder contents in the right panel change to display the contents of the location you clicked. commonly used folders are displayed under the heading “Favorite Links”. a Details Pane. digital pictures. a “file” is an item that contains a collection of related information. where you can click any folder to navigate directly to it. folders created in the main folder appear indented below the main folder. Your computer represents files with icons. CD-ROM drive. and even songs. spreadsheets. click “Folders” again. a Preview 18 | P a g e . hard disks. Click the resulting triangle to collapse the expanded list. This displays the “Folders list”. You know that Windows has some common folders such as Documents. click on the “Start” button and select “Computer”. When you click a location in the Navigation pane.In a computer. You can also search for and open files and folders. Some common file icons are displayed. Click the “Organize” button to organize the contents of a folder. you see a small triangle next to each folder which has subfolders. Music and others that you can use to organize your files. Click “Layout” to specify whether to display Menus. and network drives. You can view additional folders by clicking “Folders” at the bottom of the Navigation pane. So a “Folder System” is made up of folders and subfolders. Examples of files are text documents. you can tell what kind of file it is. You can graphically view the content saved on your computer in ways that enable you to visualize what is inside a folder or file. The panel at the left is the Navigation pane. A folder within a folder is known as a “Subfolder”. Windows Vista offers “Live Icon” views of files and folders. By looking at a file icon. Subfolders appear indented below their parent folders. A Folder System is also called a “Directory System”. Arranging files into logical groups makes it easy to locate any particular file. This displays the “Windows Explorer” which shows you the contents of your floppy disk. Pictures. Using Computer To open the “Computer” window. and gain access to options in the Control Panel to modify your computer settings. A “folder” is a container in which you can store files. At the top. When you move the mouse pointer into the area of the Folders list.
all the subfolders and files contained within the folder are removed. Medium Icons. move. Let us click on “Documents”. you may select the folder. Confirm deletion by clicking “Yes” in the “Folder Delete” window. Deleting Folders: When you no longer need a folder you can delete it. To create a new folder. Working with Files 19 | P a g e . You can now see a menu with the items File. Alternately. drag it to the Favorite Links area. rename. A folder icon with “New Folder” written next to it is displayed. and then drag the file to another folder or drive. Tools and Help. Small Icons. you may select the location where you wish to store your data files. Press the “Delete” key or select “File → Delete” from the menu bar. select “File → New → Folder” from the menu bar.Pane. Sorting and Grouping Files and Folders: You may click on any column heading to sort the files by that column. Folder and File Names: When a file or folder is created. you can open a folder that contains a file you want to copy or move. View. it must be assigned a name. and/or the Navigation Pane. You may type a new name for this folder. If you delete a folder containing subfolders and files. Click the “Views” button to specify how you wish to view the contents of a folder. For example. you can copy. List. click on the folder name and select “File → Rename” from the menu bar. You can choose from the options: Extra Large Icons. Details and Tiles. Using Windows Explorer. Renaming Folders: To rename a folder. no matter which folder you are presently in. Large Icons. These links let you open folders quickly. Working with Folders Creating Folders: Using the Folders list. Select the folder that you wish to delete. Edit. You can use the context menu that appears on right-clicking the mouse to perform various functions. and search for files and folders. The following characters cannot be used in a folder or file name: \ / : * ?><| If you think you will need to use a folder frequently. right-click and select “Rename”. Let us select “Menu Bar”. Clicking again reverses the sort order from ascending to descending.
For example. Drag and Drop: All Windows applications have the ability to copy or move selections using the “Drag and Drop” feature. 20 | P a g e . The file that was copied remains at the original location. click “Select All” on the “Edit” menu. A copy of it is created at the new location. The file is removed from the original location and placed at the new one. while a document created using Notepad is stored with the extension “. and then click a result to open it. For this. A file can also be copied to a folder by selecting ““Edit → Copy To Folder” from the menu bar and clicking on the appropriate folder in the “Copy Items” window. Now click on the location you wish to move the file to and then click “Move”. select the item to be copied or moved. The “Move Items” window is displayed. Type anything you can remember about the file. Then. Renaming and deleting a file: A file can be renamed or deleted in the same way as a folder by clicking on it and selecting “File → Rename” and “File → Delete” respectively. Moving a file: You may move a file from one location to another. you can use the Start menu to search instead. If you do not know which folder to search. First. the File Name and the Extension. click on the file name and select “Edit → Copy” from the menu bar. Now this file can be copied to one or more locations. To quickly select adjacent files you may similarly use the “Shift” key. a document created using Microsoft Word 2007 is stored with the extension “. Type in the Search box. Copying a file: You may make a copy of a file. Now select “Edit → Paste” from the menu bar. Selecting Multiple Files: When you want to copy or move several files into the same folder. Click on the folder you wish to copy it to. point the mouse to it and drag the pointer to the new location by keeping the mouse button pressed. Different types of files are stored with different extensions. You may now drop the selection by releasing the mouse button. Keep the “Ctrl” key pressed and then select multiple files. click on the file name and select “Edit → Move To Folder” from the menu bar. such as part of its name.docx”. you can use the Search box at the top to search the current folder.txt”. To select all the files and folders in the window. For this. you can select these files to copy or move them at the same time.The name of a file consists of two parts. Finding Files: If you are looking for a specific file from a large number of files in a folder.
locate the folder you have created to save your work. In the open Notepad. You may use this shortcut to quickly access your data file location again. Formatting a Document: You may wish to change the way your text appears. To create a shortcut to your folder. you may specify the location 21 | P a g e . If you fail to save the file. right-click and select “Send To → Desktop (create shortcut)”. select “Format → Font” from the menu bar. To start Notepad. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → Notepad”. all the changes you have made will be lost. Press “OK” to apply your selection to the complete text in your document. In the “Font” window. you can create a shortcut icon for the location and place it on the desktop. For this. type your Name and then press “Enter”. Take the mouse cursor to the beginning of your name and press “Enter” twice. a blank workspace is ready for you to begin typing to create a new document. Press the “Up Arrow” key twice and then type the date. If necessary. Point the mouse pointer to the folder name. When the application first opens. The default name of the shortcut is the same as your folder name followed by the word “Shortcut”.Using Shortcuts You may need to use a particular file or folder stored on your computer frequently. Editing a Document: One of the advantages of using a computer is that you can edit the contents of your file. Type your Address and press “Enter” again. select the font along with the style and size you require. Using Notepad: “Notepad” is a basic text editing program and it is most commonly used to view or edit text files. In the “Save As” window. Using Applications Using Notepad Some useful applications are available as a part of Windows Vista. A shortcut icon with an arrow at the bottom left appears on the desktop. Saving Files: A permanent copy of the work you have created using an application program is stored as a file on the disk only when you save it. Select “File → Save As”. To access the location of this file quickly. re-size the “Notepad” window to an appropriate size.
such as creating or saving a file. This method is called using a “Keyboard Shortcut”. Toolbars: The buttons on the main “Toolbar” are shortcuts for common file management tasks. The “Status Bar” provides additional information about the buttons and commands in WordPad. status bar and the ruler. save and print your documents using this menu.where you wish to save the file and the name of the file. Select “File → Print” from the menu bar. Each menu has different menu items. Menus: Let us have a brief look at the different menus available on the menu bar. The “Edit” menu is used to perform tasks related to the content of your document such as entering and modifying your data. format bar. Another way is to do this is by directly pressing “Ctrl+P”. open. WordPad includes many features and can be used to create and format large and complex text documents. Because Notepad supports only very basic formatting.txt”. you may want to print a copy of your document. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → WordPad”. A tab stop specifies the place that the cursor stops at when you press the “Tab” key. Make the appropriate selections from the “Print” window and click “Print”. To start WordPad. The “Insert” 22 | P a g e . you cannot accidentally save special formatting in documents that need to remain pure text. Using WordPad Using WordPad: “WordPad” is an application used to create rich text documents. The “View” menu is used to specify whether or not you want to display the toolbar. You can delete tab stops by dragging them off the ruler. A lightweight editor: Notepad is a basic text editor that you can use to create simple documents. This is especially useful when creating HTML documents for a Web page because special characters or other formatting may not appear in your published Web page or may even cause errors. A new blank document is displayed. The buttons on the “Format Bar” are used to change the format of text. The “Ruler” is used to set tab stops by clicking on it where you want a tab stop to appear. The “File” menu is used to perform tasks related to your document as a whole. Click “Save”. Your file is stored with the extension “. You may create. Printing a Document: Now.
Editing text: After you have entered your text. Click the “Color” button and select a color of your choice. with a point equal to about 1/72 inch. you may need to make some modifications. Press “Enter” twice and then use the “Up Arrow” key to move the insertion point up. Entering text: As you type. The two most common means to remove text are to use the “Backspace” key to delete unwanted characters to the left of the insertion point. You may use the “Center” button on the Format Bar to center the title. The “Help” menu contains items through which you can get assistance whenever you require. You can also select the text you want to delete and then press “Delete” to remove it. make the characters larger and display the characters in a color. After looking over the text. 23 | P a g e . You want to center it between the margins. The insertion point is positioned at the top of the document. you first need to select the text you want to format. which refers to the height of the character. A quicker way to select a word is to double-click on it. To select text. The first change you want to make to this document is to add a title. you can click in the left margin of the line to select the entire line quickly. Most documents use a font size of 10 or 12 point. This is called “Editing” text. or the “Delete” key to remove characters to the right. Font size is measured in points. Click at the beginning of your text. Before you can apply the formatting effects.menu is used to insert the date and time and other objects in your document. Since you want to select the entire title. you will make the title text bold and apply a color to it. The title now appears in the selected color. The “Format” menu is used to enhance the appearance of your document content. Finally. Click the “Font Size” drop-down list button on the Format Bar and select the font size you wish. Click the “Bold” button on the Format Bar to add a bold effect. the text automatically moves to the next line when it reaches the right edge of the margin. Now enter the title and press “Enter”. Formatting Text: You decide you want to improve the appearance of the title by applying various formatting effects to the text. ready for you to begin entering text. “Font size” refers to the height and width of printed characters. To further enhance the appearance of the title. drag from one end of the area of text to the other. This feature is called “Word Wrap”. you may decide to remove a word. you would like to increase the font size.
You may undo your actions by selecting “Edit → Undo” from the menu. select “File → Save As…” from the menu. To paste text you have cut or copied. The file name is displayed in the title bar before the program name and the Windows taskbar displays a button for the open application. If you plan to use this file again shortly.rtf”. and then select “Edit → Paste” from the menu. If you want to replace that text with other text enter it in the “Replace with” field. The “Save As” window appears on the screen. select the text. and then select “Edit → Copy” from the menu. Click “Replace” to replace the original text with the new text. Creating a graphic using Paint 24 | P a g e . You may refine your search by checking the boxes against “Match whole word only” to find whole words matching your search criteria and “Match case” to make your search specific to capital and small alphabets. Finding and Replacing Text: To find or replace specific characters. place the insertion point where you want to paste the text. double-click on the file name on the desktop. Copying and Deleting Text: To cut text that you want to move to another location. you can save the file on the desktop using a new file name for easy access. You may click “Replace All” to replace all occurrences of the original text. Your file is stored with the extension “. WordPad in this case. To copy text for writing to another location. and then select “Edit → Cut” from the menu. is started. Notice that this icon does not display the arrow symbol that appears in shortcut icons. Moving. select the text. To save the document. The associated program. select “Edit → Find” or “Edit → Replace” from the menu and specify your search criteria in the “Find what” field.Saving a file to the Desktop: If you like how the document looks then you may save the document. To open this file. Type the desired file name and select “Desktop” as the location to save the file. Then click "Save" to save the file on the desktop. and the file is opened and displayed in the workspace. Let us now see some additional features of WordPad. The document icon for the WordPad file appears on the desktop. This is because the file is actually stored in the desktop folder and the icon is not a shortcut to an object that is in another location.
The mouse pointer appears as a pencil when this tool is selected and you are pointing to the drawing area. Specify the location as “Desktop” and then select the type of file you want to create from the “Save as type” list. the desktop icon displays a blank square. Since the file is blank. Since you want to use Paint to create the graphic. edit the drawing and so on. The “Save As” window is displayed. which is the picture of a palm tree. fill shapes with colors. it changes to a plus (+). The toolbox buttons are used to draw shapes. Paint has many of the same features. When you move the mouse pointer into the drawing area. The tool you select is drawn when you drag or click in the drawing area. menu bar and status bar as you have seen in the other application programs. that you can add to the document you previously created using WordPad. The pre-selected icon is the “Pencil” button. The Paint program also includes a toolbar.bmp”. The “Ellipse” tool creates an ellipse or circular shape. You may wish to create a blank file on the desktop. including a title bar. Displayed at the top of the window is the color box that is used to add color to the graphic. Try to draw a picture of a palm tree. move the pointer to where you want the circle to begin. To start Paint. The text under the icon displays the default icon name "New". you need to draw the plot of grass below the tree. Generally. The Paint program is loaded with the blank file open. To begin drawing. Let us create a logo for your organization. we open the application first. The white area in the workspace is the drawing area where you may create the drawing. A circle or 25 | P a g e . a drawing program that can be used to create and modify graphic images. Now. In this case you will create a blank file called “New” on the desktop using the “24 bit Bitmap” image file type. similar to the one shown above. Select “File → Save”. First. you are ready to open the file and create a graphic. called a toolbox. when we create a file. and then create and save the file. You can tell it is selected because it appears in a box. By default the toolbox is displayed on the left edge of the window. Your file is stored with the extension “. you need to select this application by clicking on the icon on the desktop. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → Paint”.Another application that is included with Windows is “Paint”.
displayed at the bottom of the toolbox. the “select colors area” and the “color palette”. The Airbrush sprays with the foreground color. The first button draws an ellipse with an outline border in the selected fill color without filling the object. you want to create two tree trunks. The color box consists of two areas. called “fill-style” buttons. drag with the right mouse button held down while spraying. right-click in the color palette. This is the default selection and the setting you have used. You need to use the Airbrush tool for this purpose. You may change the foreground color to brown. You may do this by selecting colors from the color box. you may create a custom color. To use the background color. Adding Color: You now want to fill the shape with a green color. The last fill style creates an object without a border using the selected fill color. you can use the Eraser tool to delete the parts of the trunk you may not like. 26 | P a g e . the outline of the shape is created using the foreground color. Using the “Airbrush” Tool: Finally. For this you may need to erase sections of your drawings. You need to delete the oval and replace it with another that contains color.ellipse is created by dragging the mouse until the shape is displayed as you want it to appear. To set the background color. Double-click on a color in the color box. If you select colors before creating a shape. Using the “Brush” Tool: Next. Creating a Custom Color: Since the color selection of green colors on the palette is limited. To clean up the drawing. you want to create the palm fronds. The “Edit Colors” window contains a palette of basic colors. This tool also provides several "spray" shapes. Notice the three additional buttons. The Brush tool creates broad lines of color as you drag. while the inside of the shape is filled with the background color. You have created a simple oval shape with a black outside borderline and white interior. Using different shapes can add interest to the drawing. The eraser uses the background colors. The second button draws an outline border and also fills the object with the selected fill color. The brush applies the foreground color when you drag to create the shape. Using the “Eraser”: You may make mistakes or to not like the appearance of your drawing. You need to use the Brush tool to create the shape and apply the color at the same time.
Drag the mouse to draw the line. Click on the page where you want each new line segment to appear. To draw a square. Click on the page where you want one arc of the curve to be. such as hue and saturation. To draw the polygon. To define a custom color. The green color you selected is the selected color in the “Basic colors” palette. The box below the matrix displays the selected color. click a fill style. Draw a straight line by dragging the pointer. click the “Polygon” icon. The “Save” command saves the document as it appears onscreen to the same file name. Drawing a Rectangle or Square: In the toolbox. Press the “Shift” key while dragging to get a straight line. click the “Line” icon. At the bottom of the toolbox. and then hold down the left mouse button to drag the pointer to adjust the curve. At the bottom of the toolbox. Repeat these steps and double-click when done. Drawing a Straight Line: In the toolbox. click a line width. You can see a small picture of the graphic you created. hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer diagonally in the direction you want. Let us now see some additional features of Paint. click a fill style.many of which are displayed in the color box. Drawing a Polygon: In the toolbox. press the “Shift” key while dragging the pointer. Now you may apply this color to the fronds. At the bottom of the toolbox. Now see the live icon representing your Paint document. Click “Add to Custom Colors” and then click “OK”. associated with the selected color. click the “Curve” icon. At the bottom of the toolbox click a line width. automatically replacing the original contents with the new contents. 27 | P a g e . Drawing a Curved Line: In the toolbox. The custom color automatically becomes the foreground color and replaces the originally selected green. or click the “Rounded Rectangle” to create a round-cornered shape. click the “Rectangle” icon to create a square-cornered shape. To draw a rectangle. Click “Define Custom Colors >>” to display the color area to the right. Release the mouse button and repeat this step for a second arc. This is a color matrix. You can only create two curves for each line. You can also use the slider on the color gradient bar at the right to change the elements. hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer to draw a straight line. Your logo is now ready. you may click anywhere on the matrix.
you need to copy the graphic from Paint and insert it into the WordPad document. These indicate the object is selected and can be manipulated. click the font. Now you are positioned in the document where you want the picture inserted. in this case the entire picture. select “Image → Attributes” from the menu. It is surrounded by a box and eight solid squares called “handles”. Select “Edit → Paste”. 28 | P a g e . you may select the entire drawing area. size and style you require. You will embed the palm tree object in the document. Embedding an Object: You are now ready to insert the picture into the WordPad document. The “Paste” and “Paste Special” commands on the “Edit” menu are used to insert a copy from the Clipboard into a document. To create a text frame. Enter the dimensions you require. You may also resize your picture by dragging the image resize handles that are located at the bottom right corner and along the sides of your picture. You can copy the entire picture or any part of the drawing by selecting an area. On the text toolbar. Changing the Picture Size: To change the size of your picture. The graphic of the palm tree that was stored in the Clipboard is pasted into the document. Contents of the selected area are copied to the Clipboard. To do this. click the “Text” icon. Since the drawing occupies almost the entire space. An object can be inserted into another document by pasting. You can select an item from an open document and copy it to another location in the same or another document. You would like the palm tree picture that is stored in the Clipboard to be centered at the top of the document. This is because the “Center” feature was in effect for the line the insertion point was on when the two new lines were created. linking or embedding it. Copying between Applications Now you can insert the logo of your organization (the palm tree) into your WordPad document. The insertion point appears at the center of the blank line.Typing and Formatting Text: In the toolbox. Click inside the text frame to type text. A dotted line identifies the selected area. hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer diagonally to the size you want. You can adjust the size of any selected object by dragging the handles in the same manner as sizing windows.
You may want to add the company name to the grass area of the graphic. The color that is applied to the text is the foreground color. Paint. the server application is opened within WordPad. To edit an embedded object. When adding text. you are not prompted to save the file before it is closed. because it was the last-used application. Since no changes were made to the file. you may decide you want to add some text inside the graphic. Previewing. You may want to increase the font size to 14 point. and the graphic appears in its own editing window. Printing and Saving Although you still plan to make several formatting changes to the document. Also notice that the title bar still displays "WordPad" and if you scroll down. You now have access to the Paint menu and toolbar so you can edit the object while you are still in the WordPad document.Editing an Embedded Object: After looking at the inserted graphic. The “Print Preview” feature displays each page of your document in a reduced size so you can check the layout. Select “File → Print Preview” from the menu. This allows you to edit the embedded graphic from within WordPad. the text of your document is still displayed. you can also choose a color for the text. containing the palm tree. you first create a box. To save time and unnecessary printing and paper waste. To make the background the same as the grass. it is always a good idea to preview on screen how your document will appear when printed. called a text frame and then type the text inside it. you can always use “Edit → Undo” from the menu and try it again. and the “Fonts” window is displayed. You may verify that the original file created using Paint. has not changed. The text frame displays an insertion point. The Text tool is used to add text to a Paint object. you make the text frame transparent so that the background is visible. This indicates that the Paint program has not been opened a second time in its own application window. WordPad is displayed again. It shows the default type style and size that will be used when you type the text entry. you want to give a copy of the document to a friend to get feedback regarding the content and layout. 29 | P a g e . Notice that there is still only one Paint application button in the taskbar. If you do not like how your text box looks. Before typing the text. you can open the object server by double-clicking on it.
or “/” to divide. Finally. To save the current document. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → Calculator”.The Preview window displays a reduced view of how the current page will appear when printed. Open the folder where you save your files. click “+” to add. Then. 30 | P a g e . subtraction. It performs basic arithmetic. perform the following steps: First. Cleaning up the desktop You have a few files stored on the desktop of your computer. Finally you will remove the shortcut icon. type the next number in the calculation. “*” to multiply. click the “Save” icon on the Toolbar. such as logarithms and factorials. type the first number in the calculation. Type other operators and numbers in the same way. This view allows you to check your page layout before printing. Backspace --> Removes the last digit of the displayed number. as well as functions found on a scientific calculator. such as addition and subtraction. You can print the flyer directly from the Preview window using the “Print” button. The Preview window also includes its own toolbar. click “=” or press the “Enter” key to get your result. Select “View → Refresh” from the menu to refresh the display of the window. The desktop should be cleared of all icons you created and should appear the same as when you started. Double-click the shortcut icon you created to your data location. Using Calculator Using Calculator: “Calculator” is an application which performs functions parallel to a handheld calculator. You may want to clear these from the desktop and move them to the folder where you store your data. multiplication or division. To start Calculator. “-” to subtract. You can now see that the file icons are no longer on the desktop and are now located in the selected folder. Choose “Move Here” from the shortcut menu. Performing a simple calculation: To perform a simple calculation involving addition. The flyer looks good and does not appear to need any further modifications immediately. Right-drag the selected icons to the right pane of the window. The functions of the different buttons on the Calculator are as displayed. After that.
an invoice form. printing etc. Documents that you use often can be saved as templates. Word Processor Applications help you to create different types of written documents such as personal letters. Word Processing Overview of Word Processing What is Word Processing? Typing text using a computer is commonly known as Word Processing. MS --> Stores numbers in the memory. Through a word processor you can create.CE --> Clears the number displayed at that time.org Writer are a few of the popular Word Processors. programming calculations and statistical calculations for averages and standard deviation. Creating and Editing a Document 31 | P a g e . form letters. editing. 1/x --> Calculates the reciprocal of the displayed number. Octal and Binary. you can easily correct errors. Microsoft Word and OpenOffice. M+ --> Adds the displayed number to the memory. MC --> Clears the numbers in the memory. for example. In addition to handling simple calculations. modify. You have a choice of four numbering systems: Hexadecimal. brochures. % --> Calculates percentages. Performing a scientific calculation: Your calculator can be made into a full-functioned scientific calculator. Sqrt --> Calculates the square root of the number on the screen. store. Decimal. The activity of word processing includes typing text using the keyboard and using various facilities of formatting. With a few keystrokes. C --> Clears the entire calculation. select “View → Scientific” from the menu. For this. retrieve and print part or all of a document. faxes and even professional manuals. the Scientific Calculator has complete trigonometrical calculations. MR --> Recalls a number from the memory. move paragraphs and reprint your document.
displaying icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. Microsoft Word contains numerous functions to assist you in creating perfectly styled documents. Undo. you can simply click on it when you need to create a new document. In Word. integrated into it. You can define the structure and appearance of the indexes and tables according to your needs. tables. and Redo. It is designed to put your most commonly used commands in a place where you can always find them. even beyond page limits to create a newspaper format. you can create various indexes and tables in text documents. You can add an icon to the toolbar by just clicking on an icon name. etc. The text frames can be linked anywhere. To add an additional command to the Quick Access toolbar. graphics. 32 | P a g e . click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Word 2007”. such as “New”. This contains commands for opening. saving. a file is called a “document”. and closing a file. from the menu that appears. To start the Microsoft Word application. Once the “New” icon is added. Clicking the Office Button displays the “File” menu. The Quick Access toolbar: This appears to the right of the Office Button near the top of the screen. The User Interface The User Interface is the way in which you interact with your computer. It consists of three main parts: 1) The Office Button 2) The Quick Access toolbar 3) The Ribbon The Office Button: This appears at the top-left corner of your screen. Text can be formatted multi-columnar and have text frames. click the arrow on the right. Word comes with a variety of templates for almost every purpose. Additionally.Introduction to Microsoft Word Microsoft Word is a complete Word Processor Application. You can also create your own templates. Microsoft Word offers a wide variety of options to design documents. printing. The Microsoft Office user interface is uniform across most of its components.
To remove an icon. The “References” tab contains the most common items needed when generating a professional paper.Now. bullets. and track changes. “Cut”. citations. You can see that your chosen icons now appear on the Quick Access toolbar. Click an icon and then click the “Add” button. Click “OK”. styles. and index. The “Clipboard” group in turn has the “Paste”. such as pictures. a “Super-tooltip” is displayed. c) Command buttons in each group that carry out a command or display a menu of commands. When you move your mouse over most command buttons. pages. The “Mailings” tab contains the items needed for a mail merge. The “View” tab contains the view options for the document and is the location of the Switch Windows command to move between files open in that application. the “Home” tab has the “Clipboard”. b) Groups within each tab that break a task into subtasks. For example. and text boxes. You will gradually learn to use the commands on all the tabs. The following Ribbon tabs are displayed in Word: The “Home” tab has common formatting commands. “Font”. “Copy” and “Format Painter” command buttons. thesaurus. It consists of:a) Task-oriented tabs. click “More Commands”. orientation. The Ribbon: The Ribbon is a component of the Office Fluent user interface. and spacing properties. “Styles” and “Editing” groups. The “Review” tab contains spell check. The “Insert” tab contains all items that can be inserted into the file. Under “Choose commands from:” you can see a list of commands that you may add to your Quick Access toolbar. “Paragraph”. table of contents. The “Page Layout” tab contains margin. clip art. and copy/paste. 33 | P a g e . right-click on it and select “Remove from Quick Access Toolbar”. This provides a detailed description of what the button does. including footnotes.
Creating New Documents Let us now learn to effectively use Microsoft Word using the following simple Case Study. You are required to create a document listing the special offers of your company. For this. At the right end of the Ribbon. Access keys: Access keys are another type of keyboard shortcut used to access the Ribbon. When you first launch most of the Microsoft Office applications you’ll find yourself in the Ribbons Home tab. and other things that you see on the screen. To restore the Ribbon. We shall now learn step-bystep. or badges. After you press a key to activate a particular tab. You then see little labels. 34 | P a g e . They relate directly to the tabs. which includes the most commonly-needed commands. When an existing word document is open. right-click any tab and choose the “Minimize the Ribbon” command again. You may use them when you are more familiar with the commands. You first need to press the “Alt” key. When you first start Word. You can hide the Ribbon if you wish to have more space to write. the Microsoft Office Button menu. It is like a blank piece of paper that has certain default settings which are the most commonly used settings. commands. and every access key is assigned a Key Tip. You decide to create a document like the one displayed above. and the Quick Access Toolbar has an access key. groups. how to include all such features into your document. You want your document to be attractive and at the same time informative. The tabs. and command buttons change as you take on various activities. Now click “Create” in the “New Document” window. Every single command on the Ribbon. a new blank document is opened. the badges showing the Key Tips for the commands on that tab appear. to create a new blank document. click the Office Button and select “New”.Equivalent keyboard shortcuts are also displayed if applicable. You are working for Global Tours and Travels. showing the Key Tips for all the tabs. right-click anywhere on the Ribbon and choose “Minimize the Ribbon”. you see a question mark symbol. Clicking this brings up the Help window related to the Office application that you are using.
To insert a blank line. invoice or business letter. You may choose other underline styles and colors by clicking on the arrow to the right of the “Underline” icon. let us use the command buttons on the Ribbon. from the drop-down menu. When text is selected. Press "Enter" once to come to the next line. Similarly. To make existing text bold. click on the “Bold” icon in the “Font” group and begin text entry. a "Mini Toolbar" is automatically displayed. without actually applying it. Setting up the way a page of text will look by entering certain attributes is called “Formatting”. Making text Bold: To enter text with a bold display. For now. On the “Home” tab. Underlining: To underline your text.A “Template” is a pre-designed document designed for common purposes such as a fax. You will be comfortable using it after you are more familiar with the Word application. in the “Font” group. It provides easy access to the most-used formatting commands. Entering and Formatting Text Let us now enter text into a new document. you may change the Font Size. Click on the font you would like. move your mouse over the different fonts displayed. Now type “Come to any of the offices”. Selecting Text: To select a section of text. To make the text appear in italics. select it and then click on the “Bold” icon. To change the color of the text click on the arrow next to the “Font Color” icon and select a color. Type "SPECIAL OFFERS". select it and then click on the “Underline” icon in the “Font” group. Changing the Font: Let us select the text “SPECIAL OFFERS” and change the font. on the “Home” tab. Let us insert some more text. It remains semi-transparent until you move your mouse pointer over it. A “Font” is a design for a set of characters. Justifying Text: 35 | P a g e . press “Enter” once again. The "Live Preview" feature allows you to have a preview of how the selected font would affect the appearance of the text. click the “Italic” icon. You may create a new document using standard templates provided by Word by clicking on a template name in the “New Document” window. click at the point you want to begin and drag your cursor to the right and release it when you have reached the end of the selection.
You may open a recently used document by clicking on the Office Button and then clicking a document name under the list of “Recent Documents” displayed on the right. 1. In the “Paragraph” group. the “Save As” window is displayed. select the file and click “Open”. Moving through Text Moving through text using the Keyboard: You can use the arrow keys and other keys on the keyboard which are shown above to position the cursor at the location you want to type or modify text. click on this button once again. Closing and Opening files Saving Documents: Your file is stored with the extension “. Click the “Line spacing” icon in the “Paragraph” group and make your selection. you may click the Office Button and select “Open”. 3. Align Text Right or Justify. folder and location for the file and then click “Save”. When you save a new file for the first time. Click the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. line breaks. you may click on the “X” shaped icon at the top right corner of the window or use the keyboard shortcut “Alt+F4” to exit the Word application.docx”.Select the text you would like to justify. You may use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+O”. such as paragraph marks. For this. 36 | P a g e . click the Office Button and select “Close” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+W”. Changing Line Spacing: Select the text you would like to change the line spacing for. tab stops and spaces. To remove the display. Click the Office Button and select “Save”. Alternatively. Displaying formatting marks: You can display nonprinting characters in your text. Using the shortcut keys “Ctrl+S”. you may select Align Text Left. There are three ways to save a document. Saving. Closing a File: To close a file. Enter the name. click the “Show/Hide” icon in the “Paragraph” group. Click on Center. Opening Documents: There are many ways in which you can open a document. Center. Alternatively. 2. Then. navigate to the location of your document.
These corrections are effected as you enter your text. The building block is inserted.Moving through text using the Mouse: You can use the mouse to move the insertion point to a specific location in a document. they are replaced by the text “First”. and then click “Save Selection to Quick Part Gallery”. 37 | P a g e . enter a unique name for the building block in the “Name” field. When you type the digit “1” followed by the alphabets “s” and “t”. As it is typed. Using a Building Block: Let us insert this building block into another document. You can see that the “Correct TWo INitial CApitals” option is checked. Click “Gallery” to sort by gallery. type enough so that the name is different from that of any other building block and then press “F3”. Select “AutoText” from the “Gallery” drop-down list. in the “Text” group. Building Blocks: Building Blocks in Word are designed specifically for the addition of frequently used content to your documents. Now try typing the text “HAppy” with two initial capitals. Now click “OK”. On the “AutoCorrect” tab. Using Automatic Editing Features Using AutoCorrect: You may use the numerous features provided by Microsoft Word to automatically correct your document. click “Quick Parts”. In the Create New Building Block window. Creating a Reusable Building Block: Select the text or graphic that you want to store as a reusable building block. in the “Text” group. say “Global Tours Logo”. you may check the boxes against the options you require. On the “Insert” tab. it is shaped as an I-beam. and then click “Word Options”. Begin typing the unique name of the building block you created. Click where you want to insert a building block in the document. Ensure that the box against the option is checked. Click at the point where you wish to position the cursor. Using AutoComplete: Another useful feature is “AutoComplete”. You can even replace some text with alternate text as it is typed using the “Replace text as you type” option. and then click “Building Blocks Organizer”. Click on a building block name and then click “Insert”. click “Quick Parts”. Now enter numeric “1st” in the “Replace” box and alphabetic “First” in the “With” box. On the “Insert” tab. When you can use the mouse to move the insertion point. Click the Office Button. Now click “Proofing” and then click the “AutoCorrect Options” button. you can see that it is corrected.
You may navigate to a specific item in your document. Once you correct the spelling. Click “Close” in the “Find and Replace” window. The green wavy line disappears since the sentence is grammatically correct once again. Click the “Home” tab and select “Find” in the “Editing” group. Your cursor moves to the specified line. Alternatively you may use the scrollbars on the right and bottom of your screen. section. You can also navigate to a specific page. You may also use the “Page Up” and “Page Down” keys on your keyboard. Now enter the sentence “Discounts are available on international tickets” with the word “Discounts” incorrectly spelled. Now remove the word “Discounts” from the sentence.When you begin typing in the name of a month. Navigating a Document There are different ways you can move through your document. Use the Up. You can see that as soon as this word is entered. Down. Use the “Ctrl+Home” keys to go to the beginning of the document and the “Ctrl+End” keys to go to the end. Word automatically finishes the name. On the “Go To” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. To display the line numbers in a document. and then click “Word Options”. If you then press “Enter”. Let us move to a specific line number. footnote. using the “Go To” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. This results in a grammatically incorrect sentence. Let us leave the default settings. click “Line” in the “Go to what” list. Re-enter “Discounts”. such as “January”. Now enter the line number to which you wish to go and click the “Go To” button. click the “Page Layout” tab and select “Line Numbers → Continuous” in the “Page Setup” group. 38 | P a g e . Now click “Proofing” and then check the boxes against the spelling and grammar checks you require. Word brings up a little box above the incomplete word. 4. it is underlined with a red wavy line. 3. Right and Left Arrow keys on your keyboard. endnote etc. Simply click “OK”. the wavy line is removed. a green wavy underline appears. Automatic Spelling and Grammar checking: Click the Office Button. 2. This time. These checks are enforced as you enter your text. Some of them are as follows: 1.
you may select it and press “Delete”. Click the “Picture” icon. Working with graphics Inserting Graphics: You now wish to insert a picture of one of the buses of your company along with your company name. you may decide they are not necessary after all. You can also redo an action that has been undone. To remove individual characters. In the “Insert Picture” dialog box. It is surrounded by eight boxes called “sizing handles”. Select the entire line and press “Delete”. The line is displayed once again. you may press "Delete" for characters to the right of the insertion point and "Backspace" for characters to the left. Selecting and Deleting Text: In order to delete a section of text. specify your picture and its location and click “Insert”. Let us insert a picture from an existing file on the hard disk. Let us first delete a line of text. Undoing and Redoing Editing Changes: After making some changes. click on that line and press “Delete”. To change the size. To move your 39 | P a g e . The picture now appears in your document. For this. The line that was displayed is now deleted. Sizing and Moving Graphics: You may change the graphic that you have inserted in respect of size. To delete a blank line.To remove the display of line numbers. You may select from the various options available in the “Illustrations” group on the “Insert” tab. To delete an entire word. color etc. you may select “Undo” from the Quick Access toolbar or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Z”. Point to a handle and drag with your mouse to the size you require. Now to undo this action. click the “Page Layout” tab and select “Line Numbers → None” in the “Page Setup” group. You can reverse your last action by using the “Undo” command. click on the picture. Editing a Document After entering the text of a document. select “Redo” from the Quick Access Toolbar or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Y”. location. Click at the point where you wish to insert the picture. you may also use "Ctrl+Delete" for words to the right of the insertion point or "Ctrl+Backspace" for words to the left. you would like to proof read it for accuracy and completeness and modify or edit the document as needed.
you may specify whether you wish to print the entire document or a specific part. Let us have a look at few of the basic options you might need to change. The preview size will be adjusted accordingly. Previewing and Printing a Document Previewing a document: It is always a good practice to preview your document onscreen before you print it. To display Multiple Pages. click the “Zoom” icon and select “Many pages”. Printing a document: There are two ways to print a document: 1. Drag the slider to the right or left as required. This is particularly useful for documents which have only a small amount of text on the last page. The Zoom level can be adjusted using the slider at the bottom right of the window. Under “Print Range”. click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”.picture. Use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+P”. To specify the number of pages to view. The “Print” window is displayed. The Print Preview tab appears when you view the current document in the Print Preview mode. In the “Name” field. 40 | P a g e . Default settings are displayed which are normally acceptable. Click the Office Button and select “Print” from the menu. place the cursor on the picture and drag with your mouse to the new location. In the “Number of copies” box. you may specify how many copies of the document you wish to print. you may select the name of the printer on which you wish to print the document. Zoom: The “Zoom” icon can also be used to specify the zoom percentage. Shrink One Page: Click this icon to prevent the document from being printed on an additional page. click on the icon below the “Many pages” button and drag towards the right and down. 2. Two Pages: Click this icon to display two pages in the preview window. One Page: Click this icon to display one page in the preview window. To view a document in the Print Preview mode.
On the “Review” tab. click “OK” to print the document. They are no longer displayed as spelling mistakes. such as proper nouns which are not really errors may be shown as spelling mistakes. You can see that the incorrect spelling has been corrected.Under “Zoom”. in the “Proofing” group. When the checking is completed. Click on the correct spelling and then click “Change”. REVISING AND REFINING A DOCUMENT Revising a Document Spelling and Grammar checking: There are two ways you can do this: 1. You may click “Options” in the “Spelling and Grammar” window to specify the spelling and grammar checks that you require. 2. After you have entered your options. in the “Pages per sheet” box. 1. number of copies and other such things. Use the keyboard shortcut “F7”. 2. you may specify how many pages of your document you want printed on a sheet of paper. There are two ways to start the thesaurus. 41 | P a g e . It lets you print a document with one click but does not offer the flexibility to specify whether to print all or just part of your document. select “Thesaurus”. you are informed accordingly. Some words. On the “Review” tab. Press “Shift+F7”. it determines which words in its dictionary are similarly spelled and displays a list of those words in the “Suggestions” box. with the most likely match highlighted. When the spelling checker encounters a word it doesn’t recognize. select “Spelling & Grammar”. Thesaurus: The “Thesaurus” is a dictionary of synonyms which you can use to find words that are synonymous with a term. in the “Proofing” group. You may add these words to the dictionary by clicking the “Add to Dictionary” button. You may also select “Print→ Quick Print” from the Office Button menu. The “Spelling and Grammar” window appears only when a mistake is found.
On the “Home” tab. Click on the arrow to the right of the search box. On the “Home” tab. Any selected text or objects are replaced by the pasted contents. On the other hand. select “Copy”. in the “Clipboard” group. but any existing clipboard contents are overwritten. You may point to a synonym of your choice and specify the action you wish to perform by viewing the drop-down list. moving it to the clipboard and then pasting it to a location of your choice. 2. in the “Clipboard” group. Select “Copy” to copy the word which can be pasted to another location. You may use any of the following methods for cutting: 1. For this select it and use “Cut” to move the selected section. Select “Thesaurus: English (U. say “Contact”. 2. Copy and Look Up. Paste: This command is used to insert the contents of the clipboard into the document. In the “Search for:” text box. enter your expression. On the “Home” tab.S. The document itself does not change. Select “Look Up” to look up further variations of the selected word. leaving the original location unchanged. You may use any of the following methods for pasting: 1. Moving and Copying Selections Using Copy: Let us select some text for copying to the clipboard. select “Cut”. in the “Clipboard” group. Then press “Ctrl+V” to paste. Press “Ctrl+V”. When you select “Insert”. The contents are inserted at the position of the cursor. Now move lower down in the document and click where you want to place your selection. select “Paste”.You now see a panel on the right. A list of synonymous terms is displayed. Press “Ctrl+X”. You may choose from the options Insert. 2. Using Cut and Paste: You may decide to move a section lower down in your document. the word is inserted at the current cursor position.)” from the dropdown list below. the “Copy-Paste” commands create a copy at the new location. 42 | P a g e . Press “Ctrl+C”. You may use any of the following methods: 1. The “Cut-Paste” commands involve deleting the section from the document.
This becomes the “active” program. Click “Create” in the “New Document” window. you may need to insert Page Breaks just before them so that they start on a new page. Click “Select” in the “Editing group on the “Home” tab. you may use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Enter”. First. To insert a Page Break. point the mouse to it and drag the pointer to the new location by keeping the mouse button pressed. Then. Click “Select All” from the menu displayed. Copying between Documents: The dormant program appears dimmed on the taskbar. Inserting Page Breaks To control document paging so that important titles and headlines appear on the top of the pages. Working with Multiple Documents Opening a Second Document: Save the current document by clicking the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. Move to the new document by clicking on the taskbar. Let us leave our graphic on the first page and display the other text on the next page. Copy the contents by clicking “Copy” in the “Clipboard” group. Finding and Replacing text Finding Text: You may search for a word or phrase in a document. Select “Find” from the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab or press “Ctrl+F” to display the “Find” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. Make it active by clicking on the taskbar. Let us now move the text back to its original location. select the item to be copied or moved. Click “Find Next” once again. say “office” and click “Find Next”. Alternatively. Now open a second Word document by clicking “New” in the Office Button menu. 43 | P a g e . A fixed page break is inserted and the cursor is now at the beginning of the new page. You may now drop the selection by releasing the mouse button. The previous document is the “dormant” program now.Drag and Drop: All Windows applications have the ability to copy or move selections using the “Drag and Drop” feature. The next occurrence of the specified term after the current cursor position is selected. A blank document is displayed in a new window. place the cursor at the point where you want a new page to begin and click “Page Break” in the “Pages” group of the “Insert” tab. Paste the contents by clicking on “Paste” in the “Clipboard” group of the “Home” tab. Enter some text.
If you want the date to be automatically updated when the current date changes. Inserting the Current Date Let us now insert the current date into this document. This function provides many advanced options to help make your search as specific as necessary to find what you are looking for. Replace: You may click this button to replace the next occurrence of the search text by the specified new text. A window appears showing the number of replacements made. On the “Margins” tab. You may click on any of the 44 | P a g e .Finding and Replacing: You may search for a word or phrase in a document and replace it by some other text. Position the cursor above your text and select “Date & Time” from the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. This updating is seen when you next open your document. you may enter your requirements in one or more of the fields. Modifying Page Layout Changing Margin Settings: To set margins. More: You may click this button to specify additional search options. Let us change the left and right margins to 4 inches each. select “Size” from the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. Enter the text you wish to find in the “Find what” field and the text with which you wish to replace it. Select “Replace” from the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab or press “Ctrl+H” to display the “Replace” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. Click “OK”. You can see that your document is displayed with wider side margins. Changing the Orientation: You may orient your document vertically or horizontally by clicking on “Orientation” from the “Page Setup” group of the “Page Layout” tab. select “Margins” from the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. You may click on any of the available options or click “Custom Margins” to enter your own specifications. Entering the Page Size: To set the Page Size. say “new office” in the “Replace with” field. check the “Update automatically” box. Click “Undo” on the Quick Access toolbar to revert to the original margins. Select from the “Portrait” or “Landscape” options. Replace All: You may click this button to replace all occurrences of the search text by the specified new text. Select the format you require.
This brings up the “Paragraph” window. click on the arrow at the bottom right. You can see that this time. On the “Paper” tab. click “Tabs” to display the “Tabs” window. Press “Undo” twice on the Quick Access toolbar to remove these indents. In the “Default tab stops” box. click the “View Ruler” button at the right corner. You can quickly set tabs by clicking the ruler at the location you want your tab stop. If you do not see the horizontal ruler displayed just below the Ribbon.available options or click “More Paper Sizes” to enter your own specifications. you may select the paper size from preset formats like A4. Let us learn to set the position of a tab stop in a blank document. Spacing: You may specify the spacing between paragraphs by adding space above or below selected paragraphs. When more than a single space is required to be inserted between words. Then click on the “Page Layout” tab. it is advisable to use tabs rather than spaces to avoid problems with text alignment. Now enter the text as shown. Click “OK” to save your settings. you may use the “Decrease Indent” and “Increase Indent” icons in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab for indenting your text. In the “Paragraph” group. Select a paragraph of text. Alternatively. enter “2 cm” and click “OK”. Setting Tab Stops: A “Tab Stop” is the amount of spacing that is applied each time you press the “Tab” key. Character Formatting in detail 45 | P a g e . the distance between the words is as per the new tab stops specified. although this method is not as precise. On the “Indents & Spacing” tab. In the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. A5. For this use the “Spacing Before” and “Spacing After” boxes in the “Paragraph” group on the “Page Layout” tab. Now enter the same text pressing the “Tab” key after each word. etc. from the drop-down list. You can see on the ruler that each word appears at a distance of 2 cm from the other. You can also use your mouse to set the tab stops in the “Ruler”. You may also manually set the dimensions you require in the “Width” and “Height” fields. you may specify your indent requirements in the “Indent Left” and “Indent Right” boxes. Paragraph Formatting in detail Indents: Indentation determines the distance of the paragraph from either the left or the right margin. pressing the “Tab” key after each word.
Now to copy the formatting of this text. Simply right-click on the number and select from the options “Restart at”. You may use a bulleted list or a numbered list. Select the text “Time Table”. select it and click on the “Format Painter” icon on the “Home” tab in the “Clipboard” group. Highlighting: Select some text to highlight. You can see that your text is displayed with all capital letters. “Continue Numbering” or “Set Numbering Value”. Giving all this information in a single document will crowd the document. you may decide to go in for a numbered list. continue numbering or even skip some numbers from the previous list used. Numbered List: Alternatively. Let us select “UPPERCASE”. Bulleted lists are normally used to list logically related information. Format Painter: You can copy the formatting applied to a section of text to another section. In that case. A hyperlink is a connection to a location in the current 46 | P a g e . Using Hyperlinks Inserting Hyperlinks: You now want to give information related to the different routes and their timings. Click on the arrow next to the “Text Highlight Color” icon in the “Font” group and select a color. drag it over the text to which you wish to apply the same format. click on the arrow at the bottom right. Bulleted List: Select your text and then click on the arrow next to the “Bullets” icon in the “Paragraph” group of the “Home” tab and select a bullet style. You may select an option from the menu displayed. Now. You may specify effects for your text by checking the boxes against the effects you require on the “Font” tab. Now. Also. You can see that your mouse pointer changes to a paint brush. Numbered lists are normally used to convey a sequence of events. Joining and Separating Numbering: You have the option to restart numbering. This brings up the “Font” window. Creating Lists You may want to display the information about the special offers that you have entered as an itemized list so that it stands out from the rest of the text. in the “Font” group.Changing the capitalization of text: You may change a portion of text in respect of case. Your text now appears as a bulleted list. click on the “Change Case” icon from the “Font” group. Effects: On the “Home tab. let us change the font color of a section of text. click on the arrow next to the “Numbering” icon in the “Paragraph” group of the “Home” tab and select a numbering style. So you may use a “Hyperlink”. This means you may specify which parts you want in capital letters and small letters. the document will lose its clarity regarding the main information that it is meant to convey. First.
You may use the sizing handles to modify the size of the shape. Drag your mouse to create your shape of the size you wish. Under “Stars and Banners” select the “Double Wave” banner. A hyperlink may be in the form of text or a graphic. This document exists in the same folder as your document. In this case. The Print Preview tab appears when you view the current document in the Print Preview mode. another document or to a Web site. Click “OK”. To make this banner more attractive.document. You may format the text by selecting it and using the mini toolbar displayed. click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. Let us add some text to this banner.docx” which contains the complete time table. you can view the time table document. make a selection from the “Shape Style” group. Let us insert a hyperlink to another document called “time_table. When you press the “Ctrl” key and click on this text. Use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+K”. Place the cursor in your document at the point where you wish to insert the hyperlink. Editing while previewing Now you will preview your document to see if any changes are required. Click “Shapes” in the “Illustrations” group on the “Insert” tab to display the various shapes that you can use. Use any of them to display the “Insert Hyperlink” window. You now see that the hyperlink text is underlined.docx”. Right click on the banner and select “Add Text”. 2. You now wish to insert a banner at the bottom of your document. we shall use the text “Time Table” as a hyperlink. 47 | P a g e . Click the “Hyperlink” icon in the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. Because you wish to create a link to another document. right-click on it and select “Remove Hyperlink”. Removing Hyperlinks: To remove the hyperlink while retaining the text. To view a document in the Print Preview mode. Select this text. click “Current Folder” and then click on “time_table. Inserting Shapes Word offers many predefined shapes that you can insert into your document. There are two ways to insert a hyperlink: 1. You may also drag to place the shape at another location. Now enter your text.
click on the “Create from File” tab. a spreadsheet or even another word document into your current document. Different items are indented to represent their level in a document’s structure. Make your changes and then click “Close Print Preview” to close the preview window. This indicates that you can now make changes to the text. Check the box against “Display as icon” if you want to display your object as an icon. Let us insert an existing spreadsheet created using Microsoft Excel. Click “Browse” and navigate to the file you wish to insert. For this. When you wish to edit the document. Check the box against “Link to file” if you want your document to be updated whenever the file containing the inserted object is edited. Click again to see it in a compressed size. You can easily change the level of an item in the hierarchy by simply increasing or decreasing the indent by using the “Tab” or “Backspace” keys respectively. In the “Object” window. Now click “Insert”. in the “Paragraph” group. click the “Multilevel List” icon and select a list style. You see that the object is now a part of your document Using Additional Word Features Creating Multilevel Lists A multilevel list shows the list items at different levels rather than at one level. Use the “Tab” key to go to the next level and “Shift+Tab” to move up one level. Inserting Objects You may insert external objects such as pictures. uncheck the box against the “Magnifier” button in the “Preview” group on the Print Preview tab. On the “Home” tab.When the mouse pointer moves over the document it is shaped as a magnifying glass with a plus sign. You may create a new object to insert or insert an existing one from a file. select “Object” from the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. Click “OK” in the “Object” window. video clips. You may now save your changes. You can edit the object later using the application which created the source file. It makes the hierarchy of items in a document very clear and easy to understand. Now enter your list. Saving to a New Folder 48 | P a g e . The mouse pointer changes to an “I” beam. Creating a multilevel list: Click where you want to begin your list. Click on the page you wish to magnify to see it in normal size.
The red and green wavy lines are no longer displayed. Now click “Proofing”. 3. You can still run spelling and grammar checks manually by using functions like “Spelling & Grammar” on the “Review” tab at any time you wish. They are mostly for words that are not in the dictionary. you will save the multilevel list you have created in a folder on your disk. and then click “Word Options”.Next. Type the name of the new folder in the “Name” field in the “New Folder” window and press “Enter”. The chart displayed in the figure lists the different pointer shapes and formatting that is applied. You will use this folder to hold related files. Hiding Spelling and Grammar When you go through a document. You can create a new folder at the time you save a file. 49 | P a g e . Move the mouse pointer across the page and observe the change in it. As you move the mouse pointer over different areas. you sometimes notice that many spelling and grammar errors are indicated by red and green wavy lines. Your document is now saved in the newly created folder. The steps to save the file are: 1. 2. Press “Save” to save your file with the same name in the new folder. check the boxes against “Hide spelling errors in this document only” and “Hide grammar errors in this document only” and click “OK”. Formatting Documents Automatically There are two ways in which you can format your document automatically. If you wish to change your file name. Enter the appropriate location where you wish to place the file in the “Save in” field. switch to the Print Layout view by selecting “Print Layout” from the “Document Views” group on the “View” tab. The new folder is created as a subfolder in the active directory. Click “New Folder”. At the bottom of the window. the I-beam pointer displays an icon indicating the formatting that will be applied when you double-click at that location. You may turn off the display of these errors if you do not wish to be distracted as you work. make appropriate changes in the “File name” field and then click “Save”. Click the Office button and select “Save As”. Click the Office Button. Using Click and Type: On a new blank page.
in the “Table of Contents” group. This style is now applied to your selected text. Click on the “Table of Contents” tab. Place the cursor at the beginning of the document. You can now see “Region 3” in the table of contents. You may enter your specifications here. avoiding the need to enter blank lines. Select the main heading. Click on a style to apply it to the selected text. This makes your document attractive as well as clear. Let us create a Table of Contents for the document you created in the previous assignment. To see the complete list of styles click on the arrow at the bottom of the “Styles” group. For now. Your table of contents is ready. select “Table of Contents”. you may apply styles “Heading2” and “Heading3” to subsequent heading levels. On the “Home” tab. let us apply different styles to different heading levels. graphics or other items in a blank area of a document. Formatting a Document Section 50 | P a g e . You may choose to update page numbers only or the entire table. in the “Table of Contents” group. The “Table of Contents” window appears. Updating the Table of Contents Updating the Table of Contents: You may introduce new headings or move certain information to another page in your document at a later stage. select “Update Table”. Simply click “OK”. It shows you at a glance. In the document displayed. Creating a Table of Contents A Table of Contents is a listing of the topics that appear in a document with their associated page references. On the “References” tab. You may now press the “Ctrl” key and click on any heading to move to the related content in your document. in the “Styles” group select the “Heading1” style. You can see in the displayed document that “Region 3” is not displayed in the table of contents. Select “Update entire table” and click “OK”. You would need to update your table of contents. Click “Insert Table of Contents” at the bottom of the window that comes up. A particular style can be applied to a heading or any other text to improve its appearance or make it stand out clearly. Similarly.You can use this method to quickly insert text. You can now enter text which will be formatted as per the pointer shape. the topics that are included in the document and makes it easier to locate information. Doubleclick at the center of the document. it is best to use the default settings. On the “References” tab. Applying Styles: This is the second way in which you can format your document automatically. The “Update Table of Contents” window is displayed.
Endnotes: You may insert endnotes in the same way using the “Insert Endnote” button in the “Footnotes” group on the “References” tab. “Next Page” moves the section to the new page.You may need to apply specific formatting to only a part of your document. You may make changes to your footnotes and endnotes in respect of numbering. Deleting a Footnote or Endnote: When you want to delete a note. Select “Insert Footnote” from the “Footnotes” group on the “References” tab. select “Breaks” from the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. Position your cursor before the first point. ensure that “This section” is selected in the “Apply to” field. Click “OK”. Formatting a section: Let us now make some changes to the section that you have created. To insert a section in your document. location and format by clicking on the arrow at the bottom right of the “Footnotes” group. To do so. or provide references for text in a document. Sometimes. “Odd Page” or “Even Page” starts the section on the next odd or even numbered page. Deleting the text in the note does not delete the note. Let us consider the document we had created earlier. Let us select “Continuous”. position your cursor at the text you want the footnote to appear. you can create sections within the document and apply the formatting to the required section. comment on. right-click the footnote and select “Go to Footnote” to take you back to the insertion point in the main body so you can continue working on your document. A footnote or an endnote consists of two linked parts — the note reference mark and the corresponding note text. simply delete the note reference mark in the document window. Type your footnote. “Continuous” creates the section at the cursor position. meanings of difficult words are given in the form of footnotes. Footnotes appear at the end of each page and endnotes appear at the end of the document. Click on the arrow at the bottom right of the “Page Setup” group. You can see that the text in the section after the cursor position gets indented as per the new left margin. A reference mark is inserted at the point you selected and you are taken to the bottom of the page. Using Footnotes and Endnotes Footnotes or Endnotes are used to explain. In the “Page Setup” window. When you are done. Inserting a Footnote: To insert a footnote. select the type of section break you wish. change the left margin to “5”. Under “Section Breaks”. Adding Bookmarks 51 | P a g e . Under “Preview”.
You must now add a caption to this figure. check the box against “Show bookmarks” and click “OK”. If you have assigned a bookmark to a location. You can define the wrapping style around an object. If you have assigned a bookmark to an item. It identifies a location in the document or a selection of text that you name for future reference. you may need to change the position of a graphic. Click on the figure you want to refer to. references allow you to move within a document. You can also set cross-references to the captions of charts and tables. Deleting a Bookmark: To delete a bookmark. the bookmark appears as an Ibeam. in the “Arrange” group. but not among multiple documents. Adding a Bookmark: You now wish to insert a bookmark before the text “Contact Us”. You first must define a reference target for the cross-reference. Under “Show document content”. the bookmark appears in brackets on the screen. Clicking on the reference takes you to the referred location in the document. Move your mouse over the various options under “With Text Wrapping” and click on your choice. Click before this text. Wrapping text around graphics: To change the way text wraps around the picture. select “Position”. Click on the bookmark and then click “Delete”.A Bookmark is used to mark a certain location in a document. Referencing Figures Setting References: A cross-reference is a reference from one part of a document to related information in another part. click on it and then click on the “Format” tab under “Picture Tools”. Under “Picture Tools”. Then select “Bookmark” from the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. and then click “Word Options”. Select “Text Wrapping” in the “Arrange” group and choose a suitable option from the ones displayed. enter a name for your bookmark and click “Add”. on the “Format” tab. Now click “Advanced”. In the “Bookmark” window. drawing or object in your document or type some text around it. Your cursor now moves to the bookmark location. select “Bookmark” from the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. Select “Insert Caption” from 52 | P a g e . This caption will be used for reference. Formatting Picture Layout Sometimes. Changing the Object Position: Click on the picture. In contrast to hyperlinks. Click “Close” in the “Bookmark” window. Your text now appears by the side of the picture. Moving to a specific bookmark: Select “Bookmark” from the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. Click on the bookmark and then click “Go To”. Showing Bookmarks: Click the Office Button.
select “Insert Above” to insert a row above the current row. Moving a table: To move your table. Enter your text. see “. Select “Insert Below” to insert a row below the current row. In the “Caption” window. You may drag with your mouse to specify the dimensions of the table or click “Insert Table”. You see that the data has been moved to the right and a new blank column has been inserted. Press “Tab” to move to the next cell. Now let us insert a cross-reference for this reference. You may now press the “Ctrl” key and click on the caption to see the captioned picture. In the “Insert Table” window. To insert multiple rows or columns. select “Figure” as “Reference type” and “Entire Caption” as “Insert reference to” from the respective drop-down lists. Select “Cross-reference” from the “Captions” group on the “References” tab. Under “For which caption:” click on the appropriate caption and then click “Insert”. select the position of the caption and press “OK”. Inserting a Table: To insert a table. In the “Insert Cells” window. Inserting additional rows and columns: To insert additional rows or columns at a later stage. In the “Rows & Columns” group. click in the table. In the “Cross-reference” window. Now click “Close”. Sizing a table: To quickly change the overall table size. This displays the caption near your text. enter your caption. place the cursor on the top left corner and drag with your mouse to the new location. Entering data: Click on a cell and enter your data. Click “OK”. Creating a Simple Table A table is used to organize information into an easy-to-read format of horizontal rows and vertical columns. Similarly. Your table is displayed on the screen. Click on the arrow at the bottom right of the “Rows & Columns” group. drag the resize handle at the bottom right corner of the table to an appropriate location.the “Captions” group on the “References” tab. 53 | P a g e . Under “Table Tools”. enter the Table size in respect of number of rows and columns. select “Shift Cells Right” and click “OK”.This handle appears whenever the mouse pointer rests over the table. We have created a table with 2 rows and 5 columns. “Insert Left” inserts a column to the left and “Insert Right” inserts a column to the right. select “Table” in the “Tables” group on the “Insert tab. Select some cells which you would like to shift. Position your cursor at an appropriate location. say “For your information. Shifting Cells: You may shift a few cells or a complete row or column. select the same number of rows or columns required to be inserted and then click on the appropriate icon. click on the “Layout” tab.
Click in the table. you may select the options that you want. Move the pointer over the table until you see a four headed arrow at the top left corner. Sorting a List: The “Sort” feature and various sorting options can also be used for non-tabled text. data or numbers according to specified criteria in ascending or descending order. click the arrow next to the “Borders” icon and select “Borders and Shading”. patterns. Inserting Headers and Footers Headers and footers provide information that typically appears at the top and bottom of each page in a document and helps the reader to locate information in a document. Click it to select the table. In the window that comes up. Click in the table. Let us center the text in the first column of the table displayed. on the “Layout” tab. click “Sort”. In the “Table Styles” group.Formatting a table: This is similar to formatting a document. and use the different formatting options from the “Home” tab. borders and alignment settings. colors. click the “Design” tab. in the “Data” group. Now. click the “Design” tab. Under “Table Tools”. click on your choice in the “Style” box. except that the formatting affects the selected cells only. For this click on the arrow next to the “Borders” icon and select “No Border”. 54 | P a g e . Under “Table Tools”. In the “Sort” window. Sorting Data Word can quickly sort text. you may make your selection. You can see that the data in the table is now sorted by Coach Number. Let us sort data contained in the time table document displayed. For now. In the “Table Styles” group. In the “Table” group. and then click “Select Table”. Under “Table Tools”. Now let us remove the borders of the table. let us leave the default options in the “Sort Text” window unchanged. Let us let the displayed field “Coach Number” remain as the field to sort by. Simply click “OK” to see a sorted list. select the text and then click the “Sort” icon in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. The same header and footer can be used throughout the document or different ones can be used in different sections. click the Layout tab. You may select the cells. Using table Styles: A quicker way of applying formats to a table automatically is to use the Table Styles offered by Word. click “Select”. For this. The available auto formats consist of a combination of fonts. Click “OK”. under “Table Tools”. Inserting a Header: Let us now add a header to the document you created previously. Select the first column and click the “Center” icon in the “Paragraph” group Borders: You may specify the border style for your table.
Now click “Close Header and Footer” on the “Design” tab under “Header & Footer Tools”. Enter the words “Style” and “Economy” in the second and third placeholders in the same way. You can see the words “East” and “West” highlighted as well. Inserting the Page Number: You may insert the page number and the total number of pages in your document on every page of your document at a position of your choice. Click on the first one. The footer area becomes active. Now click “Advanced”. Click the “Spelling & Grammar” icon in the “Proofing” group on the “Review” tab. if any. scroll down and click on “Bold Numbers 3”. check the boxes against “Keep track of formatting” and “Mark formatting inconsistencies” and then click “OK”. Click “Close Header and Footer” on the “Design” tab. inserting the page number at the top of the page overwrites a previously inserted header. Now. Select “Footer” in the “Header & Footer” group on the “Insert” tab and select the style “Blank (Three Columns)”. You may recall that you 55 | P a g e . Now click on “Bottom of Page”. For this. you may like to check it in respect of spelling and grammar as well as formatting consistency. Similarly. It identifies different formatting schemes that are very similar to each other. This is because all three words have been entered by applying a specific style. right-click on it and select “Styles → Select Text with Similar Formatting”.Select “Header” in the “Header & Footer” group on the “Insert” tab. From the list displayed. if any. You now see the page number and number of pages displayed at the bottom right of the page. Inserting the page number at the bottom of the page overwrites a previously inserted footer. Now click “Close Header and Footer” on the “Design” tab and scroll down to see your footer. select “Page Number” in the “Header & Footer” group on the “Insert” tab. In the document displayed. If the Format Consistency Checker finds at least two instances of a scheme that are identical. Under “Editing options”. Inserting a Footer: You may insert a “Footer” in the same way as the header. special terms and abbreviations. Respond appropriately to any other located errors. Press the “Tab” key twice and enter the name of your company in the header area. Click in the first placeholder and enter the word “Comfort”. Checking Formatting Inconsistencies: To turn on this feature. Checking the document After your document is ready. A list of header styles is displayed. and then click “Word Options”. it offers you the opportunity to make all similar formatting schemes identical to the format scheme that occurs most frequently. Word indicates formatting inconsistencies with a blue wavy underline. Choose “Ignore All” for all proper names. select the word “North”. The header area becomes active. click the Office Button.
In a newsletter. The “Print” window is displayed. You may click on the number of columns you require. You may choose to ignore or remove the inconsistency from the different options displayed. Changing the Display of the Document Creating Newsletter Style Columns A newsletter is a common application for newspaper columns. If you want. you need to click the Office Button and select “Print” from the menu. by using the format “3-6. Select the text that you wish to display in columnar format. Click “OK” to print your document. the word “South” has been entered using the size and font of an existing style without applying the style. In the document displayed. select “All” to print the entire document. you may use either the “Current page” or “Pages” option under “Print Range”. use the format “3-6”. Selection: You may use this option to print only the selected areas or objects in the current document. Your text is displayed in columnar format. Under “Print Range”. Then. Click “OK”. You may apply these column settings to the whole or part of the document. To print a range of pages.learnt about applying styles in the assignment titled “Formatting Documents Automatically”. Let us select “Two” as the number of columns under “Presets”. Printing Selected Pages You know that to print a document. The default column style is one column across the full width of the page. To print only selected pages in your document. Right click on this underline to display formatting suggestions. To print single pages. Click “More Columns” to display the “Columns” window. Using Word Art 56 | P a g e . 8. 9. use the format “7. narrow columns help the reader read the articles more quickly. select “Columns” in the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. You may select other settings for the size and display of the columns under “Width and spacing”. 11”. 10. you can print a combination of page ranges and single pages. 12”. Pages: You may use this option to print only the pages that you specify in the “Pages” field.
Click on a style. On the “Format” tab. you may enhance your WordArt text. The “WordArt Gallery” is displayed. You can see that your text has been adjusted accordingly.WordArt is used to enhance your documents by changing the shape of text and adding special effects such as 3-D and shadows. Select the first letter “C” from the list of offers. Click on “Dropped” under “Position”. covering several lines. Then set the “Lines to drop” field as “2”. Click on the “Format” tab under “WordArt Tools” to modify the WordArt as per your requirements. Let us use a drop cap in our document. font size and font style if you wish. click on the left side of the displayed box. select “Symbol” in the “Symbols” group on the “Insert” tab. click “3-D Effects” once again and click the appropriate “Tilt” button on the right side of the displayed box. Then click “OK”. To select an effect. Leave them unchanged for now. Click “More Symbols” to display the “Symbol” window. Using Mail Merge Using Mail Merge The Mail Merge feature combines a list of data. On the “Insert” tab. Click “Drop Cap Options” to display the “Drop Cap” window. On the “Symbols” tab. You may also specify the font and the distance of the drop cap from your text. Select the text “Special Offers”. click “3-D Effects”. Then select “Drop Cap” in the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. Inserting Symbols To insert Symbols or Special Characters in your document. Now select “Tight”. Let us use WordArt to enhance the heading of the document created. Spacing: To modify the spacing between the characters of the WordArt. Then click “Close”. The symbol is inserted at the current cursor position. typically a file of names and addresses with a document to create new documents. in the “Text” group. The names and 57 | P a g e . Click “OK” to display the drop cap in your document. click on “Spacing” in the “Text” group. The “Edit WordArt Text” window is displayed. Adding a Drop Cap Drop caps are the first character/s at the beginning of a paragraph that are enlarged. In this way. 3-D Effects: You may apply 3-D effects to your WordArt text. click on a symbol of your choice and click “Insert”. You may change the font. select “WordArt”. To change the direction of the 3-D effect.
The result is a personalized letter. Now. First Name and Last Name of the first person. Starting the Wizard: Select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. Selecting the starting document: Now. you want to create labels for the envelopes. 58 | P a g e . Click after the word "Dear". since you are ready with your letter. Click "OK" in the "Mail Merge Recipients" window. A personal touch can be added by addressing each person by his individual name at the top of the document. you may add the items that you wish to be incorporated in it. Click "Next". Click "New Entry" to add subsequent entries. then on "Insert". The "Save Address List" window appears. We are now ready to insert the field names. select "Use the current document". Click "Next" to complete the merge. Enter your file name. Click "More items" to display the "Insert Merge Field" window. Previewing Letters: You now see a preview of the letter to the first person on your list. The "New Address List" window is displayed. Printing or Editing Letters: You may now click "Print" to print your letters or click "Edit individual letters" to make changes to any letter. Now click "Close". your letters to everyone are ready. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. You see that the field names are now inserted in your document. say "List1" and click "Save". enter the fields First Name and Last Name. Select "Type a new list" and then click "Create". You may make your selections from the windows that are displayed. click "OK". This is very simple using Word’s Mail Merge feature. Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. Let us add the text at the beginning of our document as shown. A wizard guides you and in a few steps. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". Inserting Fields: Now. Click on Title. Enter a space. After you are done.addresses are entered (merged) into the document in the blank spaces provided. Printing Mailing Labels Now that your letters are ready. click "Next" Creating a List: Let us create a list of people we wish to send our document to. Make sure to insert a space between each field. Set the document type to "Letters" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. Enter the Title. Use the right and left arrows to preview letters to the others. You wish to mail your document about special offers to a large number of people. Similarly.
Inserting Fields: Now. then on "Insert". Let us now include address details. Address Line 2 and City. Set the document type to "Labels" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. Click on the Title field. For now. Press “Enter” after the Last Name field to bring the Address Line 1 to the next line. Printing or Editing Labels: You may now click "Print" to print your labels or click "Edit individual labels" to make changes to any label. you may add the names and address details on the labels. you may select the type of printer. Use the right and left arrows to move between labels. The "Label Options" window is displayed. Selecting Recipients: You have a list of people you wish to send your document to. Arranging Fields: Let us now arrange the fields. Now click "Label options". Last Name. Click on the name of the list in the box at the bottom and then click "Edit". click "OK". enter the fields First Name. Then insert a space before each field in the first line. the type of label product.Starting the Wizard: In a new blank Word document. Replicating Labels: You may copy the layout of the first label to the other labels. Click "Update all labels". Click "More items" to display the "Insert Merge Field" window. Preparing and Printing Envelopes 59 | P a g e . Click "Next". Then click "Next". Similarly. navigate to the location of your list. Similarly. In the "Select Data Source" window. select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. Now click “Close”. Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. Now click “OK” and then click "Next". Enter the Address Line 1. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". After you are done. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. select “Formtec” in the “Label vendors” box and "Formtec AT-7210" under Product Number and click "OK". Click on your list "List1" in the appropriate location and then click "Open". Address Line 2 and City fields for all the people in the list. Click "Next" to complete the merge. and the product number. Click “Yes” to confirm the address details in the window that comes up. The default location is the sub folder “My Data Sources” in the “Documents” folder. Previewing Labels: You now see a preview of the labels. move the Address Line 2 and City fields to the following lines. The "Mail Merge Recipients" window is displayed. Here. Select "Use an existing list" and then click "Browse". You see that the field names are inserted in your document. Address Line 1.
Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. Now click "Envelope options". In the "Select Data Source" window. select an appropriate Envelope size and click "OK". You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. Select "Use an existing list" and then click "Browse". For now. Un-check the boxes in front of the names for which you do not want envelopes and then click "OK". Let us make envelopes for some of them. Click "Next" to complete the merge. In the “Insert Address Block” window. For this. click on "List1" and then click "Open". Selecting Recipients: You already have a list of people. as you did for labels. The "Envelope Options" window is displayed. You can use the Mail Merge task pane to create a group email distribution. Merging for sending E-mails using Outlook You may also want to e-mail your document so as to reach out to a larger number of people. This directly inserts all address fields on your envelope. select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. Use the right and left arrows to preview other envelopes. Now click "Next". Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. such as Microsoft Outlook. simply click “OK”. Starting the Wizard: Select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. Click “Next”. Previewing Envelopes: You now see a preview of the first envelope. 60 | P a g e . you may want to quickly address a single envelope instead of printing and pasting a label. your system must include a compatible e-mail program.Sometimes. You may use "More items" to insert any individual items you wish. Click "Address block". you make changes as required. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". Set the document type to " Envelopes" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. browse to the location of your list. Starting the Wizard: In a new blank Word document. Arranging your envelope: Let us use the "Address block" feature. Set the document type to "E-mail messages" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. Printing or Editing Envelopes: You may now click "Print" to print your envelopes or click "Edit individual envelopes" to make changes to any envelope. You may specify different settings related to the appearance and printing of the envelope on the "Envelope options" and "Printing options" tabs. The "Mail Merge Recipients" window is displayed. click "Next". Now. On the "Envelope options" tab.
under “Templates”. A new document is displayed with pre-defined settings. Now click "Close". Brochures and Reports. Now. browse to the location of your list. Then. 61 | P a g e . In the "Mail format" field. Under "Send records”. You may use any of the standard templates provided by Microsoft Word for your document such as Resumes. Let us use this list. In the "Mail Merge Recipients" window. Previewing your messages: You now see a preview of the first e-mail message. then on "Insert". Adding details: Just click on the parts marked in square brackets and enter your details. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. Using Standard Templates Using a Template from Word Every Microsoft Word document is based on a template. Click "More items" to display the "Insert Merge Field" window. In the "To" field. The "Merge to E-mail" window is displayed. A template determines the basic structure for a document and contains document settings such as fonts. Inserting Fields: Now. Now click "Next". You may make changes if required. Use the right and left arrows to preview other messages. you may add the items that you wish to be incorporated in it. click "Next". select the records you want to merge. Click the Office Button and select “New” from the menu. Just ensure that you have entered the e-mail addresses of the people on the list. click on "List1" and then click "Open". page layout. special formatting and styles. Selecting the Template type: Click on the “Equity Letter” template and then press the “Create” button. Click after the word "Dear". Then click "OK". Selecting Recipients: You already have a list of people. click “Installed Templates” to see a list of templates. Enter a space. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". key assignments. Let us create a new document based on an existing template. Select "Use an existing list" and then click "Browse". In the "Subject line" field. In the right left panel. click "OK". Click on First Name. type the subject line you want to use for all the messages. verify that "Email_Address" is displayed. Sending mails: You may now click "Electronic Mail" to send your e-mails. Replace body text with your own text. select "Use the current document". click "Next". Click "Next" to complete the merge. select the mail format you want to use.Selecting the starting document: Now. since you are ready with your message. menus. In the "Select Data Source" window.
click “Control Panel Home”. click “OK” in the “Regional and Language Options” window. click “Change keyboards or other input methods” under “Clock. You can see that your text appears in the new language. In the box at the bottom. In the “Add Input Language” window. and Region” option of the “Control Panel”. If you see the “Classic View” displayed. Your document is created based on the template you selected. Click “Add” to add a new language. To exit the Word application. before you can start using some languages on your computer. Click on the “Start” button. Now click “Change keyboards”. you see a list of languages that Windows Vista has been configured to use. Now. Now start typing your text. let us add the Arabic language as an example. click the Office Button and then click the “Exit Word” button at the bottom right. enter “Special Package” in the “File name” field and click “Save”. Now click “Word Document”. the box at the top displays the default input language. Language.Saving the document: You may save this file just like a normal document. Now click on the plus sign in front of the word “Keyboard” displayed below it. Click on the “Arabic” language in the window that comes up. Using a Configured Language in Word Start the Microsoft Word application. Now. In the “General” tab of the “Text Services and Input Languages” window. Then click “Control Panel”. Language. You can do this by configuring the language settings in the “Clock. Currently the school records are maintained on paper 62 | P a g e . Finally. Hence. In the “Save As” window. and Region” This displays the “Keyboards and Languages” tab of the “Regional and Language Options” window. Word Processing in Other Languages Language Settings in Windows Vista Setting a language for the Windows Vista operating system: By default Windows Vista does not support entry in certain languages. click “Apply” and then “OK” in the “Text Services and Input Languages” window. SPREADSHEET Overview of Excel Introduction You have recently accepted a new job as an Administrative Assistant with All Saints High School. Click on the plus sign in front of “Arabic (Saudi Arabia)”. Click on the “EN” icon on the taskbar. Click the Office Button and click on the arrow next to “Save As”. you must configure Windows Vista to be able to use fonts specific to those languages. Check the box next to the first keyboard type and click “OK”.
A spreadsheet is like an accountant’s ledger. The school has purchased new computers and it plans to computerize all administrative operations.It is a general purpose electronic spreadsheet used to organize. it still takes time to manually leaf through the folders to locate the information you need.You can create charts to represent data more effectively. You are responsible for maintaining the exam records of all students. new data can be added. calculate and analyze data. Although the information is well organized. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Excel 2007”. .forms and stored in file cabinets organized alphabetically. . change. An electronic spreadsheet or worksheet is made up of rows and columns.You can create well-designed spreadsheets that produce accurate and professional-looking results. It is mainly used for different type of calculations varying from very simple to complex. This data can be edited. consisting of rows and columns. since you can add.All data is stored in the computer. and unwanted data can be deleted. You will prepare the Exam Record of students in Microsoft Excel 2007. and is part of the Microsoft Office suite. The Microsoft Office user interface is uniform across most of its components. The User Interface The User Interface is the way in which you interact with your computer. filled with numerical or textual data. . Features of Microsoft Excel 2007 Features of Microsoft Excel 2007: . whole or part of the spreadsheet can be printed. It consists of three main parts: 1) The Office Button 2) The Quick Access toolbar 3) The Ribbon 63 | P a g e . update and delete data with a few keystrokes.It is very easy to manage. Whenever a hard copy is required. therefore there is no paper used. To start the Microsoft Excel application. . Microsoft Excel is the world’s most widely-used spreadsheet program.
The Quick Access toolbar: This appears to the right of the Office Button near the top of the screen. please refer to the following: Topic: Word Processing Lab: Creating and Editing a Document 64 | P a g e . printing. formatting your data. You will gradually learn to use the commands on all the tabs. It also includes tools for dealing with large amounts of information. paper orientation. The “Review” tab contains proofing tools like spell check. and other page settings. The Ribbon: The Ribbon is a component of the Office Fluent user interface. filtering. charts. displaying icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. like sorting. and grouping. like those for cutting and pasting information. The following Ribbon tabs are displayed in Excel: The “Home” tab has some of the most commonly used buttons. The “Formulas” tab helps you build useful formulas that can resolve a great deal of problems. It also has buttons that let you add comments to a worksheet and manage revisions. and searching for important pieces of information with search tools. The “Insert” tab lets you add special ingredients like tables. and hyperlinks. The “Data” tab lets you get information from an outside source for analysis. Clicking the Office Button displays the “File” menu. and closing a file. You can specify margins. c) Command buttons in each group that carry out a command or display a menu of commands. For more details on the Microsoft Office User Interface. It is designed to put your most commonly used commands in a place where you can always find them. This contains commands for opening. and Redo. It consists of:a) Task-oriented tabs. Undo. It also enables you to view several separate Excel spreadsheet files at the same time. graphics.The Office Button: This appears at the top-left corner of your screen. The “Page Layout” tab helps you in getting your worksheet ready for the printer. b) Groups within each tab that break a task into subtasks. saving. The “View” tab lets you select from a variety of viewing options.
the reference or address of the active cell appears in the Name Box. To enter data in a cell. Each cell has its own address called the cell address. Suppose you want to refer to a cell in the third row and fifth column.… AA. B. up or down. 65 | P a g e .576 rows by 16.Assignment: The User Interface Workbooks and Worksheets In Microsoft Excel 2007. Microsoft Office Excel 2007 supports up to 1 million rows and 16 thousand columns per worksheet. Cell address: The address of a cell is made up of two parts – the column name and the row number. Each worksheet can be used to organize different types of related information. The intersection of a row and a column is called a cell.… XFD and the rows are numbered from one onwards. the Excel 2007 grid is 1.048. Specifically. The simplest way is to click the cell that you want to activate with the mouse. C. As you move from one cell to another.The number of the third row is obviously 3 and the name of the fifth column is E.384 columns which works out to more than 17 billion cells. Excel also calculates workbooks each time they are opened. It contains a collection of one or more worksheets and. Navigating the Excel Worksheet There are several methods for navigating a worksheet. To view the part of the worksheet that is currently not visible. you need to click the worksheet tabs. a single file or document is called a workbook. use the vertical scroll bar on the right edge of the window or horizontal scroll bar at the bottom of the window. BA. By default. At the bottom of the workbook window are tabs that give you instant access to other worksheets in the workbook. optionally. AB. the address of that cell will be E3. A special feature of Excel is “AutoCalculate”. To enable you to explore massive amounts of data in worksheets. chart sheets containing graphic pictures of your worksheet data. To move among the worksheets in your workbook. BB. Microsoft Excel automatically recalculates formulas when the cells that the formula depends on have changed. right. The worksheet is divided into a grid of rows and columns. you must first move to the cell. The columns are named as A. There are some keyboard shortcuts to navigate within the worksheet. You can use the arrow keys to move left. …AZ.
To select a group of cells.Page Up and Page Down keys can be used to move up or down one screen .xltx”.. For example a Sales Report. A template file has an extension “. A template is a file that is provided by the application in a “ready to use” form. you can enter data in it. The cell pointer will move down one row. Balance Sheet. the same default settings are used. Click the Office Button and select “New”. Expense Statement. CREATING AND EDITING Creating a New Workbook When you first start Excel.Use the Home key to move to column A of the current row . Whenever you create a new workbook using a template. Continue typing the data in column A as shown in the accompanying figure. Click in cell A1 to activate it and type ‘Roll_No’ and press “Enter” to complete the entry. Template: You may also create a new workbook using a template. 66 | P a g e . click in the cell you want to begin. To activate a particular cell. move to a cell where you want to enter data and type the entry using the keyboard. When you finish entering data in one column. a new blank Excel workbook is opened.“Ctrl+End” to go to the cell in the last row and last column that contains data. There is another way to create a new blank worksheet. Now click “Create” in the “New Workbook” window. To enter data. activate cell B1 and repeat the same procedure as you did for column A. Entering and Editing Data After you are presented with a blank worksheet. It includes predefined settings that can be used as a pattern to create many different types of workbooks. use the F5 function key or press “Ctrl+G”. etc. Type the address of the cell you want to make active and click “OK”. It is here that you will be entering the data. drag your cursor and release it when you have reached the end of the selection.Use “Ctrl+Home” to go the cell A1 and . You can also design and create your own workbook templates.
Correcting typing mistakes: While entering the data. The shape of the cursor will change to a double sided arrow pointing to the right and left. Now move the cursor to the point at which you want to edit the text. Changing Column Width Now you will adjust the width of the column B. Move the mouse to the boundary between column B and column C in the bar where column names are given on top. Below the Ribbon. instead of editing directly in your worksheet. To adjust the height of the formula box. You may make the changes you require. you will see that the data overflows into the next column. Click the checkmark to confirm your entry. Place the mouse on the boundary between the columns. You may wish to change only a part of the text in a cell. Enter data in all five columns as shown. The “Delete” key on the keyboard can be used to clear the contents of a cell. To overwrite the contents of a cell simply make the cell active and type whatever you want to. This is particularly useful when a cell contains a large amount of information. To accommodate long names. The width of the column will be automatically adjusted to the maximum length of characters in the column. To remove individual characters. a checkmark and an "X" icon appear just to the left of the box. Resizing the Formula or Name Box: To make it easier to view and edit a large amount of text in a cell. move your mouse over the bottom of the formula box until the pointer changes to a vertical twoheaded arrow and then drag with your mouse to where you want it. use the “Backspace” key on the keyboard to erase the wrong character typed and continue typing. When the cursor 67 | P a g e . you see the Name Box on the left and the Formula Bar on the right. For this. You can also click and drag the mouse to adjust the width of the column.While entering the data in the “Name” column. To adjust the width of the name box move your mouse between the name box and the formula box until the pointer changes to a horizontal two-headed arrow and then drag with your mouse to where you want it. you can also resize the name box. how to adjust the column width. or "X" to roll it back. Leave it as it is for now. When you start typing in the formula box. that is. column C. double-click on the cell. We will see later on. if you make a typing mistake. You can use the formula bar to enter and edit data. you can adjust the size of the formula box in the formula bar. press "Delete" for characters to the right of the insertion point and "Backspace" for characters to the left. Double click on the boundary while the cursor is a double sided arrow.
Select the data from the cells to be moved and then select “Cut” in the “Clipboard” 68 | P a g e . You can also specify the width of the column by clicking on a column and selecting “Format → Column Width” in the “Cells” group on the “Home” tab. Another way to save is file is. Your file is stored with the extension “. Then click and drag the mouse up to the last cell containing data to be moved. To do so. you must make place on the worksheet. click and drag the mouse to widen the column as much as needed. Release the mouse when you reach cell E11. click the Office Button and select “Close”. The name of the workbook appears in the “Title Bar”. you must make place on the worksheet. Then type ‘Exam Record’ in the box in front of the label “File name” and then click on the “Save” button. To open an existing workbook. Now close the file. You may also use the “Cut” and “Paste” commands to move cells. to click the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. click the Office Button and select “Open” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+O”. “Ctrl+S”. Select all the data you have entered. by placing the mouse in cell A1. by placing the mouse in cell A1. To do so. Once a file has been saved. The background color of the cells changes as you drag the mouse. to save it again. save it. Moving Cells You now have to add a heading to the worksheet. Keep saving it as you work. It is a good practice to save a file often to prevent data loss due to unforeseen circumstances like power failure. Closing and Opening a Workbook Now that all the data has been entered. From the window that is displayed.xlsx”. Select all the data you have entered. Release the mouse when you reach cell E11. To close the file. Now click “Open”. Enter the column width and press “OK”. The height of a row can be changed in a similar manner. you must save the file. browse to select the file you want to open.shape changes. Then click and drag the mouse up to the last cell containing data to be moved. You now have to add a heading to the worksheet. Saving. click the Office Button and select “Save As”. To save a file. click the Office Button and select “Save” or use the keyboard shortcut. The background color of the cells changes as you drag the mouse. As soon as you have opened a new file.
Move the cursor down and type ‘=C10+D10+E10’ and press “Enter”. A formula is evaluated from left to right and in the following order: percent. Select the cells C8 to E8 and right-click on the selection. multiplication. If a formula contains operators of the same precedence. they are evaluated from left to right. including a description of each item. Type ‘Total’ in cell F8. Select “Insert” from the pop-up window and select “Shift cells down” from the “Insert” window. all the selected cells are merged and the heading is centered. type ‘Marks’. Select cells starting with A1 to E1 and click on the “Merge & Center” icon in the “Alignment” group on the “Home” tab. you have to make use of a formula. 69 | P a g e . division. Let the text overflow into the neighboring cells. -. Centering and Merging Cells To merge and centre headings:Type the headings in appropriate cells as shown in the accompanying figure. and ^ to perform addition. As soon as you click on the icon. To do this in Excel. When you see the item you want. Move the data for ‘Roll_No’ and ‘Name’ one row down. A moving border appears around the selection. Click on the cell where you want to move your data and then click on the upper part of the “Paste” icon in the “Clipboard” group on the “Home” tab. percent and exponentiation respectively. %. Exam Record and Class VIII – B. *. In Excel. Merge and center ‘Marks’ above the three subject marks as shown in the accompanying figure. subtraction.group on the “Home” tab. In regular Mathematics. exponentiation. Total Marks secured = Marks of Subject 1 + Marks of Subject 2 + Marks of Subject 3. a formula always begins with an equal sign (=) and uses arithmetic operators like +. one heading at a time You have to now insert cells to make place so that we can give a combined heading for the three subjects. addition and subtraction. Using Formulas Formula: A formula is nothing but an expression that performs calculation on data contained in the worksheet. When you begin typing a formula. You now have to calculate the total marks for each student. /. as shown in the figure. Formula AutoComplete: The Formula AutoComplete feature makes entering formulas very simple. You will soon see how to bring the heading to the center of the data. multiplication and division. The total of the marks for the three subjects is displayed in cell F10 as 248. Excel displays a drop-down list of matching items. In the cell above Sub1. press Tab to enter it into your formula. Do the same for the other headings – .
A non-adjacent range is two or more cells or ranges that are not adjoining. The Percent marks for the three subjects are displayed in cell G10 as 82. press Esc key. A moving border appears around the selection. Percentage = Marks secured multiplied by 100 and divided by the Maximum Marks. In the Formula Bar. Let us change the marks of one student. Select “Paste” from the pop-up window. a range. In regular Mathematics. all related formulas are recalculated automatically.to cancel the moving border. The cells in a range can be adjacent or non-adjacent. What-If Analysis: If you change one or more numbers in your spreadsheet. Select cells F10 and G10. The formula in cell F12 is “=C12+D12+E12”.66667. another workbook or in a totally different application. This indicates that the contents have been copied. This is called “Relative Cell Referencing”. Right-click anywhere in the selection Select “Copy” from the pop-up window. It shows “=C11+D11+E11”. observe the formula you have pasted in cell F11. Type ‘Percent’ in cell G8. The contents of several continuous cells. You can see that the value in the “Percent” field is changed automatically. An adjacent range is a block of adjoining cells. You may also use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+V” or select “Paste” from the “Clipboard” group on the “Home” tab. can also be copied and pasted in a similar manner on the same worksheet. Thus you can change the value in a cell and see the effect on other related cells. Move the cursor down and type ‘=F10 * (100/300)’ which is the formula to calculate percentage and then press “Enter”. This is called “What-If Analysis”. Range: A range is a selection of two or more cells. Select all cells from F11 to G19. Right click in anywhere in the selection. But you don’t have to type the formula every time. 70 | P a g e . Alternatively. The row numbers have changed relative to the positions of the cells containing the formula. Duplicating Cell Contents You have to calculate the ‘Total’ and ‘Percent’ marks for all students in the same way. you may use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+C” or select “Copy” from the “Clipboard” group on the “Home” tab. The formula can be copied and pasted in the other cells. that is. The formula for adding marks and calculating percent is copied from cells F10 and G10 respectively and pasted into all selected cells. another worksheet.You have now to calculate the percent marks for each student.
you would write this condition as follows: If percentage is greater than or equal to 35. Let us learn to use a nested IF this time. =IF(G10>=35. You will again use the “IF” function to do so. The result of the function is displayed in cell I10. "FAIL"))))) Press “Enter”. This is called “nested IF”. A+ grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 75. IF(G10>=50. =IF(G10>=80. The grades will be given as follows: Percent marks greater than or equal to 80. The grades for all students are displayed. Using Functions A “Function” is a prewritten formula that performs calculations automatically. C grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 35."Pass". "Fail"). IF(G10>=75. Type the heading ‘Result’ in cell H8 and type the function as shown in cell H10. Click on the first cell. You have to decide whether a student has passed or failed. “Copy” this function and “Paste” it in the cells from I11 to I19. IF(G10>=60. A non-adjacent range is specified by giving the cell addresses separated by a comma (. Type the heading ‘Grade’ in cell I8 and type the function as shown in cell I10. otherwise he would be declared “FAILED”. You now have to give Grades to the students according to their marks. Now select C14:F21. C7. "C". The result of the function is displayed in cell H10. A grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 60."PASS". In regular English. "A". This means a new “IF” statement is started inside another “IF” statement. E9. IF(G10>=35. Pass grade All others fail.In formulas. press the “Ctrl” key and then click on the next two cells. The results for all students are displayed. "B". 71 | P a g e . Press “Enter”.) like A4. In Excel. “Copy” this function and “Paste” it in the cells from H11 to H19. Let us select the range A11:A18 using the mouse. you will use the “IF” function. Click on the cell A11 and drag to the cell A18. the student will be declared “PASSED”. B grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 50. an adjacent range is specified by giving the starting and ending cell addresses separated by a colon (:). The condition for a student to pass is that he must secure at least 35 percent marks. It is possible to nest multiple IF functions within one Excel formula. "A+".
From the “Select a function” list. Select “Insert Function” in the “Function Library” group on the “Formulas” tab. you have to use “MIN” function. the “Statistical” category will already be selected. select “MAX” from the alphabetical list of functions and click “OK”. Select the “Statistical” category. minimum and average marks scored by the students. The result is displayed in cell C24. to find the minimum marks. and type ‘=Average (F10:F19)’ in it. From the window that opens. Activate cell C24. You can type all the functions in the same manner whenever you want to use them. Enter the numbers or the range from which you want to find the minimum number. and B24 respectively. You can simply type the function you want to use in the cell. activate it. Type ‘Maximum marks’. The maximum number in the range is displayed in cell C22 as 262. Since the “MAX” function has been most recently used. Type the range as ‘F10:F19’ next to “Number1” and click “OK”. Activate cell C23. To find the average marks. Press “Enter” to complete the entry. you have to use the “AVERAGE” function. Here you can enter the numbers or the range from which you want to find the maximum number. select “MIN” from the alphabetical list of functions and click “OK”. 72 | P a g e . From the “Select a function” list. Observe the formula bar to see how the function is written. Select “Insert Function” in the “Function Library” group on the “Formulas” tab. select “Statistical” from the “Or select a category” list. Observe the formula bar to see how the function is written. It is written for you by Excel as =MAX (F10:F19) Now. It is written for you by Excel as =MIN (F10:F19) There is another way of using functions. If the category is something else. The minimum number in the range is displayed in cell C23. To insert a function in cell C22. The Function Arguments window is displayed. ‘Minimum marks’ and ‘Average marks’ in cells B22. click in the drop down box next to “Or select a category”.Now to find the maximum. B23. Type the range as ’F10:F19’ next to”Number1” and click “OK”. The “Function Arguments” window is displayed. you can make use of some statistical functions.
Click “OK”. To bring the headings to the center. Then click on the “Font Size” list and select 14. With the Ctrl key still held down. You can choose from a variety of predefined styles by selecting “Cell Styles” in the “Styles” group on the “Home” tab. select them first. you must first select all of them. Alignment: To bring the headings to the center. Select “Bodoni MT Black”. Now click on “Format Cells” and from the window that opens. Select “Format” in the “Cells” group on the “Home tab. To select all headings. click on the “Number” tab. A thick border is displayed around the entire range. If the headings are not selected. select range A8:H8 and range C9:E9. click in cell A1. Changing the “Font” and “Font Size” of the headings: Select cell A1 and click on the “Font” list in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. then click on the “Bold” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. 73 | P a g e . A window of colors is displayed. Select “Blue”. font set. “Styles” are individual designs that can be applied to different parts of the document. Now select “Thick Box Border” from the displayed list. you can make them bold. A theme consists of a color palette. Let us see how we can enhance our worksheet which looks quite plain. Adding a thick border: Select the range of cells from A8 to H19 and click on the arrow next to the “Borders” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. Select “Number” from the “Category” list and change “Decimal places” to 2.Formatting the Worksheet You can make your spreadsheet look more coordinated and professional by using Styles and Themes. You want the percent marks to be displayed with only two decimal places. The accompanying figure shows an enhanced view of the worksheet. click on the “Center” icon in the “Alignment” group on the “Home” tab. Select the range of Percent marks. The numbers in the “Percent” range are displayed with two decimal places. Hold down the Ctrl key and click in cells A4. All the headings are centered. Decimal Places: The percent marks are displayed with many decimal places. and effects. The font color of all headings is displayed with the color Blue. Changing the font color of the headings: Select all headings and click on the arrow next to the “Font Color” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. A list of fonts is displayed. A5. The font and the font size of the heading are changed. You may access the theme gallery by selecting “Themes” in the “Themes” group on the “Page Layout” tab. You may use the “Align Text Left” or “Align Text Right” icons to move the headings to the left or right if you wish. While the headings are still selected. “Themes” are universal designs that unify all of the styles.
Highlighting: To highlight the range of “Maximum, Minimum and Average Marks”, select the range B22:C24. Click on the “Fill Color” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. Select the color “Yellow”. The cell range is filled with the color Yellow. Indenting: To adjust the indenting of the contents of a cell, click on the cell. Then, in the “Alignment” group on the “Home” tab, click on the “Increase Indent” or “Decrease Indent” icon as required. Working with Graphics You now have to insert the logo of the School. To do so, activate cell G3 and select “Clip Art” in the “Illustrations” group on the “Insert” tab. In the “Clip Art” panel at the right, type ‘concepts’ in the “Search for:” box. Check in the boxes before “My Collections” and “Office Collections” in the drop down list of “Search in”. Click in the box before “Clip Art” in the drop down list of “Results should be” and click “Go”. Resizing the graphic image: Click on the “Bull’s Eye” image. It will be bigger in size. You have to resize it so that it occupies less space and looks proportionate to the rest of the data on the page. To resize it, click on the lower right corner handle of the image, and drag the mouse so that the image becomes smaller in size. Release the mouse when the image becomes the desired size. Entering the Date Inserting a row: Click on row number 7 on the left side. Right click and select “Insert”. One Row will be inserted. To insert multiple rows, select an equal number of rows. This means that when you select four rows, four more rows are inserted. Activate cell A7 and type ‘Date:’. Then place the cell pointer in cell B7 and select “Insert Function” in the “Function Library” group on the “Formulas” tab. Select “Date & Time” as category. Select “Date” as function and click “OK”. Type the “Year” as ‘2007’, “Month” as ‘02’ and “Day” as ‘21’ in the “Function Arguments” window. Click “OK”. The date is displayed as “2/21/2007” in cell B7. Formatting the date: To change the date format, right-click in cell B7 and select “Format cells”. The “Format Cells” window is displayed. Click on the “Number” tab. Select “Date” from the “Category” list and select the “Type” as “14-Mar-01”. The sample format is visible in the “Sample” box. Click “OK”. The date is displayed in the format 21-Feb-07. Previewing and Printing
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The worksheet is now ready. You can print it. Before getting a hard copy, you can preview the worksheet. If you do not like the way it looks, you can make more changes. To preview your worksheet, click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. The “Print Preview” tab appears when you view the worksheet in the Print Preview mode. Click “Close Print Preview” in the “Preview” group to close the preview. Everything seems to be OK. But the logo of the school needs to be moved up, in line with the school’s name. Moving the graphic image: Click and drag the “Bull’s Eye” image so that it is in line with the school’s name. Release the mouse when done. The image can also be moved by using the arrow keys on the keyboard by selecting it first. Click on the image to select it. Use the right arrow key to move the graphic image to the right, left arrow key to move it to the left and so on. Printing the worksheet: Click the Office Button and select “Print → Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. Select the printer name from the list in front of “Name”. Under “Print Range” enter “Pages From” as ‘1’ To ‘1’. Select “Active Sheet” under “Print what” and click “OK”. Sorting Data Excel can quickly sort text, data or numbers according to specified criteria in ascending or descending order. In the worksheet displayed you can see a list of people along with their ages. Let us sort this list according to the names. Click in any of the cells containing names and then click “Sort & Filter” in the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab. To sort the list in ascending order of names, click “Sort A to Z”. To sort it in descending order, click “Sort & Filter” and select “Sort Z to A”. Now, to sort this list according to the ages of the people, click in a cell containing an age and follow the same procedure. When you click the “Sort & Filter” icon, you see the options “Sort Smallest to Largest” and “Sort Largest to Smallest”. This is because previously it was an alphabetic list and now it is a list containing numbers that is being sorted. To sort the list in ascending order of ages, select “Sort Smallest to Largest”. Now if you had to sort the data in the worksheet containing student marks that you previously created in descending order of roll numbers, you would need to follow a slightly different procedure. This is because this worksheet contains headings and information other than simply data. First select all columns which contain data and then select “Sort & Filter → Sort Largest to Smallest” in the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab. Using Charts
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Learning about Charts
You have to present the exam results of the students of class VIII-B. The most easy and effective manner to do this would be to present it in the form of a chart. A chart is a visual representation of data and conveys the information in an easy to understand and attractive manner. There are different types of charts available in Microsoft Excel 2007 such as Column charts, Line charts, Bar charts, Area charts, Bubble charts and many more. You may select a suitable type depending on the data you want to chart and the emphasis you want the chart to impart. Here you will learn to make a single data series chart. Parts of a Chart: A chart has different parts as labeled in the accompanying image. Chart Title – The tile of the chart “Student Vs Marks”. Value Axis – The Y-axis on which the value is shown. Value Axis Title – The title “Marks”. Category Axis – The X-axis on which the category for which you have charted the values is shown. Category Axis Title – The title “Name” Chart Area – The entire area on which the chart is drawn. Legend – The legend, as in a map, shows which color is used to represent what: “Series 1” in this case. Creating a Chart To present the marks of all students as a chart, select the “Name” range (B11 to B20), hold down the “Ctrl” key and select the “Total” range (F11 to F20), without selecting the titles in cells B9 and F9. On the “Insert” tab, in the “Charts” group, select “Column”. Now select “Clustered Column”, the first image from the Chart sub-types displayed. You can now see the chart on your worksheet. You can make changes to your chart and enhance its appearance using various “Chart Tools”. If you do not see “Chart Tools” displayed on the Ribbon, click in the chart area to ensure that the chart is selected. Now, under “Chart Tools”, on the “Design” tab, select a suitable style from the “Chart Styles” group. Now let us add more details in our chart. For this we shall use the “Labels” group on the “Layout” tab under “Chart Tools”. Click “Chart Title” and select “Above Chart”. Now type the title ‘Student Vs Marks’. As you type, it appears
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select it by clicking in the chart area. You can now see the actual marks of each student. select “Axis Titles → Primary Horizontal Axis Title → Title Below Axis”. Data Labels are used to label the elements of a chart with their actual data values. drag it to a position of your choice. On the “Design” tab under “Chart Tools”. Click on the “Format” tab under “Chart Tools”. Press “Enter”. drag to a suitable size. select the cells that contain the data that you want to appear in the chart. The chart title is displayed above your chart.in the Formula Bar at the top. Select “Bar” in the left pane of the “Change Chart Type” window and then click “Clustered Bar” in the right pane. Managing a Workbook Correcting Errors While entering data. Sizing the chart: Click on the center of any side of the chart or at a corner. Now click “Select Data” in the “Data” group. Your chart appears as a bar chart. if some spelling mistakes have been made. select “Change Chart Type” in the “Type” group. the spelling checker locates all misspelled words and proposes the correct spelling. Now. Then select a WordArt Style from the “WordArt Styles” group. To enter the description for the Y-axis. select the data in the “Name” column and “Subject 1” column and click “OK” in the “Select Data Source” window. 77 | P a g e . Now click “OK”. you can even change the Chart Type. Select a Shape Style from the “Shape Styles” group. After a chart has been created. Now click on the Office Button and then select “Print”. select “Axis Titles → Primary Vertical Axis Title → Rotated Title”. The “Select Data Source” window is displayed. For this. You may explore the various other options on the “Format” tab to further enhance your chart. When the mouse pointer changes to a two-headed arrow. Moving the chart: Click on the chart and when the mouse pointer changes to a four-headed arrow. to enter the description for the X-axis. type “Names” and press “Enter”. Select “Data Labels → Outside End”. You may enhance the appearance of your chart. To print only the chart. click on the “Design” tab under “Chart Tools”. Similarly. on your worksheet. type “Marks” and press “Enter”. Modifying a Chart You may decide that you want to plot only the marks of Subject 1 in the chart. You can see that the chart displays the marks of Subject 1. This time.
Right-click in cell A1 of Sheet2. click on “Undo Last”. Select the “Move or Copy” option. The range copied from Sheet1 is pasted in cell A1 of Sheet2. The “Spelling” window is displayed and one by one every word in your worksheet is checked. On the sheet tabs below. A whole new worksheet with the same layout but with different data is ready. When you click on any button such as “Change”. Moving or copying sheets: Right click on the Sheet1 tab. select the book you want to move the sheet to. The Sheet2 will be displayed. Select all headings in the range A1 to H10. Select “Spelling” in the “Proofing” group on the “Review” tab or use the keyboard shortcut “F7”. You do not have to type all the headings once again. If there are more than one occurrences of the same word spelt wrongly. To copy the sheet. You can use the same format of the worksheet. If you change a word which you did not want to. Click a sheet you want move and drag it to the place you want to copy it and release the mouse 78 | P a g e .. a message saying so is displayed. Working with Sheets You want to make the exam record for another class now.Place the cell pointer at the beginning of your worksheet or from wherever you want to start checking for errors. All you need to do is to add data. In the “To book” list. select the correct word from the suggestions list and click on the “Change” button. click in the “Create a copy” check box. Right-click on the selection and click on “Copy”. select the sheet. You can also select the sheet before which you want to insert it. When the checking is completed for the entire worksheet. You may make changes in this sheet for another class. click on Sheet2. the spelling checker moves to the next word. “Ignore” etc. If a spelling is found to be wrong. In that case. You may copy a sheet to another workbook. You may also move or copy sheets with the mouse. Some words. If the spelling is correct but shown as incorrect for some reason. click on “Ignore All” or “Ignore Once” whichever is appropriate. The “Move or Copy” window is displayed. Simply copy them from one sheet to another. From the “Before sheet” list. Select the “Paste” option. click on the “Change All” button. options are displayed in the “Suggestions” box from the spelling checker’s dictionary. such as proper nouns which are not really errors may be shown as spelling mistakes. You may add these words to the dictionary by clicking the “Add to Dictionary” button.
move or copy. and change the tab color. names of the months in short. a chart or something else. Simply type the new name. Other such autofill entries are . Absolute reference: An absolute reference is a cell or range reference used in a formula whose location does not change when a formula is copied. If you select “Insert”. it becomes difficult to remember what data is stored on each sheet. All the range you selected will be filled with names of months starting with January. etc. 2000. select all sheets. When you release the mouse. You will see a black plus sign. 3000. Double-click on the name of the sheet. the “Insert” window is displayed. the current sheet will be deleted after confirmation. another copy of the sheet is made. Drag the mouse as far as you want the cells to fill and release the mouse. Autofill recognizes and automatically extends data and alphanumeric headings as far as you specify. You can name the sheet accordingly. the sheet will be moved to the new location. For this. To stop 79 | P a g e . This is the fill handle.days of the week in short. rename. You can select all sheets by selecting the “Select all sheets” option. A ‘+’ sign appears on the page icon while copying the sheet. right click in any of the sheet tabs and select “Ungroup Sheets”. To copy a sheet with the mouse. a solid black triangle appears along with a blank page icon. Through the options in this window. to give you an idea of what data is stored on the sheet. number series like 1000. right-click on a sheet tab and select “Tab Color”. Using Autofill: Autofill is a feature of Microsoft Excel 2007 that makes entering a series of headings easier by logically repeating and extending the series. from which you can select whether you want to insert a worksheet. You may change the tab color of sheets to distinguish between the data stored on each sheet. delete.button. without opening the sheets. a number of options are displayed in the pop-up window. While you drag. The name will be highlighted. When you copy. The name of the sheet is changed. Manage a sheet: When you right-click on the sheet tab. you can insert. Move the mouse to the corner of the selection. hold down the “Ctrl” key while you drag a sheet. If you select “Delete”. The number of the copy appears in brackets in the sheet tab Naming a sheet: When you have many sheets. To deselect the sheets. Type the entry ‘January’ in a cell.
you can view two areas of a worksheet and lock rows or columns in one area by splitting or freezing panes. At such times. When a formula containing an absolute cell reference is copied to another row or column in the worksheet. activate cell M6 and type ‘=L6 * $O$2’ in it. Copy this formula from cell M6 to the remaining students and check the formula for each student in the “Formula Bar”. This is called referencing multiple sheets. Now. You can work in any part of the worksheet at any time. You can see that the sum of the figures on the other two sheets is displayed here. vertically or both horizontally and vertically. Let us now go to Sheet3. You can then scroll in one area of the worksheet. Now both panes have a common vertical scroll bar but 80 | P a g e . For the Final exam. while rows or columns in the non-scrolled area remain visible. At such times. you have made the column and the row references absolute. Thus “Sheet1!A1” refers to cell A1 on Sheet1. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the top row. starting with cell ‘J1’.the automatic relative cell references. you can change the display percentage of the sheet. Sheet1 has the value 100 in cell A1 and Sheet2 has the value 200 in cell A1. in the cell A1. more data will fit on the screen and vice versa. Splitting Panes: You can split the window either horizontally. the cell reference does not change. In the zoom window you may select a zoom percentage of your choice. But the problem comes when you need to refer to some other part while working in one part of the sheet. type a $ (dollar) character before the column and row number. Although the formula has been copied. to calculate 20% marks. enter “=Sheet1!A1+Sheet2! A1” and press “Enter”. but data for marks will have to be typed. Here. To split the window vertically. Managing Large Sheets You already know the massive size of the worksheet in Microsoft Excel 2007. Prepare the data as shown in the accompanying figure in the neighboring space. the reference of cell O2 has remained constant. Now. Select “Zoom” in the “Zoom” group on the “View” tab. there can be data in a number of rows and columns all of which cannot be seen at the same time. This makes the cell reference absolute. You may copy the Roll Nos and the Names. Referencing multiple sheets: While working you may have to reference data from more than one sheet. Select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. By adding ‘$’ before ‘O’ and ‘2’. 20% of the Unit Test marks are to be calculated. If you reduce the percentage. Zooming the worksheet: In Microsoft Excel 2007.
Moving using the vertical scrollbar keeps the row numbers in the frozen pane unchanged. if you click on the top left cell. place the cell pointer in the appropriate cell where you want the split to appear. To split the window horizontally. selecting “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab results in a horizontal and vertical split. 81 | P a g e . Select “Freeze Panes → Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. click the cell below and to the right of the row and column you want to freeze.individual horizontal scroll bars to enable you to move separately in the two panes. To freeze the top row or first column. the top left pane freezes. To remove a split. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the leftmost column. Select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. To remove the freeze. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the top row. For this. When a window is split both horizontally and vertically. Now both panes have a common horizontal scroll bar but individual vertical scroll bars to enable you to move separately in the two panes. you can see that the frozen panes are visible at all times. Also. You can see that three panes have appropriate vertical and horizontal scroll bars. select the appropriate options from those displayed on selection of “Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. This means that. you can freeze either. As you scroll through your worksheet. Select “Freeze Panes → Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the leftmost column. select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab once again. To freeze the left pane of the window. regardless of where you are in the worksheet. you can see the information in those rows and/or columns at all times. Select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. Select “Freeze Panes → Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. To freeze the top pane of the window. You can freeze information in the top and left panes of the window only. To split the window both horizontally as well as vertically. select “Freeze Panes → Unfreeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. Let us assume that you wish to have the headings and roll numbers & names of the students visible always. Moving using the horizontal scrollbar keeps the column numbers in the frozen pane unchanged. Freezing panes: With the “Freeze Panes” option. or both. rows and columns.
Activate cell F16. Click “OK”. if a student has failed. The marks in the failed subject are adjusted to 35. During analysis. If the data is not properly visible on the page. In the “Goal Seek” window. you often come across situations. For example. the cell with the marks below pass level. where you have to see the effects of changing selected factors in a worksheet. you can use the Goal Seek feature. If you know the result that you want from a formula. The value in cell C16 is adjusted to get the target value. You can see that he has scored very poor marks in one of the three subjects. Click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. Header and Footer: Before you print your data. Click “OK”. The header is usually the title you would give to the page. It is a method which aids you in forecasting values. The header and footer give additional information about the data on the page. Headers. you can use the “Header & Footer” option to add the same header and footer on each page. containing the “Total” marks of the student. The text that appears in the bottom margin of the page is called the Footer. Click in the “By changing cell” field and then click C16. Student with Roll Number 6 has failed. You can do this with Goal seek. The “Goal Seek Status” window is displayed. you may decide that the pages of your worksheet must have a header and footer. The page number is usually given as the footer. If there is more data to be fitted on one page. but not the input value the formula needs to get that result. You now want to find out. you may change page orientation to “Landscape” by selecting “Orientation” in the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. Select “WhatIf Analysis → Goal Seek” in the “Data Tools” group on the “Data” tab. how many marks he should have scored in that subject so that he would have secured a Pass grade. how much he should have scored in the failed subject to score pass marks. Footers and Print Settings Page orientation: Depending on the area of the worksheet you want to print. you can change the page orientation to landscape.Forecasting Values Goal Seek: One of the features of Microsoft Excel is analyzing data. If you have say 15 pages in your workbook. you want to find out. type ‘105’ (the passing total marks) in the “To value” box. The default setting is “Portrait”. you can change the orientation of the page so that data can be fitted accordingly. The text that appears in the top margin of the page is called the Header. 82 | P a g e .
With a few keystrokes you can quickly change. Select all the sheets you want to print by clicking on the sheet tabs. select the name of the printer from the list in the “Name” field. On the “Design” tab under “Header & Footer Tools”. In the “Print” window. Now click “Go to Footer” in the “Navigation” group. A box is displayed at the center of the header area. This displays another box to the right. click on “Page Number” in the “Header & Footer Elements” group. a Graphics Presentation Program may also suggest layouts and color and animation schemes for different types of presentations and offer professionally designed templates to help you to create a presentation that is sure to hold the attention of your audience. Press “Enter” and type ‘Class VIII B’ on the second line. We shall insert the page number in the box displayed. An effective presentation puts your point across clearly and in an interesting manner. Press “Tab” and then press the “Esc” key to complete creation of the footer. click on “Active sheet(s)” and then click “OK”. In the “Print What” section. Graphics Presentation Programs include features to handle pictures. Use the “Ctrl” key to select more than one sheet. Click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. This will insert the date. whether to the Board of Directors of a company or to your fellow colleagues. Click on the Office Button and select “Print”. Now press the “Tab” key. Here. charts and tables. Check the layout and close the preview by clicking “Close Print Preview” in the “Preview” group. you can choose from a variety of computer tools called Graphics Presentation Programs.Select “Header & Footer” in the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. You can print selected sheets in the workbook. In addition. click on “Current Date” in the “Header & Footer Elements” group. movies and sounds. you may enter the text “First Term Exam Report”. Presentation Graphics Overview of Presentation Graphics Introduction to Presentation Graphics If you have to make a presentation to an audience and you want it to be good. For this. correct and update the presentation. Printing selected worksheets: You do not always need to print the entire workbook. text. 83 | P a g e . These programs are designed to help you to create an effective presentation.
printing. Exploring Microsoft PowerPoint: To start the Microsoft PowerPoint application. The following Ribbon tabs are displayed in PowerPoint: The “Home” tab contains the basic formatting tools.Each presentation is divided into slides. The “Design” tab contains tools to design your slides. You see the familiar Microsoft Office 2007 user interface which consists of: 1) The Office Button which displays a menu containing commands for opening. you may see the assignment titled “The User Interface” in the “Microsoft Word” topic. The “View” tab contains tools which help you view your presentation in the most suitable way. Creating a Presentation Using Installed Templates A “Template” is a pre-designed presentation designed for common purposes such as a photo album or a quiz show. The “Insert” tab contains the basic set of objects which you can insert into a slide. 2) The Quick Access toolbar which displays icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. and Redo. Groups and Command buttons. 3) The Ribbon which has Task-oriented Tabs. saving. The “Review” tab contains tools which help you proofread and correct a presentation. 84 | P a g e . Undo. Each slide shows a different screen to your audience. Click on the Office Button and select “New”. and closing a file. The “Animations” tab contains tools to animate objects and create transitions between slides. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007”. For more details on the Microsoft Office User Interface. You may create a new presentation using a template provided by PowerPoint. You will gradually learn to use the commands on all the tabs. The “Slide Show” tab contains tools that control how the slide show is presented.
you see your presentation the way your audience will. In this full-screen view. Slide Sorter View gives you an overall picture of it. This is an exclusive view of your slides in thumbnail form. A new presentation is displayed with pre-defined settings. You can make changes as required. The “Slides” tab shows your slides as thumbnail-sized images while you edit. timings. It has three working areas. Slide Sorter View. In the Normal View. PowerPoint Presentation Views Viewing a presentation: A “view” is a way of looking at a presentation. You may also change the presentation views by clicking on the buttons displayed on the “Status Bar” at the bottom of the screen. This is the main editing view. On the left are the “Slides” and “Outline” tabs. Creating your First Slide 85 | P a g e . On the bottom is the “Notes Pane” in which you can type notes that you want along with a slide. You can see how your graphics. making it easy to reorder. if you need to make changes to the way your slide show runs. Click on the tab names to view the respective tabs. like an actual slide show presentation. you may specify the timing between the display of each slide and which slides are to be hidden during the presentation. movies. click “Installed Templates” to see a list of templates. Select “Slide Sorter” in the “Presentation Views” group. For example. add or delete slides. Click on a suitable one and then press the “Create” button. add. under “Templates”. The “Outline” tab shows your slide text in outline form. you may select “Slide Show” in the “Presentation Views” group on the “View” tab or click the “Slide Show” button at the bottom right of the status bar.In the left panel. This makes it easy to navigate through your presentation and to see the effects of changes. on the right you can see the “Slide Pane”. To actually run a slide show. which displays a large view of the current slide. Now. animated elements and transition effects will look in the actual show. Slide Show View: Select “Slide Show” in the “Presentation Views” group or press “F5” on your keyboard. you may use the options available on the “Slide Show” tab. When you have finished creating and editing your presentation. you can find various tools that control how the slide show is presented. and Slide Show View. Here. Slide Sorter View: Click the “View” tab. or delete slides. You can also rearrange. Microsoft PowerPoint has three main views: Normal View. This view takes up the full computer screen. Normal View: Select “Normal” in the “Presentation Views” group.
These boxes hold title and body text or objects such as charts. Saving and Opening a Presentation 86 | P a g e . Moving a placeholder: You may wish to change the position of your placeholder. When the pointer becomes a four-headed arrow.You are working for a company which offers various educational courses. In the existing slide. When you move your mouse over a sizing handle the pointer becomes a twoheaded arrow. Click in the first placeholder and type the name you want to give your presentation. click on the text in the title. Now click on a theme of your choice. In the second placeholder type a subtitle. you see a blank presentation in Normal View with the default name “Presentation1”. First. You may need to change some of the text that you have entered on your slide. Sizing a placeholder: The “Sizing Handles” at the sides and corners of the selection rectangle can be used to adjust the size of the placeholder. To rotate a placeholder. The sizing handles at the sides are used to adjust only the height or the width. and pictures. To move a placeholder. You may now edit the text as you wish. An insertion point is displayed to show your location in the text. Applying a Theme: You may enhance the appearance of this slide which looks quite plain. let us assume you need to make changes to the title. You can see a “Rotation Handle” which is a round arrow at the top of the placeholder. you see two boxes. Click on the title text. In the Slide Pane on the right. Sizing and Moving Placeholders You know that placeholders are boxes that are part of most slide layouts. drag the rotation handle in the direction that you want to rotate it. When you start PowerPoint. you may make editing changes to your text on the Outline tab. You wish to create a presentation which introduces your company and tells about its numerous activities. you can drag to the location you wish. These are simultaneously reflected in the Slide Pane. These are called “Placeholders”. click on the arrow at the bottom right to see all available themes. In the “Themes” group. Using the Outline Tab: Alternately. The title is now a selected object and is surrounded by a selection rectangle. It can be used to rotate the placeholder to any angle. tables. click in an area between the sizing handles on the side borders. Editing in the Slide Pane: You may make changes directly in the slide pane. Dragging a corner sizing handle adjusts both the height and width at the same time. Click on the “Design” tab.
create a slide using the “Picture with Caption” layout. You may apply other effects to your picture by selecting from the various options available under “Picture Effects” in the “Picture Styles” group on the “Format” tab. Enter the title and text as shown. Click the “Open” button to display the selected file on the screen. The picture is displayed on your slide in a placeholder. tables. browse to the location of your presentation and click on the file name from the displayed list. In the “Illustrations” group. In the “Insert Picture” window. Similarly. in the “Insert Picture” window. Your file is stored with the extension “. Click on the “Home” tab. In the “Picture Styles” group. you may click the Office Button and select “Save”. Click on the picture. Click on the picture name and then click “Insert”. Click on the picture name and then click “Insert”. Changing Fonts and Formatting 87 | P a g e . Using a Slide Layout and Inserting Pictures A Slide Layout refers to the arrangement of elements. In the “Save As” window specify the location at which you wish to save your presentation. Select a suitable one. In the “Open” window.pptx”. You may click on a style of your choice. To open a recently used presentation you may click the Office Button and then click on the presentation name in the list displayed under “Recent Documents”. The available layouts are displayed. Let us also insert the same picture on the first slide we created.To save your presentation. Now click “Save”. Enhancing the Picture: You may make changes to the picture by using various Picture Tools. select “Picture”. on a slide. Now click on the “Format” tab under “Picture Tools”. As you did earlier. You may change the size and position as required. charts and movies. You may use the default name for your presentation or enter a new one. Let us create a new slide by specifying a layout. click on the “More” arrow to see all available picture styles. browse to the location of your picture file. In the “Slides” group. Now click on the “Insert” tab. pictures. You may also use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+S”. click on the lower part of the “New Slide” icon. To display a picture of your company logo on your slide. Now click the Office Button and select “Close” to close this file. Click on the first slide on the Slides tab in the left pane. You can see a new slide with the specified layout. click the picture icon. Enter the title and text as shown. such as text. To open a file that you have previously saved. click the Office Button and select “Open”. browse to the location of your picture file.
Changing Font Effects and Color: From the “Fonts” group. In this way you can check the spellings on all the slides of the presentation at one time. Applying different formatting to characters and paragraphs can greatly enhance the appearance of the slide. Changing Page Properties: Select “Page Setup” in the “Page Setup” group on the “Design” tab. Underline and Text Shadow by clicking on the respective icons. In the window displayed you may specify the size and orientation of your slides and then click “OK”. Formatting: Enhancing the appearance of the slide to make it more attractive. select the text and then click the arrow to the right of the “Bullets” icon in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. to create a numbered list. you may use the “Numbering” icon in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. Select the text to be formatted by highlighting the text on the slide. Let us center the title of the slide. You may also increase or decrease the font size by clicking on the “Increase Font Size” and “Decrease Font Size” icons in the “Fonts” group. Bullets and Numbering: You may enter text as a bulleted or numbered list. click on the “Design” tab. Make your selection from the various bullet styles displayed. Now click on the “Home” tab. Checking Spellings As you may have entered the information on previous slides. you may have unknowingly left several typing errors uncorrected. Select “Background Styles” in the “Background” group and make your selection. You may also change the color of the font by clicking on the arrow to the right of the “Font Color” icon and making your selection. Let us create such a list on the third slide. readable and user-friendly is called formatting.Changing Font and Font Size: Let us change the Font and Font Size of the text on the second slide. Click on the third slide on the Slides tab in the left pane. Similarly. Now to create a bulleted list. click on the “Review” tab. You will now observe that the text has changed to the new font of the size you selected. To correct the misspelled words. Now select “Spelling” in the “Proofing” group or use the keyboard shortcut “F7”. “Center” and “Align Text Right” icons in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. You may select the desired Font and Font Size from the “Fonts” group. Click on the second slide on the Slides tab in the left pane. 88 | P a g e . Italic. you may select other effects such as Bold. Changing the Background Style: To change the background of your slides. Changing Alignment: You may change the alignment of text by clicking on the “Align Text Left”.
a dialog box will appear and will prompt you to effect suitable corrections. Running a Slide Show Running a Slide Show: Once all the slides are in the order that you want. Let us move all slides back to their original positions. you may highlight one of the suggestions displayed or manually correct it yourself by typing in the correct word in the “Change to” box. When your entire presentation has been scanned. click the slide icon on the “Slides” tab. select one or more slide icons on the “Slides” tab. click on the slide after which you want the new slide on the “Slides” tab and then click on the “New Slide” icon. you can see how your presentation would look when viewed by an audience to 89 | P a g e . Moving and Deleting Slides Inserting a Slide: You know that you can insert a new slide by selecting “New Slide” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. Inserting. you may find it more convenient to use the Slide Sorter View to view all your slides and change their positions. If you have a large number of slides in your presentation. Now click on the slide you wish to move and drag it to a new location. press “Shift” before clicking the slide icon and then drag. Change to Slide Sorter View by clicking on the “Slide Sorter” button on the Status Bar at the bottom of the screen. You may now select “Delete” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab or press the “Delete” key on your keyboard. Let us revert to Normal View by clicking the “Normal” icon on the Status Bar. If you do not wish to change what you have typed.For each word that is misspelled. To select multiple slides in a row. Moving a Slide: To move a slide in Normal View. To insert a slide between two slides. Deleting a Slide: You may use either the Normal View or the Slide Sorter View to delete a slide. and drag to a new location. click “Ignore”. Now to delete the blank slide that was just inserted. You may choose “Ignore All” if the word appears many times throughout the presentation. you will be informed accordingly. Click “Change” to make the correction or “Change All” if there are multiple instances of the misspelled word in the presentation. To correct a word that is spelt incorrectly.
Click the “Outline” button at the bottom left to hide the left pane. click on the “Slide Show” tab in the “Start Slide Show” group. You can see the “Web Page Preview” button on the Quick Access toolbar. click “From Beginning” or use the keyboard shortcut “F5” to view the complete presentation You may click or press the spacebar to move to the next slide. To see a preview of your slide in a window on the screen. Now click “Add” and then click “OK”. handouts. click “Customize” in the left pane. The “Print Preview” tab appears when you view the slide in the Print Preview mode. Viewing the slide show from the current slide: To do so. Under “Choose Commands from:” select “All Commands”. Click “Close Print Preview” in the “Preview” group to close the preview. From the list displayed below. In the window displayed. Then click the “From Current Slide” icon in the “Start Slide Show” group on the “Slide Show” tab. click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. Print what: Here. you need to add the “Web Page Preview” command to the Quick Access toolbar. Print range: Under Print range you may specify which of the slides you want to print. Web Page Preview: To preview your presentation as a web page. the current slide only or any selection of slides. you may wish give copies to your colleagues for their comments. Click on the Office Button and then click “PowerPoint Options”. notes pages or outline view. 90 | P a g e . Printing a Presentation: Click the Office Button and select “Print → Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. you may specify whether you wish to print the slides. To save time and unnecessary printing and waste of paper. The “Print” window is displayed. it is always a good idea to preview onscreen how your slides will appear when printed. on the “Slides” tab. select “Web Page Preview”. You may print all slides.run a presentation. Previewing and Printing a Presentation Previewing A Presentation: As you work with your slides. Clicking it displays your presentation as it would look in a web browser. click the slide icon from which you wish to view your slides. You may view all the slides by using the “Next Slide” and “Previous Slide” buttons at the bottom of the screen.
Finding and Replacing: Alternatively. Find whole words only: You may check this box to search for whole words matching the search criteria. Enter your options and click “OK”. Click “Replace” to replace the current word with the new word. click “Text Box". In the "Replace" window. A window appears showing the number of replacements made.Color/grayscale: Here. Inserting a text box: A text box is a container for text or graphics. Click on the third slide icon on the “Slides” tab. In the “Editing” group. Match case: You may check this box for a case sensitive search. 91 | P a g e . Choosing the “Grayscale” or “Pure Black and White” option allows you to print without color. to replace text you may select “Replace” from the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab or press “Ctrl+H” to display the “Replace” window. Replacing Text: Click "Replace". A hyperlink is a connection to a location in the current document. another document or to a Web site. Click on the slide below the existing text and drag with the mouse to draw the textbox. click “Find” or press “Ctrl+F” to display the “Find” window. In the “Text” group. Creating a Text Box and Inserting a Hyperlink You may insert hyperlinks in your slides. Click “Replace All” to replace all occurrences of the search text by the specified new text. The next occurrence of the specified term after the current cursor position is selected. Enter some text and click “Find Next”. First let us create a small text box below the text on the slide. Modifying and Refining a Presentation Finding and Replacing Text Finding Text: You may search for a word or phrase in your presentation. Click on the “Home” tab. you may choose the color quality of the prints. Let us insert a hyperlink from the third slide to the first slide. you may enter the new text in the "Replace with" field. To create a new text box click on the “Insert” tab.
In the “Insert Hyperlink” window. Relationship and others. Cycle. As you type the text in the text box.Adding text to a text box: You will notice that the text box displays an insertion point. click on “First Slide”. Let us change the style of the heading text. Using SmartArt A “SmartArt” graphic is a visual representation of your information and ideas. When you run the slide show. it is automatically resized as needed to display the entire entry. 92 | P a g e . Inserting a Hyperlink: Select the text entered in the text box. Enter the text “Go to Slide 1”. you can effectively communicate your message in a quick and simple way. click “Hyperlink”. Using SmartArt graphics. Now you are ready to enter the table content. Now click “OK”. Create and Enhance a Table You may wish to display some data in tabular form in your presentation. In the “Tables” group. indicating that you can enter text in it. You may also change the size and position of the text box by using the sizing handles. You may size or move your table as required. You may specify the dimensions of your table by dragging with the mouse or by clicking “Insert Table”. You can see that the hyperlink text is underlined. Hierarchy. You may choose from various categories such as Process. A “Design” tab is displayed under “Table Tools”. Now click on the “Insert” tab. In the “Insert Table” window. Enter the headings and details in the other rows as shown. click “Table”. You may select a table style from the gallery displayed. Click the arrow at the bottom right to view all the available styles. You may enhance the appearance of the text in your table. Select the text and then click “Quick Styles” in the “WordArt Styles” group on the “Design” tab under “Table Tools”. Select a suitable one. clicking on this link takes you to the first slide. Each category contains several different layouts. Under “Select a place in this document”. click on the “Insert” tab. Create a new slide using the “Blank” layout by selecting “New Slide” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. To insert a table. You may select a style from the gallery displayed. In the “Links” group. enter the number of rows and columns and click “OK”. under “Link to:” click on “Place in This Document”.
Inserting Clips and Clip Art You may insert “Clips” and “Clip Art” in your slides. in the “Search for” box. click the arrow at the bottom right to view all the available styles and select a suitable one. A “Clip” may be a single media file. We shall insert a clip as well as Clip Art on one of our slides. select a category. Changing Colors: You may apply color variations to the shapes in your SmartArt graphic. you may enter text directly by clicking the text boxes. First create a new slide using the “Blank” layout. Let us search for clips of the type “Movies”. click “SmartArt”. Create a text box above the SmartArt graphic and enter the text as shown. Now make your selection from the gallery displayed. Let us first insert a small clip. In the graphic displayed on your slide. animation or movies. Now select a suitable graphic and click “OK”. In the “SmartArt Styles” group on the “Design” tab under “SmartArt Tools”. Click on the “Insert” tab. click “Clip Art”. Since yours is a company having operations related to computers. For this. Now click on the “Insert” tab. including art. In the “Illustrations” group. in the “Results should be” list 93 | P a g e . You may select a suitable background style for your text box from the gallery displayed. sound. A clip is a file that can contain sounds and animations. ensure that “All collections” are searched by checking the box against “Everywhere”.Let us create a SmartArt graphic to describe the course structure of one of the courses offered. In the “Search in” list box. click “Change Colors”. In the panel displayed on the right. Close the text pane by clicking the “X” icon at the top right corner. Applying a SmartArt Style: A SmartArt Style is a combination of various effects that you can apply to the shapes in your SmartArt graphic to create a professionally designed look. you may click “Text Pane”. In the “Illustrations” group. Now click “Quick Styles” in the “Drawing” group on the “Home” tab. in the “Create Graphic” group on the “Design” tab. enter a word or phrase that describes the clip or the file name of the clip. Click on the slide containing the SmartArt graphic on the Slides tab. In the “SmartArt Styles” group. Alternatively. “Clip Art” refers to a ready-to-use picture. under “SmartArt Tools. This displays the text pane where you can enter your text. let us look for a clip using the word “Computer”. In the “Choose a SmartArt Graphic” window.
simply start typing as shown in the figure. To enter a title above the shape. To see the clip that you inserted actually playing. Changing the Presentation Design and Color Scheme Changing the Presentation Design: After you have created many slides. In the “Drawing” group. you need to run the slide show. The entered text appears at the centre of your shape. click “Shapes” to display the various shapes that you can use. Let us now insert some Clip Art. Click on the “Design” tab. Under “Basic Shapes”. You may change the size of the clip as required. To insert Clip Art. You may size and position the shape as required. A number of related clips are displayed. Create a new slide using the “Blank” layout by clicking “New Slide” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab.box. click on “Hexagon”. In the “Themes” group. From the pictures displayed. Now click “Go”. check the box against “Movies”. Ensure other boxes are unchecked. Click “Quick Styles” in the “Drawing” group and select a style from the gallery displayed. Now click “Go”. “Clip Art” refers to a ready-to-use picture. click on the arrow at the bottom right to see all available themes. drag a suitable one onto your slide. Now click on a theme of your choice. Simply click on the one you wish to insert and drag it to a suitable place on your slide. Create and Enhance Shapes PowerPoint offers many predefined shapes that you can insert into your document. Coloring the Shape: You may apply color to the shape by choosing from a variety of background styles. Adding Text: To add text within the shape. you may create a text box as shown in the slide in the figure. Drag your mouse to create a shape of the size you wish. For this. you can see that the new theme has been applied to all the slides. you may decide to give a totally new look to your presentation. click the “View” tab and select “Slide Show” in the “Presentation Views” group. 94 | P a g e . On the “Slides” tab. check the box against “Clip Art” under “Results should be” and ensure other boxes are unchecked.
In the panel at the right. In the "Presentation Views" group. Adding Animation and Other Effects “Animation” refers to the addition of special visual or sound effects to your slides. It is applied to all slides. You can view the animation effect right away on your slide. This results in the animation starting after the previous slide. select one from the “Transition Sound” list box.Changing the Color Scheme: To change the color scheme. click “Slide Master”. click on the “More” arrow to see all the available transition styles. The “Slide Master” is used to make global changes to the slides in your presentation. You may specify how you wish to move to the next slide. On the “Animations” tab. You may click the “Preview” icon in the “Preview” group to view the transition effects for the current slide. You may select a color scheme by clicking on it. You can see the various available layouts when you click on the lower part of the “New Slide” icon in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. This ensures consistency and saves time. To associate a sound with your transition. In the “Animations” group. click in the “Animate” list box and select “Fly In”. If you move your mouse over them. Applying animation to an object: Let us add some animation effects to the graphic in the slide shown. Now click on the “Animations” tab. Changing the Slide Master You know that slides can be created using different layouts. To see the Slide Master. click “Custom Animation” in the “Animations” group. Click the “Apply to All” button if you want the same transition effects for all slides. Now click “Play” to view your animation. click on the graphic. In PowerPoint build effects are animations to slide contents. click the arrow in the list box below the “Speed” list box and select “Start After Previous”. Now. Click on a suitable one. Applying transition effects: A transition specifies how the display changes when you move from one slide to another. You can see it is surrounded by a box. screen tips explain they are masters for different layouts. whether on the click of the mouse or after a stipulated time by entering related details under “Advance Slide”. First. in the “Transition to This Slide” group. You can see a number of slide icons in the left pane. 95 | P a g e . click on “Colors” in the “Themes” group on the “Design” tab. click on the “View” tab.
On the “Slides” tab. you can see that all the slides with the “Blank” layout have the new background style applied. Printing Handouts: Click the Office Button and select “Print → Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. two. Order: Select the order of printing the slides. You may also use this view to enter or edit notes by clicking in the lower placeholder. Let us change the background style. Click “Notes Page” in the “Presentation Views” group. or for your audience. These can be used by your audience to follow along as you give your presentation or for future reference. six. click the “View” tab. Printing Handouts You can print your presentation in the form of handouts with one. Let us select “Vertical”. whether horizontal or vertical. You may print all slides. four. Print range: Under Print range you may specify which of the slides you want to print. To view your notes page. In Normal View. Slides per page: Select the number of slides you wish to print on one page. or nine miniature slides on a page. three.Click on the slide icon related to the “Blank Layout”. Click “Background Styles” in the “Background” group on the “Slide Master” tab and select a suitable one. Print what: Select “Handouts”. Now close the Master View by clicking on “Close Master View” in the “Close” group. The “Print” window is displayed. the current slide only or any selection of slides. Creating Notes Pages You can create “Notes Pages” that include extra notes for yourself while you give your presentation. 96 | P a g e . Scale to fit paper: Check this box to print the slides of a size suitable to fit on the sheet of paper. Any change made to this slide will be reflected on all slides created using the “Blank” layout. use the “Notes Pane” at the bottom of the slide to write notes about your slide. You see the master slide in the right pane. Let us select 4.
On the “Slides” tab. right-click the slide on the “Slides” tab and select “Hide Slide”. Adding a Footer to a Slide: Click the “Insert” tab. To hide the footer on the title slide. On the “Slide” tab in the “Header and Footer” window. check the appropriate boxes. To display the same footer information on all slides. on the “Notes and Handouts” tab. Hiding the Footer: To hide the footer on a specific slide. Click the “Insert” tab and in the “Text” group.Frame slides: Check this box to print the slides with an outer frame. click “New Slide” and click “Duplicate Selected Slides” below the layouts displayed. On the “Slide” tab of the “Header and Footer” window. and then type the text that you want to appear at the bottom of the slide in the center. Click the “Home” tab. In the “Slides” group. and then type the text that you want to appear at the top or bottom of each notes page or handout. Duplicating a slide creates a copy of the selected slide and places it directly after the selected slide. select “Header & Footer”. select the “Header” or “Footer” check box. Using Headers and Footers Headers and Footers are used to add information such as slide numbers. handout or notes page. clear the “Footer” check box and click “Apply”. Duplicating and Hiding Slides Duplicating a Slide: In a presentation. you may hide the slide. time and slide number on the slide. 97 | P a g e . Select any other options that you want and then click “Apply”. a company logo or the presentation title to the top of a handout or notes page in your presentation. Click “Apply” or “Apply to all”. Hiding a Slide: If there is a slide that you do not want to display to a particular audience. if you need to duplicate a slide. click “Apply to All”. or to bottom of a slide. check the box against “Don’t show on title slide”. In the “Text” group. To insert the date. Adding a Header or Footer to a Handout or Notes Page: In the “Header and Footer” window. select “Header & Footer”. Click “Preview” to view your handouts onscreen and “Print” to print them. check the box against “Footer”. click the slide you wish to copy. click the slide icon on the “Slides” tab. the time and date. it can be quite easily achieved. To hide a slide.
Use the “Next”. There is another way in which you can hide a slide. To show a slide that you have previously hidden.The hidden slide icon with the slide number inside appears next to the slide that you have hidden. For example. Then on the Ribbon. underline an important point or draw checkmarks next to items that you have covered. 98 | P a g e . you can go backwards and redisplay it. Click the Office Button and select “Prepare → Properties” from the menu. you may want to point to an important word. this slide will not be displayed. and keywords that identify topics or other important information in the file. In the “Document Information Panel”. the subject. In the window displayed. and then click “Hide Slide”. Annotate a slide show: During your presentation. click on the “Summary” tab. “Previous”. Click on the slide that you wish to hide on the “Slides” tab in the left pane. if someone has a question about a previous slide. Documenting a File Documenting a file: Document properties are details about a file that help identify it. click the “Slide Show” tab and select “Hide Slide” in the “Set Up” group. right-click the slide that you want to show. you may decide the color of this pen by using the “Ink Color” option. Let us select “Ballpoint Pen”. When you run your presentation. Click the “Hide Slide” icon on the Ribbon once again to show the hidden slide. The hidden slide icon is then removed. “Advanced Properties”. for example. You can then move your mouse and use it as a pen on your slide. you may wish to include some related documentation with the file. Enter your details on this tab. For this. Now click “OK” and close the Document Information Panel. the author name. click the arrow next to “Document Properties” to select the set of properties that you want to change. The hidden slide icon with the slide number inside appears next to the slide that you have hidden. Right-click on a slide during the slide show. Learning to Control and Annotate a Slide Show Navigating the Slide Show: Running the slide show and practicing how to control the slide show helps you have a smooth presentation. Before saving the completed presentation. A menu is displayed as shown. These may be a descriptive title. Also. right-click on the slide and select “Pointer Options” from the menu displayed. You may move to any slide in your presentation. “Last Viewed” and “Go to Slide” options to move between slides.
Now drag with the mouse to create the button of the size you require. Now you may make changes to the new presentation as required. Click the Office Button and select “Save As” and enter the new file name and location. on the “Slides” tab. simply save the presentation with a new name.Using Advanced Presentation Features Creating a New Presentation from Existing Slides To make the task of creating a new presentation easier. Now create a new presentation by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “New”. The “Action Settings” window is displayed. moving to another slide or running another program when you click on them. “Mouse Click” and “Mouse Over”. 99 | P a g e . In the “New Presentation” window. If you want to use all slides from a presentation in a new presentation. To do this. right-click the slide to be copied and select “Copy”. Let us use the “Mouse Click” tab. select “Blank Presentation” and press the “Create” button. Specify the location and the new file name in the “Save As” window and click “Save”. click on the “Sound” icon. Right-click the first slide in the new presentation and select “Paste”. you may save the file as a new presentation. the actions specified are performed when the mouse is clicked on the button and moved over the button respectively. Save the file by clicking the Office button and selecting “Save”. Copying a slide: You may want to copy the slide which describes a course structure from your presentation to a new presentation. Let us use an action button to play a sound in the slide shown in the figure. Click “Save”. Saving the new presentation: Before you make any additional changes. themes etc that you require. Adding Action Buttons You may add action buttons on your slides to perform functions such as playing sounds. You may make any changes with respect to colors. Select “Chime” from the list of sounds. In the “Illustrations” group. The copied slide will be inserted in the presentation after the current slide. Under “Action Buttons”. Your original presentation does not get affected. This has two tabs. Click the “Insert” tab. Check the box against “Play sound”. click “Shapes”. As the names suggest. you may use the slides from one of your existing presentations.
in the “Set Up” group. so that you are sure that it fits within a certain time frame. clear the “Use Rehearsed Timings” check box. and you can see the timing in the “Slide Time box” at the right. they form a network. After you set the time for the last slide. on the “Slide Show” tab. Internet Internet Basics What is a Network? When computers are connected to each other. “Slide Sorter” view appears and displays the time of each slide in your presentation. The “Rehearsal” toolbar appears. Click the “Slide Show” tab. Delivering Presentations Rehearsing timing: Before delivering a presentation. when you click on this button you can hear the sound of a chime. To exit the PowerPoint application. Click “Yes”. In the “Set Up” group. a message box displays the total time for the presentation and asks you to confirm that you wish to keep the recorded slide timings. the slides advance automatically as per these settings. A network may consist of just two computers next to each other or can even extend to a large number of computers located in different parts of the world. 100 | P a g e . PowerPoint includes a timing feature that records the length of time spent on each slide and the total presentation time while you are rehearsing. You may use the recorded times to advance the slides automatically when you actually give your presentation. Now. Click “Next” to move to the next slide. If you do not want the slides in your presentation to advance automatically as per the slide timings recorded. your presentation can be delivered and you are ready to impress your audience. it is important to rehearse the timing.During the slide show. Now when you run your slide show. click the Office Button and then click the “Exit PowerPoint” button at the bottom right. You may perform various actions using action buttons such as moving to another slide or running another program. select “Rehearse Timings”.
usually a minicomputer or a mainframe. Network Administrator: This is a person who is a computer specialist responsible for efficient operation of the network and implementation of new networks. Distributed Processing: This is a system where computing power is located and shared at different locations. Server: This is a node that shares resources with other nodes. Computers in a network can be set up in different ways to suit the needs of users. Hub: This is the central node for other nodes. It may be a server or simply a connection point for cables from other nodes. 101 | P a g e . It could be any device such as a data storage device. Now that you are familiar with the terminology related to computer networks. Dedicated servers are typically used for websites that have high traffic. They are sometimes referred to as “LAN adapters”. let us have a look at the types of networks. and are quite powerful. A dedicated server is a computer that specializes in performing specific tasks. a printer or a computer. computer systems at different locations are networked to a main or centralized computer. Typically.A “computer network” is a communication system that connects two or more computers so that they can exchange information and share resources. In decentralized organizations. Host Computer: This is a large centralized computer. Network interface cards (NIC): These are expansion cards located within the system unit that connect the computer to a network. Network operating systems (NOS): They control and coordinate activities such as electronic communication and resource sharing between the computers and devices on a network. Client: This is a node that uses a resource from another node. you need to get familiar with certain terms which are as follows: Node: This is a device that is connected to a network. A non-dedicated server can function as both a client and a server. To understand computer networks. a client is a user’s microcomputer.
the network is known as a Local Area Network or LAN for short. They use microwave relays and satellites to reach users over long distances. Networks may also be citywide and even international. LANs span distances less than a mile and are owned by individual organizations. Configurations: A network can be configured or arranged in several ways. This is called the network’s topology.Network Types: Different types of channels allow different kinds of networks to be formed. While LANs have been widely used within organizations for years. bus. They are used to link microcomputers and share printers and other resources. within the same building. Telephone lines for example may connect communications equipment within a home or building. Typically. Wide Area Networks (WANs) are countrywide and worldwide networks. They are frequently used as links between office buildings that are located throughout a city. These LANs are called “Home Networks” and allow different computers to share resources. When this is done over longer distances. including a common internet connection. they are now being commonly used by individuals in their homes. A “Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)” is the next step up from the LAN. All communications pass through the central unit and control is maintained by “polling”. the network is known as WAN which stands for Wide Area Network. the Internet which spans the entire globe. Configurations describe the physical arrangement of the network while strategies define how information and resources are shared. Unlike a LAN. The hub may be a host computer or file server. The network types based on the geographical area they serve are local area. metropolitan area and wide area networks. a MAN is jointly owned by a group of organizations or by a network service provider who charges a fee to provide network services. They provide access to regional service (MAN) providers and span distances greater than 100 miles. ring and hierarchical. The nodes of a LAN are in close physical proximity. Usually when computers in one office are connected to one another. MANs span distances up to 100 miles. In a “star network”. Each connecting device is asked or 102 | P a g e . a number of small computers or peripheral devices are linked to a central unit which is the “network hub”. Network Architecture: This describes how a network is arranged and how resources are coordinated and shared. The widest of all WANs is of course. Network architecture encompasses network configurations and strategies. The four principal network topologies are star.
“polled” whether it has a message to send and is allowed to send its message in turn. Client nodes request the services. Distributed data processing is possible using a ring network. The nodes are either terminals with little or no processing capabilities or microcomputers running special software that allows them to act as terminals. For example. Each device examines information as it passes along the bus to see whether it is the intended recipient. An advantage of the star topology is that it can be used to support a “timesharing system”. client/server and peer-to-peer. usually a mainframe. In a “ring network”. “Client/server networks” are based on specialization and use one computer to coordinate and supply services to other nodes on the network. these computers are also hosts to smaller computers or peripheral devices. microcomputers may obtain files from other microcomputers as well as provide files to them. processing power is centralized in one large computer. just like a star network. The minicomputers are in turn connected to the corporation’s mainframe which contains data accessible to all. There is no central computer and messages are passed around the ring till they reach the correct destination. A hierarchical network is useful in centralized organizations. data and resources can be shared. Client/server networks are widely used on the Internet. Processing tasks can be performed at different locations and programs. nodes have equal authority and can act as both clients and servers. Many airline reservation systems are terminal networks. there is no host computer and each device handles its own communications. All communications travel along a common connecting cable called a “bus” or “backbone”. However. Strategies: Every network has a strategy of coordinating the sharing of information and resources. Server nodes coordinate and supply specialized services and access to resources. The star topology is commonly used to link microcomputers to a mainframe containing an organization’s database. In a “bus network”. each device is connected to two other devices. In a “peer-to-peer network”. microcomputers in a department are connected to individual departmental minicomputers. The “hierarchical network” consists of several computers linked to a central host computer. The most common network strategies are terminal. In a “terminal network”. This arrangement is commonly used for sharing data stored on different microcomputers. For example. This means that multiple users can share resources (or time) on a central computer. forming a ring. 103 | P a g e .
which can be accessed by certain external users via the Internet. Intranets: Many organizations have internal networks similar to the Internet which have web pages that contain company information. Extranets: An “Extranet” is an intranet.Organizational Internets: Most large organizations have a wide range of network configurations. operating systems and strategies. Communication within and between organizations is supported using intranets and extranets. An Intranet is accessible only from within the organization. newsletters. a firewall can also restrict data from flowing out of a network. mediating traffic between a protected network and the Internet. prices. pricing structures etc. online order forms etc. Firewalls: A “firewall” is a system that secures a network. History of Internet: In the second half of the decade from 1960 to 1970. the United States Department of Defense began a project on computer networks. or part of an intranet. Extranets are used by some organizations to allow suppliers and others limited access to their networks. 2) Like the public Internet. They provide e-mail and other services accessible only to those within the organization. web sites and web pages. may be made available to suppliers or potential customers using an extranet. intranets use browsers. It acts as a gatekeeper. Internet technologies are applied to integrate all these networks. Such networks are known as “Intranets” and may or may not be connected to the Internet. hardware or a combination of both. Thus the Internet can be termed as a Network of Networks. What is Internet? The word “Internet” is derived from the word inter-networking which means connecting different networks together. Most organizational firewalls include a special computer called a “proxy server”. All communications between the internal network and the outside world must pass through it. Specific information such as product ranges. It then decides whether it is safe to allow a message or file to pass into or out of the organization’s network. In addition to preventing unrestricted access into a network. The purpose is to increase efficiency and reduce costs. 104 | P a g e . Entry into extranets is controlled by usernames and passwords which establish the identity of the user and grant access to the areas of the extranet that he is entitled to view. and from where standard forms can be downloaded. Firewalls can be implemented in software. shielding it from access by unauthorized users. The main points of difference between an intranet and extranet are as follows: 1) An intranet is a private network within an organization while an extranet is a private network that connects more than one organization.
Government Departments and Research Centers also began using this network. Gradually. Universities. after 1970. 105 | P a g e . new independent centers were created in different places. Instead of having a central system of limited machines. By 1993 the concept of Internet had changed completely. wireless telephones and even satellites. To send data along telephone lines. This led to the birth of the modern Internet.This project was named ARPANET. researchers developed a new set of rules called Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol or TCP/IP. The roots of the giant network called Internet can be traced back to this project.
Some courses are free while others have to be paid for. companionship and many other opportunities on the Internet.Today the Internet has become a popular medium for information. “Shopping” is one of the fastest-growing Internet applications. You have additional options such as live concerts. information. You can find the latest local. You can access some of the world’s largest libraries directly from your home computer. book clubs and more. national and international news using the Internet. movie previews. You can have access to entertainment. Using the Internet. 106 | P a g e . “Entertainment” in different forms such as movies. education. you can search for bargains and make purchases or simply window shop or look for the latest fashions. It has become a popular medium for business. “Education” or “e-learning” which supports flexible learning anywhere. You can take classes on various subjects. anytime for anyone is possible due to the Internet. “Searching” for all types of information has become very convenient using the Internet. advertisement and news. playing. music and games is available using the Internet. shopping.
e-commerce is the buying and selling of goods over the Internet. Electronic Commerce i. This is known as e-commerce. the costs associated with operating a retail store can be eliminated. there are some disadvantages too. With the help of Internet. For a buyer.e. While there are numerous advantages of e-commerce. monetary transactions are also being carried out. The Internet offers a chance to reach out to a larger number of customers. The Internet offers a chance to survey a wide variety of products. the inability to “try on” prospective purchases and questions relating to the security of online payments. a seller is not required to maintain a physical inventory of goods and products are shipped directly from warehouses. 107 | P a g e . From the seller’s perspective. It does away with the need to physically travel to the seller’s location. Also. These include the inability to provide immediate delivery of goods. it offers the convenience of purchasing at any hour of the day or night.Transactions of large industries are also effected over the Internet.
Existing retail stores use B2C e-commerce to reach out to customers through the Web. Security of your credit card number is important. 2) Use a shopping bot: A shopping bot is an automated shopping assistant that searches the Internet for the best price of a product.com” and “www.Tips on how to shop online: When you shop online. 3) Consult vendor review sites: Even if a vendor offers attractive prices.private. There are two basic types of Web auction sites: 108 | P a g e . 1) Consult product review sites: These sites offer evaluations or opinions on products. The three most widely used B2C applications are as follows: “Online banking” enables customers to perform various banking operations such as accessing account information.shopping. This arrangement often eliminates the wholesaler by allowing manufacturers to sell directly to customers. There are three basic types of e-commerce: 1) “Business-to-consumer (B2C)” involves the sale of a product or service to the general public or end users.com/privatepayments”.epinions. In “Web auctions”. This is done in the form of classified ads or an auction.com” and “www. sellers post descriptions of products at a web site and buyers submit bids electronically. 4) Select a payment option: Once you have selected the product and the vendor. You may visit vendor review sites such as “www. you need to check his reputation before placing an order. “www. paying bills and applying for loans without having to visit the bank. You may consider payment options from sites such as “www.gomez.buy.mysimon.consumersearch. Two well-known shopping bots are located at “www. 2) The second type of e-commerce “Consumer-to-consumer (C2C)” involves individuals selling to individuals. “Online stock trading” allows investors to research.bizrate. transferring funds.com”. you have to place the order and make the payment. You can enlist it to compare prices.com” and “www.com” are examples of review sites on the Web. “Online shopping” as you know includes buying and selling consumer goods over the Internet.yahoo. it would be useful to keep the following suggestions in mind.americanexpress.com”. buy and sell stocks and bonds over the Internet.com” and “www.
The buyer mails a cheque to the seller. This method is more secure than credit cards. If it is a valid cheque. 3) The third type of e-commerce “Business-to-business (B2B)” involves the sale of a product or service from one business to another. For a list of digital cash providers. Buyers purchase digital cash from a bank that specializes in electronic currency and use it to purchase goods. secure and reliable payment methods for purchased goods. paint and varnish which he would purchase from the related suppliers. They facilitate the bidding process but are not involved in completing transactions and verifying the authenticity of the goods sold. a furniture manufacturer would require raw material such as wood. The merchandise presented is typically from a company’s surplus stock. Buyers and sellers need to be cautious while interacting with these sites. 3) “Digital cash” is electronic currency that only exists online. This is typically a manufacturer-supplier relationship. The three basic payment options are as follows: 1) “Cheques” are the most traditional and cheque purchases take the longest time to complete. 109 | P a g e . Sellers convert it to regular currency through the bank.a) “Auction house sites” sell directly to bidders. the purchased item is dispatched by the seller. But credit card fraud over the Internet by criminals known as “Carders” is a major concern for both buyers and sellers. 2) “Credit card” purchases are faster and more convenient. see the displayed figure. For example. It is a system that allows a person to pay for goods or services by transmitting a number from one computer to another. b) “Person-to-person auction sites” provide a forum for buyers and sellers. Security: The single greatest challenge for e-commerce is the development of fast. You can often get bargain prices and these sites are generally considered safe places to shop.
Web Utilities: Utilities are programs that make computing easier. “Web Utilities” are specialized utility programs that make using the Internet and Web easier and safer. To use a web-based application. The ASP downloads a copy of the requested application to your computer’s hard disk drive from where you can run it. File transfer protocol (FTP): FTP is an Internet standard for transferring files. Excel and PowerPoint. it is automatically deleted from your hard disk. This free service provides access to programs similar to Microsoft’s Word. Most application service providers (ASPs) charge a fee to access and use their applications. you must connect to the ASP’s web site. The aim of “web-based services” such as ThinkFree is to free users from owning and storing applications. Web-based applications: Normally application programs are owned by individuals and organizations and stored on the computer’s hard disk. When you exit the program. “Downloading” is the process of copying a file from a computer on the 110 | P a g e . A “web-based application” is a software package that can be accessed through a web browser. Some utilities facilitate sharing resources over the Internet while others enhance the capabilities of your browser.
Many web sites require you to have some plug-ins in order to view their content fully. Others need to be installed before they can be used by your browser.Internet and saving it on your computer. these programs can 111 | P a g e . Some widely used plug-ins include Acrobat Reader from Adobe. This is called “uploading”. Additionally. Some plug-ins are included in browsers and operating systems. Filters allow parents of young children as well as organizations to block access to certain sites and set time limits. Plug-ins: “Plug-ins” are programs that are automatically started and operate as part of your browser. RealPlayer from RealNetworks and Shockwave from Adobe. You can also use FTP to copy files from your computer to another computer on the Internet. The Internet has a lot of content which is not suitable for unrestricted viewing. you may visit some of the sites listed in the displayed figure. Windows Media Player from Microsoft. These are used for a variety of purposes ranging from viewing and printing documents to playing audio and video files. Filters: “Filters” are programs that block access to selected sites. To learn more about plug-ins and how to download them. QuickTime from Apple.
have a look at the displayed figure. and programs with any other user. Anyone with access to the Internet can exchange text. protect against computer viruses. using voice chat. Two of the best known Internet security suites are from McAfee and Norton. Using Internet you can communicate with or find out about what is happening in any part of the world. chat groups and newsgroups. Today. Chatting with your friends in virtual chat rooms is another facility that is available. These programs control spam. You may chat using the keyboard.generate reports regarding time spent on the Internet as well as at individual web sites. It is popularly known as the "Information Highway" which is used as a versatile means for information sharing. provide filters and much more. Internet Security Suites: An “Internet security suite” is a collection of utility programs designed to maintain your security and privacy while you are on the Web. you can also chat 112 | P a g e . For a list of some of the best known filters. data files.
view images. Examples are Electronic Mail (e-mail). You can also play different games on the Internet. graphics. The World Wide Web was originally developed in 1990 at CERN. etc. You can access the World Wide Web on the Internet by using any browser application such as Mozilla. Internet Telephone: This provides a low cost alternative to long distance telephone calls using electronic voice delivery. The World Wide Web Consortium now manages it. 113 | P a g e . listen to sound files. File Transfer Protocol (FTP). animations and videos. Some of the applications that depend on communication systems are as follows. but they are not the same thing. There are a large number of applications that can be used on the Internet for various purposes. The name of its website is http://www. A web page is simply a document formatted in a standard language known as Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). World Wide Web (WWW or Web) and Instant Messaging. You can retrieve documents. “live” electronic communication between two or more individuals.org. The Web is a multimedia interface to the resources available on the Internet. the European Laboratory for Particle Physics. Mailing lists. video. cables and satellites. Communications: Computer communications is the process of sharing data. exchange voice data and view programs that run on practically any software in the world. Newsgroups. Telnet to connect to another computer.w3. Chat groups. E-mail: This provides a fast and efficient alternative to traditional mail by sending and receiving electronic documents. Instant Messaging: This supports direct. It contains hypertext links represented by underlined text and images that lead to related information. programs and information between two or more computers. It is easy to get the Internet and the Web confused.with the other person as if you were talking on the telephone. It connects millions of computers and resources throughout the world. This means that web pages consist of multiple media such as text. Netscape. Internet Explorer. When you connect to this network you are described as being “online”. animation and sound. Electronic Commerce: This means buying and selling goods electronically. The Internet is the actual physical network made up of wires. What is WWW? The World Wide Web (WWW) is information organized in the form of Web pages containing text and graphic images.
Information Flow Over the Internet Sending and receiving devices follow a set of communication rules for the exchange of information. Advocacy (to influence readers to support a cause or idea). TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the name of the core protocol used on the Internet. The other protocols are Point to Point Protocol (PPP) and Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP). This may be done by following hyperlinks. or just having fun. These rules for exchanging data between computers are known as “protocols”. TCP/IP: The essential features of this protocol involve: 1) Identifying sending and receiving devices AND 2) Reformatting information for transmission across the Internet. displaying graphics. the information to be transmitted is broken down in the form of small packets. The packets are reassembled at the destination to get the original information. Java applets are used for presenting animation. either from a search or through a series of linked pages. Educational. Because these numeric addresses 114 | P a g e . Using this protocol. Statistical Information and Personal Information. "Web Surfing" means moving through different web pages.Web pages also can contain special programs called “applets” that are generally written in a programming language such as Java. Identification: Every computer on the Internet has a unique numeric address called an “IP address (internet protocol address)”. News. in the course of learning something. You may even move between pages at random. A network also has components called “Routers” that help choose the best path for an individual packet to travel and reach its destination. providing interactive games and more. The Internet uses some rules or standard set of protocols for communication between computers. Each packet contains the address of its destination computer as well as the computer of its origin. This ensures uniformity among users using various types of computer systems. Protocols are used to create an Internet connection for your computer and they handle the data transfer over network lines. The information on WWW can be classified in different categories based on the type of their content such as Business and Commercial. These addresses are used to deliver e-mail and to locate web sites.
Communication Systems “Communication Systems” are electronic systems that transmit data from one location to another. They convert messages into packets that can travel across the communication channel. a system was developed to automatically convert text-based addresses to numeric IP addresses. Your modem would be the “connection device” which would modify the message so that it could travel efficiently across the “communication channel” which is the telephone line. “198. 115 | P a g e . a DNS might translate it to an IP address say. For example. It may be a physical cable or it can be wireless. another modem modifies it once again so that it can be displayed on the “receiving device” which would be another computer. when you send an e-mail. your computer would be the “sending device”. if you enter a URL.4” before a connection can be made. How the message is modified and sent would be described in the “data transmission specifications”. For example.132. This system uses a “domain name server (DNS)” that converts text-based addresses to IP addresses. Every communication system has four basic elements which are as follows: 1) Sending and receiving devices: These may be computers or specialized communication devices. 3) Connection devices: These act as the interface between the sending and receiving devices and the communication channel. At the receiving end.com”.example. say “www. 4) Data transmission specifications: These are procedures that coordinate the sending and receiving devices by defining the way in which the messages will be sent across the communication channel. 2) Communication channel: This is the actual medium that carries the message.103.are difficult to remember.
Compared to coaxial cable. They include telephone lines. Telephone lines consist of twisted-pair cable which is made up of hundreds of copper wires. 116 | P a g e . Coaxial cable is used to deliver television signals as well as to connect computers in a network. fiber-optic cable is lighter and more reliable at transmitting data as compared to coaxial cable. One category connects sending and receiving devices by providing a physical connection such as a wire or cable. Fiber-optic cable transmits data as pulses of light through tiny tubes of glass. There are two categories of communication channels. Coaxial cable is a high-frequency transmission cable and consists of a single solid-copper core. coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable.Communication Channels: You know that communication channels are an essential element of every communication system. The other category is wireless. “Physical Connections” use a solid medium to connect sending and receiving devices. A single twisted pair culminates in a wall jack into which you can plug your phone and computer.
etc.Wireless Connections: Wireless connections use air to connect sending and receiving devices. One of the most common applications is to transfer data from a portable device such as a notebook computer or PDA to a desktop computer. It creates a wireless personal area network (PAN) and provides a way to connect and exchange information between two devices over distances of about 30 feet. For longer distances. Primary technologies used for wireless connections are infrared. They can be used to send and receive large volumes of data. We see a large number of cables in our offices. homes and everywhere else. Bluetooth is a small. GPS devices use that information to determine the geographical location of the device. Microwaves travel in a straight line and therefore can be transmitted across relatively short distances. The “Global Positioning System (GPS)” is a network of 24 satellites developed by the United States Department of Defense which continually sends location information to the earth. Satellites can amplify and relay microwave signals from one transmitter on the ground to another. We often have a hard time trying to figure out which cable needs to go where. Some users connect their notebook or handheld computers to a cellular telephone to access the Web. broadcast radio. the waves are relayed by microwave stations with microwave dishes or antennas. Conceived initially by Ericsson. cheap radio chip to be plugged into computers. Since the light waves travel in a straight line. mobile phones. Most Web-enabled devices follow a standard known as “Wi-Fi (i. Microwave is a good medium for sending data between buildings in a city or a large college campus.e. 117 | P a g e . wireless fidelity)”. It aims to simplify data synchronization between Internet devices and other computers. They are sometimes mounted with a monitor to display maps and with speakers to provide spoken directions to the driver. They do not use any solid substances like wires and cables. “Bluetooth” is the name of a new technology that promises to change the way we use machines. sending and receiving devices must be in clear view of one another. Bluetooth is essentially a cable-replacement technology which tries to solve this problem. GPS devices provide navigational support in some automobiles. “Infrared” uses infrared light waves to communicate over short distances. “Microwave” communication uses high-frequency radio waves. “Bluetooth” is a short-range wireless standard that uses microwaves. “Broadcast radio” uses radio signals to communicate with wireless devices. “Satellite” communication uses satellites orbiting above the earth as microwave relay stations. Cellular telephones and many Web-enabled devices use broadcast radio to place telephone calls and to connect to the Internet. microwave and satellite. printers.
The modem thus enables digital microcomputers to communicate across analog telephone lines. A great deal of computer communication takes place over telephone lines. 118 | P a g e . send and receive digital signals which are binary signals. Connection devices: We have seen that connection devices act as the interface between the sending and receiving devices and the communication channel.Let us look at a summary of communication channels. Telephones send and receive analog signals which are continuous electronic waves. Modems: The word “modem” stands for modulator-demodulator. on the other hand. The various units to measure transfer speed are shown in the displayed chart. The speed at which modems transfer data is called “transfer rate”. “Demodulation” is the process of converting analog signals to digital form. Computers. This is typically measured in “bits per second (bps)”. “Modulation” is the process of converting digital signals to analog form.
Large corporations lease special high-speed lines from telephone companies which provide very high 119 | P a g e .There are four basic types of modems: external. The “PC Card modem” is a credit card-sized expansion board that is inserted into portable computers. It sends and receives signals through the air. A telephone cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. it does not use cables. PC Card and wireless. Connection Service: Standard telephone lines and conventional modems provide a “dial-up service” which is quite slow. Unlike other modems. internal. A telephone cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. A “wireless modem” may be internal. The “external modem” stands outside the computer and is connected by a cable to the computer’s serial port. Another cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. The “internal modem” consists of a plug-in circuit board inside the system unit. external or a PC Card.
Let us compare typical user connection costs and speeds. “Digital subscriber line (DSL)” uses existing telephone lines to provide highspeed connections. “Cable modems” use existing telephone cables to provide high-speed connections. These devices use “3G cellular networks” to download data from the Internet. 120 | P a g e .capacity. While special high-speed lines are very expensive. Satellite/air connection services use satellites and the air to send data to users at faster rates than dial-up connections. T2. there are other affordable connections which provide significantly higher capacity than a dial-up service. ADSL (asymmetric digital subscriber line) is one of the most widely used types of DSL. satellite and cellular services. T3 and T4 lines and do not require conventional modems. cable modems. “Cellular services” are used by mobile devices and laptops. These include DSL. These lines are known as T1.
“Medium band” is the bandwidth used in special leased lines to connect minicomputers and mainframes as well as to transmit data over long distances. This is also known as low bandwidth. It indicates the volume of information that can move across the communication channel in a given time. Audio and video files require a wider bandwidth than text documents to be transmitted. cable and satellite connections use this bandwidth. There are three categories of bandwidth. 121 | P a g e . “Broadband” is the bandwidth used for high capacity transmissions. Bandwidth: This is a measurement of the width or capacity of the communication channel.Data Transmission: Several factors such as bandwidth and protocols affect how data is transmitted. Specialized high-speed devices and microcomputers with DSL. “Voiceband” is used for standard telephone communication. Microcomputers with standard modems and dial-up service use this bandwidth.
This is how the PC establishes a connection to the Internet through an ISP. In the past. With this connection. username. Today. you are linked to the world of larger computers and the Internet. Colleges and universities mostly provide free access to students. Set Top Boxes and other propriety solutions. there has been a dramatic change in connectivity. An “Internet Service Provider” is a company that provides access to the Internet for a monthly fee. They provide Internet connections with wireless modems and other wireless devices. the data transmission rate is much higher. Using the modem and dialer software. It is a special application program that brings information from any part of the world 122 | P a g e . wired devices were required to be able to connect to the Internet. there are also other options for connecting to the Internet. you can connect your Personal Computer (PC) to the Internet. password and access phone number. The service provider gives you a software package. “Wireless service providers” do not use telephone or cable lines. you can access the Internet through the LAN. Some companies also offer free Internet access. Examples are DSL.How Do We Connect? “Connectivity” is a concept related to using computer networks to link people and resources. In this method. In the last five years. You can also connect to the Internet using a leased line. They are basically large telecom companies that have nationwide coverage and operations. the PC connects to the server of an Internet Service Provider (ISP). You can connect your microcomputer by telephone or other telecommunications links to other computers and information sources almost anywhere. To do so. “National Internet Service Providers” are providers who operate primarily on a National level. Cable Modem. Browsers A Web Browser is a software tool used to browse the Internet. you need a device called the “Modem”. The providers are already connected to the Internet and provide a path or connection for individuals to access the Internet. This is just the beginning of the “Wireless Revolution” which will change the way we communicate and use computer technology in a big way. They provide access through standard telephone lines or cable connections. there is widespread use of mobile and wireless communication devices for gaining access to the Internet. If a computer is part of a local area network (LAN) that has connectivity to the Internet. Using a telephone. Besides these.
Navigating the Web Using Internet Explorer 7 Internet Explorer is a world-class browser that is designed to support various internet standards across a variety of platforms. and animations. Say you are looking for “digital cameras”. The first part of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) presents the “protocol” used to connect to the resource. It allows navigation from one page to another. A browser does the work of connecting to the Internet and locating and displaying web pages. At the top. With an Internet connection and Internet Explorer. click on the “Launch Internet Explorer Browser” icon on your desktop. Internet Explorer. This allows easy viewing of text.microsoft. type the website address or URL in the address bar. If you do not see this icon. you can find and view information about anything on the Web To start Internet Explorer. The URL of the web page is displayed in the address bar. Another way to navigate the web is to go the address bar and type what you are looking for. The protocol “http://” is the most widely used Web protocol. Since it is created by Microsoft. You can connect directly to a web site by typing the URL of that site in the address bar or location bar of the web browser. Protocols are rules for exchanging data between computers. When you want to visit a website. For example “. playing audio and video files and running programs. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Internet Explorer”. you see a long rectangular box called the “Address Bar”. Type “digital camera” and press “Enter”. The second part presents the “domain name”. Using a browser.com/ and press “Enter”. images.in” indicates India.com” indicates a commercial site and “. separate and unique address. for example. Most browsers have a Graphical User Interface (GUI).through the Internet to your computer screen. Each web site has a distinct. it is closely integrated with the Windows operating system. Internet Explorer automatically sends your query to a search service and displays the results. you can communicate with any computer over the Internet. 123 | P a g e . Netscape Navigator and Mozilla are some examples of the browser applications that are commonly used. It is the name of the server where the resource is located. The last part of the domain name following the dot is called the “top-level domain (TLD)”. It identifies the type of organization or what country the website is from. This address is known as the Uniform Resource Locator or URL in short. http://www.
Use the “Back” button to the left of the address bar to go to the previous page you were on. Home Page: The default page displayed when you start Internet Explorer is called the “Home Page”. Quick Tabs: To see a thumbnail view of all the websites you have open in your tabs. click the “Quick Tabs” button to the left of the first tab. you may enter your preferences under “Home page”. You can scroll through a web page using the horizontal and vertical scrollbars. Selecting links: When you point to a link on a web page. Below the address bar. forms data. 124 | P a g e . and passwords. buttons or pictures. you can see a toolbar. You now see a menu displayed above the toolbar. click “Settings”. The Home Page of a website is the opening or main page of the website. you may use the “Forward” button.To the right of the address bar. Select “Tools → Internet Options”. The “Stop” button to its right is used to stop a page from loading. If you clicked the Back button and you want to move forward to the page you were on just before you clicked it. select “Tools → Internet Options”. AutoComplete: Internet Explorer automatically records Web addresses. you may click the down arrow just to the right of the Forward button and select the webpage from the dropdown list. you may enter the settings you require. under “AutoComplete”. click “Settings”. Right-click on a blank space on the toolbar and select “Menu Bar”. Click on a thumbnail to view a particular website. On the “General” tab. which is intended chiefly to greet visitors and provide information about the site or its owner. To create a new tab. you can see the “Refresh” button. To access the Internet Explorer AutoComplete options. you may enter the settings you require. the web page related to the link is opened. You can quickly switch between open websites by simply clicking on the tabs. You may use this to reload a web page. To close a tab. On the “Content” tab. the pointer changes to a hand and the URL is shown in the status bar. Under “Tabs”. Tabbed Browsing: Tabs enable you to have multiple websites open in one Internet Explorer window at one time. To access the Internet Explorer Tabbed Browsing options. When you click on the link. You may change the Internet Explorer Home Page to a site of your preference. select “Tools → Internet Options”. click the “New Tab” button or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+T”. Links may be in the form of underlined text. In the “AutoComplete Settings” window. click on the “X” to the right side of it. To quickly go back to a website you visited earlier. In the “Tabbed Browsing Settings” window.
If you would like to display the Favorites Center at the left of your screen at all times. you may create a new folder for a favorite. The “Favorites” list contains all the favorites you have created. Enter a name for the new folder in the “Create a Folder” window and click “Create”. When you click on a link on one page included in a frame. Click “OK” in the other windows as well. simply click on the “X” shaped. For this. you may pin it to the window by clicking on the “Pin the Favorites Center” button. from the “Create in” drop-down list. Select “Tools → Internet Options”. Click on thumbnails to view related documents. Now click “Add” in the “Add a Favorite” window. content will appear in the language that has the highest priority. click “Add”. To unpin it. To place this favorite in an existing folder. In the “Add Language” window. Viewing thumbnails: Thumbnail images are small images shown on a web page because of space limitations and the time required for downloading. To view these pages in your preferred language. “Close the Favorites Center” icon. click “Languages”. This list appears under “Favorites” when you click the “Favorites Center” button on the toolbar. 125 | P a g e . The “Add a Favorite” window is displayed.. You may type a new name for the page in the “Name” text box.Using frames: The browser area can be divided into different scrollable areas called frames. click “New Folder”. rather than having to type the sites URL each time you want to visit it. Creating a list of favorites allows you to visit those sites with a single click. Alternatively. the related page is displayed in another frame. If a Web site offers multiple languages. select the language you want to add and click “OK”. You may adjust the size of the frames by dragging the border between the frames. Click the “Add to Favorites” button on the toolbar and select “Add to Favorites.”. you can add languages to your list of languages in Internet Explorer. In the “Language Preference” window. you can arrange them in order of priority. select the desired folder and click “Add”. Using the Favorites Center Internet Explorer Favorites are used to save links to sites that you want to visit again. On the “General” tab. Displaying web pages in other languages: Some Web sites offer their content in several languages. If you speak several languages. You may organize your favorite pages in folders and save items under different folders. Adding items to the Favorites list: Go to the page that you want to add to your list.
These must be filled in carefully before they are submitted.” and “Favorites → Organize Favorites” from the Menu Bar. the current page. a specific page or range of pages by making the appropriate selection under “Print Range”. Printing and Saving Web Pages Printing and saving web pages: To print the current page.Organizing your Favorites: You may wish to organize your favorite pages by topic. The form shown is used to register for a Yahoo mail account. Now. Click on one of the yellow icons to see what pages you visited at a particular site. Preliminary validations are performed on some fields. Using the History list: Internet Explorer keeps track of the web pages you have previously visited in the form of history. Once you have completed your registration. select “Favorites → Add to Favorites. For this. You may print all pages. such as your name. Online Application Forms: Online Application Forms are forms that are given to the user to fill when connected to the Internet. buttons. select “File → Print” from the menu. Click “Yes” in the displayed window. Using Forms Forms are part of the web page that can help you to enter data.. 126 | P a g e . You can also move items from one folder to another by using the “Move” button or dragging the item to the appropriate folder You may also use the Menu Bar to add items to your Favorites list and to organize your Favorites. You can fill information in it and submit the form contents by clicking on buttons provided. you may have to enter your personal details while booking an airline ticket online. and then click “Organize Favorites”. To delete an item from the History List. right-click on it and select “Delete”. Some mandatory fields must be entered before the data is accepted. Click the “Add to Favorites” button. You may re-sort your History items by clicking on the arrow next to the "History" button and making your selection. A form may have text boxes. pop-up menus or drop-down lists. check boxes. address. rename or delete a folder. For example. To view the History list. You may then click on a website link to open the related page. and so on. click on one of the calendar icons. click the “History” button in the Favorites Center. In the “Organize Favorites” window. you may use the different buttons in the lower part to create. selected text. you can login to your account and use all facilities available. phone number. History items are displayed sorted by website. The “Print” window is displayed.
Specify the location at which you wish to download the web page. The “Save Webpage” window is displayed. Search engines are also huge databases of web sites. you enter a keyword or phrase reflecting the information you want. you can use the Preview option. Saving a page without displaying it: Position the mouse pointer over the link to the web page you wish to save. A number of search tools have been developed and are available on different web sites. Type a file name for the image and then click “Save”. You may choose a format for the page from the dropdown list in the “Save as type” field. For example. The “Save As” window is displayed. if you entered the keyword “travel” you get 127 | P a g e . The “Save Picture” window is displayed. web directories and search engines. The search engine compares your entry against its database and displays a list of “hits” in the form of hyperlinks to related web pages. Search services help you to quickly locate information about a specific topic from multiple websites. Search services can be categorized into two types. For this. a descriptive world or phrase or by browsing a topic list. Web directories are databases of Internet sites that are organized by topics or subjects. Choose “Save Picture As”. Click “Close” when the download is completed. Search services can be categorized into two types. Web directories are databases of Internet sites that are organized by topics or subjects. Choose “Save Target As”. position the mouse pointer over the image. Search engines are also huge databases of web sites. Saving an image from a page: You may wish to save only an image from a web page. Choose a folder in which to save this image. but typically offer no categories or differentiation between different types of material. Saving an entire web page: Select “File → Save As” from the menu. Specify the location at which you wish to save your file. In a keyword search. Now click “Save”. Type a file name and then click “Save”. Finding Information on the Web Using Search Services As you know. but typically offer no categories or differentiation between different types of material. You may save the web page with a new name by making changes in the “File name” field. web directories and search engines. Right-click to display the pop-up menu. Search engines provide two different search approaches: Keyword search and Directory search. select “File → Print Preview” from the menu. A search can be done by entering a keyword. Right-click to display a pop-up menu. there is a vast ocean of information available on the World Wide Web. For this.Previewing a web page: To have a look at how a page will look before it is printed.
thousands of hits. These are ordered according to those sites most likely to contain the information requested and are usually in groups of 10. You may find relevant information on the web using “Subject Directories”. Subject directories are collections of Internet resources organized into subject categories. They are useful for looking for information on a specific subject or to gain familiarity with a topic. Advantages of subject directories are that they generally contain good quality sites and they save time since subject wise information is available. Let us have a look at the Google subject directory. Enter the URL “http://directory.google.com” in the address bar and press “Enter”. You can see the Google directory on your screen showing links to various subjects. Clicking on a subject will show you more detailed lists from which you may make your selections. Using the Search Box: One of the new features of Internet Explorer 7 is the “Search Box” located at the top right. You can search the internet using most search engines from the search box instead of going to other search engine sites. If you want to find something on a page you are currently on, click on the down arrow to the right of the magnifying glass and select “Find on this Page”. Enter your search criteria and click “Next”. Using the Search Box: One of the new features of Internet Explorer 7 is the “Search Box” located at the top right. You can search the internet using most search engines from the search box instead of going to other search engine sites. If you want to find something on a page you are currently on, click on the down arrow to the right of the magnifying glass and select “Find on this Page”. Enter your search criteria and click “Next”. You may change the default search engine if you wish. For this, click on the down arrow to the right of the magnifying glass and select “Change Search Defaults”. Click “Set Default” and then “OK” to make the search provider you just added as the default one. Metasearch Engines: When you research a topic, you may need to visit different web sites in order to use different search engines. This would be time-consuming and duplicate responses would be inevitable. “Metasearch Engines” offer an alternative. They are programs that automatically submit your search request to several search engines simultaneously. The metasearch engine receives the results, eliminates duplicates, orders the hits and provides the edited list to you. You can see a list of some metasearch engines available on the Web in the displayed table.
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Specialized Search Engines: These search engines focus on subject-specific web sites. They save your time by narrowing your search. For a list of a few specialized search engines, have a look at the displayed table.
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Content Evaluation: You must keep in mind that not all information available on the Web is accurate. In fact, anyone can publish content on the Web. Many sites such as Wikipedia.com, allow anyone to post new material, sometimes anonymously and without critical evaluation. To evaluate the accuracy of information found on the Web, you need to consider the following points. Authority: Is the author an expert on the subject? Is the web site an individual’s personal one or an official one? Accuracy: Has the information been critically reviewed for correctness? Does the web site provide a method of reporting inaccurate information? Objectivity: Is the information reported biased or based on actual facts? Does the author gain personally by convincing the reader or changing his opinion? Currency: Is the information up to date. Is the date when the site was updated specified? Google
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electronic communication has become a standard and preferred way to stay in touch with suppliers. Click “more” to view additional links. you can save this as your default search behavior on the “Preferences” page. Language Tools: Click “Language Tools” to specify your language preferences for a particular search.com in the address box. use multiple words and leave out non-essential words. Searching by Topic: The Google web site interface consists of many links to various topics and a search text box. You can filter inappropriate material. You may click on the link of your choice. You will not see the search results page at all. Press “Enter” to display the Google home page. the "Iam Feeling Lucky" site would be listed on top. Click “Preferences” to enter your requirements. friends and family can stay in touch even when separated by thousands of miles. use more descriptive words as opposed to general ones. you might want to try Advanced Search. At a personal level. Click “even more” to see some more useful links.google. 131 | P a g e . Preferences: You may configure your search exactly as you want it. Then press the “Google Search” button”. Advanced Search: Once you know the basics of Google search. This takes you straight to the most relevant website that Google finds for your query. Click “Advanced Search” to enter your options. set the interface language and search for pages written in specific languages.“Google” is one of the most popular search engines. but if you do. Communication Using E-Mail Using Web E-Mail Services You know that communication is the most popular Internet activity. The result displayed is page wise if the resulted list is big. Type the keyword on which you wish to search in the search text box. I am Feeling Lucky: You may try using the "I am Feeling Lucky" button when you have entered your search terms. Searching by Keyword: Some simple tips for entering keywords are be specific. If you typically search only pages in a specific language. employees and customers. At a business level. Start the Internet Explorer browser and type www. The search results displayed have links to the pages containing matches to your desired keyword. Click the links to visit the related web pages. which offers numerous options for making your searches more precise and getting more useful results.
Let us create a free e-mail ID on Yahoo. To go to the Yahoo home page. Rediffmail.com” is the name of the domain or server. low cost and absence of time restrictions. all the mail that has been received is downloaded to his computer. or electronic mail. especially in urban areas. When the recipient switches on his computer and connects to the mail service. enables communication by sending and receiving written messages via a computer over the Internet.yahoo. “yahoo. has increased rapidly in recent years. “ahmed” is the name of the person.com. The other is based on Post Office Protocol (POP3) using which you may download mails onto your computer or send mails stored on your hard disk. This is a very powerful tool for communication and a prime reason for the popularity of Internet. A complete e-mail address is normally in the form of “ahmed@yahoo. There are basically two types of e-mail services you can use. Hotmail.com. If the ID you select has already been taken by someone else.com. In this. Now. The use of e-mail in our country. E-mail has become very popular because of its speed. enter an ID which will act as both your login name and your email address. etc. When the mail server identifies the recipient. or for his computer to be on. The first step is to fill out your personal information. click “Free Mail: Sign Up”. the identity of the recipient is verified and then the mail is forwarded. Select a security question and enter a suitable answer. You have already seen how to fill in an online form.com. The website provides you with a unique user name and you can also specify a password.E-mail. you have to create a password. When an e-mail is sent. type “www.com. similarly every e-mail account has a unique address. The web site has a registration page that will ask you to enter some information and also make you accept a user agreement. At the other end. Some of the examples are mail. You will be asked to answer this question in case you forget your password. The most popular is the free web mail service that many web sites provide. it is not necessary for the person to whom the e-mail has been sent to be available.com” in the address bar and press “Enter”. it sends the message to his address. try a variation of the name. You see a form displayed on your screen.Yahoo. After you have chosen a name. To use the e-mail facility the user has to register with the web site providing the facility. Creating an e-mail account is fairly simple. 132 | P a g e . Indiatimes. You need an e-mail program and a connection to the Internet. The mail sent by you is sent to the mail server. Then you may enter an alternate e-mail address if you have one.com”. Next. Just as every web page has a unique address.
In the United States of America. 134 | P a g e . the recipient’s address is to be removed from future mailing lists. The Mozilla Thunderbird e-mail program which is available for free download at “www. Here you are required to enter the Internet News Server Name. These programs use a variety of approaches to identify and eliminate spam. In the "Commands" list. Click “Next”. On the Standard toolbar click the "Toolbar Options" arrow. Now. enter your e-mail address. click "Go". perform the following steps. and then click "Customize". click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Outlook 2007”. Newsgroups are also called discussion groups.mozilla. Also. Enter the server name and then click “Next”. and drag it and place it in the "Go" menu. you can see that there is a default news account named “Microsoft Communities”. and to post replies to them. This indicates that you may subscribe to a newsgroup of your choice on the Microsoft news server.com” comes with built-in spam blocking software. If you have not previously set up a newsreader. Using Newsgroups A newsgroup is a forum on the Internet for discussions on a specified range of subjects. In the "Categories" list. In Windows Mail. In the “Internet Accounts” window. When “Congratulations” is displayed. click “Add”. Point to "Add or Remove Buttons".the development and use of “Spam Blockers”. In the window displayed. Newsreaders are used to gain access to various types of newsgroups. Enter your name as you want it displayed and click “Next”. Microsoft Outlook automatically sets up the Windows Mail Newsreader. Adding a News Account: Let us add a new account. the CAN-SPAM Act has been enacted which requires that every marketing-related e-mail provides an opt-out option. To start the Microsoft Outlook application. When the option is selected. This newsreader is a Network News Transport Protocol (NNTP) newsreader. click "News". Click on the "Commands" tab. click “Finish”. to download and read news messages. Select “Tools → Accounts” from the menu. You may then close the “Customize” window. If you do not find the “News” item in the “Go” menu of Microsoft Outlook. Select “Go → News” from the menu. which you can use to download newsgroup content and then work with it when you are not connected to the Internet. You can see this account under the “News” heading in the “Internet Accounts” window. click on “Newsgroup Account” and then click “Next”. a folder with this name is created in the list of folders in the left panel.
you can have a complete conversation. There are different instant messengers available such as Yahoo messenger. “Work” and “Notes” sections. You can see that the contact is displayed in your list. Google talk etc. Windows Live Messenger. If both parties are online at the same time.Click “Close”. You 135 | P a g e . To use a messenger. Enter your e-mail address and password and then click “Sign In”. You may choose to reply to a message. In the contacts list. Use “Ctrl+Click” to select multiple groups. In the “Instant Messaging Address” box enter your contact’s e-mail address. you need to add his name to your list of contacts. The difference is that you can send and receive messages as soon as they are typed. To unsubscribe from a group. enter your message in the “Personal invitation” box and check the box against “Also send an e-mail invitation to this contact”. To print this message. Now click “OK”. On the “All” tab. you may click on the group you wish to subscribe to. It is similar to e-mail. Select “Start → All Programs”. You may read any message you wish by double-clicking on it. If your contact does not have Windows Live Messenger. ensure that you are connected to the Internet and click “Yes”. you may add additional information in the “Contact”. Now. download the Windows Live Messenger and install it. ICQ. Since this list needs to be downloaded from the news server. right-click on its name and select “Unsubscribe”. Using Messengers for Instant Messaging Instant Messaging enables you to have a conversation with another person or a group of people concurrently. Click “OK” to confirm. Click “Reply Group” to send a reply to all members of a group and “Reply” to reply to the individual sender of the message. You see a window asking whether you would like to view a list of available newsgroups. “Personal”. Click the “Add a contact” button. Adding a Contact: Before you can chat with someone. it must first be downloaded from the Internet and installed on your computer. you can see which of your contacts are online and offline at any given time. select “File → Print” from the menu bar. Click “Add Contact” after you are done. The list is downloaded and the “Newsgroup Subscriptions” window is displayed. If you wish. Click on a newsgroup name in the folder list to see a list of messages. The names of the newsgroups appear in the folder list. Then click “Subscribe”. Select “File → New → News Message” to create a new message to send to the complete group. click “Windows Live Messenger” to start the Windows Live Messenger. In the “Windows Live” folder.
In the box at the bottom of the conversation window that comes up. deleting the contact etc. you are notified about it. For this. you may close the conversation window by clicking “Show Menu” and selecting “File → Close”. Changing your Status: You may wish to display a specific status against your name such as “Busy”. In the window displayed. The new picture is then displayed. click on your name at the top of the screen. You may send an emoticon along with your message. Click “OK” in the window that comes up. For this. Offline contacts will receive the messages once they come online. also called “Smileys”. “Emoticons”. Social Networking 136 | P a g e . Click “Options”. click on your name at the top of the screen and then click on the status you wish. are symbols that help to convey emotion or additional meaning in a written statement. When you click on the name of a contact who is offline. You can see the complete conversation in the upper section of the “Conversation” window. type your message and click “Send” or simply press “Enter”. Saving your conversation: You may save your complete conversation. This message is displayed immediately on your contact’s screen. you may click on the different categories in the left pane to specify related settings. double-click the name of an online contact. After you have completed your chat. messages from your contact are displayed on your screen. Right-click on a contact’s name in the main window to perform various activities such as sending an e-mail. “Out to lunch” etc. click on the “Show Menu” icon to the right of the Paint Brush icon in the conversation window. the emoticon is sent along with the text. In the main Messenger screen. When you click “Send”. When a contact comes online. you are informed about his status. Click “Change display picture”. For this. Now select “File → Save”. Choose a picture and then click “OK” in the “Display Pictures” window. Changing the Display Picture: You may change the picture that is displayed against your name. editing contact details. enter the file name in which you want to save it and press “Save”. Specifying Other Settings: You may specify other settings such as the way your name is displayed in a conversation. In the “Save As” window. Chatting with your contact: Now. Changing the Color Scheme: You may change the color scheme of the Messenger application by clicking on the Paint Brush icon at the top of the main Messenger window and selecting a color of your choice. You can also send messages to contacts who are offline.can chat with any contact who is online. In the same way. you are ready to begin your chat. Type your message and then select an emoticon from the list. Click on your name at the top of the screen.
“Reuniting” sites are designed to connect people who have known one another but have lost touch. Members can search the database to locate individuals. Many sites even notify you when someone joins with parts of his profile matching yours.One of the fastest growing uses of the Internet is “social networking” i. Two well-known friend-of-a-friend sites are Friendster and MySpace. For example. You must consider carefully what you are disclosing before providing information to any site or individual. friend-of-a-friend and common interest. “Common interest” sites bring together individuals that share common interests or hobbies. you might join LinkedIn. you provide profile information such as your age. school name etc. For example. you might join Meetup. There are three basic categories of social networking sites: reuniting.e. Two popular reuniting sites are Facebook and Classmates Online. If you wanted to locate or create a special interest group. This information is added to the site’s database. connecting individuals to one another. For a summary of social networking sites. 137 | P a g e . see the displayed table. “Friend-of-a-friend” sites are designed to bring together two people who do not know each other but share a common friend. if you are looking for business contacts. You could then visit his site to connect to his friends and join his list of friends as well. gender. When you join a social network by connecting to a reuniting site. a network could be started by an acquaintance who provides his profile information and list of friends.
Also making reports quickly is a difficult task.DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Overview Introduction to Databases You have recently accepted a new job as an Employment Administrator with All Saints High School. retrieving any kind of information is time consuming. Although the information is well maintained. the employment records are maintained on paper forms and stored in file cabinets organized alphabetically. 138 | P a g e . Currently. You need to manually leaf through the pages to locate the required information. You are responsible for maintaining the employment records for all employees of the School.
manipulate. That file contains database objects. Tables store information. every database is stored in a single file which has the extension “.accdb”. What is a database? : A database is an organized collection of related information. organize. Each row is a record which contains all the information about a person. Queries let you quickly perform an action on a table. and present information in many different ways. edit data. Typically. However. which are simply the components of a database. data is organized in linked tables. Forms are windows that you create and arrange in order to easily view or change the information in a table. Each column is a field which is the smallest unit of information about a record. Creating a Database Introduction to Access To start the Microsoft Access application. You can create as many tables as you need to store different types of information.The school has recently purchased new computers and the management now wants to update the employee record system to an electronic database management system. The first screen that appears is the “Getting Started with Microsoft Office Access” page. Usually. 139 | P a g e . In the following labs. access. The table object is the basic object and has to be created first. A relational database is the most widely used database structure. Forms and Reports. enter data. It is an electronic database management system which can store. you will learn how to create a database. Here. thing or place. the information in a database is stored in a table. Tables are made up of vertical columns (called fields) and horizontal rows (called records). before any other objects are created. using Access 2007. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Access 2007”. you can also use queries to make changes to your database. In Access. The software tool that you will use to accomplish the task you have been assigned will be Microsoft Access 2007. Access 2007 is a relational database management application that is used to create and analyze a database. print and preview data and much more. The four main objects in an Access database are Tables. The tables are related or linked to one another by a common field. this action involves retrieving a piece of information. Queries.
By clicking the object tabs. you can easily switch between various objects. Another will contain information of all the departments in the School and a third one will contain the payroll of the employees. and more become available if you click one of the categories under “Template Categories” at the left of the Access window. what data each of them will contain and how will they be related. The features of Access 2007 are as follows: -Once the data is entered in the database. there are templates that can be used to track issues. creating. forms and reports are displayed as tabbed objects in the Access window. delete and modify records from a table. queries. -You can quickly produce reports using some Access features. You must know how the structure or layout of each table in the database must be. manage contacts. You must understand the purpose of the database. The main table will include the employees’ basic information. You must plan the design of your database in respect of how many tables will be required. You can choose where the information appears on the printed page. -You can analyze the data in a table and perform calculations on different fields of data. -Its capability to sort records in a table according to different fields can provide more meaningful information. After studying the existing record keeping procedures and the reports that are created. or you can customize them to suit your needs.Reports help you print some or all of the information in a table. Access provides you with a wide variety of templates that are ready-to-use databases that contain all that is needed for performing a specific task. -It is easy to add. you decide to create several separate tables of data in the database. 140 | P a g e . and how its formatted. or keep a record of expenses. For this you must study the existing employee records. how its grouped and sorted. Template databases can be used as they are. Creating a New Database Creating a database entails several basic steps: planning. -Your tables. For example. Planning is the first step in the development of a database. Several templates are displayed under “Featured Online Templates”. entering and editing data and then previewing and printing. you can quickly search the table to locate a specific record based on the data in a field.
form. to provide you with a larger work area. and closing a file. At the bottom of the screen you see the words “Datasheet View” on the “Status Bar”. You see the familiar Microsoft Office 2007 user interface which consists of: 1) The Office Button which displays a menu containing commands for opening.accdb”. When you open a database or create a new one. the default database name is displayed in the “File Name” box. and Redo. the names of your database objects such as tables.For now. The two most commonly used views are “Datasheet View” and “Design View”. To expand the minimized Navigation Pane. You may specify the location where you wish to store your database. Undo. Click “Blank Database” under “New Blank Database”. click the arrow in the upper corner. In the “File New Database” window. Datasheet view shows the data in the database. 2) The Quick Access toolbar which displays icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. or other database objects. Creating a Table Access provides different window formats called “Views” to display and work with the objects in a database. Now click “Create”. For more details on the Microsoft Office User Interface. In the panel at the right. To apply a command to a database object. you may see the assignment titled “The User Interface” in the “Microsoft Word” topic. Design view allows you to create or change a table. saving. 3) The Ribbon which has Task-oriented Tabs. click on “Desktop” in the left panel and then click “OK”. Creating a database: Now that you have designed the database. printing. you see the “Navigation Pane”. To minimize the expanded Navigation Pane. it is time to create it so that the data can be stored in it. right-click the object and select an item from the context menu that appears. The “View” icon in the “Views” group is used switch back and forth between the Datasheet view and the Design View. You can also set keys and restrict the values entered here. you will create only the table containing the employee information. with no defined fields. Access creates your first database object. and configure the fields. Change it to “Employee. a table named Table1 which is completely blank. This indicates that you are 141 | P a g e . forms and reports appear in the Navigation Pane. At the left. Groups and Command buttons. Click on the “Browse” icon to the right of the file name. To open a database object. The Navigation Pane can be minimized into a vertical bar. double-click the object in the Navigation Pane. But you cannot change the data in design view. click the arrow at the top. It also allows you to enter and edit the data.
and numbers that are not used in calculations. You cannot start the name of a field with a space. Data type: The data type defines the type of data the field will contain. Following are the data types you can use. Subject1. Access provides a number of data types to choose from. forms. Following are some examples of valid field names: First name. Click on “View → Design View” in the “Views” group. You can see a small key to the left of the field name indicating that this field is the primary key of the table. Phone No. You will learn about the different data types shortly. meaning the fields that will hold the data. Field name: A field name is used to identify the data stored in a field. This view can be used to create and view the design of all types of database objects such as tables. 142 | P a g e . You may also create a table using this view. It is important to choose the right kind of data type before you start entering data in the table. you must create the structure of the table. add and delete data. When you create a new table. spaces. and search for data. you can edit fields. and brackets().now in datasheet view. the default name “Table1” is displayed. A primary key is a field or set of fields in your table that provide Access with a unique identifier for every record. Click on the drop down menu button to select the “Data Type”. and queries. numbers. In Datasheet view. Access automatically creates an index for the primary key. Examples are names and phone numbers. which makes queries and other operations fast. You can enter up to 255 characters in a text field. and that it is always unique. forms. Before you can enter data into a table. Before defining the fields in a table. except a period (. combinations of words and numbers. etc. you need to enter a name for the table. In the “Save As” window. We shall use the “Design View” to create a table. The name can consist of letters. This view provides a row and column view of the data in tables. Access also ensures that every record has a non-blank primary key field. like words. Access automatically creates a primary key and assigns a field name of "ID" and the AutoNumber data type to it. You must specify a primary key for all tables. an exclamation (!). queries and reports.). Text: It is the default data type and is used to store text entries. Now let us begin creating the table structure. Enter the Table Name as “Emp Info” and click “OK”. You can now see the name of your table in the Navigation Pane on the left. and special characters. Let us first understand what is meant by a “Primary Key”. The “Emp Info” tab is displayed in the document window on the right. Type “Employee ID” as the field name and press “Enter”.
etc. Fees. Date of joining. graphs etc. Switch back to Design View by clicking “View → Design View” in the “Views” group. but is formatted to display decimal places and the currency symbol. sequential number that is automatically incremented by one whenever a new record is added to the table. The description that you had entered is displayed in the “Status Bar”. Some of the more common properties are as follows: Field Size: It decides the maximum number of characters that can be entered in the field. Date/Time: It is used for storage of date and time information. documents. Type the description wherever applicable. Summary of a book is an example. Hyperlink: This is used to store web addresses. etc. Input mask: Simplifies data entry and controls what data is required and how it is to be displayed. Yes/No: This data type accepts only two values – Yes or No. spreadsheet files. 143 | P a g e . A field property is a characteristic that helps define a field. Attachment: This is used to store images. As you can see. Select the “Text” data type. Birth date. Information about the data type is displayed in the left panel and on the right hand side is the help box displaying information about the current task. etc. Giving this description is optional. its default properties are displayed under “Field Properties”. charts and other types of supported files to the records in your database. Marks in an exam is an example. True or False. the default field size of the “Text” data type is 255. Format: Specifies how the data is displayed in the table and printed. Each data type has its own set of field properties. AutoNumber: It is a unique. Pass. Calculations can be performed on the numbers stored in a Number field. When you select a data type. Click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar and switch to Datasheet View by clicking “View → Datasheet View” in the “Views” group. It can be used for fields like Fees Paid. Price. OLE Object: This data type is used to store images. documents.Memo: It is used to store text that is too long to be stored in a Text field. Number: It is used to store numbers only. For example. Description: The “Description” text box is used to describe the field. Currency: This is similar to the Number data type. and On or Off. Caption: Specifies a field caption or a prompt for the user to enter data. For example.
Allow Zero Length: Specifies whether or not an entry containing no value is valid. 144 | P a g e .Default Value: It specifies a default value for a field to be automatically filled in at the time of data entry. sorting. Click on the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. If you set it to “Yes”. You can see that the name given to the field with the data type Attachment has been replaced by a paperclip icon. We now need to switch to Datasheet View. Click the “Field Size” property text box. it can be used to indicate that you know no value exists for a field. enter the information shown in the table until you come to the “Birth Date” field. So select the “Data Type” as “Attachment”. We used the Design View to define the structure. Double-click on 255 to select it and type ‘4’ to change the field size. The “Photo” field is of a different type – you want to store the photo of the employee. let us change some of the defaults. Validation Text: It is displayed when the validation rule is violated. Entering and Editing Data You can now start entering data in the table. The structure of your table is now ready. Do not make any other changes. This field property specifies whether an index is to be created on that field. Now. But you cannot do so until you change the view. Select “General Date”. Indexed: An index is used to speed up queries. Validation Rule: Restricts the data entry to meet certain conditions or requirements. Select the “Data Type” of this field as “Date/Time” from the drop down menu. You may change the primary key simply by clicking on another field name and then clicking on the “Primary Key” icon in the “Tools” group. Click in the “Field Size” property box and change the field size to ’15’. This value can be changed. Click on “View → Datasheet View” in the “Views” group. Type ‘First Name’ and select “Text” as the “Data Type” from the drop down menu. Required: Specifies whether or not a value must be entered in a field before the record is stored. In the same manner. Follow the same procedure for the next field – Date_Of_Joining. Let us change the primary key back to “Employee ID” as before. Click with the mouse in the “Field Name” column to enter the next field name. and grouping operations run against large amounts of data. Click in the “Format” property box and open the drop down list. You must save your table structure before you can start entering data into the table.
Then you must delete that employee’s record. Click “Yes” to delete the record. click “Delete”. For the date fields. For this. You have been informed by the HR department. use the “Backspace” key to delete characters to the left of the insertion point or the “Delete” key to delete characters to the right of the insertion point. To see that the picture has really been inserted. that is. Now click “Add”. Type the employee’s ID number. Complete the information for the first record except for the “Photo” field. double-click in the attachment field. Alternatively. position the mouse on the right border of a column header. Then drag in the desired direction. you may adjust the column width to a specific number of characters. right-click a columns name and select “Column Width”. If you want to 145 | P a g e . On the “Home tab”. Check that you type data exactly as it appears in the accompanying table. Changing Column Width The data you have entered may not be completely visible in the Table’s column. You may drag with the mouse to select multiple records. Click on the picture and then click “Open”.The insertion point can be seen in the first column of the first row. In the “Choose File” window. navigate to the location of the picture file. Preview and Print a Table The table is now ready and you want to print it. that an employee has resigned and is no longer an employee of the School. You can see the name of the picture in the “Attachments” window. It displays the table in a reduced size so that you can see the layout. Click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. Double-click in the attachment field to open the “Attachments” window. you may enter the date directly or use the Date Picker displayed at the right of the field. Remember not to use any spaces before or after the data. The document will be printed using the default settings. in the “Employee ID” column. Now double-click on the name of the picture in the “Attachments” window. For this. Click “OK”. If you make a mistake while typing. This is the small box to the left of the record. See that there is consistency in the data that you enter. Then click “OK”. Use the right arrow key or press “Enter” to move to the next field. You may adjust the column width. You will be asked to confirm the deletion. left or right until you get the desired width. in the “Records” group. Previewing the table gives you an idea how the table will look after it is printed. This displays the “Column Width” window where you can type the desired value. Inserting a picture: The photo can be inserted as an attachment. Before printing it is advisable to preview it. Deleting a record: Select the record to be deleted by clicking the “Record Selector”.
you may first click on the related tab to make it active. If you click “No” to discard changes. type ‘1’ and in the “To” field enter ‘5’. You are now back to the “Getting 146 | P a g e . Access will prompt you to save them before closing. you have to close the database. Close and Open a Table and Database You have finished working with the employee database for now and you want to stop working but continue later on. Closing a table: Multiple table tabs may be open at one time. If you want to change the page orientation. The “Print” window is displayed. type ‘1’ and in the “To” field enter ‘5’. After you have entered your print specifications. enter the page range. to print pages 1 to 5. The table tab will close. Clicking on “Cancel” will not close the window and you will be able to continue working. To print pages that are continuous. click on the “Landscape” icon in the “Page Layout” group. Select “All” to print all records. two or multiple pages if there is more data than can fit on one or two pages. To close a table. Since you have just one table open presently. Closing the database: Next. The “Print Range” section of the window lets you specify how much of the document you want to print. the table will close without saving the changes. You can see the preview consisting of one. The “Print Preview” tab appears when you view the table in the Print Preview mode. Click “Yes” to save changes. To print selected records. Select “Pages From” to specify the number of the pages you want to print.change some settings you may do so. The page is displayed with a heading and date in the “Header” and the page number in the “Footer”. To print selected records. You may also print the table by clicking the Office Button and selecting “Print → Print” from the menu or use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+P”. For example. To print pages that are continuous. Click on the Office Button and select “Close Database”. click the “Close Print Preview” icon. After you have entered your print specifications. click “OK”. in the “Pages From:” field. enter the page range. For example. You have to close the table and database that you have created and have been working on until now. Check once again whether everything is as you want it and click on the “Print” icon. click “OK”. select “Selected Record(s)”. To close the preview. to print pages 1 to 5. Select “All” to print all records. Select “Pages From” to specify the number of the pages you want to print. The “Print Range” section of the window lets you specify how much of the document you want to print. in the “Pages From:” field. simply click on the “X” shaped icon at the right end in line with the table name. select “Selected Record(s)”. If you have made any changes that have not been saved.
you may click the Office Button and then click the “Exit Access” button at the bottom right. In the “Save As” window. navigate to the location of your database and click “Open”. You may create a new database or open an existing one. This time. If any database 147 | P a g e . You may use the Copy-Paste method to copy both the data and structure of a table by selecting “Structure and Data” under the “Paste Options” in the “Paste Table As” window. In such a case. You can see the new table displayed in the Navigation Pane and the data displayed in the document window on the right. Your Database window is displayed. we shall copy the structure only. Let us modify the default name. you can see that only the structure of the table has been copied and there is no data contained in it.Started with Microsoft Office Access” page. The table will open in Datasheet View. including its structure and data. In the “Paste Table As” window. Enter the words “(with data)” at the end of the name and click “OK”. you may accept the default name displayed or enter a new name. In the document pane. select “Structure Only” under “Paste Options”. click “More…” at the top of the list. Double click on the new table name in the Navigation Pane. Let us make a copy of the table “Emp Info”. To open the “Emp Info” table. This would save time in creating a new table which required similar fields but had different data to be entered. Opening the database: When you need to work once again with the “Employee” database. Right click on the name of the “Emp Info” table in the Navigation Pane and select “Copy”. This is an alternative method to using the “Save As” option of the Office Button. Making Copies of Database Objects Copying a database object: You can make a copy of an object in the database such as a table. click the Office Button and select “Save As → Access 2007 Database”. For this. Let us create another copy of the “Emp Info” table. you may not see the name of your database in this list. Sometimes. To exit Access. This copy would be identical to the existing one complete with its objects and data. Now click the Office Button and select “Save As”. you may need to copy only the structure of a table. Now right click once again in the Navigation Pane and select “Paste”. Making a Copy of the Database You can make a copy of the complete database. double-click the table name in the navigation pane. Click the table name in the Navigation Pane. click on the database name in the list displayed under “Open Recent Database” on the right. Enter the words “(structure only)” at the end of the name and click “OK”. Sometimes. In the “Open” window. in the “Getting Started with Microsoft Office Access” page.
For this. Modifying a Table Customizing and Inserting Fields If you look through the records. To define the format. Make “Phone” the current field. One is the “Pin Code” and the other is the “Gender” of the employee. BS83DT will be displayed with a space between BS8 and 3DT. Change to Datasheet View Click on “Yes” to save changes. Also. type ‘7’ and in the “Format” field property text box. switch to Design View. You can see that all data in the “State” field is displayed in uppercase. The field’s “Format” property can be defined to tell Access the way you want the data to be displayed. For example. click on the upper part of the “View” icon in the “Views” group on the “Design” tab. A row is inserted between the “State” and “Phone” fields. you see a window asking whether the objects can be closed. The “Pin Code” field should be after the “State” field and the “Gender” field should be after the “Phone” field. Move to the “Format” field property text box and type ‘>’.accdb” and click “Save”. Click “Yes”. you realize that there is no uniformity in the data entered in the “State” field. say “Backup_Employee. Select “Insert Rows” in the “Tools” group on the “Design” tab. To do so. you need to first change to Design View. Make the “State” field the current one by clicking on it. Type ‘Pin Code’ and make its data type as “Text”. In the “Size” field property. to change the “State” field’s format to display it in uppercase. enter the location and the name for the new database. This will display the PIN codes of all records in the same format. So. 148 | P a g e . type ‘@@@ @@@’ with a space after the first three characters. you can use the four symbols used in the table shown. You want all the records to display the name of the state in uppercase. In the “Save As” window.objects are open. You can easily make all these changes and put restrictions on the way data is entered or displayed. The new database is created identical to the original database. Now. You can even add and delete fields. To set the display format. you have to enter the appropriate symbol in the “Field Properties” window. you have forgotten to add two fields! The PIN code number needs to be added to make the address complete and the gender of the employee also needs to go on record. you must insert those fields which you have missed while designing the database the first time.
The table is displayed with two new columns which have no data in them. Switch to “Datasheet” view. “Field Size” as ‘1’ and “Format” as ‘>’. Switch to Design View and make the “State” field the current one by clicking on it. 149 | P a g e . make the “Gender” field the current one and click on the “Default Value” property text box. Save the design changes related to default values. Click on the “Default Value” property text box and type “Bristol” in it.Repeat the procedure for inserting a row and adding the “Gender” field after the “Phone” field. Enter its “Data Type” as “Text”. You want the “Gender” field to accept only two values – “M” for male and “F” for female. This is because of the “Default Value” property that you have set for these two fields. which is an explanatory message that appears if the user enters invalid information in a field for which a validation rule has been set. you observe that most of the employees are from “Bristol” State and that there are more males than females as employees. Similarly. If you do not give a message. by setting the default value of the “Sate” field to “Bristol” and that of “Gender” to “F”. A validation rule is an expression that defines acceptable values. Access displays a default message but it does not clearly explain the reason for the error. Now switch to Datasheet View. Type ‘M’ in it. Save the new table structure by clicking on the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. So. Observe that the new blank record has the “State” and “Gender” fields already filled with values. Fill in these empty fields in all the records. A default value is used to specify a value that is automatically entered in a field when a new record is added. This value can either be accepted or another value can be entered by the user while adding a new record. An expression is a formula consisting of a combination of symbols that evaluates to a single value. Setting the “Validity Check” option makes sure that the values entered by the user are valid for the field type. you can make data entry a bit quicker. While looking through the records. The table above shows some examples of validity rule settings and corresponding messages. You can also add validation text.
When you make changes to the structure of a table. Access asks you if you want to check the existing data with the new validity rule. except ‘F’ or ‘M’. Press “Backspace” and enter valid text. Type the data shown in the table in the new record. In the “Validation Rule” property box. click “No”. you often make changes that could result in the loss of data or existing data may become invalid. type ‘Please enter either “M” or “F” only. The warning message is immediately displayed. A warning message box is displayed saying that the data integrity rules have been changed. You will be asked to save the changes. Click “OK” to continue. The “State” and “Gender” fields are already filled with default values. For now. Click “Yes”. switch to Datasheet View.Adding a Validity Rule: Switch to Design View and click on the “Gender” field. Now try entering an invalid value in the “Gender” field. type ‘ “M” Or “F” ’ and in the “Validation Text” property box. You may change them if required. Type ‘k’ or any other letter in either upper or lower case. Now. 150 | P a g e .
Your original data appears. select “All”. You need not do this manually. Select “Whole Field” in the “Match” box and “All” in the “Search” box. The “Look In” box displays the “Last Name” field because the field was the current one when the command was given. If the text is found and it is the one you want to replace. type “Smith”. Click on the “Replace” tab and type “Bristol” in the “Find What” box. “EASTSIDE” with “ES”. one of the employees. So click in the “State” field and select “Replace”. You want to match the whole field. You may use the “Find and Replace” feature. If it is. “NORTHSIDE” with “NS” and so on. you have been told to make two changes. using the “Undo” command will cancel the last action as long as you have not made any further changes to the table. you may use the “Find” and “Replace” icons in the “Find” group on the “Home” tab. type ‘BS’. So. The “Find and Replace” window is displayed with the “Find” tab selected. Click on the “Cancel” button if you do not want to perform any action. In the “Replace With” box. Clicking on the “Cancel” button. cancels the command. You want Access to find a perfect match to what you have typed in the “Find What” box.Finding and Replacing Data Finding and Replacing data: If you want to search for some information in the table and also replace it. Now. 151 | P a g e . click in the “Last Name” field of the first record and select “Find”. the “Undo” command has no effect. Click “Find Next”. the last name of the employee. One is that the “State” names should all be shortened to 2 lettered names. Once you move to another record or move to another window. While in the “Datasheet” view. In the “Search” box. so. not part of it. The other is that. select “Whole field”. In the “Find What” box. Now. That means you have to replace “Bristol” with “BS”. then click on the “Replace” button. “Jenny Smith” is married and needs to change her “Last Name” and “Address”. Check whether it the record you are looking for. you have to make changes in the “State” field. Click in the “Search Fields As Formatted” check box which finds data based on its display format. The “Find” command locates all specified values in a field and the “Replace” command finds a value and automatically replaces it. The “State” field will already be selected in the “Look In” box. close the “Find and Replace” window and make the necessary changes in the “Last Name” and the address fields. in the “Match” box. click in the “Match Case” check box and click “Find Next”. Finding and replacing data is fast and accurate but you have to be careful not to replace unintended values. Use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Z” or click on the “Undo” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. If you make changes to a single record. The first occurrence of the search criteria specified is highlighted.
The “Search” box allows you to specify the direction to follow while searching. and All (which is the default). you had set the default value for the “State” field as “Bristol”. you may select the name of the table from the list. “Start of Field” finds data only at the beginning of the field. Switch to Design View and click in the “State” field. In this case. “Any Part of Field” finds data anywhere in the field. you can sort them on a single field – the field on the basis of which you want to arrange them. Sorting Records In the first lab.The “State” field in the next record is highlighted. Sorting: Sorting the data often helps in finding some particular information quickly. You also saw that the records in a table are arranged according to the primary key.. The options are Up. Down. click on “Replace All”. a search for “Smith” with the initial alphabet “S” in uppercase and “m-i-t-h” in lowercase will not display “SMITH” with all uppercase letters or “smith” with all lowercase letters. But the Accounts department has requested for the employee list in alphabetical order. For example. you can sort data in ascending or descending order. the data in all the fields containing “BRISTOL” is replaced with “BS”. “Whole Field” finds only data that is exactly the same. You are asked whether you want to continue. Save the changes made to the table. you had seen what a primary key is and what its importance is. In the “Default Value” property box. Since you want to replace all the fields containing “BRISTOL” with “BS”. So you need to make a change in the default value too since you now need “BS”. If you check the box against “Match Case”. click on “Yes” because that’s what you want. Instantly. In Access. the “Look In” list contains the name of the field in which your cursor is currently positioned. the “Last Name” will be the field which you will use to sort records. uppercase or lowercase) as the specified text. If you remember. type “BS” and switch to Datasheet View. You will see that the new record at the end has the default value changed to “BS”.e. How are you going to give it to them? To arrange the records in the table in alphabetical order. Let us have another look at the various options available in the “Find and Replace” window. You can sort on one field or more than one adjacent field. A warning message is displayed by Access. warning you that the replace operation cannot be undone. Access sorts records starting from the leftmost 152 | P a g e . If you want to search the entire table. By default. When you select multiple columns to sort. the search returns only those instances of the text that have the same case (i. In the “Match” list options.
sorting is done from the leftmost field. Click in the “Field Selector” of the “First Name” field. position the mouse pointer in the column heading of “Last Name”. They are sorted on the “Employee ID” field which is the primary key. Click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar. Then release the mouse. To sort first by “Last Name” and then by “First name”. click in the “Last Name” field of any record. The records are displayed according to the changed order of fields. Drag to the right to select the next column – “First Name”. “Last Name” must be to the left of “First Name”. To change the order of fields. Observe the order of records after sorting on the “Last Name” field. So. They are arranged alphabetically first by “Last Name” and then by “First Name”. the temporary sort must be removed. Select the “Ascending” icon in the “Sort & Filter” group on the “Home” tab again. Tom’s record appears before Ted’s which is not in ascending alphabetical order. The records will again be displayed in the order of the “Employee ID” field. Creating Forms Using the Form Wizard 153 | P a g e . To remove the temporary sorting order. switch to Design View. so Ted’s record comes first and then comes Tom’s record. This is the small box to the left of the field name. Now drag the mouse down until you see a black line under the “Last Name” field. In the “Datasheet” view. To select the two columns. To return to the primary key sort order. To sort on multiple fields. The new sort order is saved with the table data and automatically applied every time you open the table. observe the order of the records before sorting. in Datasheet View. you need to sort on multiple fields. Switch to Datasheet View to see the order of the fields. To sort on multiple fields. You see that Ted and Tom are sorted by Last Name but not by “First Name”. select “Clear All Sorts” in the “Sort & Filter” group. The “Last Name” field moves up one row so that it is the second field in the field name list. Observe the records of Tom and Ted now. you need to select the two fields. Both the columns will be highlighted. Select the “Ascending” icon in the “Sort & Filter” group on the “Home” tab to display the records sorted by Last Name.column and moves to the right across the columns. The cursor will change to a solid black arrow pointing downwards. Now.
If not. Using the Form Wizard: Click on the “Create” tab. “Emp Info” will be displayed by default. lines. Leave it as it is and click on “Next”. the layout of the form is displayed. click the close 154 | P a g e . The next step is the last step. Information regarding what you are supposed to do in each step is mentioned on the top in the “Form Wizard” window. At the bottom of the form window is the record number indicator. In the “Forms” group. The fields from the current table are displayed in the “Available Fields” list. You can move one record up or down by clicking on the “Next record” or “Previous record” buttons respectively. The field name is displayed in the “Selected Fields” list now. boxes and pictures. labels. In the next step. where you are asked to give the form a name and save it. one of your main objectives is to make the database easy to use. The “Form Wizard” feature of Access makes it very easy to design forms. The field names are on the left with the corresponding data in boxes in front of them. Forms are based on a table and contain design control elements like descriptive text. type it and click “Finish”. The “Form Wizard” window is displayed. To make it easy to view and use. Click on the “New (blank) record” button to add new records. The information on this form will be used as an input source for the new record that will be added for the new employee. Seeing the records at all times in the form of rows and columns can be tiring to the eyes. The other two buttons below this. the name of the current table “Emp Info” is displayed. The button below this can be used to move all fields into the “Selected Fields” list. as you may have realized can be used to move fields back into the “Available Fields” list. Click on “Employee ID” and click on the button with “>” symbol on it. In the next step. click “More Forms → Form Wizard”. Select the fields from the list one by one. Access provides a feature to create onscreen forms. Read it so that you know what you are supposed to do in that step. Select a suitable one and click “Next”. “Columnar” is selected by default. you are asked to select the style of the form. titles. In the “Tables/Queries” list. The form is displayed with the first record’s contents in it. It is desirable for the onscreen form to be similar to the paper form filled in by each new employee when hired.To close the form.Being the one to be in charge of the employee records database. A form is a database object that is mainly used to enter and display records and make changes to existing records onscreen. The “First record“ button takes you to the first record and the “Last record” button takes you to the last one. Select all the fields in the same manner as the first field and click on “Next”. It guides you through the steps required to create a form.
You can see that both the form and the table are open on two separate tabs. Click on the field displaying the photo of the employee. the “State” and the “Gender” fields have their default values. In this way. Click on it and enter “Photograph”. if you ask at the railway enquiry counter – “Is there a train to Central Park?” you will most probably not get the expected answer. you first need to open the form. You will add this information using the form you created. click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar. to see all the records that you have entered. Queries and Reports Using Queries To get any information. Of course. For example. Click on it and drag the picture to position it a little lower down in the form. You can see your form name displayed in the navigation pane on the left. it is necessary to frame a question. 155 | P a g e . So framing a question correctly is important. The form will be displayed. Now. Open the form once again by double clicking the form name in the Navigation Pane. At the top left corner you see a four-headed arrow. Click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar to save your changes and close the form. Now let us change the label “Photo”. In the navigation pane. You can start typing the data of the new employee as shown in the accompanying figure. you have to put questions in the form of queries. double-click on the form name “Emp Info”. Click on the “New (blank) record” button at the bottom of the window. Adding Records in a Form A new employee has recently joined the School and you need to input all related information into the database. After you are done. To add records. The form with all blank boxes is displayed. Let us learn to modify the design of the form we created. You may click on the tab names to switch between them. “When is the train to Central Park?” you may get the most appropriate answer “It leaves on Tuesday morning at 6:30 am”. click on the table name in the navigation pane and scroll if required.button on the form. You see a box with a dotted outline enclosing the picture and the field label “Photo”. Framing it correctly will give you the most accurate information. to get information stored in the tables. Now switch to Design View by selecting “View” in the “Views” group on the “Home” tab. you can enter and view as many records as you want. In Access. But if you ask.
you have a request from the Administrative department. for a “5 Years Service Award” they want to give. which you are going to use. In the lower part. Click “OK” to display the “Simple Query Wizard” window. Here. you can see all the fields of the table used for the query in a small window. to know about the employees who have been in service for 5 years or more. “Address”. Queries are used to view data in different ways. select it. Crosstab query. Creating a query in Access is very much similar to creating a table or form. who have been in service for at least five years. Action query and SQL query. In the “Tables/Queries” list. “Last Name”. analyze and even change existing data. How are you going to specify this condition? You need to make some modifications in this query you have just created. Modifying a Query: There was nothing very different in this query. which you have already done. Select the following fields – “Employee ID”. Click “Next”. It was very simple. Parameter query. In the document window. you see all the fields in the “Emp Info” table. Now. select them one by one and click on the “>” button. Using the Query Wizard: Click on the “Create” tab. accept the default name for the query or type a new one and click “Finish”. But now. click “Query Wizard”. but with selected fields. “First Name”. This is very interesting. There are five types of queries in Access: Select query. The “New Query” window is displayed with “Simple Query Wizard” selected. Once you’ve saved a query. and “Phone”.Query: A query is a request for specific data in a database. The query is displayed with all the records in the table. Queries can be used as a source for forms and reports because they are based on tables. the fields selected in the query are displayed. In the “Available Fields” list. they want a list of all employees. The most common is the “Select” query. If not. click on the “Home” tab. you need to check their dates of joining the 156 | P a g e . In the “Other” group. “City”. like any other database object. the “Emp Info” table is already selected. you can run it any time you want to take a look at the actual data that meets your specifications. While the query is open. Switch to Design View by clicking on the upper part of the “View” icon in the “Views” group. Access saves each query in your database. To select the required fields. A “Select” query retrieves the requested data from one or more tables and displays it in a query datasheet in the order you specify. You will find this wizard similar to the one you used to create a form. at the top.
Click “OK”. In the Tables/Queries list. SQL (Structured Query Language) is a powerful database language used in queries. click “Report Wizard”. so click “Next”. Saving the query: You now need to save this modified query. as you did while selecting fields for the query. Running a query: To see the result of this query. scroll down a bit. click on the “Run” icon in the “Results” group on the “Design” tab. In the next “Report Wizard” window. If you do not see the “Date_of_Joining field in the window at the top. “Pin code”. Now close the query tab. type the condition as ‘>= 1/1/2001 AND < 1/1/2002’ and press “Enter”. Using the Report Wizard: Click on the “Create” tab. click the Office Button and select “Save As”. “First Name”. select “Table: Emp Info”. Access adds the “#” signs before and after the dates to identify the values in the expression as dates. “Address”. 157 | P a g e . “City”. “State”. For this. You will be creating this address report based on the “Emp Info” table.organization. Each query that you create has an underlying SQL statement. Select fields “Last Name”. For this. The “Report Wizard” window is displayed. double-click on this field. Creating Reports There is another request from the Administrative department – they need an address report of all employees sorted by name. The records matching your criteria are displayed. which you are not going to need. In the “Reports” group. and “Phone” one by one by clicking on the “>” button. Type the name ‘5 Year Service’ in the “Save As” window. Click “Next”. Specifying criteria: You need the list of employees who have been in service for at least five years. It is displayed in the first blank box after the “Phone” field. As soon as you press “Enter”. It might be a simple listing of all fields or of selected fields based on a query. You will do this with the help of the “Report Wizard” that is provided by Access. In the criteria row. you need to modify the query by adding the “Date_of_Joining” field and specifying criteria. You must now specify a criterion for this field. there is an option for grouping fields. A report is a printed output generated from tables and queries. Then. which you can view or edit by selecting “View → SQL View” in the “Views” group on the “Home” tab. Confirm that the “As” box has “Query” displayed in it. Now close the query tab.
drag to the right to position it after the “First Name” column. you need to modify the report layout. Click in the check box that says. the headings and contents of some fields are not displayed completely. Select a suitable one from the list and click on “Next”. drag the right edge of the box to a suitable size. click on “Preview the report” and click “Finish”. In the next window. The next window is the last step of the wizard. “Adjust the field width so all fields fit on a page” and click “Next”. click on it. Modifying Report Layout Modifying report layout: Double-click on the report name in the Navigation Pane. When the mouse pointer appears as a two-headed arrow. You need to make some changes. tabular or justified and the page can be oriented either as a portrait or a landscape. Then drag the right edge or lower edge of the box that appears to a suitable position. For now. Similarly. So. A box appears around it. You can see that the complete column is shifted to the right. You need the address list of employees in ascending order of “Last Name” and within that in ascending order of the “First Name”. The preview of the report is displayed with the title and footer and all the records arranged in the specified sort order.The next “Report Wizard” window asks for the sort order of the records to be printed in the report. Now. You can sort the records by up to four fields in either ascending or descending order. But if you see the report properly. You can have the fields laid out as either columnar. 158 | P a g e . You can reduce its size and make space for the other fields. To make these changes. The next window lets you select the style of the report. close the report tab by clicking on the “X” shaped icon at the right end. If you see that a heading is not displayed completely. the first thing you need to do is to exchange the order of the fields “First Name” and “Last Name”. When the mouse pointer appears as a four-headed arrow. click on it. Click on the heading “Last Name”. select “Last Name” as the first field and “First Name” as the second field and click “Next”. You may find that the “State” field is too big for its two character contents. where the data is not displayed completely. you are asked about the layout of the fields and the page. Switch to Layout View by selecting “View → Layout View” in the “Views” group. Here enter the report title as “Employee Address List”.
you have to follow all the same steps you performed to create a report from the table. tabular or justified and the page can be oriented either as a portrait or a landscape. click “Report Wizard”. Select the query “5 years service” from the Table/Query list. Check if all the data contents are visible on the page. The next window lets you select the style of the report. Here give a report title as “5 Year Service Awards”. The next “Report Wizard” window asks for the sort order of the records to be printed in the report. click on “Preview the report” and click “Finish”. Click “Next” once again. select View → Print Preview” in the “Views” group. 159 | P a g e . you will select the query. Close the preview. instead of the table. in the “Report Wizard”. You can see in the preview. The “Print” window is displayed. select “Last Name” as the first field and “First Name” as the second field and click “Next”. You need the report in ascending order of the “Last Name” and within that. you are asked about the layout of the fields and the page. Click on the “Create” tab. So. Select the printer from the “Name” list. The next window is the last step of the wizard. Save the report either by using the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+S” or by clicking “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar. To create this report. To create a report from a query. You can have the fields laid out as either columnar. If they are still not properly visible. Then close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. in ascending order of the “First Name”. Select a suitable one from the list and click “Next”. you can make use of the query you created to list those employees. In the “Reports” group. Select the “Print Range” by clicking on “Pages From” and typing ‘1’ to ‘1’. all the records of employees who have worked for five years. Click in the check box that says. The “Report Wizard” window is displayed. Click “OK”. Creating a Report from a Query There is a requirement to print a report of all those employees who were listed for the five years service award. Click “Close Print Preview” to close the preview. The difference is that. Add all fields in the “Available Fields” list by clicking on the “>>” button and click “Next”. Click the Office Button and select “Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. In the next window. you may move and resize the fields again as required.To see the preview. Printing a Report Printing a report: The report is now ready to be printed. “Adjust the field width so all fields fit on a page” and click “Next”.
navigate to the location of your database. Close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. In the “Unset Database Password” window. schedules etc. Now click “OK”. You want to use tools to organize your contacts. Your database can now be accessed without a password the next time it is opened. but away from access by unauthorized people.Protecting the Database Using Passwords Assigning a password: Microsoft Office Access 2007 provides a number of features that can help make your data more secure. It is very important that you remember your password. In the “Open” window. click on the Office Button and select “Open”. You have decided to use this opportunity to its maximum potential and are eager to personalize your work environment. One of the first things you can do in this direction is to use a password for accessing your database. 160 | P a g e . The steps to create and apply a password to your database are as follows. You may exit Access by clicking on the Office Button and then clicking the “Exit Access” button. Removing a password: Open the database in Exclusive mode. Your database is now open. Click the “Database Tools” tab. In the “Database Tools” group. Close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. Click the “Database Tools” tab. Enter your password and click “OK”. click “Encrypt with Password”. your company has decided to give laptops to each of its key employees. Enter your password in the “Password Required” window and click “OK”. type your password in the “Password” box. In the “Set Database Password” window. and then re-type it in the “Verify” box. So you do not have to worry anymore about sharing your Personal Computer. For this. it cannot be retrieved. Store the password in a secure place from where you can recover it in case you forget it. Using a password: Open the password protected database as you open any other database. type your password and click “OK”. Close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. The “Password Required” window appears. open the database in “Exclusive” mode. click “Decrypt Database”. Click the database file and then click the arrow next to the “Open” button and select “Open Exclusive”. If you forget your password. PERSONAL INFORMATION MANAGER Getting started with Outlook Introduction to Microsoft Outlook Your cherished dream has come true. First. In the “Database Tools” group.
The To-Do Bar on the right gives you a consolidated view of your calendar. 161 | P a g e . having today’s date and time divisions. Your appointment has now been recorded. Creating an Appointment Your immediate concern is to record all your important appointments in the calendar. is displayed in the information viewer on the right. events and meetings. click “View → To-Do Bar → Minimized”. you will see a navigation pane on the left which contains categories such as Mail. Select the time slot of 6 pm for the appointment in the information viewer of the Outlook window.With Microsoft Office Outlook 2007. To begin with. we shall take a look at the calendar. This enables you to see a minimized view of the To-Do Bar at all times. The Navigation Pane can be minimized into a vertical button bar. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Outlook 2007”. The upper portion of the navigation pane contains “Category specific tools” for working with different types of information. It can be used to organize and track all types of information. Select the month from the calendar by using the arrows. Starting Microsoft Outlook: To start the Microsoft Outlook application. Using Calendar When you open Microsoft Outlook 2007. Select the day. and Contacts etc. click the arrow at the top. Calendar. Press “Enter”. The “Untitled Appointment” window is displayed. Let us create another appointment and enter more details. To minimize the expanded Navigation Pane. tasks and important mail enabling you to prioritize your work. Click the “New” button on the Standard toolbar. To expand the minimized Navigation Pane. The “Day” view. The bottom portion contains Category buttons for different tasks. Let us create an Appointment. By default an appointment is allotted half an hour. and storing addresses. Some of the important tasks that can be performed using Microsoft Outlook are maintaining a personal calendar of appointments. If the To-Do Bar is not visible at any time. to provide you with a larger work area. upcoming appointments. click the arrow in the upper corner. you have an integrated solution for managing your time and information. Click the button corresponding to “Calendar” in the navigation pane. In the time slot type ‘Meeting with the client’. The calendar for the current month is displayed in the category specific tools window.
You may wish to be reminded about your appointment by a bell. You can also see the appointment on the To-Do Bar at the right. Since it will last for at least 24 hours. The current setting is “No end date”. you may select the way in which you want your appointment to appear in the Calendar. such as meetings with your Accounts Manager. You may click the To-Do Bar to expand it and view details. Click “OK”.Appointment” window type ‘Weekly meeting . To turn a reminder off. Click on “Save & Close” on the “Recurring Appointment” tab. 162 | P a g e . in the “Options” group. type your notes. Press the tab key and type ‘Factory Premises’ as the “Location”. The “Out of Office” indicator is displayed at the left corner.Type ‘Meeting with maintenance people’ as the “Subject”. Now click on the “Save & Close” button in the “Actions” group. In the “Untitled . Let us keep this setting unchanged. weekly. The current setting is “Weekly”. monthly or yearly. select the amount of time in the “Reminder” list before the appointment when you want the reminder to appear. Under “Appointment time” you may set the start and end time of the appointment. Under “Range of recurrence” you may specify the time frame for your recurring appointment. in the “Actions” group. Select “Actions → New Recurring Appointment”. You can see that one hour has been allotted for this appointment. Now click the Monday of the next week and the following week on the calendar. Select 7 pm as the “End time” from the drop-down list. such an entry is called an Event. Creating an event There is a two day exhibition for Product Promotions to be held in two weeks. Select the end time “10:30 AM” from the drop-down list. Click on the “Today” tab in the Standard toolbar. In the text box below. say ‘Take along the maintenance log file & purchase bills’. You can see that the recurring appointment has been recorded. “Recur every 1 week on Monday”.Accounts Manager’ as the “Subject” and ‘Accounts office’ as the “Location”. On the “Appointment” tab. You may keep this setting. Select “Out of Office”. You can specify details of the appointment in the “Appointment Recurrence” window. Click it once again to return to the minimized form. select “None”. Click on Monday in the next week in the left panel. Creating a recurring appointment There are some meetings which take place on a regular basis. Under “Recurrence pattern” you may specify the days in the week when the appointment is going to occur and also if it is going to occur daily. In the “Show As” field. Click the 9 am time slot.
in the date navigator window. Click on the “Save & Close” button in the “Actions” group.Click on the Monday of two weeks later. Type ‘International Trade Center’ as the “Location”. To mark the calendar to show that you will be out of office during these days. Type ‘Product Promotion Exhibition’ as the “Subject”. select “Out of Office” from the “Show As” list. Set the “Reminder” to 2 days in the “Options” group” of the “Event” tab. This means that you may click on the related button to see the appointments on your calendar as you wish. Changing the calendar view By default. Select “View → Current view”. Rightclick in any of the time slots and select “New All Day Event”. Creating a task list 163 | P a g e . you can view your calendar based on different criteria. In addition. Select the next day from the “End time” drop-down menu. you can view your calendar on Day/Week/Month basis.
Creating a new category: Click “New” in the “Color Categories” window. Set the “% Complete” to 25%. Meeting at the Yoga Club. select “Actions → Categorize → All Categories”. Meeting with the Accounts Department.A task is a personal work related action item. they are displayed. Enter today’s date as the “Start date”. The “Task” window is displayed. Let us enter the category name as “Personal”. To set up your categories. To change the view to a simple list. You may make changes as per your requirements. choose the option “In Progress”. From the “Status” drop-down menu. Click on the “Tasks” button in the Navigation Pane. Meeting with the maintenance staff. subject. Select the Yellow Category and click “Rename”. Now enter the category name as “Time & Expenses” and click “OK”. If there are any tasks that have been entered previously. due date. Updating the status of a task: Double-click on a task’s “Subject”. status. Setting up Categories A category is a descriptive keyword or phrase to which you can assign related items. It includes different columns for priority. From the “Priority” drop-down menu choose the option “High”. Click on “Save & Close”. you have several tasks that need to be completed. This view shows detailed information about each task. percentage complete and categories. Your task has now been recorded. Outlook has certain predefined categories. To change the view to a detailed list. if necessary. 3. select “View → Current View → Simple List”. Click in the “Click here to add a new Task” text box. Outlook 2007 offers you Color categories that allow you to group information in a way that allows you to find and track all information most effectively. Type ‘Create presentation displays for Product Promotion’. 2. Click “OK” Renaming a category: You may rename an existing color category to make it more meaningful. select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. 164 | P a g e . Click in the “Due Date” text box and select a date from the calendar. Create the following tasks in a similar way: 1. For your weekly meetings with your assistants. Press “Enter”. such as a weekly report. A task can occur only once or happen on a recurring basis.
For example. You may also sort tasks by using the “Arrange By” option from the View menu. You see that the tasks are sorted in ascending order by Categories. select “Personal”. From the available categories list. select “Completed” and press “Enter”. To assign a category to this task. the “Status” column must be visible. Select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. In this view. Now to return to the “Detailed list” view. click on the column heading “Categories”. assign the following categories to the tasks as follows: 1. Clicking in a column heading other than “Task Subject” sorts the list according to that column. To switch to the “Detailed List” view. select “View → Current View → Task Timeline”. Click in the “Status” column next to a task. Meeting with the Accounts Department – Blue Category 2.Categorizing tasks: Select the task “Meeting at the Yoga Club” from the list. Meeting with the maintenance staff – Orange Category You can use the same categorization techniques for other Outlook item like appointments and mails. You can now see that this task appears crossed out with “% Complete” as 100%. In the “Detailed list” view. The subject of the task is also displayed. 165 | P a g e . From the drop-down list. You may click on the “Delete” icon on the Standard toolbar to delete a completed task from the list. they are sorted in descending order. select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. Sorting tasks Sorting tasks is the process of rearranging items in ascending or descending order. select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. To change the view to “Task Timeline”. Scroll the time line window to view all the tasks. right-click in the “Categories” column. Now the task has been assigned to the “Personal” category. Using a task timeline In the Tasks Timeline view. you might want to sort your tasks by Status or Due Date. To update the status of the task. The next time you click. You may sort your tasks according to Subject by selecting “View → Arrange By → Subject”. For example. Similarly. Updating the task status You can update the status of the task at any time and specify the status and percentage completed. you can see this column in the “Detailed List” view. the tasks are arranged according to their due dates. each task will be represented by a task symbol.
Type your name in the left header text box. Click “OK”. The “Print style” section specifies the format in which you want to print your task list. Click on the “New” icon on the Standard toolbar. click on the “Print” button in the preview window. click on the “Actual Size” icon in the toolbar. If everything is OK. the Print style. “Table” or “Memo”. Here you need to specify details about the Printer. select “File → Print”. You can choose to enter 166 | P a g e . which includes detailed information of all the people with whom you communicate. A blank yellow colored note window is displayed. Click on the “Page Setup” button. Click on the “Preview” button.Printing tasks and calendar items Many times you may need to print out your task list and appointment calendar so that it is available during a meeting. Now. The “Print range” section allows you to specify the rows in the table that are to be printed. Before printing it is always a good idea to take a preview of the document you want to print. Using the Address Book What is an Address Book in Outlook The Address Book is an electronic book. Select “File → Print”. select “Calendar” in the Navigation pane. Print range and Copies. Confirm that the “Notes” view is set to “Icons”. If necessary. Click the button corresponding to “Notes” in the navigation pane. to print the appointments. Similarly. Select “View → Current View → Active Appointments”. Click on the “Header/Footer” tab. select the appropriate printer for your system from the “Name” drop-down list. Click “OK” in the “Print” window. Let us assume that you need to create a note to remind you to send an email message for an event. Notes are an electronic version of paper notes that you use to jot down quick reminders. Creating Notes The “Notes” tool is used to create a reminder for yourself. Type the required message and then close the window. You can reopen the note and make changes to it by double-clicking on it. Let us make some changes. The “Print” window is displayed. The “Copies” section allows you to enter the number of pages and copies. Here two styles are available. Select and delete the user name from the left footer box. To display the preview in actual size.
Click “Next”.different types of information such as business and home address. you can see the “General” button of the “Show” group highlighted. Click “Next”. “Address Cards”. You may also delete a contact by selecting “Edit → Delete” or pressing the “Delete” key after selecting the contact. This is called “Importing”.Contact” window is displayed. 167 | P a g e . Exporting contacts: Select “File → Import and Export”. nick names. By referring to your address book you can contact or communicate quickly with any individual from the contact list. Select the “Contacts” folder from the “Select the folder to export from” list. right-click on the contact and select “Delete”. Type ‘Contacts’ in the “File name” text box. Click “OK”. phone numbers. Click “Next”. If you want to delete a particular contact from the contacts list. Click on the "Save & Close" button in the “Actions” group. Enter the required information in the appropriate fields. click “Contacts” in the navigation pane. By doubleclicking on the contact you may edit the information. This is called “Exporting”. Adding and Removing Contacts To add a contact.pst)” from the “Create a file of type” list box. Several of the fields include drop-down lists that allow you to further customize the information for each contact. “Phone numbers” etc. email addresses. The names are automatically listed in ascending alphabetical order. On the “Contact” tab. Choose “Export to a file”. This wizard guides you through the complete procedure. This file can then be used to copy details of your contacts to another location or another computer. The “Untitled . “By Company” and others. You can view the entire contact list in the “Business Cards” format. “Company”. Click the “New” button from the Standard toolbar. Here. Like other outlook tools. Importing & Exporting Contacts You may need to save your contacts to a file so that they are available for use in the future. you can enter the basic contact information such as “Full Name”. The “Import and Export Wizard” window is displayed. “Addresses”. Click on the “Browse” button. birth-dates and anniversaries. Specify the location where you wish to save the exported file in the “Open Personal Folders” window. Choose “Personal Folder File (. “Phone List”. “By Category”. “Contacts” has several views like “Business Cards”.
type the name of the contact you want to find and press “Enter”. in the “Members” group. You can also enter new contacts. In the “Name” field. Click “Next”. Creating and editing mailing lists A mailing list is a collection of contacts. You may add contacts from different address books into your list. Click on the “Browse” button. Since there is a possibility that your imported file may contain contacts which you already have. Creating a mailing list: To create a mailing list.pst)” from the “Select file type to import from” list. The contacts you entered are now saved in a file and will be available when you want to import them later. You can enter a partial name (such as “Hyosuke”). Select the appropriate option and click “Next”. select the address book that contains the e-mail addresses you want in your distribution list. The new contacts will be incorporated into the existing list. In the “Find a contact” box on the Standard toolbar. Importing contacts: Select “File → Import and Export”. click “OK”. Click “Next”. Choose “Personal Folder File (. click the arrow in the “Find a contact” drop-down list. Select the “Contacts” folder from the “Select the folder to import from” list. Select the file from the appropriate location and click “Open”. This list is saved with a name. and then select the appropriate name. In the list below. In the “Create Microsoft Personal Folders” window. first or last name. click “Select Members”. select the 168 | P a g e . Searching Address Books You can search for an address and the information associated with it in the address book. you may select from three possibilities with regards to duplicates. choose “Import from another program or file”. On the “Distribution List” tab. It provides an easy way to send messages to a group of people. In the “Import and Export Wizard” window. To quickly open a contact you have previously searched for. e-mail address and company name. select “File → New → Distribution List”. Under “Address Book”. Now click “Finish”. Outlook will search all the available address books.Now click “Finish”. type a name for the mailing list.
Select “Tools → Account Settings”. Under “Server Information”. In the “Internet E-mail Settings” screen. The mailing list is saved in your “Contacts” folder by the name you give it. You may create your mails offline and connect to the Internet only when you are ready to send them. check the box beside “Manually configure server settings or additional server types” and click “Next”. On the “E-mail” tab. On the “Auto Account Setup” screen. You can now make the changes you require. You can see the name of the mailing list in the message window. For this. You first need to set up your mail account. Click on “To” to display the “Select Names” window. simply click “Remove” in the “Members” group. Enter details in the “Add New Member” window and click “OK”. enter your name and email address. 169 | P a g e . under “User Information”. all incoming mail can be stored on your hard disk. click “New”. Let us delete a member from this list. Now click “Save & Close”. For this. Click the “New” button on the Standard toolbar. Additionally. You may disconnect from the Net and read your mails at leisure. click “Mail” in the navigation pane. Using Outlook for E-Mailing Setting up a Mail Account A very important feature of Outlook is sending and receiving e-mail. Now click “Save & Close” in the “Actions” group. Editing a Mailing List: To make changes to your mailing list. Then click on the name of the mailing list and after that click “To”. The “Distribution List” window is displayed. Do this for each person you want to add to the distribution list. Under “Choose E-mail Service”. either POP3 or IMAP depending on the type of mailbox you use. click “Add New” in the “Members” group in the “Distribution List” window. select Account type. Creating Mails: To create a mail to send to all members of a mailing list. POP3 is generally used. and then click “Members”. You are holidaying in Malaysia and you want to send an e-mail to your friends back home. This mail can then be sent to all members of the list after completing other details. Adding other members: You may also add members that do not exist in your address books to your mailing list. Now click “OK”. ensure that “Internet E-Mail” is selected and then click “Next”. Click “Mail” in the navigation pane. double-click on the list name in the “Contacts” folder.name. and then click “OK”. The “Untitled Message” window is displayed.
Click “OK”. check the box “My outgoing server (SMTP) requires authentication” and click “OK”. and then click “Finish” on the “Congratulations!” screen. They can be compared to a covering letter sent with a parcel or a birthday card sent along with a present. You may select multiple files by holding down the “Ctrl” key while you click each file. Now. On the “Outgoing Server” tab. You may also directly type in e-mail addresses not included in your address book. Creating an E-mail Message Creating a Mail message: This is also known as “Composing” a mail. Then click on a name from the list to whom you wish to send the mail and click the “To ->” button. the name is not visible to other recipients of the message. Under “Logon Information”. including spreadsheets. even sound recordings and graphic images. You may add multiple names to any of the fields. the subject and the content of the mail. Using Attachments Attachments are separate files that are sent along with your e-mail message. Use the “Cc ->” and “Bcc ->” buttons in the same way for entering the addresses to which you wish to send copies to. Now enter the subject and in the large white box below the subject field. If you add a recipients name using “Bcc”. To send an e-mail. This brings up the “Select Names” window. All files in a folder can also be selected by clicking “Organize” on the toolbar and then clicking “Select All”. The list of files attached is 170 | P a g e . you must enter details such as the e-mail address of the recipient. Click “Next”. Specify the location and name of the picture files on your computer that you would like to attach. Attachments do not form part of your e-mail message but they can be opened and viewed or edited by the e-mail recipient. word processor documents. “Cc” stands for carbon copy and “Bcc” stands for blind carbon copy. Now click “Close”. Attaching a file: You now want to send some digital pictures of Malaysia along with your message. While composing the message. In the “Untitled Message” window. enter your email address in the “User Name” field and the password for that account. You can attach all sorts of files to an e-mail. Select the appropriate “Address Book”.Enter the respective server names provided by your Internet Service Provider (ISP) in the “Incoming mail server” and “Outgoing mail server (SMTP)” fields. type your message. Ensure that the “Remember password” box is checked. click on the "To:" button. Click the “More Settings” button. Click the arrow next to the "New" button on the Standard toolbar and select "Mail Message". click “Insert”. database files. click on the Paperclip Icon in the “Include” group.
Viewing and Saving an Attachment Viewing an attachment: You may also receive attachments from your friend like the ones you sent. You can see this folder in the left panel. click the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. Here you can see details such as the sender’s name and the subject of the mail. Click on it to see a list of all mails received in the center panel. To open an attachment of a mail in your Inbox. click on the mail whose content you wish to see. Reading Mail: In the center panel. create a mail as described earlier. If you are not connected to the Internet. right click on the attachment name and select “Open”. when you start Microsoft Outlook. In order to view an attached file. Sending Mail After you have finished entering all information. You may also click the “Send/Receive” button when connected to send mails which are in the Outbox. if you have received a picture as an e-mail attachment. You may also use the “Send/Receive” button to send and receive mail. For this. Instead of clicking the “Send” button. click the “Message” button. simply click the attachment In the Reading Pane. When you receive an attachment in a message. For this. Your mail is now stored in the “Drafts” folder. click the “Send” button. 171 | P a g e . To return to the message body. your mail is stored in the “Outbox”. Drafts: You may create a draft of a mail and send it at a later stage. you can preview it. A copy of all sent messages will be kept in your “Sent Items” folder. then you must have the related software installed in order to see it. Receiving Mail Receiving Mail: By default. She has attached a picture of her visit to Malaysia last year. She has also written about submission dates for your projects.displayed just below the Subject Field. mails from the Outbox are sent to the intended recipients. You may remove incorrect file attachments by clicking them and pressing the “Delete” key. When you connect. all mails that you have received are deposited in your “Inbox”. You can now read the message displayed in the right panel which is the Reading Pane. You may edit your message at any time by clicking on the “Drafts” folder in the left panel and then double-clicking on the related message in the right panel. and want to quickly see what the attachment contains without opening it. For example. One of your friends has written to you that she has paid your college fees since you are out of town. It is very important to know how to view them. the recipient needs to have a copy of the software application that was used to create the attachment initially.
click on it and then click on the “Delete” button on the Standard toolbar. Forwarding a mail: You might want to convey the information related to the project submission dates to another friend. Now click the “Reply” button. This may be changed if required. Enter your mail content and send it like any other mail. You may also make any other changes to the message that you wish. The message will be deleted and moved to your “Deleted Items” folder. In the “Save As” window. Handling mails in the Inbox Sorting Mails: You may sort the mails in your Inbox by selecting a suitable option by clicking on the “Arranged By:” button in the center panel. Specify the location to save the file and then click “Save”. You may forward the mail that you have received. right click on the attachment name and select “Save As”. Now send it like any other mail. Printing Messages: To print a mail. the original mail that you had received is appended at the end. You can also see the original sender’s name and e-mail address as well as the date and time it was originally received. For this. For this. A new mail message window is displayed. Saving Messages: To save a mail that you have received to another place on your hard disk. You may click on the box to the right of the “Arranged By:” field to reverse the sort order. click on it and then click on the “Print” button on the Standard toolbar. A new mail message window is displayed with the original mail content and the subject. right-click on the folder name and select “Empty Deleted Items Folder” and then click “Yes” in the window that comes up. Deleting Messages: To delete a mail. click on the Inbox folder and then click on the mail in the center panel. To reply to her mail. enter the e-mail address of the person you wish to send it to in the “To:” field. Also. click on it and select “File → Save As” from the menu bar. Let us edit the content to remove the statement regarding the payment of fees. Replying to and Forwarding a Mail Replying to a mail: You now want to thank your friend for paying your fees. subject. The “Subject” field displays the words “FW:” followed by the original subject. Now. sender’s name etc.Saving an attachment: To save an attachment of a mail in your Inbox. You can see that the recipients e-mail address and subject with the words “RE:” before it are already filled in. click on the mail from the Inbox and then click the “Forward” button. 172 | P a g e . You may want to empty the Deleted Items folder to make free space for additional storage. enter details regarding the location where you wish to save the mail and click “Save”. You may make any changes you require. You may sort your mails by date received.
the space can only be used once. Type your search text in the From. click “Add Criteria”. MAKING IT WORK CD Writing What is CD Writing? FOR YOU CD Writing is also known as “Burning of a CD”. and then select the search fields you want from the list. Let us flag a mail in the Inbox. in your Inbox. You can make your search more focused by clicking the “Expand the Query Builder” arrow. You can use the same search techniques to find any Outlook item. A burned CD is a CD that has been written by using a process that involves using a device called a “CD Writer” or “CD Burner” to burn indentations into the CD. although you may add files over multiple sessions until the total space has been used. Let us use it to find a message in your Inbox. Body. or To fields. Windows Vista comes with software that will burn your CDs for you. Click on the flag symbol next to an important mail. Subject. Simply type a word in the search box. To display more search fields in the Query Builder.also known as CD-RW On CD-R disks. On CD-RW disks. The moment a match is found. All flagged mail items get added to the to-do bar making it easy for you to keep track of the tasks and mail that you need to reply to or act upon. Using Flags Flags are very useful throughout Outlook. You can use a flag to quickly create a follow-up item that can be tracked in the To-Do Bar. The Instant Search pane is always available in all of your Outlook views.Using Instant Search The “Instant Search” feature helps you to quickly find items in Microsoft Office Outlook 2007. When you have taken the necessary action. There are two types of CDs: 1) Recordable CDs . 173 | P a g e . The reasons for burning a CD might be to create a backup of your files or simply to backup frequently used CDs. To burn a CD you need both a CD burner and CD burning software. and even in the Calendar. Calendar and Contacts. You can see that it gets added in the To-Do Bar.also known as CD-R 2) Rewriteable CDs . It is replaced by a tick and is removed from the To-Do Bar. the related mail is displayed. such as Mail. you can click the flag once again.
they are copied automatically to the disc. Creating such a disk requires as much free space on your hard disk as the capacity of the disc you are burning. This is the “Destination Drive”. When the formatting is complete. CD-RW disks can only be used on CD-RW drives and not on ordinary CD-ROM read-only drives. and then drag the files into the empty disc folder. The files are copied to a temporary folder on your hard drive. This is the “Source Drive”. perform the following steps: Insert a writeable CD into your computers CD Writer. In the window that appears. an empty disc folder opens. Now drag the files to be copied into the empty disc folder. the disc must first be prepared using a process called formatting. 174 | P a g e . Using the Mastered format: To write a CD using the Mastered format. click “Burn files to disc”. By default. perform the following steps: Insert a writeable CD into your computers CD Writer. This format is advisable if you need to burn a large collection of files. In the “Burn a disc” window. Open the folder that contains the files you want to burn. enter a name for this disc and then click “Show formatting options”. Mastered discs enable you to burn multiple files to a disc at one time. You may format a CD using either the “Live File System” or “Mastered” format. This is a convenient format if you need to copy a few files at a time. You may delete individual files or reformat the disc to create additional disc space when you use a rewriteable disc. Re-size and arrange the windows in such a way that both the “Source Drive” and the “Destination Drive” are visible on the screen. In the window that appears. An empty disc folder opens. click “Burn files to disc”. You may change the files in this folder if you wish. It takes several minutes for the disc to be formatted in the Live File System format. Click “Mastered” and then click “Next”. Burning a CD using Windows Vista Using the Live File System format: To write a CD using the Live File System format.the space can be erased and re-used many times. As you drag files into the disc folder. However. Live File System discs enable you to copy individual files immediately to a disc. In the “Burn a disc” window. such as a music CD. CD-RW disks are also more expensive. and click “Next”. Let us delete one of the files. Open the folder that contains the files you want to write to the CD in another window. Before you can copy files to a CD. enter a name for this disc. Windows burns discs in the Live File System format.
Trojan horses and other such software. If you use the Live File System format. click “Burn to disc”. the disc burner tray will open and you can remove the disc. “Adware” is a software package that 175 | P a g e . click “Next”. The term “virus” is often extended to refer to worms. COM or EXE file. hold down the “Ctrl” key while you click the files you want. which spreads by inserting itself into living cells. click “Erase this disc”. click on the file name. by destroying data. An “Identity Theft” is a harmful act by deliberately impersonating a person. Virus Protection What is a Computer Virus? A computer virus is a self-replicating computer program that spreads by inserting copies of itself into other executable code or documents. on the toolbar. a worm is self-contained and does not need to be part of another program to spread itself. To erase all files on a disc. To delete a specific file on a disk. press the “Delete” key. A computer virus behaves in a way similar to a biological virus. burn these files to another disc”. When the disc burning is complete. using someone else’s credit card. Now. click “Next” Erasing a CD A rewriteable CD may be erased and written many times. for example. or executable code that is not part of a file. Viruses are one of the several types of malicious software. for example. is called a "host". Click “Finish” when the process is complete. The selected files are copied to the disc. and becomes part of. and the infected file. another executable program. You may write the same files to another CD by checking the box against “Yes. An example of an executable file is a program. A “Trojan Horse” is a malicious program that is disguised as or embedded within legitimate software. many other viruses are fairly benign or merely annoying. Worms harm the network and add to network traffic. Now. A virus can infect different parts of the computer’s operating and file system. To select more than one file. “Spyware” is software designed to take control of another computer system without the consent of the owner.After you are sure about the files to be written to the CD. However. A virus attaches itself to. you can delete one or more files to make more room on the disc. as their malicious activities are mostly confined within the target computer itself. on the toolbar. In the window that is displayed. Viruses generally do not affect network performance. The insertion of a virus into the program is termed as an "infection". whereas viruses infect or corrupt files on a targeted computer. While viruses can be intentionally destructive.
It controls how frequently your computer is scanned for viruses. moved into a protected area where it won’t cause any more harm). or downloads advertising material to a computer. Antivirus software consists of computer programs that attempt to identify and eliminate computer viruses and other malicious software. This software typically uses two different techniques to accomplish this. The first step towards making your computer safe while you are on the Internet is to install an Internet security suite. MacAfee. Once installed. You must keep your antivirus program updated by downloading the latest releases by your antivirus program vendor. Anti-virus software. An infected file is either deleted or quarantined (i.automatically plays. Most commercial antivirus software uses both of these approaches. Today. “VirusScan” is one of the programs included in an Internet security suite. The first is scanning all files to look for known viruses matching definitions in a virus dictionary. identity theft and adware. This can be installed either by downloading from the Internet or from a disc provided by the vendor. it is compared to the profile of known viruses. Always scan floppies and CDs for viruses. Internet security suites are available to protect you against all these hazards. port monitoring and other methods. When a file is checked. the files on them may already be infected. Virus Protection Are you worried that the precious data computer on your computer could be destroyed due to a virus attack? Did you know that your private e-mail could also be intercepted by unauthorized persons? It is even possible for others to gain control over your computer system. It continually works to ensure your security and privacy. before copying data to your hard disk. originally designed to protect computers from viruses. 176 | P a g e . due to the popularity of the Internet. Some of the popular antivirus packages are Norton Antivirus.e. Even if CDs are read only. Fortunately. the software is automatically activated each time you start your computer. with an emphasis on the virus dictionary approach. displays. Such analysis may include data captures. network-borne worms are more common than viruses. You are alerted when any possible threat is detected. has in turn expanded to cover worms and other threats such as spyware. The second is identifying suspicious behavior from any computer program which might indicate infection. AVG Antivirus and Quick Heal. It is important to regularly scan your computer using a good anti-virus program. Onscreen instructions guide you through the installation process.
there is no download wait when streaming. You may also listen to music online. Streaming has two advantages over downloading. First. You may run Windows Update by connecting to the Internet and selecting “All Programs → Windows Update” from the Start menu. Getting More from Your Computer Listening to Music You can use your computer for lots more than just computational activities. buying online is fast and convenient. You can hear the music as soon as your player starts receiving the stream. you can choose to purchase individual songs. Playing video or sound in real time as it is transferred to your computer over the World Wide Web is called “Streaming”. no files are left on your computer to take up space. All done Downloading Music Rather than traveling to a store to buy a music CD. Using Windows Update: “Windows Update” is software designed to keep your computer current and more secure by automatically downloading and installing the latest security and feature updates from Microsoft. By downloading from the Internet. There’s nothing worse than buying a CD after you have heard a good song. after the music has finished playing. It allows access only to authorized users and applications. A sound card and speakers (or earphones) are also required to hear audio. if so desired. You can use it to block certain Web sites. However. you can log onto one of the music sites and download it within seconds. 177 | P a g e . If you hear a great song on the radio. To listen to music. prevent sensitive information from being sent over the Internet and block unwanted advertisements. a large hard drive is not required to store them. “Privacy Service” is another program included in an Internet security suite that helps protect your privacy online. only to find it’s the only good song in the album.A “Personal Firewall” is a program that controls network traffic to and from a computer system. Audio files in mp3 and Windows Media Audio (WMA) format are optimized for storing music in compressed format. Second. This means you can store thousands of songs without running out of hard drive space. you may use your Windows Media Player or download other players such as Winamp and Real Player from the Internet. Streaming requires a powerful computer and a fast connection since the file is not stored on your computer. you can always copy music to a CD to free up space. Because these music files are compressed.
You may capture a video playing in the TV window into a digital file. each version is designed for the radio frequencies and video formats used in each country. By downloading music.com. For this. It can be copied on CDs or a digital MP3 player so that you can take it wherever you wish. You may include video clips from television as part of a presentation. you must respect copyright laws. Size and move the television window and control box window. click the “Stop” button. Some cheaper tuners cannot do much of the signal processing and rely on the systems CPU for that task. even while running other applications. Broadcasts can also be digitally recorded by the computer for later replay. tuner. Many TV tuners can function as FM radios. The card contains a receiver. you will be prompted to type in a valid credit card number to pay for the music.The best way to find the music you want on the internet is to use a search engine. 178 | P a g e . you could be subject to steep fines or other penalties. There are many popular sites for music lovers such as MusicSites. listen to a sample to make sure it’s the one you want before downloading it. and they could be exposing your computer to viruses. Once downloaded. For this. Once a song is found. While downloading music. Most internal tuners do all the low level demodulation needed to convert a radio signal into an on-screen image using a hardware chip and do not need to use the CPU. specify the location on your computer in which you wish to save the video clip by clicking the “Properties” button. enabling the recording of television programs onto a hard disk. A Download Manager window shows the progress of the download. Once a TV tuner card has been installed. double-click the file to play it. You must specify the location on your computer to store the downloaded file. TV Tuner Card A “TV tuner card” is a computer component that allows television signals to be received by a computer. you may view your favorite TV shows. Then click the “Record” button to start recording.net and music. Although many sites offer pirated music. Then select the channel. spyware and other unwanted software. This means that your computer can serve both as a computing device as well as a television. Most TV tuners also function as video capture cards. click the “TV” icon on the desktop. there are others from which you can download legal music. you may create a large music collection on your computer. To stop recording. and an analog-to-digital converter for analog TV. Like TV sets.lycos. demodulator. or distribution to other computer users. If it is not a free download. If you are downloading pirated digital files.
Then size and move the image of the clip as required. click the “Movie” icon. SMS is a very popular service. There are numerous sites providing paid SMS services. sports news and much more. This unwelcome junk mail is called “spam”. or something similar. as well as for providing value-added services such as reminders for payments. Choose “When Clicked” in the window displayed. get-richquick schemes. Spam Blocking Software In an attempt to control spam. you may click on its image anytime during the presentation. using an "SMS gateway" website. and voice mail systems. some countries have anti-spam laws as part of their legal system. These are mostly related to commercial advertising. often for products of questionable quality. messages are stored in the network and are delivered at the next available opportunity. If the phone is powered off or out of range. information about flight delays. There are others that provide this service free of cost as well. Navigate to your clip and press “OK”. To play the video clip. The Mozilla Thunderbird e-mail 179 | P a g e . SMS is used by organizations for marketing. paging. Today. Let us insert the clip in a presentation. mail it as an attachment or include it in a presentation. You may add it to a Web page. or from the Internet. You require Internet connectivity and an SMS service provider to be able to send an SMS from your PC to a mobile phone. These programs use a variety of approaches to identify and eliminate spam. A more effective approach has been the development and use of “Spam Blockers”. What is Spam? E-mail. You have to register with a site in order to send SMS using the interface provided. current events. like many other valuable technologies does have some drawbacks. particularly among young people.Once you have saved the video clip. It is a globally accepted wireless service for sending messages of up to 160 alphanumeric characters between mobile subscribers and external systems such as email. This has limited impact because a lot of spam originates from other countries as well. This service is available on digital Global System for Mobile (GSM) networks allowing text messages to be sent and received via the network operators’ message center to your mobile phone. Now in the “Media Clip” group. PC to Mobile: Sending SMS SMS is an abbreviation for “Short Message Service”. For this open the presentation file and click on the “Insert” tab. We often receive many unwanted e-mails. you may use it in any way you like.
you have an alternative. Training Spam Blocking Software: After you install Mozilla Thunderbird. After reviewing your actions for several weeks. To set up your computer for Windows Speech Recognition. simply select it and click the “Not Junk” icon. under “Local Folders”. Now click “OK”. This ability to accept voice input is called “Speech Recognition”. select it and then click the “Junk” icon on the toolbar. An icon appears between the Sender and Date fields indicating that the message is spam. you need to train it to recognize unwanted messages. Once spammers know that your e-mail address is valid. Thunderbird blocks remote images in messages. Creating a Junk Folder: You may choose to move new junk messages to a separate folder. To specify a white list.e.program which is available for free download at “www. they will continue to send mails. you need to do three things: set up your microphone. You can use your voice to control your computer. When you have received a message in your Inbox which you consider to be spam. In the left panel. all you need to do is click the "Show Images" or "Load Images" button that appears to the right of the alert message. click “Junk Settings”.mozilla. 180 | P a g e . Blocking Images: Some e-mail messages contain images that let spammers know that you have received them. learn how to talk to your computer. What is Speech Recognition? Are you tired of typing lengthy documents using your keyboard? Now. Then make a selection from “Personal Address Book” or “Collected Addresses” which contains the addresses of all viewed mail messages. you need to have a microphone connected to your computer. click “Junk Settings”. Thunderbird displays an alert stating that remote images have been blocked. Similar messages will be marked as spam in future. such as those of family and friends. and the images in the message body are replaced with simple place-holders. The spam indicator is then removed. By default. Specifying Friends: You may create a “White List” i. under “Local Folders”. Check the box against “Do not mark mail as junk if the sender is in:”. a list of e-mail addresses that should never be blocked. For this. and you can dictate text to the computer. When you receive a message with remote images. You can verbally say commands that the computer will respond to. Mozilla Thunderbird will become more efficient in recognizing spam and taking appropriate action. If at any time you decide that the message is not spam. Then make a selection for the location of the Junk folder and click “OK”. In the left panel. If you do want to view the remote images. Check the box against “Move new junk messages to:”. select “Tools → Account Settings” from the menu.com” comes with built-in spam blocking software. For this select “Tools → Account Settings” from the menu.
and train your computer to understand your speech. Speech Recognition is available only in English and a few other languages. Setting up your microphone: Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Ease of Access”. Now select “Speech Recognition Options → Set up microphone” and follow the instructions in the wizard. Learning to talk to your computer: Windows comes with a speech training tutorial to teach you the commands used with Speech Recognition. To run the tutorial, click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Ease of Access”. Now select “Speech Recognition Options → Take Speech Tutorial” and follow the instructions in the tutorial. Training your computer to recognize your speech: Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Ease of Access”. Now select “Speech Recognition Options → Train your computer to better understand you” and follow the instructions in the wizard. Controlling your computer: Speech Recognition listens and responds to your spoken commands. You can use Speech Recognition to run programs and interact with Windows. There are various commands you can use with Speech Recognition such as selecting a menu option, clicking or doubleclicking an item, switching to an open program, scrolling up and down and many more. Dictating text: You can use your voice to dictate text to your computer. For example, you can dictate text to fill out online forms or dictate text to a word processing program to type a letter. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Accessories”. Now select “Ease of Access → Windows Speech Recognition”. A window appears at the top of the screen which shows you the working of the speech recognition software. To start dictating, open the program you want to use or select the text box you want to dictate text into and then begin speaking. What is Digital Video Editing? In the past, when you needed to compile movies or required professionalquality editing of home videos, you required the services of photo labs or studios. You can now manage this on your own using special software. “Digital Video Editing” is the process of editing videos on a computer using digital video editing software. The process of Digital Video Editing involves three steps. 1. Input: Captured video and audio files are sent to the system unit for processing. 2. Editing: The files are subdivided into a series of clips that can be merged to form a new file and special effects can be added.
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3. Output: The edited video is stored on hard disks or optical disks for later viewing or additional editing. Windows Movie Maker Windows Movie Maker is a feature of Windows Vista that enables you to create home movies and slide shows on your computer, complete with professional-looking titles, transitions, effects, music, and even narration. You can also use Windows Movie Maker to publish your movies and share them with your friends and family. Start the application by clicking the “Start” button and selecting “All Programs → Windows Movie Maker”. On the left is the “Tasks pane” which you can use to perform common tasks related to Digital Video Editing. Capturing Video: You may import a video from your digital video camera to your computer. First, connect your camera in playback mode to your computer. Then, from the “Import” group in the Tasks pane, click “From digital video camera” and follow the on-screen instructions. The video on the camera tape is encoded into a video file and saved to your computer’s hard disk. The “Contents pane” in the center shows clips, effects, or transitions youre working with while you create your movie. The area at the bottom where you create and edit your movie is displayed in two views, the “Storyboard” and the “Timeline”. To switch views, use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl + T”. The storyboard is the default view. You can use this to look at the sequence or ordering of the clips and easily rearrange them. This view also lets you see any video effects or video transitions that have been added. Audio clips are not displayed on the storyboard, but you can see them in the timeline view. Editing a Movie: Each movie is stored as a separate project. If you make changes to a clip, those changes are only reflected in the current project; they do not affect the source file. You can drag clips and pictures from the Contents pane to the storyboard and arrange them for your current project. To add a special effect, click on “Effects” in the Task pane and drag the effect you require to the storyboard. A transition controls how your movie plays from one video clip or picture to the next. To add a transition, click on “Transition” and drag the transition to the transition cell between two clips or pictures. The preview monitor on the right enables you to view individual clips or an entire project. By using the preview monitor, you can preview your project before publishing it as a movie. You can also drag clips to the preview monitor to play them. You can use the buttons underneath the preview monitor to play or pause a clip, or to move a clip frame-by-frame. The “Split”
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button allows you to split a clip into two parts at the point displayed in the preview monitor. Publishing a Movie: Once you movie is complete, you may create a DVD to share it with others. For this you would need a DVD writer and some special software such as Sonic MyDVD or Windows DVD Maker. Insert a recordable DVD into your DVD writer. Then, from the “Publish to” group in the Tasks pane, click “Recordable CD” and complete the steps to publish your movie. Understanding Terms and Technologies Netizens Today, the Internet is an integral part of our lives. As a powerful communications medium, the Internet offers great possibilities for social change. The term “Netizen” is now used regularly. This word has been created using the two words “Net” and “Citizen”. So a Netizen is a citizen of the world, thanks to the global connectivity that the Internet offers. A Netizen is also known as a “Cybercitizen”. Netizens physically live in one country but are in contact with much of the world via the global computer network. Virtually, they live next door to every other single netizen in the world. Geographical distances do not have much significance since everyone exists in the same virtual space - Cyberspace. The term “Netizen” indicates civic responsibility and participation. Netizens try to be conducive to the Internets use and growth. They use the Internet to engage in various intellectual and social activities such as giving and receiving viewpoints and furnishing information. Blogs The term "blog" is a contraction of "Web log." A weblog is a journal or newsletter that is frequently updated and intended for general public use. Blogs have reshaped the web and enabled millions of people to have a voice and connect with others. A typical blog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, web pages, and other related media. Most blogs are primarily textual although some focus on photographs (photoblog), videos (vlog), or audio (podcasting) and are part of a wider network of social media. A blog gives you your own voice on the web. Its a place to collect and share things that you find interesting — whether its your political views, a personal diary, or links to web sites you want to remember. Blogs often provide commentary or news on a particular subject, such as food, politics, or local news; some function as personal online diaries. Journalists often use blogs to publish breaking news, while others reveal inner thoughts through blogs. There are three main features of a blog. The first is reverse chronological order. This means that latest entries are displayed at the top. The second feature is unfiltered content. Opinions are given freely without any
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Many non-fiction CD-ROM titles are classified as infotainment. Examples include educational software for children that teach them to spell or count while playing games and CD-ROMs about machines that contain animations showing how the machines work. Edutainment “Edutainment” refers to educational entertainment or entertainmenteducation. Infotainment or “soft news” refers to a part of the news trade that provides information in a way that is considered entertaining to its viewers. such as multimedia encyclopedias or reference disks. There are also blogs on edutainment that give the latest news and updates on available software. multimedia software. computer and video games. along with celebrity interviews and human drama stories. It is a form of entertainment designed to educate as well as to amuse. It refers to a general type of broadcast program which consists of both "hard news" segments and interviews. The third feature is comments. They have videos and lessons that use edutainment as a basis for teaching in a more efficient and faster way. It attempts to minimize the dryness of regular news coverage by adding a certain amount of light-hearted or sensational style. etc. Fast moving shooting games are not edutainment. Infotainment “Infotainment” is a term applied to software that seeks to inform and entertain simultaneously. On the other hand. Edutainment is normally used to provide education related to one or more specific subjects. Edutainment seeks to instruct by using some familiar form of entertainment such as television programs. Netiquette “Netiquette” or Network etiquette is etiquette on the Internet. games which involve problem solving experiences with gentle intelligent creatures may be referred to as edutainment. films. travel or shopping that are not actually "news" at all. Infotainment is a combination of information and entertainment. The term “Edutainment” is used to distinguish regular computer games from more educational software. Cyberspace 184 | P a g e . websites. Edutainment makes learning enjoyable. music.restrictions. Edutainment is also used to refer to the use of elearning modules to put across concepts in an entertaining manner. It consists of an informal group of rules and ways of behaving on the Internet. Infotainment may include information related to topics such as health tips or gardening tips. Other stories may deal with current trends such as a shift in political views or a change in the attitudes of teenagers. Comments can be made on any issue discussed on the blog or from outside. legal or otherwise.
For example. So. when you accidentally post a note to a newsgroup five times. You must remember that your communication via email or on discussion groups involves written words. point it out politely and preferably by private email rather than in public. Even if you are not a great singer. but try not to hurt people’s feelings. As a result. Give people the benefit of the doubt. Respect the time and bandwidth of others: “Bandwidth” is the informationcarrying capacity of the channels that connect everyone in cyberspace. For example. you may make use of a gadget to make your off-key singing sound really melodious! These are just a few of the huge advancements in technology. Think before writing: The most important rule relevant to e-mail marketing is not to send promotional messages to anyone who has not agreed to receive them. under-the-hood diagnostics can be performed while a car is speeding along a track. Let us have a look at some of the core rules of Netiquette. mechanics can know what parts needed to be replaced even before the car has come in for servicing. Not knowing the rules for behaving properly online might result in unintentionally offending or misunderstanding someone. you would wasting both bandwidth and the time of the people who have to check all copies of the posting. there are loads of gadgets and new technologies that can equip you to deal with nearly every personal or business contingency. They should not misuse this to read private email. and sound. naturally you wouldn’t read anyone’s email. Be tolerant and if you do decide to inform someone of a mistake. It now has an additional dimension. Digital versions of books are available complete with pictures.whether it involves a spelling error or asking a stupid question or giving an unnecessarily long answer.has its own culture. video clips. Follow the same standards of behavior online that you follow in real life. Always try to be polite: You may stand up for yourself when you have been wronged. Some people in cyberspace such as system administrators have more power than others. There are chances that theyre stored at the other end and may be used for purposes that you did not intend. Be tolerant: Everyone makes mistakes -. Technology Today Today. Reading is not what it used to be in the past. always be cautious with your words. 185 | P a g e . There’s a limit to the amount of data that can be carried at a given moment. Respect the privacy of others: In the same way as you wouldn’t wish to snoop through your colleagues desk drawers.
browse to the file you wish to share and press “Open”. You and your contact can access all the files in the shared folder at any time. To create a sharing folder. For this. In the displayed window. we learnt to send instant messages using Windows Live Messenger. the file is transferred to him. When your contact agrees to share the file. There are different instant messengers available such as Yahoo messenger. Instant Messaging enables you to have a conversation with another person or a group of people concurrently. Till date. When he does so. This enables you to see and hear your contact. Google talk etc. even if one of you is offline. the video conference begins. Podcasting and RSS iPod: iPod is a brand of portable media players created by Apple and launched on October 23. Your contact is given an option to accept the file. 2001. Browse for the file you would like to share and click “Open”. ICQ. as well as Web cameras for video conferencing. Messenger allows you to have a voice or video conversation with an online contact. click the “Add Files” button. both you and your contact can access it. Windows Live Messenger. both you and your contact need to have a microphone and speakers. The difference is that you can send and receive messages as soon as they are typed. You may also exchange files with your contacts in the course of your conversation. both you and your contact must agree to share files with each other by creating sharing folders. click the “Show Menu” icon at the right end of the toolbar in the Conversation window and select “Actions → Create a sharing folder”. click the “Show Menu” icon at the right end of the toolbar in the Conversation window and select “Actions → Video → Start a Video Call”. click the “Show Menu” icon at the right end of the toolbar and select “File → Send a single file”. You may also drag the files you wish to share with your contact into the “Sharing Folders” window.It is possible to easily contact and communicate with people you do not even know using technologies such as Instant Messaging (IM). iPods. When he does so. it is possibly the best-selling digital 186 | P a g e . In the “Sharing Folders” window. you can have a complete conversation. It is similar to e-mail. In the Conversation window. Transferring files: In the “Internet” topic. Your contact is given an option to accept the video conference. Sharing Files: You can share files with your contacts by using the “Sharing Folders” feature. Chatting and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). VoIP allows users to not only talk but also broadcast video conferences via the Web. If both parties are online at the same time. Before you can share files with a contact. Using a Webcam: In addition to text communication. To hold a video conference.
iTunes starts automatically. other than the iPod touch. or any portable music player . you need to connect to “www. Creating a Custom CD: Using iTunes. Now select your playlist and click the “Play” button at the top to hear your music. Connect your iPod to your computer. It also transfers photos. They store music files internally. First. Select your playlist and click the “Burn Disc” button at the bottom right. This is one of the ways in which you can take your favorite tunes with you. You would need to have a CD Writer on your computer for this. but to create a podcast or even to listen to one. iTunes stores a music library on the users computer and can play and write music from a CD. can also serve as external data storage devices. They vary in size and features. You can also purchase digital music files from within iTunes. The term “Podcast” is derived from the words ‘iPod and ‘broadcast. you may create a custom CD. Uploading to a Digital Media Player: Another way to carry your favorite tunes is to upload them to your iPod using iTunes. Digital media players are lightweight digital storage devices that do not require cassettes or disks. An important feature about podcasting is that you can subscribe to a series so that it automatically downloads on to your computer and MP3 player. The smaller iPods like “nano” and “shuffle” use flash memory which is a non-volatile memory device. it is not mandatory to possess an iPod. Podcasting: “Podcasting” is a new type of online media delivery which consists of free audio and video broadcasts. click “Music” in the “Library” list and drag them to “iPod” in the left panel. Click “Music” in the “Library” list in the left panel to view your songs. 187 | P a g e .apple. Using iTunes: Let us learn how to use Apple’s iTunes software.audio player series in history. “iPod classic” is a model which has a hard-drive. Insert a blank CD into your CD drive. To transfer individual music files. videos. Put simply. Drag songs you would like to hear to your playlist. Devices in the iPod family are designed according to the latest demands and technology. podcasting allows you to download files onto your computer and MP3 player which can contain music. “iPod touch” is a model which has a touch screen. talk shows or anything else. Click the “Create a playlist” button at the bottom-left corner and enter a name for your playlist. Now click on the “Burn Disc” button once more.com” and follow the on-screen instructions for downloading and installing the iTunes software. iPod is a music player and more. Finding Music: Select “iTunes Store” in the left panel and follow the onscreen instructions to locate and purchase music files. iPods. and calendars to those iPod models that support them. games. Apples “iTunes” software is used to transfer music to the devices.
Some browsers also include the RSS reading functions. Today. 188 | P a g e . Such software is available for free download from the Internet. We often have a hard time trying to figure out which cable needs to go where. RSS is a method of publishing content on frequently updated web sites. Bluetooth & Wi-Fi Technology “Bluetooth” is the name of a new technology that promises to change the way we use machines. using the Internet. Bluetooth is essentially a cable-replacement technology which tries to solve this problem. cheap radio chip to be plugged into computers. RSS Feeds: A “web feed” is a data format used for providing users with frequently updated content. It was originally developed for use by wireless devices and local networks but it is now used for Internet access as well. We see a large number of cables in our offices. Users access headlines and see web site updates via an RSS reader which is an application that displays a short summary and provides links to the full article on the Web site. with a short range.Podcasting enables you to compile all your favorite music. Conceived initially by Ericsson. radio programs and news stories and you may listen to them whenever and wherever you wish. Podnova and Feedburner to subscribe to your favorite podcasts. Odeo. It creates a wireless personal area network (PAN) and provides a way to connect and exchange information between two devices over distances of about 30 feet. instructional and promotional material. Short for Really Simple Syndication (or Rich Site Summary). and. Using this technology. Bluetooth is a small. It aims to simplify data synchronization between Internet devices and other computers. This allows users to "subscribe" to a site so that they can quickly scan the updated headlines and then go to specific articles of interest. It is a radio standard and communications protocol primarily designed for low power consumption. users of cellular phones can buy a multi-purpose phone that can serve as a portable phone and also be used to get information from a computer. Podcasts can be used for a number of different things such as creation of informational. You can use podcasting software such as iTunes. Wi-Fi: “Wi-Fi” is short for "Wireless Fidelity" and is a set of standards for wireless local area networks. mobile phones. They may also be used in story telling for children or the visually-impaired. film reviews. homes and everywhere else. Sportscasts and lots more. Podcasts are downloaded via a feed such as RSS. etc. which will then be automatically downloaded for you. Bluetooth and Wi-Fi have slightly different applications. for Commentaries. technologies like Podcasting empower you with a voice that can literally reach around the world. Bluetooth vs. in general. printers. Juice. have all mobile and fixed computer devices in total co-ordination.
1) Install the Hardware: Install network adapters in the computers that need them by following the installation instruction manuals that come with the adapters. computers are commonly found in homes. Installing the Network: The steps to install the network are as follows. It also depends on whether or not you want to share an Internet connection among all the computers on the network.Wi-Fi uses the same radio frequencies as Bluetooth. and Internet connection that you have. you need a cable or DSL modem and an account with an Internet service provider (ISP). It offers quick understanding on various issues and current affairs. Home networks allow multiple users to access the Internet at the same time. Home Networking Today. Since its creation in 2001. multilingual encyclopedia written by contributors around the world. but requires more expensive hardware and higher power consumption. printers and Internet access as well as to run multiplayer computer games. It covers greater distances. Using the Network: Once your network has been installed. If you have more than one computer. It is a web-based free content. you may use it to share different resources. 189 | P a g e . you need to set up the connection first. modem. It enables a faster connection. and offers better security than Bluetooth. For this. you can use a home network to share files and printers and play multiplayer computer games. Open the “Connect to the Internet” wizard and follow the instructions. 4) Run the “Set Up a Wireless Router or Access Point” wizard: If your network is wireless. but with higher power resulting in a stronger connection. It consists of 195 independent language editions sponsored by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. It is the result of the combined efforts of an online community of people interested in building a high-quality encyclopedia in a spirit of mutual respect. 2) Set up an Internet connection: If you want to use your network to share an Internet connection. Popular Websites Wikipedia “Wikipedia” is one of the most popular reference sites on the Internet. A home network is commonly used to share files. 3) Connect the computers: There are several ways to connect computers depending on the type of network adapters. run the “Set up a Wireless Router or Access Point” wizard on the computer attached to the router. Wikipedia has grown rapidly into one of the largest reference Web sites.
provided it is not potentially offensive. So. 190 | P a g e . You see a page which displays links to other pages. called a “Wiki” where anybody can edit and add to an article.com. none of them have been able to match the cultural impact or enormous volumes of YouTube. YouTube YouTube is a website that specializes in publishing user-posted video clips. and press enter or click “Go”. Select the language of your choice to go to the Main Page. While much of the content consists of original amateur videos. Let us look for information related to the great scientist Albert Einstein. Here you will most likely find all the information you need. professional content is now being provided by some advertisers and media producers. you must include appropriate references.This is a special type of website.youtube. If you wish to look up additional Wikipedia pages. For example. click “Search” after you have entered your keyword. preferring that they watch videos online. while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos. Repeat offenders may be blocked from editing. the site was purchased one year later by Google.wikipedia. Started in 2005. Anyone is welcome to add information as long as they do so within Wikipedias editing policies. posting video resumes. Simply click a link to view the related page. singing. It is one of the top ten most popular websites on the Internet. and in other creative ways. you can research on any topic with great ease. YouTube discourages users from downloading videos to their own computers. Browsing through the loads of available videos is simple and uploading your own video is almost as simple. Content is meticulously appraised and inappropriate changes are removed. Its slogan is “Broadcast Yourself” meaning that everyone is free to broadcast whatever they wish. Let us click on “English”. if you add information to an article. YouTube’s phenomenal appeal lies in its simplicity and global reach. Many people are constantly improving Wikipedia content.com. On the lefthand side of the screen you can see a “search” box with two buttons under it labeled "Go" and "Search". The visitors to this site are mostly teenagers and young adults. There are a number of other video sharing sites but so far. using Wikipedia. Various people have used YouTube to achieve celebrity status by dancing. This will take you directly to Wikipedias most relevant article on the entered keyword. Unregistered users can watch most videos on the site. It can be found at www. This encyclopedia can be found at www. Type “Einstein” into the box.
*****THE END**** 191 | P a g e . Because of this. YouTube has been the focus of controversies related to some sensitive political and personal issues.Like most other social-networking sites. the site has been banned in a few countries.
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