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ALL ABOUT COMPUTERS
Introduction to Computers The purpose of this course is to help you become competent with computer technology. Computer competency refers to acquiring computer-related skills. They include the effective use of popular application packages and the Internet. Today, computer competency is undoubtedly a prerequisite in all walks of life. To begin with, you must understand the impact of computers in the world today. Computers are affecting our lives is some way or the other. Airline and railway reservations, telephone and electricity bills, banking, medical diagnoses, weather forecasts… the list of services using computers is almost endless. A computer is a device that allows you to input data, process data quickly and efficiently, receive outputs and store data. Thus a computer consists of one or more input devices, output devices, storage devices and a processing unit.

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WINDOWS VISTA
WINDOWS BASICS What is an Operating System? Mac

Other Operating Systems Mac OS: “Mac OS” is the trademarked name for a series of graphical user interface-based operating systems developed by Apple Inc. for their Macintosh line of computer systems. The Macintosh user experience is credited with popularizing the graphical user interface. It is a powerful, easyto-use operating system that is popular with professional graphic designers, desktop publishers and many home users. One of the latest versions of the Macintosh operating system is “Mac OS X”, also known as “Tiger”. It provides powerful features such as “Spotlight” and “Dashboard Widgets”. Spotlight is an advanced search tool that can rapidly locate files, folders, e-mail messages, addresses and much more. Dashboard
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Widgets are specialized programs that constantly update and display information. The next version of Mac OS, “Leopard” includes “Boot Camp” which allows appropriately equipped Apple computers to use both Mac OS and Windows XP. UNIX and Linux: UNIX is a powerful multitasking operating system that was developed in 1969. It was originally designed to run on minicomputers in network environments. Now, it is also used by powerful microcomputers and Web servers. Linux is a popular version of UNIX. It was initially created as a hobby in 1991 by a graduate student, Linus Torvalds, at the University of Helsinki in Finland. He allowed free distribution of the operating system code and encouraged others to modify and further develop the code. Introduction to Windows Vista Windows Vista has a more elegant and sophisticated looked than all previous versions of Windows. The new Vista interface is great to look at, with a lot of added functionality making working in Vista a really pleasant experience -and a more secure one. Windows Aero: This is the graphical user interface for Windows Vista. Its name is a contraction of the words Authentic, Energetic, Reflective and Open. It includes new transparencies, live thumbnails, live icons and animations which are visually very appealing. Glass window borders and surfaces make the interface both professional and beautiful. Windows Sidebar: This is a long, vertical bar that is displayed on the side of your desktop. It contains mini-programs called gadgets, which offer information at a glance and provide easy access to frequently used tools. To add a gadget, right-click on the side bar and select “Add Gadget”. Now simply drag a gadget from the Gadget gallery onto the sidebar. To remove a gadget from the sidebar, move your mouse over it and click on the “X” sign next to it. Additional gadgets can also be downloaded from the Microsoft Gadgets website by clicking on “Get more gadgets online”. Search Boxes: Search boxes are prominently integrated into Windows Explorer, the Start menu, Control Panel, Windows Internet Explorer and Help. So no matter where you are, you can always search for related files, folders or information. Two types of searches are supported: Regular search, where a search is performed when you click the “Search” button, and Instant search, where the results are displayed immediately as you type.
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To backup specific files. The “Backup Status and Configuration” window is displayed. specify the file types that you wish to backup and click “Next”. d) “Backup programs” that make copies of files to be used in the event of the originals being lost. It helps to protect you from the effects of a disk failure. Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel”. you may use the “Back up files” button. e) “File compression programs” that reduce the size of files for easy storage and transfer over the Internet. click “Back up your computer”.Utilities: “Utilities” are specialized programs designed to make computing easier. c) “Uninstall programs” that allow you to safely remove programs that you do not need from your hard disk. click “Change settings”. 4| Page . Under “System and Maintenance”. There are various utility programs such as: a) “Troubleshooting” or “diagnostic programs” that recognize and correct problems before they become serious. Specify how often and when you wish to take a backup. Windows Vista has maintenance utilities such as “Disk Cleanup” and “Disk Defragmenter”. Backup “Backup” is a utility program included with Windows Vista that makes a copy of all or selected files that have been saved onto a disk. Disk Cleanup is used to remove unnecessary files on your hard disk to free up disk space and help your computer run faster. Specify the location where you wish to store the backup and click “Next”. b) “Antivirus programs” that guard against programs that can damage your computer system. You may backup your entire computer by clicking “Back up computer”. Now click “Save settings and start backup” to begin the backup process. Click “Change backup settings”. To enter settings regarding where the backup is to be stored and which files are to be backed up. In the displayed window. Click “Continue” in the “User Account Control” window. and Disk Defragmenter is used to rearrange your files so that they are not broken up.

it is reconstructed from the fragments. “Disk Cleanup” is a utility that eliminates such files and frees up valuable disk space and improves system performance. Then select the drive you want to clean up and click “OK”. Disk Defragmenter Files are stored and organized on a disk according to “tracks” and “sectors”. click “Defragment now” and click “OK” in the displayed window. To specify which partitions of your hard disk you wish to defragment. many nonessential files are saved on your hard disk. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Accessories → System Tools → Disk Cleanup”.Disk Cleanup When you surf the Web. The space that will be made free by the cleanup is calculated and the files suggested for cleanup are displayed. In the displayed window specify whether all files or only your files are to be cleaned up. The operating system tries to save a file on a single track across contiguous sectors i. To start the defragmentation process. A track is a concentric ring. “Disk Defragmenter” is a utility program that eliminates unnecessary fragments and rearranges files and unused disk space to optimize operations. Each track is divided into wedge-shaped sections called sectors. the hard disk becomes highly fragmented and results in slower operations. After a period of time. click “Select volumes”. this is not always possible and the file has to be broken up or fragmented. In the displayed window. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Accessories → System Tools → Disk Defragmenter”. Whenever a file is retrieved. 5| Page . However. It runs automatically at a scheduled time by default. You may modify the scheduled time for defragmentation by clicking “Modify schedule”. into small parts that are stored wherever space is available. click “Delete Files”.e. The disk cleanup process begins and the selected files are removed. sectors that are adjacent to each other. Verify the files and click “OK”. Click “Continue” in the “User Account Control” window.

Utility Suites: A “Utility Program” performs a specific task. as well as clean up your hard disk. Norton SystemWorks The Norton SystemWorks utility suite includes the following: “Norton AntiVirus” is a collection of antivirus programs that can protect your system from different viruses. Viruses enter your computer in various ways such as opening e-mail attachments and downloading from the Internet. Buying the package is less expensive than buying the programs separately. Virus protection programs set up a barrier to viruses attempting to enter a computer system. When a new device such as a mouse or a printer is added 6| Page . history files and cookies. Existing viruses are removed and the virus list is automatically updated so that your system is checked for the newest viruses. Three popular utility suites are McAfee Office. They also compress and make backups of programs. “Web CleanUp” is a collection of programs that remove unnecessary files from your computer such as temporary files. These protection programs are loaded into memory and run continually in the background and monitor all operations looking for actions associated with viruses. “One Button Checkup” integrates several of the separate utilities. They protect existing files from damage when new programs are installed. “GoBack Personal Edition” can be used to restore system configurations. “Norton CleanSweep” is a collection of programs that help you to safely remove programs that you do not need. “Norton Utilities” is a collection of separate troubleshooting utilities that can be used to prevent and fix problems and improve system performance. Norton SystemWorks and V Communications. It is a quick evaluation that looks for typical PC problems and alerts you accordingly. locate lost files and repair damaged files. When several utility programs are combined into a single package. Device Drivers: “Device drivers” are specialized programs designed to allow particular input or output devices to communicate with the rest of the computer system. These suites also include programs that protect your system from dangerous programs called computer “viruses”. it is known as a “Utility Suite”.

to a computer system, a new device driver must be installed before it can be used. Each time the computer system is started, the operating system loads all device drivers into memory. Windows supplies many device drivers which are automatically installed when a new device is connected. If a particular device driver is not included with the Windows systems software, it is supplied by the manufacturer of the product. When a device driver needs to be manually installed, wizards provided by Window assist you in the process. For example, the “Add Printer” wizard provides step-by-step guidance for installing a driver for a printer. Ex.: Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel”. Under “Hardware and Sound”, click “Printer”. Click the “Add a printer” button on the toolbar to display the “Add Printer” wizard. Follow the onscreen instructions to install the driver. Sometimes, when your computer behaves unpredictably, you could try reinstalling or updating your device drivers. Windows makes it easy to update your drivers using “Windows Update”. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Windows Update”. In the left pane, click “Check for updates”. To see if updated drivers are available, click “View available updates”. Windows Update will list any updated drivers that are available for devices installed in your computer. If updates are available, click the driver that you want to install, and then click “Install”. Some of the security and safety features of Windows Vista are as follows: Windows Defender: This is a software product which is a part of Windows Vista. It is designed to prevent and remove spyware. Spyware on your computer could result in information being transmitted from your computer without your knowledge. Windows Firewall: This helps in guarding your computer against many types of malicious software. User Account Control: This is an infrastructure that requires user consent before allowing any action that requires administrative privileges such as installing new software or changing system settings. Parental controls: An administrator can apply parental control restrictions to other users on the computer. Facilities include web content blocking,
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restrictions on what kind of games may be played and what programs may be executed. Exploring the Desktop Desktop When your computer is booted up and ready to use, the screen you see is called the “Desktop”. It is the background for all programs and contains the commands needed for accessing those programs. The background graphic is called “Wallpaper”. The desktop can be customized to suit individual needs.

Icon Another important graphic feature that you find on the desktop is an “Icon”. Icons are small pictures that are linked to programs. Most icons and toolbar buttons display a “Tool Tip” containing a brief description of the item when you rest the mouse pointer on it. Double-clicking on the icon runs the program or accesses the file and rightclicking accesses a menu offering options, actions and properties. Icons can be moved around on the desktop by clicking and dragging them. Vista’s live icons graphically depict the content of files stored on your computer.

Recycle Bin The "Recycle Bin" on the desktop serves as a trash can. When you delete a file or folder, it goes into the Recycle Bin where it stays until the bin is emptied. Double-clicking on the icon opens a window that shows you its contents. If you delete something you shouldn't have, you can find it in the Recycle Bin and restore it to its proper place. When the Recycle Bin is emptied, everything in it is permanently deleted.

Taskbar At the bottom of the screen, you see a long, thin bar which is called the “Taskbar”. The currently active tasks are displayed in the form of buttons on
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the taskbar. When you move your mouse over a button, a thumbnail image of the window is displayed. The taskbar has a circular button displaying the Windows logo at one end and a clock on the other. The button at the left end is the "Start" button which is used to start a program, open a document, get help, find information and change the system settings. If you click on the "Start" button, a box called a “Menu” appears. This menu contains several items. Some of them have sub-items which can be accessed by clicking on them. You may see icons on the taskbar, too. These are called "Quick Launch" icons that allow one-click access to frequently used programs. The right end of the taskbar is the “Notification” area. In the “Notification” area, to the left of the clock are several icons that indicate the tools that are automatically started when you turn on your computer and are running in the background, such as antivirus protection. This area also temporarily displays icons while a tool is in use, such as a printer when printing is in progress.

Personalize your Desktop You may set different display properties for your desktop. Right click on the desktop and select “Personalize”. Changing the Wallpaper: You can make your desktop as attractive and colorful as you wish by setting a wallpaper of your choice. For this, click on “Desktop Background”. In the “Picture Location” box, select the location of the picture. Now from the pictures displayed, make your choice by clicking on it. You may use the “Browse” button to search for a background picture from another location not in the list. Specify how you want the picture to be positioned and click on “Change background color” to select a color to fill the space not used by the picture. You may also save a picture from a Web site as your desktop background. Right-click the picture and then click “Set as Background”. Setting a Screen Saver: A screen saver is a program that displays an image, animation, or just a blank screen on a computer after no input has been received for a certain length of time. Screen savers were originally designed to prevent damages (called burn-in) to CRT screens. The screens manufactured nowadays are much more resistant to damages. To set a screen saver, click on “Screen Saver” in the “Personalization” window. Now
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You may even specify a different pointer for a specific action. Now select a different scheme from the “Scheme” list. Click on one and then click “Open”. move the slider to the resolution you want. fewer items fit on the screen. so more items fit on the screen. In the “Wait” field. simply move your mouse or press any key. You can see a variety of cursors displayed in the “Browse” window. Screen resolution refers to the clarity of the text and images on your screen. Click on “Display Settings” in the “Personalization” window. but they are larger and easier to see. Click “Preview” to see how the selected screen saver will appear on your monitor. At lower resolutions. Changing the Display Settings: You may change various settings related to the display of your monitor. Changing the Display Settings: You may change various settings related to the display of your monitor. click “Settings”. To change the setting options for your screen saver. Click on “Busy” in the “Customize” box and then click “Browse”. In the “Customize” box. Changing the Mouse Pointer: You may choose a different mouse pointer and also change the way it appears during activities such as clicking and selecting.select “3D Text” from the list. Click on “Display Settings” in the “Personalization” window. To clear the screen saver after it has started. fewer items fit on the screen. Click “OK” to save your settings. In the displayed figure. specify the number of minutes of idle time after which you want the screen saver to start. Click “Preview” once again to see how the screen saver will look with the new settings. Under “Resolution”. Click on “Mouse Pointers” in the “Personalization” window. move the slider to the resolution you want. but they are larger and easier to see. Under “Resolution”. Now click “OK”. At higher resolutions. say “Good Morning!”. At higher resolutions. At lower resolutions. Screen resolution refers to the clarity of the text and images on your screen. you can see the recommended resolution based on the size of the monitor. 10 | P a g e . In the “Custom Text” box enter some other text. In the “Rotation Type” box. In the displayed figure. items appear smaller. so more items fit on the screen. you may try using other screen savers and make changes to the related settings. Click “OK” to save your settings. select “See-saw”. you can see the recommended resolution based on the size of the monitor. In this way. you can see the way your mouse pointer will appear when different actions are performed. items appear smaller.

Windows colors and themes work best when you have your monitor set to 32-bit color. When you point to an item with an arrowhead symbol. you will find there are many ways to perform the same task. The programs on the pinned items list remain there and are always available for you to click to start them. you may make a selection from the “Colors” box. From within “Pictures”. As you learn more about Windows Vista. The list of programs on the Start menu is divided into two parts. Programs you have not recently used are removed from the list and replaced with the more recently used programs. Click the “Monitor” tab and make a selection from the “Screen refresh rate” box and click “Apply”. If the refresh rate is too low. you need to start application programs and access files you have created using these applications.To get the best color display from your monitor. the monitor can flicker. Pictures: The “Pictures” folder in Windows Vista offers a variety of options for viewing and managing your digital pictures. To use your computer. Another consideration in getting the best possible display from your monitor is the screen refresh rate. Using Windows Vista The “Start” button is one of the most important features in Windows. It is a convenient place to store documents. causing eye strain and headaches. Programs are added to the most frequently used programs list when you use them. click “OK” in the “Display Settings” window. A refresh rate of at least 75 hertz generally produces less flicker. Documents: “Documents” is your personal folder. Pointing to an item in the “Start” menu moves the selection cursor to the item and displays a pop-up description. graphics. The next part is the “Most frequently used programs list”. Click “Advanced Settings”. Click “Yes” in the displayed window and then click “OK”. as it is the starting point for most features on your computer. or other files you want to access quickly. You may explore the various other options in the “Personalize” window to further personalize your Windows experience. The first part is the “Pinned Items List”. you 11 | P a g e . a submenu with additional options is displayed. Clicking an icon in the “Start” menu starts a program or accesses an item or feature immediately. You can add programs to the pinned items list. To save your settings.

you can access many support applications that enable you to customize the appearance and functionality of your computer system. you can access hardware settings for the keyboard. obtain troubleshooting information. printers. To set the time. All Programs: Clicking “All Programs” opens a list of programs currently installed on your computer. such as a printer or shared folder. printers and other hardware. The shortcuts are created automatically whenever you open a shared network resource. From the Control Panel. Date and Time Settings The “System Date” and “System Time” are the date and time as maintained by the computer's internal clock. and year under “Date” to set the date. To change only the hour. Windows uses these settings to identify when files are created or modified. Help and Support: You can click “Help and Support” to learn how to use Windows Vista. as well as settings for the monitor display and sound. print photos or copy photos to a CD. enter the correct time into the box under “Time”. To play a particular audio file that you have saved. Control Panel: Using the Control panel. click on “Change date and time”. month. the “Control Panel” and other system applications. Network: “Network” displays shortcuts to shared computers. and then click the arrows to increase or 12 | P a g e . view a slide show. Changing the date and time manually: To make changes to the system date and time. Music: The “Music” folder is the place where Windows automatically saves all the audio clips you download from the Internet or save on your hard drive with Windows Media Player. and other resources on the network. Language. double-click the hour. rotate them. click on the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Clock. and Region → Date and Time”. Now click the correct day. receive support and more. simply double-click on it.can view photos at different sizes. mouse. Computer: This item in the “Start” menu is used to access drives. On the “Date and Time” tab. printers and modem.

Select your current time zone from the list and click “OK”. click “Change Settings”. To change your time zone. Similarly you may change the value of the minutes. Using the buttons in the Title Bar you can 13 | P a g e . Updating the Date and Time: You may also synchronize your computer clock by an Internet time server. and Region → Regional and Language Options”. Minimize. enlarge it to fill the whole screen. you can move and size windows. click on it. Most windows have the same basic parts:Title bar: This displays the name of the window which indicates which program is running. On the “Internet Time” tab. Working with Windows A window is a rectangular section on the screen that is used to display information and other programs. select your current format and then click “Customize this format”. Enter the formats you require on the “Time” and “Date” tabs of the “Customize Regional Options” window. Changing the date and time display: You may change the way in which your computer displays the date and time. Language. and Close buttons: These buttons reduce the window to a button on the task bar.decrease the value. Select the appropriate server and then click “Update Now”. Select “Control Panel → Clock. click “Change time zone” on the “Date and Time” tab. Sizing and Moving Windows: To make the desktop more workable. respectively Menu bar: This contains several items that that you can click to make choices in a program. usually referred to as the local time. For this. Now click “OK”. Each program that you open is opened in its own window. seconds and the AM/PM indicator. Changing the Time Zone: Time zones are areas of the Earth that have adopted the same standard time. Scroll bar: This lets you scroll the contents of the window to see information that is currently out of view. Borders and corners: You can drag these with your mouse pointer to change the size of the window. and close it. If the box against “Synchronize with an Internet time server” is empty. Maximize. make sure you are connected to the Internet. On the “Formats” tab.

Split buttons: These buttons change into two parts when you point to them. Scrolling a Window: When there is more information in a window than can be viewed on the screen. To scroll you can either click the arrow of the scroll bar or you can drag the scroll box to move the content within the window. change settings. Menus: To keep the screen free of unnecessary items. scroll bars appear on the window. To choose a command listed in a menu. combo boxes and other such controls. click on it. point to the title bar and drag the window to the new location on the desktop. right-click on an empty area of the taskbar. list boxes. it is unavailable and cannot be clicked. restore the window to the original size or close a window. whereas clicking the arrow opens a menu with more options. or perform other actions related to the working of the window. Some menu controls are shown by an arrow next to a word or picture.minimize the window. option buttons. check boxes. or provides you with information. “Show Windows Stacked”. menus are hidden until you click their titles in the “menu bar”. allows you to select options to perform a task. To choose an arrangement. There are two types of scroll bars Vertical and Horizontal. Command buttons may also appear as small icons without any text. Moving a Window: To move a window. text boxes. Dragging a corner changes the height and width simultaneously. Let us have a look at some of them. Arranging windows automatically: You can also have the windows on your desktop automatically arranged. then choose one of the options “Cascade Windows”. maximize the window to its largest size. Windows Controls: Most windows have “controls” that allow you to select commands. 14 | P a g e . or “Show Windows Side by Side”. Clicking the main part of the button performs a command. Dialog Boxes: A dialog box is a special type of window that asks you a question. Command buttons: A command button performs an action when you click it. Data may be entered using push buttons. Changing the Size of the Window: You can change the size of the window by pointing to the border of the window with your mouse and dragging to make it smaller or bigger. If a command is shown in gray.

information is displayed on multiple tabs. This is the most commonly used windows control. Check boxes: Check boxes enable you to select one or more independent a single option only. Drop-down lists: These are similar to menus. You may perform tasks related to Security. some or all of the options are displayed without having to open the list. Maintenance and Troubleshooting by selecting appropriate options. Windows communities or from Microsoft Customer Support online. Click on the magnifying glass or press “Enter” to display a list of related topics. 15 | P a g e . List boxes: A list box displays a list of options that you can select from. Under “Ask someone” you may click on the various links for additional assistance and support from friends. options are available for selection instead of commands to be executed. Sliders: A slider enables you to adjust a setting along a range of values by dragging the slider toward the value that you want. Unlike a drop-down list. Click the “Start” button and then click “Help and Support” to display the “Windows Help and Support” window. The currently selected tab appears at the front. Text boxes: A text box is used to type textual information.Option buttons: Option buttons enable you to make one choice among multiple options. Here. A drop-down list shows only the currently selected option when it is closed. Using Help With Windows Vista Help features. Tabs: In some dialog boxes. You can switch to a different tab by clicking on it. They are also called “radio buttons”. you may search across multiple remote and online providers to get the most information for the topic that you are investigating. you may enter the keywords you wish to search on. you can choose multiple options at the same time using check boxes. The other options are displayed when you click the control. You may click on any topic under “Find an answer” to see help for that topic. In the “Search Help” text box.

You can tell it is the active window because the taskbar button and title bar appear dark whereas those of the inactive windows are dimmed. The “Document1” window is the active window. in this case. On the Start menu click “Computer” and then “Help and Support”. that is. This makes working with your computer more like you would actually work. As more windows are opened. just click its taskbar button. Opening a New Window: Notice the “Document1” icon on the desktop. but only one window is active at a time. This indicates that clicking this link will open the associated item on your computer. 16 | P a g e . You can see that each program is displayed in its own window. Double-click on it. “Windows Help and Support”. then select an item to make it the active window. the Microsoft Word document named “Document1”. If the taskbar becomes too crowded with buttons. Switching between windows: Using the taskbar: Each running program has a corresponding button on the taskbar. To switch to a specific program. allowing you to switch easily between tasks without having to put one away before beginning the other. The newly opened window is automatically the active window and appears on top of other open windows on the desktop. the window currently in use. “Computer” and “Document1”. Working with Multiple Windows The capability to run multiple programs at the same time is called “Multitasking”. When a new window is opened. The window in which the program is running appears in front of the other windows. it appears in the size in which it was last used and at any location on the desktop. Multiple windows can be open on the desktop at once. Click the button to see a menu of the items in the group. then the buttons for the same program become grouped into a single button. There are now three programs running at the same time. This is now the “active” window.Under “Information from Microsoft” you will find guidance on various tasks which will make your experience of working with Windows Vista smooth and convenient. A new window opens on the desktop and the taskbar displays an additional button for this open window. the taskbar buttons resize themselves automatically to fit in the taskbar.

Release the Windows logo key to display the window at the front. This closes all your open programs but does not put the computer off. Lock: This is used to lock the computer when you do not want anyone else to access your files. It closes all open programs. Restart: This closes all open programs. When you click the arrow next to the “Lock” button. While holding down the Windows logo key. Organizing Your Work Files and Folders 17 | P a g e . Switch User: This enables you to switch to another user without closing the programs of the current user. press the “Tab” key repeatedly or rotate the mouse wheel to cycle through open windows. To turn off your computer. use this option. select “Log Off”. click any part of a window in the stack to display that window. shuts down Windows and restarts the computer once again. Sleep: Sleep is a power-saving state. Shutting down Windows Vista It is very important to shut down Windows Vista correctly. Do not turn off the computer by pressing the power button as you may lose valuable data. you see various options.Using ALT+TAB: You can cycle through all open windows and the desktop by holding down the “Alt” key and repeatedly pressing the “Tab” key. Release the “Alt” key to show the selected window. Using Windows Flip 3D: This feature allows you to flip through a cascading stack of your open windows. shuts down Windows and puts off your computer. It saves all open documents and programs. click the “Start” button. and then click the “Power” button in the lower right part of the Start menu. Alternatively. Shut Down: To shut down your computer completely. Let us see what each of them does. Log Off: If you share the computer with someone else. and allows you to resume working within seconds. You may also click on the “Switch between windows” icon on the taskbar to enable the “Windows Flip 3D” feature. This action puts your computer in “sleep” mode.

Arranging files into logical groups makes it easy to locate any particular file. You can view additional folders by clicking “Folders” at the bottom of the Navigation pane. Windows Vista offers “Live Icon” views of files and folders. folders created in the main folder appear indented below the main folder. Your computer represents files with icons. digital pictures. Some common file icons are displayed. you see a small triangle next to each folder which has subfolders.In a computer. the folder contents in the right panel change to display the contents of the location you clicked. you can tell what kind of file it is. commonly used folders are displayed under the heading “Favorite Links”. a “file” is an item that contains a collection of related information. The panel at the left is the Navigation pane. When you move the mouse pointer into the area of the Folders list. You can graphically view the content saved on your computer in ways that enable you to visualize what is inside a folder or file. When you click a location in the Navigation pane. A “folder” is a container in which you can store files. So a “Folder System” is made up of folders and subfolders. CD-ROM drive. Click “Layout” to specify whether to display Menus. Click the resulting triangle to collapse the expanded list. Click the “Organize” button to organize the contents of a folder. A Folder System is also called a “Directory System”. Subfolders appear indented below their parent folders. This displays the “Windows Explorer” which shows you the contents of your floppy disk. This displays the “Folders list”. Using Computer To open the “Computer” window. To close the Folders list. You know that Windows has some common folders such as Documents. where you can click any folder to navigate directly to it. and gain access to options in the Control Panel to modify your computer settings. spreadsheets. It is a named area on a disk that is used to store related subfolders and files. Pictures. and network drives. Examples of files are text documents. By looking at a file icon. hard disks. click “Folders” again. At the top. In the Folder List. Music and others that you can use to organize your files. click on the “Start” button and select “Computer”. a Details Pane. Click the triangle to expand the folder. You can also search for and open files and folders. and even songs. A folder within a folder is known as a “Subfolder”. a Preview 18 | P a g e .

To create a new folder. Let us select “Menu Bar”. you may select the folder. View. Select the folder that you wish to delete. and then drag the file to another folder or drive. List. click on the folder name and select “File → Rename” from the menu bar. right-click and select “Rename”. Deleting Folders: When you no longer need a folder you can delete it. You can use the context menu that appears on right-clicking the mouse to perform various functions. Small Icons. and search for files and folders. You can choose from the options: Extra Large Icons. These links let you open folders quickly. Alternately. Let us click on “Documents”. Folder and File Names: When a file or folder is created. drag it to the Favorite Links area. If you delete a folder containing subfolders and files. Details and Tiles. you may select the location where you wish to store your data files. move. you can open a folder that contains a file you want to copy or move. A folder icon with “New Folder” written next to it is displayed. The following characters cannot be used in a folder or file name: \ / : * ?><| If you think you will need to use a folder frequently. rename. You may type a new name for this folder. Press the “Delete” key or select “File → Delete” from the menu bar. Confirm deletion by clicking “Yes” in the “Folder Delete” window. Clicking again reverses the sort order from ascending to descending. Medium Icons. Working with Folders Creating Folders: Using the Folders list. Working with Files 19 | P a g e . you can copy. Large Icons. Edit. Tools and Help. all the subfolders and files contained within the folder are removed. no matter which folder you are presently in.Pane. Sorting and Grouping Files and Folders: You may click on any column heading to sort the files by that column. and/or the Navigation Pane. You can now see a menu with the items File. For example. select “File → New → Folder” from the menu bar. it must be assigned a name. Renaming Folders: To rename a folder. Using Windows Explorer. Click the “Views” button to specify how you wish to view the contents of a folder.

To select all the files and folders in the window. A copy of it is created at the new location. such as part of its name. Type anything you can remember about the file. Different types of files are stored with different extensions. For example. Now click on the location you wish to move the file to and then click “Move”. click on the file name and select “Edit → Move To Folder” from the menu bar. Type in the Search box. To quickly select adjacent files you may similarly use the “Shift” key. The “Move Items” window is displayed. The file is removed from the original location and placed at the new one. Copying a file: You may make a copy of a file. Renaming and deleting a file: A file can be renamed or deleted in the same way as a folder by clicking on it and selecting “File → Rename” and “File → Delete” respectively. Now select “Edit → Paste” from the menu bar. Moving a file: You may move a file from one location to another. First. the File Name and the Extension.docx”. For this. while a document created using Notepad is stored with the extension “. 20 | P a g e . Click on the folder you wish to copy it to. You may now drop the selection by releasing the mouse button. point the mouse to it and drag the pointer to the new location by keeping the mouse button pressed. you can use the Start menu to search instead. Drag and Drop: All Windows applications have the ability to copy or move selections using the “Drag and Drop” feature. Then. Now this file can be copied to one or more locations. select the item to be copied or moved. Keep the “Ctrl” key pressed and then select multiple files. you can use the Search box at the top to search the current folder. A file can also be copied to a folder by selecting ““Edit → Copy To Folder” from the menu bar and clicking on the appropriate folder in the “Copy Items” window. and then click a result to open it. click on the file name and select “Edit → Copy” from the menu bar. For this. Selecting Multiple Files: When you want to copy or move several files into the same folder. The file that was copied remains at the original location. you can select these files to copy or move them at the same time. a document created using Microsoft Word 2007 is stored with the extension “.txt”. If you do not know which folder to search. Finding Files: If you are looking for a specific file from a large number of files in a folder. click “Select All” on the “Edit” menu.The name of a file consists of two parts.

You may use this shortcut to quickly access your data file location again. a blank workspace is ready for you to begin typing to create a new document. Point the mouse pointer to the folder name. Press the “Up Arrow” key twice and then type the date. The default name of the shortcut is the same as your folder name followed by the word “Shortcut”. select the font along with the style and size you require. Select “File → Save As”. To create a shortcut to your folder. you can create a shortcut icon for the location and place it on the desktop. Editing a Document: One of the advantages of using a computer is that you can edit the contents of your file. select “Format → Font” from the menu bar. Formatting a Document: You may wish to change the way your text appears. you may specify the location 21 | P a g e . To access the location of this file quickly. For this. Saving Files: A permanent copy of the work you have created using an application program is stored as a file on the disk only when you save it. If you fail to save the file. right-click and select “Send To → Desktop (create shortcut)”. A shortcut icon with an arrow at the bottom left appears on the desktop. re-size the “Notepad” window to an appropriate size. If necessary. When the application first opens. locate the folder you have created to save your work. To start Notepad. Using Notepad: “Notepad” is a basic text editing program and it is most commonly used to view or edit text files. all the changes you have made will be lost. In the open Notepad. In the “Font” window. Take the mouse cursor to the beginning of your name and press “Enter” twice.Using Shortcuts You may need to use a particular file or folder stored on your computer frequently. Press “OK” to apply your selection to the complete text in your document. type your Name and then press “Enter”. Type your Address and press “Enter” again. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → Notepad”. In the “Save As” window. Using Applications Using Notepad Some useful applications are available as a part of Windows Vista.

The “Insert” 22 | P a g e . You can delete tab stops by dragging them off the ruler.txt”. Using WordPad Using WordPad: “WordPad” is an application used to create rich text documents. To start WordPad. The buttons on the “Format Bar” are used to change the format of text. Make the appropriate selections from the “Print” window and click “Print”. format bar. A new blank document is displayed. status bar and the ruler. Menus: Let us have a brief look at the different menus available on the menu bar. Another way is to do this is by directly pressing “Ctrl+P”.where you wish to save the file and the name of the file. The “File” menu is used to perform tasks related to your document as a whole. Select “File → Print” from the menu bar. Toolbars: The buttons on the main “Toolbar” are shortcuts for common file management tasks. WordPad includes many features and can be used to create and format large and complex text documents. The “Ruler” is used to set tab stops by clicking on it where you want a tab stop to appear. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → WordPad”. Click “Save”. you cannot accidentally save special formatting in documents that need to remain pure text. This method is called using a “Keyboard Shortcut”. The “Status Bar” provides additional information about the buttons and commands in WordPad. A lightweight editor: Notepad is a basic text editor that you can use to create simple documents. Because Notepad supports only very basic formatting. save and print your documents using this menu. Each menu has different menu items. Your file is stored with the extension “. Printing a Document: Now. You may create. open. The “Edit” menu is used to perform tasks related to the content of your document such as entering and modifying your data. such as creating or saving a file. This is especially useful when creating HTML documents for a Web page because special characters or other formatting may not appear in your published Web page or may even cause errors. you may want to print a copy of your document. A tab stop specifies the place that the cursor stops at when you press the “Tab” key. The “View” menu is used to specify whether or not you want to display the toolbar.

The insertion point is positioned at the top of the document. Click at the beginning of your text. Font size is measured in points. the text automatically moves to the next line when it reaches the right edge of the margin. Click the “Bold” button on the Format Bar to add a bold effect. you may decide to remove a word. A quicker way to select a word is to double-click on it. You want to center it between the margins. You may use the “Center” button on the Format Bar to center the title. The first change you want to make to this document is to add a title. you first need to select the text you want to format. Editing text: After you have entered your text. Since you want to select the entire title. To select text. After looking over the text. This is called “Editing” text. Before you can apply the formatting effects. “Font size” refers to the height and width of printed characters. Entering text: As you type. The “Format” menu is used to enhance the appearance of your document content. Most documents use a font size of 10 or 12 point. To further enhance the appearance of the title. Click the “Font Size” drop-down list button on the Format Bar and select the font size you wish. Click the “Color” button and select a color of your choice. you would like to increase the font size.menu is used to insert the date and time and other objects in your document. make the characters larger and display the characters in a color. This feature is called “Word Wrap”. drag from one end of the area of text to the other. or the “Delete” key to remove characters to the right. you may need to make some modifications. The title now appears in the selected color. with a point equal to about 1/72 inch. 23 | P a g e . Finally. you will make the title text bold and apply a color to it. which refers to the height of the character. ready for you to begin entering text. The “Help” menu contains items through which you can get assistance whenever you require. You can also select the text you want to delete and then press “Delete” to remove it. Press “Enter” twice and then use the “Up Arrow” key to move the insertion point up. Formatting Text: You decide you want to improve the appearance of the title by applying various formatting effects to the text. you can click in the left margin of the line to select the entire line quickly. Now enter the title and press “Enter”. The two most common means to remove text are to use the “Backspace” key to delete unwanted characters to the left of the insertion point.

rtf”. Let us now see some additional features of WordPad. The “Save As” window appears on the screen. The file name is displayed in the title bar before the program name and the Windows taskbar displays a button for the open application. To open this file. To copy text for writing to another location. Click “Replace” to replace the original text with the new text. select “File → Save As…” from the menu. This is because the file is actually stored in the desktop folder and the icon is not a shortcut to an object that is in another location.Saving a file to the Desktop: If you like how the document looks then you may save the document. select the text. Moving. To save the document. The associated program. and then select “Edit → Paste” from the menu. and then select “Edit → Copy” from the menu. If you want to replace that text with other text enter it in the “Replace with” field. If you plan to use this file again shortly. You may click “Replace All” to replace all occurrences of the original text. select the text. and then select “Edit → Cut” from the menu. Notice that this icon does not display the arrow symbol that appears in shortcut icons. Finding and Replacing Text: To find or replace specific characters. You may undo your actions by selecting “Edit → Undo” from the menu. place the insertion point where you want to paste the text. WordPad in this case. To paste text you have cut or copied. You may refine your search by checking the boxes against “Match whole word only” to find whole words matching your search criteria and “Match case” to make your search specific to capital and small alphabets. Copying and Deleting Text: To cut text that you want to move to another location. Your file is stored with the extension “. Then click "Save" to save the file on the desktop. and the file is opened and displayed in the workspace. double-click on the file name on the desktop. Type the desired file name and select “Desktop” as the location to save the file. you can save the file on the desktop using a new file name for easy access. Creating a graphic using Paint 24 | P a g e . is started. select “Edit → Find” or “Edit → Replace” from the menu and specify your search criteria in the “Find what” field. The document icon for the WordPad file appears on the desktop.

Your file is stored with the extension “. we open the application first. edit the drawing and so on. Select “File → Save”. The text under the icon displays the default icon name "New". When you move the mouse pointer into the drawing area. The “Ellipse” tool creates an ellipse or circular shape. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → Paint”. To begin drawing. Paint has many of the same features. A circle or 25 | P a g e . Displayed at the top of the window is the color box that is used to add color to the graphic. Let us create a logo for your organization. The tool you select is drawn when you drag or click in the drawing area. which is the picture of a palm tree. and then create and save the file. Generally. The pre-selected icon is the “Pencil” button. you are ready to open the file and create a graphic. similar to the one shown above.bmp”. You can tell it is selected because it appears in a box. In this case you will create a blank file called “New” on the desktop using the “24 bit Bitmap” image file type. The white area in the workspace is the drawing area where you may create the drawing. move the pointer to where you want the circle to begin.Another application that is included with Windows is “Paint”. The Paint program is loaded with the blank file open. The “Save As” window is displayed. menu bar and status bar as you have seen in the other application programs. Since you want to use Paint to create the graphic. The toolbox buttons are used to draw shapes. To start Paint. You may wish to create a blank file on the desktop. Since the file is blank. The Paint program also includes a toolbar. that you can add to the document you previously created using WordPad. First. fill shapes with colors. the desktop icon displays a blank square. including a title bar. you need to draw the plot of grass below the tree. Now. By default the toolbox is displayed on the left edge of the window. it changes to a plus (+). a drawing program that can be used to create and modify graphic images. called a toolbox. you need to select this application by clicking on the icon on the desktop. when we create a file. Specify the location as “Desktop” and then select the type of file you want to create from the “Save as type” list. The mouse pointer appears as a pencil when this tool is selected and you are pointing to the drawing area. Try to draw a picture of a palm tree.

while the inside of the shape is filled with the background color. Notice the three additional buttons. Using the “Brush” Tool: Next. You have created a simple oval shape with a black outside borderline and white interior. right-click in the color palette. For this you may need to erase sections of your drawings. The color box consists of two areas. Creating a Custom Color: Since the color selection of green colors on the palette is limited. The last fill style creates an object without a border using the selected fill color. Adding Color: You now want to fill the shape with a green color. You may do this by selecting colors from the color box. you can use the Eraser tool to delete the parts of the trunk you may not like.ellipse is created by dragging the mouse until the shape is displayed as you want it to appear. If you select colors before creating a shape. You need to delete the oval and replace it with another that contains color. you may create a custom color. You need to use the Airbrush tool for this purpose. The first button draws an ellipse with an outline border in the selected fill color without filling the object. The Airbrush sprays with the foreground color. Using different shapes can add interest to the drawing. To use the background color. The Brush tool creates broad lines of color as you drag. The second button draws an outline border and also fills the object with the selected fill color. To set the background color. you want to create the palm fronds. displayed at the bottom of the toolbox. To clean up the drawing. You may change the foreground color to brown. You need to use the Brush tool to create the shape and apply the color at the same time. the “select colors area” and the “color palette”. Double-click on a color in the color box. you want to create two tree trunks. The eraser uses the background colors. The “Edit Colors” window contains a palette of basic colors. The brush applies the foreground color when you drag to create the shape. the outline of the shape is created using the foreground color. This is the default selection and the setting you have used. Using the “Airbrush” Tool: Finally. called “fill-style” buttons. 26 | P a g e . This tool also provides several "spray" shapes. drag with the right mouse button held down while spraying. Using the “Eraser”: You may make mistakes or to not like the appearance of your drawing.

hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer diagonally in the direction you want. At the bottom of the toolbox click a line width. click a fill style. This is a color matrix. such as hue and saturation. To draw a square. At the bottom of the toolbox. Drag the mouse to draw the line. Draw a straight line by dragging the pointer. click a line width. You can also use the slider on the color gradient bar at the right to change the elements. Now see the live icon representing your Paint document. Repeat these steps and double-click when done. At the bottom of the toolbox. you may click anywhere on the matrix. associated with the selected color. Drawing a Rectangle or Square: In the toolbox.many of which are displayed in the color box. You can only create two curves for each line. click the “Rectangle” icon to create a square-cornered shape. Click “Define Custom Colors >>” to display the color area to the right. or click the “Rounded Rectangle” to create a round-cornered shape. automatically replacing the original contents with the new contents. click the “Line” icon. At the bottom of the toolbox. To draw the polygon. Your logo is now ready. The green color you selected is the selected color in the “Basic colors” palette. and then hold down the left mouse button to drag the pointer to adjust the curve. click the “Curve” icon. click the “Polygon” icon. Click “Add to Custom Colors” and then click “OK”. 27 | P a g e . hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer to draw a straight line. Drawing a Straight Line: In the toolbox. Press the “Shift” key while dragging to get a straight line. Drawing a Polygon: In the toolbox. Let us now see some additional features of Paint. Click on the page where you want each new line segment to appear. press the “Shift” key while dragging the pointer. Drawing a Curved Line: In the toolbox. To draw a rectangle. Click on the page where you want one arc of the curve to be. click a fill style. To define a custom color. The “Save” command saves the document as it appears onscreen to the same file name. The box below the matrix displays the selected color. The custom color automatically becomes the foreground color and replaces the originally selected green. Now you may apply this color to the fronds. Release the mouse button and repeat this step for a second arc. You can see a small picture of the graphic you created.

Typing and Formatting Text: In the toolbox. You will embed the palm tree object in the document. An object can be inserted into another document by pasting. Click inside the text frame to type text. On the text toolbar. To do this. The graphic of the palm tree that was stored in the Clipboard is pasted into the document. You can adjust the size of any selected object by dragging the handles in the same manner as sizing windows. Copying between Applications Now you can insert the logo of your organization (the palm tree) into your WordPad document. To create a text frame. linking or embedding it. click the font. 28 | P a g e . Since the drawing occupies almost the entire space. Changing the Picture Size: To change the size of your picture. you need to copy the graphic from Paint and insert it into the WordPad document. You would like the palm tree picture that is stored in the Clipboard to be centered at the top of the document. size and style you require. Embedding an Object: You are now ready to insert the picture into the WordPad document. Select “Edit → Paste”. You can select an item from an open document and copy it to another location in the same or another document. A dotted line identifies the selected area. This is because the “Center” feature was in effect for the line the insertion point was on when the two new lines were created. select “Image → Attributes” from the menu. These indicate the object is selected and can be manipulated. in this case the entire picture. The insertion point appears at the center of the blank line. It is surrounded by a box and eight solid squares called “handles”. you may select the entire drawing area. Enter the dimensions you require. hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer diagonally to the size you want. You may also resize your picture by dragging the image resize handles that are located at the bottom right corner and along the sides of your picture. Now you are positioned in the document where you want the picture inserted. You can copy the entire picture or any part of the drawing by selecting an area. The “Paste” and “Paste Special” commands on the “Edit” menu are used to insert a copy from the Clipboard into a document. click the “Text” icon. Contents of the selected area are copied to the Clipboard.

The color that is applied to the text is the foreground color. The “Print Preview” feature displays each page of your document in a reduced size so you can check the layout. containing the palm tree. you are not prompted to save the file before it is closed. you make the text frame transparent so that the background is visible.Editing an Embedded Object: After looking at the inserted graphic. You now have access to the Paint menu and toolbar so you can edit the object while you are still in the WordPad document. 29 | P a g e . You may verify that the original file created using Paint. If you do not like how your text box looks. has not changed. the server application is opened within WordPad. Notice that there is still only one Paint application button in the taskbar. Select “File → Print Preview” from the menu. To save time and unnecessary printing and paper waste. Previewing. you want to give a copy of the document to a friend to get feedback regarding the content and layout. You may want to add the company name to the grass area of the graphic. you can also choose a color for the text. Printing and Saving Although you still plan to make several formatting changes to the document. Before typing the text. You may want to increase the font size to 14 point. called a text frame and then type the text inside it. the text of your document is still displayed. you can always use “Edit → Undo” from the menu and try it again. you may decide you want to add some text inside the graphic. To make the background the same as the grass. because it was the last-used application. Also notice that the title bar still displays "WordPad" and if you scroll down. This allows you to edit the embedded graphic from within WordPad. you first create a box. The text frame displays an insertion point. and the “Fonts” window is displayed. it is always a good idea to preview on screen how your document will appear when printed. Since no changes were made to the file. It shows the default type style and size that will be used when you type the text entry. and the graphic appears in its own editing window. The Text tool is used to add text to a Paint object. When adding text. To edit an embedded object. WordPad is displayed again. you can open the object server by double-clicking on it. This indicates that the Paint program has not been opened a second time in its own application window. Paint.

After that. The Preview window also includes its own toolbar.The Preview window displays a reduced view of how the current page will appear when printed. click “=” or press the “Enter” key to get your result. Double-click the shortcut icon you created to your data location. Cleaning up the desktop You have a few files stored on the desktop of your computer. click “+” to add. You can print the flyer directly from the Preview window using the “Print” button. or “/” to divide. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → Calculator”. Right-drag the selected icons to the right pane of the window. The desktop should be cleared of all icons you created and should appear the same as when you started. “*” to multiply. such as logarithms and factorials. This view allows you to check your page layout before printing. Type other operators and numbers in the same way. 30 | P a g e . type the first number in the calculation. “-” to subtract. Using Calculator Using Calculator: “Calculator” is an application which performs functions parallel to a handheld calculator. Finally you will remove the shortcut icon. Backspace --> Removes the last digit of the displayed number. perform the following steps: First. To start Calculator. You can now see that the file icons are no longer on the desktop and are now located in the selected folder. You may want to clear these from the desktop and move them to the folder where you store your data. It performs basic arithmetic. as well as functions found on a scientific calculator. Performing a simple calculation: To perform a simple calculation involving addition. Choose “Move Here” from the shortcut menu. type the next number in the calculation. click the “Save” icon on the Toolbar. Then. Open the folder where you save your files. subtraction. The functions of the different buttons on the Calculator are as displayed. such as addition and subtraction. Select “View → Refresh” from the menu to refresh the display of the window. multiplication or division. Finally. To save the current document. The flyer looks good and does not appear to need any further modifications immediately.

In addition to handling simple calculations. faxes and even professional manuals. With a few keystrokes. % --> Calculates percentages. the Scientific Calculator has complete trigonometrical calculations. For this. brochures. form letters. 1/x --> Calculates the reciprocal of the displayed number. retrieve and print part or all of a document. Creating and Editing a Document 31 | P a g e . Decimal.CE --> Clears the number displayed at that time. an invoice form. Word Processing Overview of Word Processing What is Word Processing? Typing text using a computer is commonly known as Word Processing.org Writer are a few of the popular Word Processors. for example. programming calculations and statistical calculations for averages and standard deviation. editing. M+ --> Adds the displayed number to the memory. Word Processor Applications help you to create different types of written documents such as personal letters. select “View → Scientific” from the menu. The activity of word processing includes typing text using the keyboard and using various facilities of formatting. MR --> Recalls a number from the memory. printing etc. Performing a scientific calculation: Your calculator can be made into a full-functioned scientific calculator. Through a word processor you can create. store. modify. you can easily correct errors. MC --> Clears the numbers in the memory. Documents that you use often can be saved as templates. You have a choice of four numbering systems: Hexadecimal. C --> Clears the entire calculation. move paragraphs and reprint your document. Sqrt --> Calculates the square root of the number on the screen. Microsoft Word and OpenOffice. Octal and Binary. MS --> Stores numbers in the memory.

Word comes with a variety of templates for almost every purpose. Undo. graphics. and Redo. It consists of three main parts: 1) The Office Button 2) The Quick Access toolbar 3) The Ribbon The Office Button: This appears at the top-left corner of your screen. and closing a file. from the menu that appears. Text can be formatted multi-columnar and have text frames. You can also create your own templates. In Word. click the arrow on the right. you can simply click on it when you need to create a new document.Introduction to Microsoft Word Microsoft Word is a complete Word Processor Application. Microsoft Word contains numerous functions to assist you in creating perfectly styled documents. even beyond page limits to create a newspaper format. a file is called a “document”. You can add an icon to the toolbar by just clicking on an icon name. 32 | P a g e . To add an additional command to the Quick Access toolbar. This contains commands for opening. The User Interface The User Interface is the way in which you interact with your computer. To start the Microsoft Word application. etc. displaying icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. It is designed to put your most commonly used commands in a place where you can always find them. The Quick Access toolbar: This appears to the right of the Office Button near the top of the screen. tables. such as “New”. Once the “New” icon is added. You can define the structure and appearance of the indexes and tables according to your needs. Microsoft Word offers a wide variety of options to design documents. integrated into it. saving. you can create various indexes and tables in text documents. The Microsoft Office user interface is uniform across most of its components. Additionally. printing. The text frames can be linked anywhere. Clicking the Office Button displays the “File” menu. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Word 2007”.

such as pictures.Now. orientation. 33 | P a g e . Click “OK”. and track changes. pages. “Cut”. clip art. The “Mailings” tab contains the items needed for a mail merge. and spacing properties. “Copy” and “Format Painter” command buttons. The “View” tab contains the view options for the document and is the location of the Switch Windows command to move between files open in that application. For example. You will gradually learn to use the commands on all the tabs. The “References” tab contains the most common items needed when generating a professional paper. b) Groups within each tab that break a task into subtasks. the “Home” tab has the “Clipboard”. “Styles” and “Editing” groups. When you move your mouse over most command buttons. Click an icon and then click the “Add” button. right-click on it and select “Remove from Quick Access Toolbar”. thesaurus. table of contents. and copy/paste. and text boxes. The Ribbon: The Ribbon is a component of the Office Fluent user interface. To remove an icon. The “Page Layout” tab contains margin. including footnotes. You can see that your chosen icons now appear on the Quick Access toolbar. It consists of:a) Task-oriented tabs. c) Command buttons in each group that carry out a command or display a menu of commands. click “More Commands”. styles. The “Insert” tab contains all items that can be inserted into the file. The “Review” tab contains spell check. bullets. The following Ribbon tabs are displayed in Word: The “Home” tab has common formatting commands. Under “Choose commands from:” you can see a list of commands that you may add to your Quick Access toolbar. “Paragraph”. “Font”. The “Clipboard” group in turn has the “Paste”. citations. and index. a “Super-tooltip” is displayed. This provides a detailed description of what the button does.

To restore the Ribbon. which includes the most commonly-needed commands. or badges. showing the Key Tips for all the tabs. right-click anywhere on the Ribbon and choose “Minimize the Ribbon”. The tabs. When you first start Word. We shall now learn step-bystep. you see a question mark symbol. the Microsoft Office Button menu. When an existing word document is open. and command buttons change as you take on various activities. to create a new blank document. and the Quick Access Toolbar has an access key. They relate directly to the tabs. It is like a blank piece of paper that has certain default settings which are the most commonly used settings. Now click “Create” in the “New Document” window. a new blank document is opened. You decide to create a document like the one displayed above. You may use them when you are more familiar with the commands. the badges showing the Key Tips for the commands on that tab appear. 34 | P a g e . When you first launch most of the Microsoft Office applications you’ll find yourself in the Ribbons Home tab. and other things that you see on the screen. For this. and every access key is assigned a Key Tip. At the right end of the Ribbon. click the Office Button and select “New”. commands. Every single command on the Ribbon. Clicking this brings up the Help window related to the Office application that you are using. You want your document to be attractive and at the same time informative. You are required to create a document listing the special offers of your company. groups. right-click any tab and choose the “Minimize the Ribbon” command again. After you press a key to activate a particular tab. You first need to press the “Alt” key. how to include all such features into your document. Creating New Documents Let us now learn to effectively use Microsoft Word using the following simple Case Study. You then see little labels. Access keys: Access keys are another type of keyboard shortcut used to access the Ribbon. You can hide the Ribbon if you wish to have more space to write.Equivalent keyboard shortcuts are also displayed if applicable. You are working for Global Tours and Travels.

Now type “Come to any of the offices”. Changing the Font: Let us select the text “SPECIAL OFFERS” and change the font. Selecting Text: To select a section of text. select it and then click on the “Bold” icon. without actually applying it. a "Mini Toolbar" is automatically displayed. Setting up the way a page of text will look by entering certain attributes is called “Formatting”. When text is selected. Type "SPECIAL OFFERS". press “Enter” once again. To insert a blank line. On the “Home” tab. click the “Italic” icon. in the “Font” group. you may change the Font Size. To change the color of the text click on the arrow next to the “Font Color” icon and select a color. It provides easy access to the most-used formatting commands. Entering and Formatting Text Let us now enter text into a new document. select it and then click on the “Underline” icon in the “Font” group.A “Template” is a pre-designed document designed for common purposes such as a fax. click on the “Bold” icon in the “Font” group and begin text entry. move your mouse over the different fonts displayed. Justifying Text: 35 | P a g e . Similarly. invoice or business letter. For now. from the drop-down menu. Press "Enter" once to come to the next line. Click on the font you would like. The "Live Preview" feature allows you to have a preview of how the selected font would affect the appearance of the text. Underlining: To underline your text. You may create a new document using standard templates provided by Word by clicking on a template name in the “New Document” window. You may choose other underline styles and colors by clicking on the arrow to the right of the “Underline” icon. Let us insert some more text. on the “Home” tab. let us use the command buttons on the Ribbon. To make the text appear in italics. You will be comfortable using it after you are more familiar with the Word application. It remains semi-transparent until you move your mouse pointer over it. A “Font” is a design for a set of characters. To make existing text bold. Making text Bold: To enter text with a bold display. click at the point you want to begin and drag your cursor to the right and release it when you have reached the end of the selection.

In the “Paragraph” group. you may click on the “X” shaped icon at the top right corner of the window or use the keyboard shortcut “Alt+F4” to exit the Word application. 3. There are three ways to save a document. 1. click the Office Button and select “Close” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+W”. You may use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+O”. Opening Documents: There are many ways in which you can open a document. You may open a recently used document by clicking on the Office Button and then clicking a document name under the list of “Recent Documents” displayed on the right. Align Text Right or Justify. Closing and Opening files Saving Documents: Your file is stored with the extension “. Click the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. When you save a new file for the first time. Changing Line Spacing: Select the text you would like to change the line spacing for. For this. you may click the Office Button and select “Open”. navigate to the location of your document.Select the text you would like to justify. you may select Align Text Left. Click the “Line spacing” icon in the “Paragraph” group and make your selection. To remove the display. Closing a File: To close a file. select the file and click “Open”. Moving through Text Moving through text using the Keyboard: You can use the arrow keys and other keys on the keyboard which are shown above to position the cursor at the location you want to type or modify text. Alternatively. Click on Center. Click the Office Button and select “Save”. such as paragraph marks. Saving. tab stops and spaces.docx”. Center. Displaying formatting marks: You can display nonprinting characters in your text. Using the shortcut keys “Ctrl+S”. Enter the name. 36 | P a g e . click the “Show/Hide” icon in the “Paragraph” group. 2. line breaks. folder and location for the file and then click “Save”. the “Save As” window is displayed. click on this button once again. Alternatively. Then.

Using a Building Block: Let us insert this building block into another document. Click the Office Button. you may check the boxes against the options you require. click “Quick Parts”. Ensure that the box against the option is checked. 37 | P a g e .Moving through text using the Mouse: You can use the mouse to move the insertion point to a specific location in a document. Select “AutoText” from the “Gallery” drop-down list. you can see that it is corrected. On the “AutoCorrect” tab. Using AutoComplete: Another useful feature is “AutoComplete”. in the “Text” group. On the “Insert” tab. enter a unique name for the building block in the “Name” field. Using Automatic Editing Features Using AutoCorrect: You may use the numerous features provided by Microsoft Word to automatically correct your document. and then click “Word Options”. it is shaped as an I-beam. Now click “Proofing” and then click the “AutoCorrect Options” button. Building Blocks: Building Blocks in Word are designed specifically for the addition of frequently used content to your documents. and then click “Save Selection to Quick Part Gallery”. Begin typing the unique name of the building block you created. These corrections are effected as you enter your text. they are replaced by the text “First”. Click at the point where you wish to position the cursor. Click on a building block name and then click “Insert”. Now try typing the text “HAppy” with two initial capitals. click “Quick Parts”. and then click “Building Blocks Organizer”. Click “Gallery” to sort by gallery. type enough so that the name is different from that of any other building block and then press “F3”. Now click “OK”. You can even replace some text with alternate text as it is typed using the “Replace text as you type” option. Click where you want to insert a building block in the document. As it is typed. You can see that the “Correct TWo INitial CApitals” option is checked. Creating a Reusable Building Block: Select the text or graphic that you want to store as a reusable building block. When you type the digit “1” followed by the alphabets “s” and “t”. On the “Insert” tab. in the “Text” group. say “Global Tours Logo”. When you can use the mouse to move the insertion point. In the Create New Building Block window. The building block is inserted. Now enter numeric “1st” in the “Replace” box and alphabetic “First” in the “With” box.

Use the “Ctrl+Home” keys to go to the beginning of the document and the “Ctrl+End” keys to go to the end. Now enter the sentence “Discounts are available on international tickets” with the word “Discounts” incorrectly spelled. and then click “Word Options”. These checks are enforced as you enter your text. This time. Click the “Home” tab and select “Find” in the “Editing” group. Navigating a Document There are different ways you can move through your document. You may navigate to a specific item in your document. Word brings up a little box above the incomplete word. This results in a grammatically incorrect sentence. Simply click “OK”. click “Line” in the “Go to what” list. On the “Go To” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. 38 | P a g e . it is underlined with a red wavy line. Let us leave the default settings. a green wavy underline appears. Click “Close” in the “Find and Replace” window. You can also navigate to a specific page. Once you correct the spelling. Alternatively you may use the scrollbars on the right and bottom of your screen. To display the line numbers in a document. the wavy line is removed. such as “January”. The green wavy line disappears since the sentence is grammatically correct once again. Some of them are as follows: 1. endnote etc. Word automatically finishes the name. click the “Page Layout” tab and select “Line Numbers → Continuous” in the “Page Setup” group. 4. footnote. Now remove the word “Discounts” from the sentence. You can see that as soon as this word is entered. Now click “Proofing” and then check the boxes against the spelling and grammar checks you require. Let us move to a specific line number. Re-enter “Discounts”. using the “Go To” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. 2. Down. Use the Up.When you begin typing in the name of a month. You may also use the “Page Up” and “Page Down” keys on your keyboard. 3. Your cursor moves to the specified line. If you then press “Enter”. Right and Left Arrow keys on your keyboard. Automatic Spelling and Grammar checking: Click the Office Button. Now enter the line number to which you wish to go and click the “Go To” button. section.

you may select “Undo” from the Quick Access toolbar or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Z”. you may also use "Ctrl+Delete" for words to the right of the insertion point or "Ctrl+Backspace" for words to the left. Selecting and Deleting Text: In order to delete a section of text. you may decide they are not necessary after all. For this. Select the entire line and press “Delete”. You may select from the various options available in the “Illustrations” group on the “Insert” tab. color etc. To delete a blank line. Now to undo this action. click the “Page Layout” tab and select “Line Numbers → None” in the “Page Setup” group. select “Redo” from the Quick Access Toolbar or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Y”. Let us first delete a line of text. It is surrounded by eight boxes called “sizing handles”. Click the “Picture” icon. specify your picture and its location and click “Insert”. You can reverse your last action by using the “Undo” command. Point to a handle and drag with your mouse to the size you require. To remove individual characters. you may press "Delete" for characters to the right of the insertion point and "Backspace" for characters to the left. To delete an entire word. you would like to proof read it for accuracy and completeness and modify or edit the document as needed. The line is displayed once again. Sizing and Moving Graphics: You may change the graphic that you have inserted in respect of size. Editing a Document After entering the text of a document. location. Click at the point where you wish to insert the picture. To change the size.To remove the display of line numbers. Undoing and Redoing Editing Changes: After making some changes. click on the picture. You can also redo an action that has been undone. The picture now appears in your document. In the “Insert Picture” dialog box. Working with graphics Inserting Graphics: You now wish to insert a picture of one of the buses of your company along with your company name. To move your 39 | P a g e . The line that was displayed is now deleted. click on that line and press “Delete”. you may select it and press “Delete”. Let us insert a picture from an existing file on the hard disk.

you may specify how many copies of the document you wish to print. Let us have a look at few of the basic options you might need to change. To specify the number of pages to view. click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. In the “Name” field. Drag the slider to the right or left as required. Printing a document: There are two ways to print a document: 1. In the “Number of copies” box. The preview size will be adjusted accordingly. Shrink One Page: Click this icon to prevent the document from being printed on an additional page. you may select the name of the printer on which you wish to print the document. Zoom: The “Zoom” icon can also be used to specify the zoom percentage. you may specify whether you wish to print the entire document or a specific part. Use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+P”. One Page: Click this icon to display one page in the preview window. 2. 40 | P a g e .picture. click the “Zoom” icon and select “Many pages”. click on the icon below the “Many pages” button and drag towards the right and down. Previewing and Printing a Document Previewing a document: It is always a good practice to preview your document onscreen before you print it. This is particularly useful for documents which have only a small amount of text on the last page. Two Pages: Click this icon to display two pages in the preview window. place the cursor on the picture and drag with your mouse to the new location. Click the Office Button and select “Print” from the menu. The Print Preview tab appears when you view the current document in the Print Preview mode. The Zoom level can be adjusted using the slider at the bottom right of the window. To display Multiple Pages. Default settings are displayed which are normally acceptable. The “Print” window is displayed. To view a document in the Print Preview mode. Under “Print Range”.

1. When the spelling checker encounters a word it doesn’t recognize. in the “Pages per sheet” box. it determines which words in its dictionary are similarly spelled and displays a list of those words in the “Suggestions” box. you are informed accordingly. Use the keyboard shortcut “F7”. number of copies and other such things. select “Thesaurus”. On the “Review” tab. You may click “Options” in the “Spelling and Grammar” window to specify the spelling and grammar checks that you require. You may add these words to the dictionary by clicking the “Add to Dictionary” button. After you have entered your options. They are no longer displayed as spelling mistakes. click “OK” to print the document. It lets you print a document with one click but does not offer the flexibility to specify whether to print all or just part of your document. You may also select “Print→ Quick Print” from the Office Button menu. On the “Review” tab. in the “Proofing” group. such as proper nouns which are not really errors may be shown as spelling mistakes. Press “Shift+F7”.Under “Zoom”. Thesaurus: The “Thesaurus” is a dictionary of synonyms which you can use to find words that are synonymous with a term. Click on the correct spelling and then click “Change”. Some words. with the most likely match highlighted. There are two ways to start the thesaurus. you may specify how many pages of your document you want printed on a sheet of paper. 2. select “Spelling & Grammar”. The “Spelling and Grammar” window appears only when a mistake is found. 41 | P a g e . 2. You can see that the incorrect spelling has been corrected. REVISING AND REFINING A DOCUMENT Revising a Document Spelling and Grammar checking: There are two ways you can do this: 1. in the “Proofing” group. When the checking is completed.

You may choose from the options Insert. Press “Ctrl+V”. the word is inserted at the current cursor position. Press “Ctrl+C”. enter your expression. in the “Clipboard” group. The document itself does not change. 2. On the “Home” tab. On the other hand. 2. Select “Copy” to copy the word which can be pasted to another location. Moving and Copying Selections Using Copy: Let us select some text for copying to the clipboard.)” from the dropdown list below. select “Copy”. Then press “Ctrl+V” to paste. On the “Home” tab. Using Cut and Paste: You may decide to move a section lower down in your document. select “Cut”. Press “Ctrl+X”. You may use any of the following methods for pasting: 1. The contents are inserted at the position of the cursor. moving it to the clipboard and then pasting it to a location of your choice.S. Click on the arrow to the right of the search box. leaving the original location unchanged. On the “Home” tab. 42 | P a g e . select “Paste”. When you select “Insert”.You now see a panel on the right. Paste: This command is used to insert the contents of the clipboard into the document. You may point to a synonym of your choice and specify the action you wish to perform by viewing the drop-down list. 2. in the “Clipboard” group. You may use any of the following methods for cutting: 1. say “Contact”. Select “Thesaurus: English (U. the “Copy-Paste” commands create a copy at the new location. but any existing clipboard contents are overwritten. Now move lower down in the document and click where you want to place your selection. Select “Look Up” to look up further variations of the selected word. Copy and Look Up. In the “Search for:” text box. You may use any of the following methods: 1. A list of synonymous terms is displayed. Any selected text or objects are replaced by the pasted contents. in the “Clipboard” group. For this select it and use “Cut” to move the selected section. The “Cut-Paste” commands involve deleting the section from the document.

Inserting Page Breaks To control document paging so that important titles and headlines appear on the top of the pages. Copy the contents by clicking “Copy” in the “Clipboard” group. Paste the contents by clicking on “Paste” in the “Clipboard” group of the “Home” tab. Make it active by clicking on the taskbar. Select “Find” from the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab or press “Ctrl+F” to display the “Find” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. A blank document is displayed in a new window. place the cursor at the point where you want a new page to begin and click “Page Break” in the “Pages” group of the “Insert” tab. Finding and Replacing text Finding Text: You may search for a word or phrase in a document. Let us leave our graphic on the first page and display the other text on the next page. you may need to insert Page Breaks just before them so that they start on a new page. you may use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Enter”. say “office” and click “Find Next”. The previous document is the “dormant” program now. Click “Create” in the “New Document” window. Enter some text. Click “Find Next” once again. Move to the new document by clicking on the taskbar. First.Drag and Drop: All Windows applications have the ability to copy or move selections using the “Drag and Drop” feature. Copying between Documents: The dormant program appears dimmed on the taskbar. point the mouse to it and drag the pointer to the new location by keeping the mouse button pressed. This becomes the “active” program. A fixed page break is inserted and the cursor is now at the beginning of the new page. Now open a second Word document by clicking “New” in the Office Button menu. select the item to be copied or moved. Let us now move the text back to its original location. 43 | P a g e . Click “Select” in the “Editing group on the “Home” tab. Alternatively. You may now drop the selection by releasing the mouse button. Then. Working with Multiple Documents Opening a Second Document: Save the current document by clicking the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. To insert a Page Break. The next occurrence of the specified term after the current cursor position is selected. Click “Select All” from the menu displayed.

If you want the date to be automatically updated when the current date changes. Position the cursor above your text and select “Date & Time” from the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. Inserting the Current Date Let us now insert the current date into this document. say “new office” in the “Replace with” field. Select the format you require. Select “Replace” from the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab or press “Ctrl+H” to display the “Replace” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. Select from the “Portrait” or “Landscape” options. Replace All: You may click this button to replace all occurrences of the search text by the specified new text. On the “Margins” tab.Finding and Replacing: You may search for a word or phrase in a document and replace it by some other text. You can see that your document is displayed with wider side margins. You may click on any of the 44 | P a g e . More: You may click this button to specify additional search options. Changing the Orientation: You may orient your document vertically or horizontally by clicking on “Orientation” from the “Page Setup” group of the “Page Layout” tab. A window appears showing the number of replacements made. you may enter your requirements in one or more of the fields. Replace: You may click this button to replace the next occurrence of the search text by the specified new text. check the “Update automatically” box. Enter the text you wish to find in the “Find what” field and the text with which you wish to replace it. You may click on any of the available options or click “Custom Margins” to enter your own specifications. Entering the Page Size: To set the Page Size. This function provides many advanced options to help make your search as specific as necessary to find what you are looking for. Let us change the left and right margins to 4 inches each. select “Size” from the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. This updating is seen when you next open your document. Click “OK”. Click “Undo” on the Quick Access toolbar to revert to the original margins. Modifying Page Layout Changing Margin Settings: To set margins. select “Margins” from the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab.

the distance between the words is as per the new tab stops specified. Let us learn to set the position of a tab stop in a blank document. Now enter the text as shown. Alternatively. You can see on the ruler that each word appears at a distance of 2 cm from the other. although this method is not as precise. you may use the “Decrease Indent” and “Increase Indent” icons in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab for indenting your text. Setting Tab Stops: A “Tab Stop” is the amount of spacing that is applied each time you press the “Tab” key. Click “OK” to save your settings. from the drop-down list. Press “Undo” twice on the Quick Access toolbar to remove these indents. In the “Paragraph” group. click “Tabs” to display the “Tabs” window. A5. You can also use your mouse to set the tab stops in the “Ruler”. On the “Paper” tab. it is advisable to use tabs rather than spaces to avoid problems with text alignment. You can see that this time. click the “View Ruler” button at the right corner. On the “Indents & Spacing” tab. You may also manually set the dimensions you require in the “Width” and “Height” fields. click on the arrow at the bottom right. Then click on the “Page Layout” tab. Character Formatting in detail 45 | P a g e . enter “2 cm” and click “OK”. This brings up the “Paragraph” window. If you do not see the horizontal ruler displayed just below the Ribbon.available options or click “More Paper Sizes” to enter your own specifications. Now enter the same text pressing the “Tab” key after each word. When more than a single space is required to be inserted between words. Spacing: You may specify the spacing between paragraphs by adding space above or below selected paragraphs. In the “Default tab stops” box. you may select the paper size from preset formats like A4. You can quickly set tabs by clicking the ruler at the location you want your tab stop. etc. Paragraph Formatting in detail Indents: Indentation determines the distance of the paragraph from either the left or the right margin. In the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. you may specify your indent requirements in the “Indent Left” and “Indent Right” boxes. Select a paragraph of text. For this use the “Spacing Before” and “Spacing After” boxes in the “Paragraph” group on the “Page Layout” tab. pressing the “Tab” key after each word.

Simply right-click on the number and select from the options “Restart at”. Let us select “UPPERCASE”. So you may use a “Hyperlink”. in the “Font” group. Select the text “Time Table”. let us change the font color of a section of text. Click on the arrow next to the “Text Highlight Color” icon in the “Font” group and select a color. Using Hyperlinks Inserting Hyperlinks: You now want to give information related to the different routes and their timings. the document will lose its clarity regarding the main information that it is meant to convey. Creating Lists You may want to display the information about the special offers that you have entered as an itemized list so that it stands out from the rest of the text. drag it over the text to which you wish to apply the same format. Now to copy the formatting of this text. You can see that your text is displayed with all capital letters. First. This brings up the “Font” window. Bulleted lists are normally used to list logically related information. Now. Numbered lists are normally used to convey a sequence of events. You may specify effects for your text by checking the boxes against the effects you require on the “Font” tab. continue numbering or even skip some numbers from the previous list used. This means you may specify which parts you want in capital letters and small letters. Joining and Separating Numbering: You have the option to restart numbering. Bulleted List: Select your text and then click on the arrow next to the “Bullets” icon in the “Paragraph” group of the “Home” tab and select a bullet style. Format Painter: You can copy the formatting applied to a section of text to another section. You may use a bulleted list or a numbered list. Now. Giving all this information in a single document will crowd the document.Changing the capitalization of text: You may change a portion of text in respect of case. you may decide to go in for a numbered list. click on the arrow at the bottom right. Effects: On the “Home tab. select it and click on the “Format Painter” icon on the “Home” tab in the “Clipboard” group. In that case. Also. click on the “Change Case” icon from the “Font” group. click on the arrow next to the “Numbering” icon in the “Paragraph” group of the “Home” tab and select a numbering style. Your text now appears as a bulleted list. “Continue Numbering” or “Set Numbering Value”. You can see that your mouse pointer changes to a paint brush. A hyperlink is a connection to a location in the current 46 | P a g e . Numbered List: Alternatively. Highlighting: Select some text to highlight. You may select an option from the menu displayed.

docx” which contains the complete time table. You now see that the hyperlink text is underlined. click “Current Folder” and then click on “time_table. Let us insert a hyperlink to another document called “time_table. In this case. Removing Hyperlinks: To remove the hyperlink while retaining the text. A hyperlink may be in the form of text or a graphic. You may format the text by selecting it and using the mini toolbar displayed. 47 | P a g e . There are two ways to insert a hyperlink: 1. To make this banner more attractive. Right click on the banner and select “Add Text”. Click “Shapes” in the “Illustrations” group on the “Insert” tab to display the various shapes that you can use. you can view the time table document.docx”. The Print Preview tab appears when you view the current document in the Print Preview mode. You now wish to insert a banner at the bottom of your document. You may also drag to place the shape at another location. make a selection from the “Shape Style” group. we shall use the text “Time Table” as a hyperlink. Let us add some text to this banner. Use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+K”.document. Use any of them to display the “Insert Hyperlink” window. Click the “Hyperlink” icon in the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. Editing while previewing Now you will preview your document to see if any changes are required. Drag your mouse to create your shape of the size you wish. 2. To view a document in the Print Preview mode. Place the cursor in your document at the point where you wish to insert the hyperlink. Inserting Shapes Word offers many predefined shapes that you can insert into your document. When you press the “Ctrl” key and click on this text. You may use the sizing handles to modify the size of the shape. Under “Stars and Banners” select the “Double Wave” banner. Select this text. click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. Click “OK”. Because you wish to create a link to another document. right-click on it and select “Remove Hyperlink”. This document exists in the same folder as your document. another document or to a Web site. Now enter your text.

in the “Paragraph” group. a spreadsheet or even another word document into your current document. click on the “Create from File” tab. You see that the object is now a part of your document Using Additional Word Features Creating Multilevel Lists A multilevel list shows the list items at different levels rather than at one level. uncheck the box against the “Magnifier” button in the “Preview” group on the Print Preview tab. This indicates that you can now make changes to the text. Use the “Tab” key to go to the next level and “Shift+Tab” to move up one level. Click “OK” in the “Object” window. You can easily change the level of an item in the hierarchy by simply increasing or decreasing the indent by using the “Tab” or “Backspace” keys respectively. Check the box against “Display as icon” if you want to display your object as an icon. Saving to a New Folder 48 | P a g e .When the mouse pointer moves over the document it is shaped as a magnifying glass with a plus sign. You may now save your changes. On the “Home” tab. Check the box against “Link to file” if you want your document to be updated whenever the file containing the inserted object is edited. Let us insert an existing spreadsheet created using Microsoft Excel. For this. Make your changes and then click “Close Print Preview” to close the preview window. video clips. Different items are indented to represent their level in a document’s structure. You may create a new object to insert or insert an existing one from a file. select “Object” from the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. Click on the page you wish to magnify to see it in normal size. In the “Object” window. Creating a multilevel list: Click where you want to begin your list. When you wish to edit the document. click the “Multilevel List” icon and select a list style. You can edit the object later using the application which created the source file. Now click “Insert”. It makes the hierarchy of items in a document very clear and easy to understand. Inserting Objects You may insert external objects such as pictures. Click “Browse” and navigate to the file you wish to insert. The mouse pointer changes to an “I” beam. Now enter your list. Click again to see it in a compressed size.

make appropriate changes in the “File name” field and then click “Save”. Click the Office button and select “Save As”. Using Click and Type: On a new blank page. The red and green wavy lines are no longer displayed. At the bottom of the window. Click “New Folder”. 49 | P a g e . If you wish to change your file name. Enter the appropriate location where you wish to place the file in the “Save in” field. You will use this folder to hold related files. Your document is now saved in the newly created folder. You may turn off the display of these errors if you do not wish to be distracted as you work. the I-beam pointer displays an icon indicating the formatting that will be applied when you double-click at that location. Press “Save” to save your file with the same name in the new folder. switch to the Print Layout view by selecting “Print Layout” from the “Document Views” group on the “View” tab. you sometimes notice that many spelling and grammar errors are indicated by red and green wavy lines. They are mostly for words that are not in the dictionary. check the boxes against “Hide spelling errors in this document only” and “Hide grammar errors in this document only” and click “OK”. 3. The steps to save the file are: 1.Next. The new folder is created as a subfolder in the active directory. and then click “Word Options”. Move the mouse pointer across the page and observe the change in it. You can create a new folder at the time you save a file. Hiding Spelling and Grammar When you go through a document. Now click “Proofing”. The chart displayed in the figure lists the different pointer shapes and formatting that is applied. Click the Office Button. you will save the multilevel list you have created in a folder on your disk. Formatting Documents Automatically There are two ways in which you can format your document automatically. You can still run spelling and grammar checks manually by using functions like “Spelling & Grammar” on the “Review” tab at any time you wish. As you move the mouse pointer over different areas. 2. Type the name of the new folder in the “Name” field in the “New Folder” window and press “Enter”.

Doubleclick at the center of the document. It shows you at a glance. Let us create a Table of Contents for the document you created in the previous assignment. For now. You would need to update your table of contents. graphics or other items in a blank area of a document. Select the main heading. You may choose to update page numbers only or the entire table. Place the cursor at the beginning of the document. select “Table of Contents”. in the “Table of Contents” group. it is best to use the default settings. Creating a Table of Contents A Table of Contents is a listing of the topics that appear in a document with their associated page references. You can see in the displayed document that “Region 3” is not displayed in the table of contents. Formatting a Document Section 50 | P a g e . the topics that are included in the document and makes it easier to locate information. Click on the “Table of Contents” tab. in the “Table of Contents” group. You may now press the “Ctrl” key and click on any heading to move to the related content in your document. On the “References” tab. On the “References” tab. You can now see “Region 3” in the table of contents. let us apply different styles to different heading levels. Similarly.You can use this method to quickly insert text. The “Update Table of Contents” window is displayed. This style is now applied to your selected text. select “Update Table”. Simply click “OK”. avoiding the need to enter blank lines. The “Table of Contents” window appears. On the “Home” tab. Your table of contents is ready. You may enter your specifications here. Updating the Table of Contents Updating the Table of Contents: You may introduce new headings or move certain information to another page in your document at a later stage. To see the complete list of styles click on the arrow at the bottom of the “Styles” group. Click on a style to apply it to the selected text. This makes your document attractive as well as clear. Applying Styles: This is the second way in which you can format your document automatically. in the “Styles” group select the “Heading1” style. In the document displayed. You can now enter text which will be formatted as per the pointer shape. Select “Update entire table” and click “OK”. A particular style can be applied to a heading or any other text to improve its appearance or make it stand out clearly. Click “Insert Table of Contents” at the bottom of the window that comes up. you may apply styles “Heading2” and “Heading3” to subsequent heading levels.

Under “Section Breaks”. Position your cursor before the first point. “Odd Page” or “Even Page” starts the section on the next odd or even numbered page. Click “OK”. “Continuous” creates the section at the cursor position. Inserting a Footnote: To insert a footnote. Under “Preview”. Deleting a Footnote or Endnote: When you want to delete a note. You can see that the text in the section after the cursor position gets indented as per the new left margin. Formatting a section: Let us now make some changes to the section that you have created. Endnotes: You may insert endnotes in the same way using the “Insert Endnote” button in the “Footnotes” group on the “References” tab. select “Breaks” from the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. Let us consider the document we had created earlier. “Next Page” moves the section to the new page. Let us select “Continuous”. Footnotes appear at the end of each page and endnotes appear at the end of the document. To do so. Using Footnotes and Endnotes Footnotes or Endnotes are used to explain. ensure that “This section” is selected in the “Apply to” field. A footnote or an endnote consists of two linked parts — the note reference mark and the corresponding note text. Adding Bookmarks 51 | P a g e . Type your footnote. To insert a section in your document. you can create sections within the document and apply the formatting to the required section. simply delete the note reference mark in the document window. Sometimes. Select “Insert Footnote” from the “Footnotes” group on the “References” tab. A reference mark is inserted at the point you selected and you are taken to the bottom of the page.You may need to apply specific formatting to only a part of your document. change the left margin to “5”. comment on. Click on the arrow at the bottom right of the “Page Setup” group. When you are done. position your cursor at the text you want the footnote to appear. select the type of section break you wish. right-click the footnote and select “Go to Footnote” to take you back to the insertion point in the main body so you can continue working on your document. Deleting the text in the note does not delete the note. In the “Page Setup” window. You may make changes to your footnotes and endnotes in respect of numbering. location and format by clicking on the arrow at the bottom right of the “Footnotes” group. meanings of difficult words are given in the form of footnotes. or provide references for text in a document.

Changing the Object Position: Click on the picture. check the box against “Show bookmarks” and click “OK”. In the “Bookmark” window. Click on the figure you want to refer to. select “Bookmark” from the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. You can also set cross-references to the captions of charts and tables. Under “Show document content”. If you have assigned a bookmark to an item. the bookmark appears in brackets on the screen. Clicking on the reference takes you to the referred location in the document. select “Position”. Now click “Advanced”. you may need to change the position of a graphic. in the “Arrange” group. Adding a Bookmark: You now wish to insert a bookmark before the text “Contact Us”. Click on the bookmark and then click “Go To”. and then click “Word Options”. Click before this text. In contrast to hyperlinks. but not among multiple documents. Move your mouse over the various options under “With Text Wrapping” and click on your choice. drawing or object in your document or type some text around it. Select “Insert Caption” from 52 | P a g e . the bookmark appears as an Ibeam. Moving to a specific bookmark: Select “Bookmark” from the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. references allow you to move within a document. If you have assigned a bookmark to a location. Deleting a Bookmark: To delete a bookmark. Showing Bookmarks: Click the Office Button. Referencing Figures Setting References: A cross-reference is a reference from one part of a document to related information in another part. Under “Picture Tools”. Click “Close” in the “Bookmark” window. on the “Format” tab. You can define the wrapping style around an object. Click on the bookmark and then click “Delete”. Wrapping text around graphics: To change the way text wraps around the picture. click on it and then click on the “Format” tab under “Picture Tools”. Formatting Picture Layout Sometimes. It identifies a location in the document or a selection of text that you name for future reference. Your text now appears by the side of the picture.A Bookmark is used to mark a certain location in a document. Your cursor now moves to the bookmark location. This caption will be used for reference. You must now add a caption to this figure. enter a name for your bookmark and click “Add”. Select “Text Wrapping” in the “Arrange” group and choose a suitable option from the ones displayed. You first must define a reference target for the cross-reference. Then select “Bookmark” from the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab.

select the same number of rows or columns required to be inserted and then click on the appropriate icon. You may drag with your mouse to specify the dimensions of the table or click “Insert Table”. You see that the data has been moved to the right and a new blank column has been inserted. place the cursor on the top left corner and drag with your mouse to the new location. In the “Insert Cells” window. This displays the caption near your text. Under “Table Tools”. Moving a table: To move your table. Enter your text. Select some cells which you would like to shift. Inserting additional rows and columns: To insert additional rows or columns at a later stage. Now click “Close”. To insert multiple rows or columns. Sizing a table: To quickly change the overall table size. select “Insert Above” to insert a row above the current row. select “Shift Cells Right” and click “OK”. Now let us insert a cross-reference for this reference. We have created a table with 2 rows and 5 columns. In the “Rows & Columns” group. Select “Cross-reference” from the “Captions” group on the “References” tab. select “Table” in the “Tables” group on the “Insert tab. In the “Cross-reference” window.the “Captions” group on the “References” tab. drag the resize handle at the bottom right corner of the table to an appropriate location. In the “Insert Table” window. Similarly. Shifting Cells: You may shift a few cells or a complete row or column. Under “For which caption:” click on the appropriate caption and then click “Insert”. select “Figure” as “Reference type” and “Entire Caption” as “Insert reference to” from the respective drop-down lists. Inserting a Table: To insert a table. enter the Table size in respect of number of rows and columns.This handle appears whenever the mouse pointer rests over the table. Your table is displayed on the screen. Creating a Simple Table A table is used to organize information into an easy-to-read format of horizontal rows and vertical columns. say “For your information. Click on the arrow at the bottom right of the “Rows & Columns” group. see “. select the position of the caption and press “OK”. 53 | P a g e . Click “OK”. click on the “Layout” tab. click in the table. “Insert Left” inserts a column to the left and “Insert Right” inserts a column to the right. enter your caption. You may now press the “Ctrl” key and click on the caption to see the captioned picture. In the “Caption” window. Select “Insert Below” to insert a row below the current row. Press “Tab” to move to the next cell. Position your cursor at an appropriate location. Entering data: Click on a cell and enter your data.

Let us let the displayed field “Coach Number” remain as the field to sort by. under “Table Tools”. For now. In the “Table” group. In the “Sort” window. you may select the options that you want. Click “OK”. Now let us remove the borders of the table. colors.Formatting a table: This is similar to formatting a document. data or numbers according to specified criteria in ascending or descending order. borders and alignment settings. click “Sort”. on the “Layout” tab. patterns. For this click on the arrow next to the “Borders” icon and select “No Border”. you may make your selection. You may select the cells. Under “Table Tools”. select the text and then click the “Sort” icon in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. Under “Table Tools”. click on your choice in the “Style” box. The same header and footer can be used throughout the document or different ones can be used in different sections. Click in the table. For this. let us leave the default options in the “Sort Text” window unchanged. click the arrow next to the “Borders” icon and select “Borders and Shading”. Let us center the text in the first column of the table displayed. Let us sort data contained in the time table document displayed. You can see that the data in the table is now sorted by Coach Number. in the “Data” group. click the Layout tab. Inserting Headers and Footers Headers and footers provide information that typically appears at the top and bottom of each page in a document and helps the reader to locate information in a document. and use the different formatting options from the “Home” tab. Sorting a List: The “Sort” feature and various sorting options can also be used for non-tabled text. In the window that comes up. Inserting a Header: Let us now add a header to the document you created previously. except that the formatting affects the selected cells only. and then click “Select Table”. Sorting Data Word can quickly sort text. click “Select”. 54 | P a g e . Click in the table. click the “Design” tab. Under “Table Tools”. In the “Table Styles” group. Using table Styles: A quicker way of applying formats to a table automatically is to use the Table Styles offered by Word. In the “Table Styles” group. The available auto formats consist of a combination of fonts. Select the first column and click the “Center” icon in the “Paragraph” group Borders: You may specify the border style for your table. Move the pointer over the table until you see a four headed arrow at the top left corner. Now. click the “Design” tab. Simply click “OK” to see a sorted list. Click it to select the table.

In the document displayed. You may recall that you 55 | P a g e . Click “Close Header and Footer” on the “Design” tab. From the list displayed. if any. Checking the document After your document is ready. Inserting the Page Number: You may insert the page number and the total number of pages in your document on every page of your document at a position of your choice. For this. It identifies different formatting schemes that are very similar to each other. If the Format Consistency Checker finds at least two instances of a scheme that are identical. You now see the page number and number of pages displayed at the bottom right of the page. Now click “Close Header and Footer” on the “Design” tab and scroll down to see your footer. right-click on it and select “Styles → Select Text with Similar Formatting”. Click on the first one. Select “Footer” in the “Header & Footer” group on the “Insert” tab and select the style “Blank (Three Columns)”. Choose “Ignore All” for all proper names. click the Office Button. special terms and abbreviations. Click the “Spelling & Grammar” icon in the “Proofing” group on the “Review” tab. A list of header styles is displayed. Checking Formatting Inconsistencies: To turn on this feature. Now click “Advanced”. select the word “North”. The footer area becomes active. Inserting a Footer: You may insert a “Footer” in the same way as the header. Press the “Tab” key twice and enter the name of your company in the header area. select “Page Number” in the “Header & Footer” group on the “Insert” tab. This is because all three words have been entered by applying a specific style. inserting the page number at the top of the page overwrites a previously inserted header. scroll down and click on “Bold Numbers 3”. it offers you the opportunity to make all similar formatting schemes identical to the format scheme that occurs most frequently. Respond appropriately to any other located errors. if any. check the boxes against “Keep track of formatting” and “Mark formatting inconsistencies” and then click “OK”. Now click “Close Header and Footer” on the “Design” tab under “Header & Footer Tools”. Now. Enter the words “Style” and “Economy” in the second and third placeholders in the same way. Similarly. Click in the first placeholder and enter the word “Comfort”. and then click “Word Options”. you may like to check it in respect of spelling and grammar as well as formatting consistency. Now click on “Bottom of Page”. Word indicates formatting inconsistencies with a blue wavy underline. You can see the words “East” and “West” highlighted as well. Inserting the page number at the bottom of the page overwrites a previously inserted footer. The header area becomes active.Select “Header” in the “Header & Footer” group on the “Insert” tab. Under “Editing options”.

you can print a combination of page ranges and single pages. Using Word Art 56 | P a g e . To print single pages. you may use either the “Current page” or “Pages” option under “Print Range”. 9. you need to click the Office Button and select “Print” from the menu. Changing the Display of the Document Creating Newsletter Style Columns A newsletter is a common application for newspaper columns. select “All” to print the entire document. Click “OK” to print your document. Pages: You may use this option to print only the pages that you specify in the “Pages” field. Select the text that you wish to display in columnar format. 10. Your text is displayed in columnar format. Printing Selected Pages You know that to print a document. To print only selected pages in your document. If you want. the word “South” has been entered using the size and font of an existing style without applying the style. Then. To print a range of pages. In the document displayed. The default column style is one column across the full width of the page. You may apply these column settings to the whole or part of the document. Right click on this underline to display formatting suggestions. use the format “7. narrow columns help the reader read the articles more quickly.learnt about applying styles in the assignment titled “Formatting Documents Automatically”. You may choose to ignore or remove the inconsistency from the different options displayed. select “Columns” in the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. 12”. Click “OK”. You may select other settings for the size and display of the columns under “Width and spacing”. The “Print” window is displayed. by using the format “3-6. use the format “3-6”. Under “Print Range”. 11”. 8. Selection: You may use this option to print only the selected areas or objects in the current document. In a newsletter. Let us select “Two” as the number of columns under “Presets”. You may click on the number of columns you require. Click “More Columns” to display the “Columns” window.

You may change the font. Click “OK” to display the drop cap in your document. To select an effect. Then click “Close”. The “Edit WordArt Text” window is displayed. Spacing: To modify the spacing between the characters of the WordArt. Click on “Dropped” under “Position”. You can see that your text has been adjusted accordingly. In this way. The symbol is inserted at the current cursor position. click “3-D Effects” once again and click the appropriate “Tilt” button on the right side of the displayed box. On the “Insert” tab. Then click “OK”. Leave them unchanged for now. in the “Text” group. On the “Format” tab. Click “Drop Cap Options” to display the “Drop Cap” window. On the “Symbols” tab. covering several lines. you may enhance your WordArt text. The “WordArt Gallery” is displayed. Let us use a drop cap in our document. Then select “Drop Cap” in the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. Let us use WordArt to enhance the heading of the document created. You may also specify the font and the distance of the drop cap from your text. Then set the “Lines to drop” field as “2”. Adding a Drop Cap Drop caps are the first character/s at the beginning of a paragraph that are enlarged. 3-D Effects: You may apply 3-D effects to your WordArt text. Click on the “Format” tab under “WordArt Tools” to modify the WordArt as per your requirements. click on the left side of the displayed box. Inserting Symbols To insert Symbols or Special Characters in your document. select “Symbol” in the “Symbols” group on the “Insert” tab. Click “More Symbols” to display the “Symbol” window. Select the first letter “C” from the list of offers. typically a file of names and addresses with a document to create new documents.WordArt is used to enhance your documents by changing the shape of text and adding special effects such as 3-D and shadows. Click on a style. Select the text “Special Offers”. The names and 57 | P a g e . click on “Spacing” in the “Text” group. Now select “Tight”. To change the direction of the 3-D effect. click “3-D Effects”. font size and font style if you wish. Using Mail Merge Using Mail Merge The Mail Merge feature combines a list of data. click on a symbol of your choice and click “Insert”. select “WordArt”.

After you are done. Let us add the text at the beginning of our document as shown. A wizard guides you and in a few steps. Selecting the starting document: Now. Click "OK" in the "Mail Merge Recipients" window. Now. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". Enter the Title. enter the fields First Name and Last Name. Inserting Fields: Now. select "Use the current document". You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. Printing or Editing Letters: You may now click "Print" to print your letters or click "Edit individual letters" to make changes to any letter. Click after the word "Dear". Enter your file name. Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. Similarly. You see that the field names are now inserted in your document. Set the document type to "Letters" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. A personal touch can be added by addressing each person by his individual name at the top of the document. Click "New Entry" to add subsequent entries. Make sure to insert a space between each field. say "List1" and click "Save". Click on Title. your letters to everyone are ready. Now click "Close". then on "Insert". Enter a space. Select "Type a new list" and then click "Create". The result is a personalized letter. You may make your selections from the windows that are displayed. click "OK". since you are ready with your letter. This is very simple using Word’s Mail Merge feature. The "New Address List" window is displayed.addresses are entered (merged) into the document in the blank spaces provided. Starting the Wizard: Select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. you may add the items that you wish to be incorporated in it. We are now ready to insert the field names. 58 | P a g e . Previewing Letters: You now see a preview of the letter to the first person on your list. The "Save Address List" window appears. Use the right and left arrows to preview letters to the others. First Name and Last Name of the first person. click "Next" Creating a List: Let us create a list of people we wish to send our document to. Click "More items" to display the "Insert Merge Field" window. Click "Next" to complete the merge. Printing Mailing Labels Now that your letters are ready. Click "Next". you want to create labels for the envelopes. You wish to mail your document about special offers to a large number of people.

Similarly. Replicating Labels: You may copy the layout of the first label to the other labels. select “Formtec” in the “Label vendors” box and "Formtec AT-7210" under Product Number and click "OK". Let us now include address details. Last Name. click "OK". Address Line 1. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". The "Label Options" window is displayed. You see that the field names are inserted in your document. select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. Address Line 2 and City fields for all the people in the list. For now. then on "Insert".Starting the Wizard: In a new blank Word document. Then click "Next". Click on the name of the list in the box at the bottom and then click "Edit". move the Address Line 2 and City fields to the following lines. Now click “Close”. the type of label product. Use the right and left arrows to move between labels. Inserting Fields: Now. Then insert a space before each field in the first line. navigate to the location of your list. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. After you are done. Now click “OK” and then click "Next". Enter the Address Line 1. and the product number. Click "Next" to complete the merge. Preparing and Printing Envelopes 59 | P a g e . Selecting Recipients: You have a list of people you wish to send your document to. The default location is the sub folder “My Data Sources” in the “Documents” folder. enter the fields First Name. Press “Enter” after the Last Name field to bring the Address Line 1 to the next line. you may select the type of printer. Similarly. Address Line 2 and City. The "Mail Merge Recipients" window is displayed. Printing or Editing Labels: You may now click "Print" to print your labels or click "Edit individual labels" to make changes to any label. Set the document type to "Labels" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. Here. Now click "Label options". you may add the names and address details on the labels. Click "Next". Select "Use an existing list" and then click "Browse". Click "More items" to display the "Insert Merge Field" window. Click on the Title field. Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. Previewing Labels: You now see a preview of the labels. Click "Update all labels". In the "Select Data Source" window. Click “Yes” to confirm the address details in the window that comes up. Arranging Fields: Let us now arrange the fields. Click on your list "List1" in the appropriate location and then click "Open".

Use the right and left arrows to preview other envelopes. Starting the Wizard: Select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. click on "List1" and then click "Open". Set the document type to "E-mail messages" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. your system must include a compatible e-mail program. click "Next". Arranging your envelope: Let us use the "Address block" feature. Now click "Envelope options". The "Envelope Options" window is displayed. Starting the Wizard: In a new blank Word document. For now. Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. Un-check the boxes in front of the names for which you do not want envelopes and then click "OK". Click "Next" to complete the merge. Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. as you did for labels. You may specify different settings related to the appearance and printing of the envelope on the "Envelope options" and "Printing options" tabs. simply click “OK”. The "Mail Merge Recipients" window is displayed. Set the document type to " Envelopes" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. you make changes as required. Printing or Editing Envelopes: You may now click "Print" to print your envelopes or click "Edit individual envelopes" to make changes to any envelope. Click "Address block". Merging for sending E-mails using Outlook You may also want to e-mail your document so as to reach out to a larger number of people. select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. Let us make envelopes for some of them. such as Microsoft Outlook. Now click "Next". In the “Insert Address Block” window. 60 | P a g e . Now. Previewing Envelopes: You now see a preview of the first envelope.Sometimes. This directly inserts all address fields on your envelope. Click “Next”. You can use the Mail Merge task pane to create a group email distribution. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". For this. Selecting Recipients: You already have a list of people. you may want to quickly address a single envelope instead of printing and pasting a label. Select "Use an existing list" and then click "Browse". browse to the location of your list. You may use "More items" to insert any individual items you wish. In the "Select Data Source" window. On the "Envelope options" tab. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. select an appropriate Envelope size and click "OK".

Just ensure that you have entered the e-mail addresses of the people on the list. Click on First Name. In the right left panel. You may use any of the standard templates provided by Microsoft Word for your document such as Resumes. Selecting Recipients: You already have a list of people. click "OK". Adding details: Just click on the parts marked in square brackets and enter your details. Now. under “Templates”. Click "Next" to complete the merge. Brochures and Reports. You may make changes if required. select the records you want to merge. verify that "Email_Address" is displayed. Let us use this list. A template determines the basic structure for a document and contains document settings such as fonts.Selecting the starting document: Now. In the "Subject line" field. Sending mails: You may now click "Electronic Mail" to send your e-mails. page layout. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. Then. menus. Under "Send records”. Previewing your messages: You now see a preview of the first e-mail message. Then click "OK". type the subject line you want to use for all the messages. browse to the location of your list. In the "To" field. click “Installed Templates” to see a list of templates. Selecting the Template type: Click on the “Equity Letter” template and then press the “Create” button. key assignments. Click after the word "Dear". Replace body text with your own text. Click "More items" to display the "Insert Merge Field" window. The "Merge to E-mail" window is displayed. then on "Insert". click "Next". Select "Use an existing list" and then click "Browse". select "Use the current document". A new document is displayed with pre-defined settings. Enter a space. click "Next". since you are ready with your message. click on "List1" and then click "Open". select the mail format you want to use. you may add the items that you wish to be incorporated in it. In the "Mail format" field. Click the Office Button and select “New” from the menu. In the "Select Data Source" window. 61 | P a g e . Now click "Close". Inserting Fields: Now. In the "Mail Merge Recipients" window. Now click "Next". Use the right and left arrows to preview other messages. special formatting and styles. Using Standard Templates Using a Template from Word Every Microsoft Word document is based on a template. Let us create a new document based on an existing template. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous".

In the box at the bottom. Using a Configured Language in Word Start the Microsoft Word application. before you can start using some languages on your computer. and Region” This displays the “Keyboards and Languages” tab of the “Regional and Language Options” window. Word Processing in Other Languages Language Settings in Windows Vista Setting a language for the Windows Vista operating system: By default Windows Vista does not support entry in certain languages. Click on the plus sign in front of “Arabic (Saudi Arabia)”. you must configure Windows Vista to be able to use fonts specific to those languages. you see a list of languages that Windows Vista has been configured to use. Language. SPREADSHEET Overview of Excel Introduction You have recently accepted a new job as an Administrative Assistant with All Saints High School. click “Control Panel Home”. You can do this by configuring the language settings in the “Clock. If you see the “Classic View” displayed. Click the Office Button and click on the arrow next to “Save As”. Click on the “Start” button. the box at the top displays the default input language. Now click “Change keyboards”. click “Change keyboards or other input methods” under “Clock. Finally. Now. and Region” option of the “Control Panel”. enter “Special Package” in the “File name” field and click “Save”.Saving the document: You may save this file just like a normal document. Currently the school records are maintained on paper 62 | P a g e . In the “Add Input Language” window. Then click “Control Panel”. You can see that your text appears in the new language. Hence. Check the box next to the first keyboard type and click “OK”. Click “Add” to add a new language. Click on the “Arabic” language in the window that comes up. Click on the “EN” icon on the taskbar. click “OK” in the “Regional and Language Options” window. Now click “Word Document”. Now. Your document is created based on the template you selected. In the “General” tab of the “Text Services and Input Languages” window. Now start typing your text. Now click on the plus sign in front of the word “Keyboard” displayed below it. click “Apply” and then “OK” in the “Text Services and Input Languages” window. In the “Save As” window. let us add the Arabic language as an example. To exit the Word application. Language. click the Office Button and then click the “Exit Word” button at the bottom right.

All data is stored in the computer. An electronic spreadsheet or worksheet is made up of rows and columns. Microsoft Excel is the world’s most widely-used spreadsheet program. it still takes time to manually leaf through the folders to locate the information you need. consisting of rows and columns. You will prepare the Exam Record of students in Microsoft Excel 2007. You are responsible for maintaining the exam records of all students. Features of Microsoft Excel 2007 Features of Microsoft Excel 2007: . Whenever a hard copy is required. . change. therefore there is no paper used.forms and stored in file cabinets organized alphabetically. . This data can be edited. The User Interface The User Interface is the way in which you interact with your computer. It is mainly used for different type of calculations varying from very simple to complex. new data can be added. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Excel 2007”.It is a general purpose electronic spreadsheet used to organize. It consists of three main parts: 1) The Office Button 2) The Quick Access toolbar 3) The Ribbon 63 | P a g e . The school has purchased new computers and it plans to computerize all administrative operations. whole or part of the spreadsheet can be printed. Although the information is well organized. . since you can add. . The Microsoft Office user interface is uniform across most of its components. To start the Microsoft Excel application.It is very easy to manage. A spreadsheet is like an accountant’s ledger.You can create charts to represent data more effectively. filled with numerical or textual data. and unwanted data can be deleted. calculate and analyze data. and is part of the Microsoft Office suite.You can create well-designed spreadsheets that produce accurate and professional-looking results. update and delete data with a few keystrokes.

It also has buttons that let you add comments to a worksheet and manage revisions. You will gradually learn to use the commands on all the tabs. formatting your data. The “Formulas” tab helps you build useful formulas that can resolve a great deal of problems. paper orientation. You can specify margins. and searching for important pieces of information with search tools. and closing a file. It consists of:a) Task-oriented tabs. c) Command buttons in each group that carry out a command or display a menu of commands. and other page settings. For more details on the Microsoft Office User Interface. The “Page Layout” tab helps you in getting your worksheet ready for the printer. like those for cutting and pasting information. It is designed to put your most commonly used commands in a place where you can always find them.The Office Button: This appears at the top-left corner of your screen. printing. filtering. It also enables you to view several separate Excel spreadsheet files at the same time. The Quick Access toolbar: This appears to the right of the Office Button near the top of the screen. b) Groups within each tab that break a task into subtasks. Undo. The following Ribbon tabs are displayed in Excel: The “Home” tab has some of the most commonly used buttons. charts. and grouping. The “View” tab lets you select from a variety of viewing options. It also includes tools for dealing with large amounts of information. This contains commands for opening. Clicking the Office Button displays the “File” menu. like sorting. and hyperlinks. The “Data” tab lets you get information from an outside source for analysis. displaying icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. The “Insert” tab lets you add special ingredients like tables. graphics. saving. please refer to the following: Topic: Word Processing Lab: Creating and Editing a Document 64 | P a g e . The Ribbon: The Ribbon is a component of the Office Fluent user interface. The “Review” tab contains proofing tools like spell check. and Redo.

Microsoft Excel automatically recalculates formulas when the cells that the formula depends on have changed. AB. 65 | P a g e . …AZ. To enter data in a cell. The worksheet is divided into a grid of rows and columns.Assignment: The User Interface Workbooks and Worksheets In Microsoft Excel 2007.384 columns which works out to more than 17 billion cells. BA.048. Each cell has its own address called the cell address.… XFD and the rows are numbered from one onwards. right. The columns are named as A. the address of that cell will be E3. use the vertical scroll bar on the right edge of the window or horizontal scroll bar at the bottom of the window. At the bottom of the workbook window are tabs that give you instant access to other worksheets in the workbook. It contains a collection of one or more worksheets and. Specifically. A special feature of Excel is “AutoCalculate”. up or down.… AA. The simplest way is to click the cell that you want to activate with the mouse. chart sheets containing graphic pictures of your worksheet data. There are some keyboard shortcuts to navigate within the worksheet. The intersection of a row and a column is called a cell. BB. Microsoft Office Excel 2007 supports up to 1 million rows and 16 thousand columns per worksheet. the Excel 2007 grid is 1. Cell address: The address of a cell is made up of two parts – the column name and the row number. To move among the worksheets in your workbook. By default. optionally. Each worksheet can be used to organize different types of related information. you need to click the worksheet tabs.576 rows by 16. a single file or document is called a workbook. To view the part of the worksheet that is currently not visible. Suppose you want to refer to a cell in the third row and fifth column. As you move from one cell to another. Excel also calculates workbooks each time they are opened. You can use the arrow keys to move left.The number of the third row is obviously 3 and the name of the fifth column is E. B. the reference or address of the active cell appears in the Name Box. Navigating the Excel Worksheet There are several methods for navigating a worksheet. you must first move to the cell. C. To enable you to explore massive amounts of data in worksheets.

Entering and Editing Data After you are presented with a blank worksheet. A template file has an extension “. use the F5 function key or press “Ctrl+G”. move to a cell where you want to enter data and type the entry using the keyboard. Now click “Create” in the “New Workbook” window. You can also design and create your own workbook templates. 66 | P a g e . the same default settings are used. It is here that you will be entering the data. drag your cursor and release it when you have reached the end of the selection.Use the Home key to move to column A of the current row . When you finish entering data in one column. you can enter data in it. To select a group of cells. Expense Statement. Template: You may also create a new workbook using a template.Page Up and Page Down keys can be used to move up or down one screen .. Continue typing the data in column A as shown in the accompanying figure. A template is a file that is provided by the application in a “ready to use” form. It includes predefined settings that can be used as a pattern to create many different types of workbooks. etc. Whenever you create a new workbook using a template. CREATING AND EDITING Creating a New Workbook When you first start Excel. a new blank Excel workbook is opened. For example a Sales Report. Type the address of the cell you want to make active and click “OK”. To activate a particular cell. click in the cell you want to begin. The cell pointer will move down one row. To enter data. activate cell B1 and repeat the same procedure as you did for column A. Balance Sheet. There is another way to create a new blank worksheet.xltx”.“Ctrl+End” to go to the cell in the last row and last column that contains data. Click in cell A1 to activate it and type ‘Roll_No’ and press “Enter” to complete the entry.Use “Ctrl+Home” to go the cell A1 and . Click the Office Button and select “New”.

This is particularly useful when a cell contains a large amount of information. you will see that the data overflows into the next column. Changing Column Width Now you will adjust the width of the column B. double-click on the cell. or "X" to roll it back. use the “Backspace” key on the keyboard to erase the wrong character typed and continue typing. you can also resize the name box. column C. The shape of the cursor will change to a double sided arrow pointing to the right and left. To accommodate long names. instead of editing directly in your worksheet. Place the mouse on the boundary between the columns. Move the mouse to the boundary between column B and column C in the bar where column names are given on top. press "Delete" for characters to the right of the insertion point and "Backspace" for characters to the left. Click the checkmark to confirm your entry. You may wish to change only a part of the text in a cell. Now move the cursor to the point at which you want to edit the text. The “Delete” key on the keyboard can be used to clear the contents of a cell. Enter data in all five columns as shown. When you start typing in the formula box. The width of the column will be automatically adjusted to the maximum length of characters in the column. a checkmark and an "X" icon appear just to the left of the box. We will see later on. To adjust the height of the formula box. For this. To overwrite the contents of a cell simply make the cell active and type whatever you want to. how to adjust the column width. Correcting typing mistakes: While entering the data. You can also click and drag the mouse to adjust the width of the column. To remove individual characters. To adjust the width of the name box move your mouse between the name box and the formula box until the pointer changes to a horizontal two-headed arrow and then drag with your mouse to where you want it. move your mouse over the bottom of the formula box until the pointer changes to a vertical twoheaded arrow and then drag with your mouse to where you want it. you see the Name Box on the left and the Formula Bar on the right. You can use the formula bar to enter and edit data. Leave it as it is for now. that is. Double click on the boundary while the cursor is a double sided arrow. if you make a typing mistake. When the cursor 67 | P a g e . You may make the changes you require. Below the Ribbon. you can adjust the size of the formula box in the formula bar. Resizing the Formula or Name Box: To make it easier to view and edit a large amount of text in a cell.While entering the data in the “Name” column.

Enter the column width and press “OK”.xlsx”. save it. Release the mouse when you reach cell E11. Moving Cells You now have to add a heading to the worksheet. by placing the mouse in cell A1. You can also specify the width of the column by clicking on a column and selecting “Format → Column Width” in the “Cells” group on the “Home” tab. To do so. click the Office Button and select “Open” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+O”. To save a file. Keep saving it as you work. Now close the file. Select the data from the cells to be moved and then select “Cut” in the “Clipboard” 68 | P a g e . Select all the data you have entered. you must make place on the worksheet. The name of the workbook appears in the “Title Bar”. You now have to add a heading to the worksheet. click the Office Button and select “Close”. To close the file. To open an existing workbook. to click the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. click the Office Button and select “Save As”. Your file is stored with the extension “. From the window that is displayed. The height of a row can be changed in a similar manner. by placing the mouse in cell A1.shape changes. Then type ‘Exam Record’ in the box in front of the label “File name” and then click on the “Save” button. Then click and drag the mouse up to the last cell containing data to be moved. The background color of the cells changes as you drag the mouse. Another way to save is file is. Saving. Select all the data you have entered. You may also use the “Cut” and “Paste” commands to move cells. “Ctrl+S”. Then click and drag the mouse up to the last cell containing data to be moved. It is a good practice to save a file often to prevent data loss due to unforeseen circumstances like power failure. click and drag the mouse to widen the column as much as needed. Once a file has been saved. you must make place on the worksheet. Release the mouse when you reach cell E11. To do so. The background color of the cells changes as you drag the mouse. browse to select the file you want to open. Closing and Opening a Workbook Now that all the data has been entered. click the Office Button and select “Save” or use the keyboard shortcut. Now click “Open”. As soon as you have opened a new file. to save it again. you must save the file.

Type ‘Total’ in cell F8. press Tab to enter it into your formula. Excel displays a drop-down list of matching items. Move the cursor down and type ‘=C10+D10+E10’ and press “Enter”. Select “Insert” from the pop-up window and select “Shift cells down” from the “Insert” window. When you see the item you want. all the selected cells are merged and the heading is centered. Move the data for ‘Roll_No’ and ‘Name’ one row down. Formula AutoComplete: The Formula AutoComplete feature makes entering formulas very simple. When you begin typing a formula. %. as shown in the figure. A formula is evaluated from left to right and in the following order: percent. subtraction. 69 | P a g e . multiplication and division. Total Marks secured = Marks of Subject 1 + Marks of Subject 2 + Marks of Subject 3. In the cell above Sub1. In Excel.group on the “Home” tab. Merge and center ‘Marks’ above the three subject marks as shown in the accompanying figure. Click on the cell where you want to move your data and then click on the upper part of the “Paste” icon in the “Clipboard” group on the “Home” tab. exponentiation. a formula always begins with an equal sign (=) and uses arithmetic operators like +. division. Select cells starting with A1 to E1 and click on the “Merge & Center” icon in the “Alignment” group on the “Home” tab. and ^ to perform addition. Do the same for the other headings – . As soon as you click on the icon. addition and subtraction. You now have to calculate the total marks for each student. Centering and Merging Cells To merge and centre headings:Type the headings in appropriate cells as shown in the accompanying figure. Exam Record and Class VIII – B. you have to make use of a formula. A moving border appears around the selection. including a description of each item. multiplication. The total of the marks for the three subjects is displayed in cell F10 as 248. To do this in Excel. *. /. Using Formulas Formula: A formula is nothing but an expression that performs calculation on data contained in the worksheet. type ‘Marks’. In regular Mathematics. Let the text overflow into the neighboring cells. percent and exponentiation respectively. You will soon see how to bring the heading to the center of the data. If a formula contains operators of the same precedence. -. they are evaluated from left to right. one heading at a time You have to now insert cells to make place so that we can give a combined heading for the three subjects. Select the cells C8 to E8 and right-click on the selection.

This is called “What-If Analysis”. you may use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+C” or select “Copy” from the “Clipboard” group on the “Home” tab. a range. another workbook or in a totally different application. In regular Mathematics. that is. Select “Paste” from the pop-up window. Percentage = Marks secured multiplied by 100 and divided by the Maximum Marks. But you don’t have to type the formula every time. The cells in a range can be adjacent or non-adjacent. Range: A range is a selection of two or more cells. What-If Analysis: If you change one or more numbers in your spreadsheet.to cancel the moving border. Right click in anywhere in the selection. all related formulas are recalculated automatically. An adjacent range is a block of adjoining cells. Duplicating Cell Contents You have to calculate the ‘Total’ and ‘Percent’ marks for all students in the same way. A non-adjacent range is two or more cells or ranges that are not adjoining. observe the formula you have pasted in cell F11. Select all cells from F11 to G19. This indicates that the contents have been copied. Move the cursor down and type ‘=F10 * (100/300)’ which is the formula to calculate percentage and then press “Enter”. The row numbers have changed relative to the positions of the cells containing the formula.You have now to calculate the percent marks for each student. The contents of several continuous cells. A moving border appears around the selection. You can see that the value in the “Percent” field is changed automatically.66667. Alternatively. press Esc key. Thus you can change the value in a cell and see the effect on other related cells. The formula can be copied and pasted in the other cells. another worksheet. You may also use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+V” or select “Paste” from the “Clipboard” group on the “Home” tab. Let us change the marks of one student. The Percent marks for the three subjects are displayed in cell G10 as 82. can also be copied and pasted in a similar manner on the same worksheet. Type ‘Percent’ in cell G8. It shows “=C11+D11+E11”. Select cells F10 and G10. In the Formula Bar. Right-click anywhere in the selection Select “Copy” from the pop-up window. The formula for adding marks and calculating percent is copied from cells F10 and G10 respectively and pasted into all selected cells. 70 | P a g e . This is called “Relative Cell Referencing”. The formula in cell F12 is “=C12+D12+E12”.

You will again use the “IF” function to do so."Pass". IF(G10>=35. Press “Enter”. The results for all students are displayed. It is possible to nest multiple IF functions within one Excel formula. “Copy” this function and “Paste” it in the cells from I11 to I19. 71 | P a g e . "B".In formulas. =IF(G10>=35. "A+". The grades will be given as follows: Percent marks greater than or equal to 80. A non-adjacent range is specified by giving the cell addresses separated by a comma (. You have to decide whether a student has passed or failed. B grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 50. IF(G10>=50. “Copy” this function and “Paste” it in the cells from H11 to H19. E9. Let us learn to use a nested IF this time. Click on the cell A11 and drag to the cell A18. "A". In Excel. press the “Ctrl” key and then click on the next two cells. Type the heading ‘Result’ in cell H8 and type the function as shown in cell H10. the student will be declared “PASSED”. The result of the function is displayed in cell I10.) like A4. otherwise he would be declared “FAILED”. This means a new “IF” statement is started inside another “IF” statement. In regular English. Click on the first cell. A+ grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 75. Let us select the range A11:A18 using the mouse. an adjacent range is specified by giving the starting and ending cell addresses separated by a colon (:). Using Functions A “Function” is a prewritten formula that performs calculations automatically. =IF(G10>=80. The result of the function is displayed in cell H10. A grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 60. The grades for all students are displayed. Now select C14:F21. "C". You now have to give Grades to the students according to their marks. IF(G10>=60. C7. The condition for a student to pass is that he must secure at least 35 percent marks. IF(G10>=75. This is called “nested IF”. you would write this condition as follows: If percentage is greater than or equal to 35."PASS". C grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 35. Pass grade All others fail. "Fail"). Type the heading ‘Grade’ in cell I8 and type the function as shown in cell I10. you will use the “IF” function. "FAIL"))))) Press “Enter”.

From the “Select a function” list. ‘Minimum marks’ and ‘Average marks’ in cells B22. Type the range as ’F10:F19’ next to”Number1” and click “OK”. activate it. Enter the numbers or the range from which you want to find the minimum number. and B24 respectively. select “MAX” from the alphabetical list of functions and click “OK”. click in the drop down box next to “Or select a category”. and type ‘=Average (F10:F19)’ in it. Activate cell C23. It is written for you by Excel as =MIN (F10:F19) There is another way of using functions. To insert a function in cell C22. 72 | P a g e . You can type all the functions in the same manner whenever you want to use them. It is written for you by Excel as =MAX (F10:F19) Now. the “Statistical” category will already be selected. From the window that opens. The minimum number in the range is displayed in cell C23.Now to find the maximum. you have to use “MIN” function. Type ‘Maximum marks’. You can simply type the function you want to use in the cell. Here you can enter the numbers or the range from which you want to find the maximum number. to find the minimum marks. Select “Insert Function” in the “Function Library” group on the “Formulas” tab. Activate cell C24. To find the average marks. select “MIN” from the alphabetical list of functions and click “OK”. The maximum number in the range is displayed in cell C22 as 262. Select “Insert Function” in the “Function Library” group on the “Formulas” tab. From the “Select a function” list. you can make use of some statistical functions. Type the range as ‘F10:F19’ next to “Number1” and click “OK”. Since the “MAX” function has been most recently used. Observe the formula bar to see how the function is written. The “Function Arguments” window is displayed. you have to use the “AVERAGE” function. The Function Arguments window is displayed. Press “Enter” to complete the entry. If the category is something else. select “Statistical” from the “Or select a category” list. minimum and average marks scored by the students. The result is displayed in cell C24. B23. Select the “Statistical” category. Observe the formula bar to see how the function is written.

Select “Format” in the “Cells” group on the “Home tab. Adding a thick border: Select the range of cells from A8 to H19 and click on the arrow next to the “Borders” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. To bring the headings to the center. you must first select all of them. Then click on the “Font Size” list and select 14. Changing the “Font” and “Font Size” of the headings: Select cell A1 and click on the “Font” list in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. A window of colors is displayed. Decimal Places: The percent marks are displayed with many decimal places. All the headings are centered. You want the percent marks to be displayed with only two decimal places. The accompanying figure shows an enhanced view of the worksheet. then click on the “Bold” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. Select the range of Percent marks. 73 | P a g e . font set. “Styles” are individual designs that can be applied to different parts of the document. click on the “Center” icon in the “Alignment” group on the “Home” tab. You can choose from a variety of predefined styles by selecting “Cell Styles” in the “Styles” group on the “Home” tab. While the headings are still selected. A list of fonts is displayed. Let us see how we can enhance our worksheet which looks quite plain. With the Ctrl key still held down. you can make them bold. select them first. select range A8:H8 and range C9:E9. Changing the font color of the headings: Select all headings and click on the arrow next to the “Font Color” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. Select “Bodoni MT Black”. A thick border is displayed around the entire range. A theme consists of a color palette. and effects. “Themes” are universal designs that unify all of the styles. Select “Number” from the “Category” list and change “Decimal places” to 2. The font and the font size of the heading are changed. To select all headings. You may use the “Align Text Left” or “Align Text Right” icons to move the headings to the left or right if you wish. click in cell A1. Alignment: To bring the headings to the center.Formatting the Worksheet You can make your spreadsheet look more coordinated and professional by using Styles and Themes. The font color of all headings is displayed with the color Blue. The numbers in the “Percent” range are displayed with two decimal places. click on the “Number” tab. Select “Blue”. Click “OK”. Now click on “Format Cells” and from the window that opens. A5. If the headings are not selected. Hold down the Ctrl key and click in cells A4. Now select “Thick Box Border” from the displayed list. You may access the theme gallery by selecting “Themes” in the “Themes” group on the “Page Layout” tab.

Highlighting: To highlight the range of “Maximum, Minimum and Average Marks”, select the range B22:C24. Click on the “Fill Color” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. Select the color “Yellow”. The cell range is filled with the color Yellow. Indenting: To adjust the indenting of the contents of a cell, click on the cell. Then, in the “Alignment” group on the “Home” tab, click on the “Increase Indent” or “Decrease Indent” icon as required. Working with Graphics You now have to insert the logo of the School. To do so, activate cell G3 and select “Clip Art” in the “Illustrations” group on the “Insert” tab. In the “Clip Art” panel at the right, type ‘concepts’ in the “Search for:” box. Check in the boxes before “My Collections” and “Office Collections” in the drop down list of “Search in”. Click in the box before “Clip Art” in the drop down list of “Results should be” and click “Go”. Resizing the graphic image: Click on the “Bull’s Eye” image. It will be bigger in size. You have to resize it so that it occupies less space and looks proportionate to the rest of the data on the page. To resize it, click on the lower right corner handle of the image, and drag the mouse so that the image becomes smaller in size. Release the mouse when the image becomes the desired size. Entering the Date Inserting a row: Click on row number 7 on the left side. Right click and select “Insert”. One Row will be inserted. To insert multiple rows, select an equal number of rows. This means that when you select four rows, four more rows are inserted. Activate cell A7 and type ‘Date:’. Then place the cell pointer in cell B7 and select “Insert Function” in the “Function Library” group on the “Formulas” tab. Select “Date & Time” as category. Select “Date” as function and click “OK”. Type the “Year” as ‘2007’, “Month” as ‘02’ and “Day” as ‘21’ in the “Function Arguments” window. Click “OK”. The date is displayed as “2/21/2007” in cell B7. Formatting the date: To change the date format, right-click in cell B7 and select “Format cells”. The “Format Cells” window is displayed. Click on the “Number” tab. Select “Date” from the “Category” list and select the “Type” as “14-Mar-01”. The sample format is visible in the “Sample” box. Click “OK”. The date is displayed in the format 21-Feb-07. Previewing and Printing
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The worksheet is now ready. You can print it. Before getting a hard copy, you can preview the worksheet. If you do not like the way it looks, you can make more changes. To preview your worksheet, click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. The “Print Preview” tab appears when you view the worksheet in the Print Preview mode. Click “Close Print Preview” in the “Preview” group to close the preview. Everything seems to be OK. But the logo of the school needs to be moved up, in line with the school’s name. Moving the graphic image: Click and drag the “Bull’s Eye” image so that it is in line with the school’s name. Release the mouse when done. The image can also be moved by using the arrow keys on the keyboard by selecting it first. Click on the image to select it. Use the right arrow key to move the graphic image to the right, left arrow key to move it to the left and so on. Printing the worksheet: Click the Office Button and select “Print → Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. Select the printer name from the list in front of “Name”. Under “Print Range” enter “Pages From” as ‘1’ To ‘1’. Select “Active Sheet” under “Print what” and click “OK”. Sorting Data Excel can quickly sort text, data or numbers according to specified criteria in ascending or descending order. In the worksheet displayed you can see a list of people along with their ages. Let us sort this list according to the names. Click in any of the cells containing names and then click “Sort & Filter” in the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab. To sort the list in ascending order of names, click “Sort A to Z”. To sort it in descending order, click “Sort & Filter” and select “Sort Z to A”. Now, to sort this list according to the ages of the people, click in a cell containing an age and follow the same procedure. When you click the “Sort & Filter” icon, you see the options “Sort Smallest to Largest” and “Sort Largest to Smallest”. This is because previously it was an alphabetic list and now it is a list containing numbers that is being sorted. To sort the list in ascending order of ages, select “Sort Smallest to Largest”. Now if you had to sort the data in the worksheet containing student marks that you previously created in descending order of roll numbers, you would need to follow a slightly different procedure. This is because this worksheet contains headings and information other than simply data. First select all columns which contain data and then select “Sort & Filter → Sort Largest to Smallest” in the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab. Using Charts
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Learning about Charts

You have to present the exam results of the students of class VIII-B. The most easy and effective manner to do this would be to present it in the form of a chart. A chart is a visual representation of data and conveys the information in an easy to understand and attractive manner. There are different types of charts available in Microsoft Excel 2007 such as Column charts, Line charts, Bar charts, Area charts, Bubble charts and many more. You may select a suitable type depending on the data you want to chart and the emphasis you want the chart to impart. Here you will learn to make a single data series chart. Parts of a Chart: A chart has different parts as labeled in the accompanying image. Chart Title – The tile of the chart “Student Vs Marks”. Value Axis – The Y-axis on which the value is shown. Value Axis Title – The title “Marks”. Category Axis – The X-axis on which the category for which you have charted the values is shown. Category Axis Title – The title “Name” Chart Area – The entire area on which the chart is drawn. Legend – The legend, as in a map, shows which color is used to represent what: “Series 1” in this case. Creating a Chart To present the marks of all students as a chart, select the “Name” range (B11 to B20), hold down the “Ctrl” key and select the “Total” range (F11 to F20), without selecting the titles in cells B9 and F9. On the “Insert” tab, in the “Charts” group, select “Column”. Now select “Clustered Column”, the first image from the Chart sub-types displayed. You can now see the chart on your worksheet. You can make changes to your chart and enhance its appearance using various “Chart Tools”. If you do not see “Chart Tools” displayed on the Ribbon, click in the chart area to ensure that the chart is selected. Now, under “Chart Tools”, on the “Design” tab, select a suitable style from the “Chart Styles” group. Now let us add more details in our chart. For this we shall use the “Labels” group on the “Layout” tab under “Chart Tools”. Click “Chart Title” and select “Above Chart”. Now type the title ‘Student Vs Marks’. As you type, it appears

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You may enhance the appearance of your chart. When the mouse pointer changes to a two-headed arrow. Now click “Select Data” in the “Data” group. Data Labels are used to label the elements of a chart with their actual data values. Then select a WordArt Style from the “WordArt Styles” group. select “Change Chart Type” in the “Type” group. Select “Data Labels → Outside End”. To enter the description for the Y-axis. After a chart has been created. to enter the description for the X-axis. Now. you can even change the Chart Type. Modifying a Chart You may decide that you want to plot only the marks of Subject 1 in the chart. You can see that the chart displays the marks of Subject 1. Press “Enter”. On the “Design” tab under “Chart Tools”. Managing a Workbook Correcting Errors While entering data. select the cells that contain the data that you want to appear in the chart. To print only the chart. Sizing the chart: Click on the center of any side of the chart or at a corner. Moving the chart: Click on the chart and when the mouse pointer changes to a four-headed arrow. the spelling checker locates all misspelled words and proposes the correct spelling. select the data in the “Name” column and “Subject 1” column and click “OK” in the “Select Data Source” window. You may explore the various other options on the “Format” tab to further enhance your chart. Select “Bar” in the left pane of the “Change Chart Type” window and then click “Clustered Bar” in the right pane. 77 | P a g e . select “Axis Titles → Primary Horizontal Axis Title → Title Below Axis”. click on the “Design” tab under “Chart Tools”. on your worksheet. Similarly. type “Marks” and press “Enter”. Click on the “Format” tab under “Chart Tools”. select it by clicking in the chart area. type “Names” and press “Enter”. The chart title is displayed above your chart. For this. drag it to a position of your choice. The “Select Data Source” window is displayed. if some spelling mistakes have been made.in the Formula Bar at the top. Now click “OK”. This time. You can now see the actual marks of each student. Your chart appears as a bar chart. Now click on the Office Button and then select “Print”. Select a Shape Style from the “Shape Styles” group. select “Axis Titles → Primary Vertical Axis Title → Rotated Title”. drag to a suitable size.

the spelling checker moves to the next word. click on “Undo Last”. options are displayed in the “Suggestions” box from the spelling checker’s dictionary. If you change a word which you did not want to. In that case. When the checking is completed for the entire worksheet. select the correct word from the suggestions list and click on the “Change” button. From the “Before sheet” list.Place the cell pointer at the beginning of your worksheet or from wherever you want to start checking for errors. Working with Sheets You want to make the exam record for another class now. Simply copy them from one sheet to another. select the book you want to move the sheet to. The “Spelling” window is displayed and one by one every word in your worksheet is checked. click on the “Change All” button. click on Sheet2. All you need to do is to add data. click on “Ignore All” or “Ignore Once” whichever is appropriate. You may also move or copy sheets with the mouse. When you click on any button such as “Change”.. click in the “Create a copy” check box. On the sheet tabs below. Select “Spelling” in the “Proofing” group on the “Review” tab or use the keyboard shortcut “F7”. The Sheet2 will be displayed. Click a sheet you want move and drag it to the place you want to copy it and release the mouse 78 | P a g e . The “Move or Copy” window is displayed. If a spelling is found to be wrong. such as proper nouns which are not really errors may be shown as spelling mistakes. Right-click in cell A1 of Sheet2. You can also select the sheet before which you want to insert it. “Ignore” etc. The range copied from Sheet1 is pasted in cell A1 of Sheet2. If the spelling is correct but shown as incorrect for some reason. Right-click on the selection and click on “Copy”. If there are more than one occurrences of the same word spelt wrongly. In the “To book” list. You can use the same format of the worksheet. You do not have to type all the headings once again. Select the “Move or Copy” option. a message saying so is displayed. Select the “Paste” option. To copy the sheet. Some words. A whole new worksheet with the same layout but with different data is ready. You may copy a sheet to another workbook. You may make changes in this sheet for another class. Moving or copying sheets: Right click on the Sheet1 tab. Select all headings in the range A1 to H10. You may add these words to the dictionary by clicking the “Add to Dictionary” button. select the sheet.

Autofill recognizes and automatically extends data and alphanumeric headings as far as you specify. When you copy. If you select “Delete”. This is the fill handle. right click in any of the sheet tabs and select “Ungroup Sheets”. another copy of the sheet is made. Using Autofill: Autofill is a feature of Microsoft Excel 2007 that makes entering a series of headings easier by logically repeating and extending the series. a solid black triangle appears along with a blank page icon. Through the options in this window. and change the tab color. The name of the sheet is changed. All the range you selected will be filled with names of months starting with January. you can insert. move or copy. Double-click on the name of the sheet. without opening the sheets. Absolute reference: An absolute reference is a cell or range reference used in a formula whose location does not change when a formula is copied. To stop 79 | P a g e . the “Insert” window is displayed. If you select “Insert”. delete. Manage a sheet: When you right-click on the sheet tab. While you drag. 3000. Simply type the new name. Type the entry ‘January’ in a cell. etc. number series like 1000. names of the months in short.days of the week in short. To deselect the sheets. For this. the current sheet will be deleted after confirmation. You may change the tab color of sheets to distinguish between the data stored on each sheet. Drag the mouse as far as you want the cells to fill and release the mouse. You can select all sheets by selecting the “Select all sheets” option. Other such autofill entries are . the sheet will be moved to the new location. To copy a sheet with the mouse. The name will be highlighted. You can name the sheet accordingly. a number of options are displayed in the pop-up window. right-click on a sheet tab and select “Tab Color”. rename. hold down the “Ctrl” key while you drag a sheet. You will see a black plus sign. select all sheets. it becomes difficult to remember what data is stored on each sheet. When you release the mouse. a chart or something else. A ‘+’ sign appears on the page icon while copying the sheet. from which you can select whether you want to insert a worksheet.button. to give you an idea of what data is stored on the sheet. 2000. The number of the copy appears in brackets in the sheet tab Naming a sheet: When you have many sheets. Move the mouse to the corner of the selection.

starting with cell ‘J1’. you can view two areas of a worksheet and lock rows or columns in one area by splitting or freezing panes. there can be data in a number of rows and columns all of which cannot be seen at the same time. the reference of cell O2 has remained constant. But the problem comes when you need to refer to some other part while working in one part of the sheet. For the Final exam. To split the window vertically. Managing Large Sheets You already know the massive size of the worksheet in Microsoft Excel 2007. Now. Splitting Panes: You can split the window either horizontally. This is called referencing multiple sheets. more data will fit on the screen and vice versa. By adding ‘$’ before ‘O’ and ‘2’. you can change the display percentage of the sheet. in the cell A1. Copy this formula from cell M6 to the remaining students and check the formula for each student in the “Formula Bar”. activate cell M6 and type ‘=L6 * $O$2’ in it. You can work in any part of the worksheet at any time. to calculate 20% marks. Although the formula has been copied. Select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. vertically or both horizontally and vertically. Here. If you reduce the percentage. At such times. enter “=Sheet1!A1+Sheet2! A1” and press “Enter”. This makes the cell reference absolute. You can then scroll in one area of the worksheet. Zooming the worksheet: In Microsoft Excel 2007. type a $ (dollar) character before the column and row number. Select “Zoom” in the “Zoom” group on the “View” tab. while rows or columns in the non-scrolled area remain visible. Now. Prepare the data as shown in the accompanying figure in the neighboring space. You may copy the Roll Nos and the Names. you have made the column and the row references absolute. Referencing multiple sheets: While working you may have to reference data from more than one sheet. Let us now go to Sheet3. Thus “Sheet1!A1” refers to cell A1 on Sheet1. When a formula containing an absolute cell reference is copied to another row or column in the worksheet. the cell reference does not change. Now both panes have a common vertical scroll bar but 80 | P a g e . but data for marks will have to be typed. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the top row. Sheet1 has the value 100 in cell A1 and Sheet2 has the value 200 in cell A1. In the zoom window you may select a zoom percentage of your choice. At such times.the automatic relative cell references. 20% of the Unit Test marks are to be calculated. You can see that the sum of the figures on the other two sheets is displayed here.

Select “Freeze Panes → Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. For this. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the leftmost column. you can see the information in those rows and/or columns at all times. you can see that the frozen panes are visible at all times. Let us assume that you wish to have the headings and roll numbers & names of the students visible always. To freeze the top row or first column. 81 | P a g e . To remove a split. To freeze the top pane of the window. This means that. Moving using the vertical scrollbar keeps the row numbers in the frozen pane unchanged. To remove the freeze. regardless of where you are in the worksheet. You can see that three panes have appropriate vertical and horizontal scroll bars. Select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. As you scroll through your worksheet. if you click on the top left cell. Now both panes have a common horizontal scroll bar but individual vertical scroll bars to enable you to move separately in the two panes. selecting “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab results in a horizontal and vertical split. select the appropriate options from those displayed on selection of “Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. To split the window both horizontally as well as vertically. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the top row. Select “Freeze Panes → Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. Moving using the horizontal scrollbar keeps the column numbers in the frozen pane unchanged.individual horizontal scroll bars to enable you to move separately in the two panes. you can freeze either. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the leftmost column. click the cell below and to the right of the row and column you want to freeze. Select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. When a window is split both horizontally and vertically. select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab once again. You can freeze information in the top and left panes of the window only. the top left pane freezes. To freeze the left pane of the window. place the cell pointer in the appropriate cell where you want the split to appear. rows and columns. or both. Select “Freeze Panes → Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. Also. Freezing panes: With the “Freeze Panes” option. To split the window horizontally. select “Freeze Panes → Unfreeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab.

the cell with the marks below pass level. You can see that he has scored very poor marks in one of the three subjects. Footers and Print Settings Page orientation: Depending on the area of the worksheet you want to print. It is a method which aids you in forecasting values. if a student has failed. you may decide that the pages of your worksheet must have a header and footer. how many marks he should have scored in that subject so that he would have secured a Pass grade. Click in the “By changing cell” field and then click C16. The page number is usually given as the footer. In the “Goal Seek” window. Click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. You can do this with Goal seek. Click “OK”. you can use the “Header & Footer” option to add the same header and footer on each page. The default setting is “Portrait”. you may change page orientation to “Landscape” by selecting “Orientation” in the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. The header is usually the title you would give to the page. For example. The value in cell C16 is adjusted to get the target value. Headers. If the data is not properly visible on the page. The text that appears in the top margin of the page is called the Header. The header and footer give additional information about the data on the page. you can change the orientation of the page so that data can be fitted accordingly. The marks in the failed subject are adjusted to 35. You now want to find out. but not the input value the formula needs to get that result. The text that appears in the bottom margin of the page is called the Footer. If you know the result that you want from a formula. Header and Footer: Before you print your data. where you have to see the effects of changing selected factors in a worksheet. you want to find out. Student with Roll Number 6 has failed. you can use the Goal Seek feature. If there is more data to be fitted on one page. If you have say 15 pages in your workbook. Select “WhatIf Analysis → Goal Seek” in the “Data Tools” group on the “Data” tab. The “Goal Seek Status” window is displayed. you often come across situations. type ‘105’ (the passing total marks) in the “To value” box.Forecasting Values Goal Seek: One of the features of Microsoft Excel is analyzing data. how much he should have scored in the failed subject to score pass marks. Activate cell F16. containing the “Total” marks of the student. During analysis. 82 | P a g e . Click “OK”. you can change the page orientation to landscape.

charts and tables. movies and sounds. Click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. Click on the Office Button and select “Print”. Now press the “Tab” key. Printing selected worksheets: You do not always need to print the entire workbook. A box is displayed at the center of the header area. click on “Current Date” in the “Header & Footer Elements” group. This displays another box to the right. These programs are designed to help you to create an effective presentation. We shall insert the page number in the box displayed. whether to the Board of Directors of a company or to your fellow colleagues. Presentation Graphics Overview of Presentation Graphics Introduction to Presentation Graphics If you have to make a presentation to an audience and you want it to be good. Graphics Presentation Programs include features to handle pictures. a Graphics Presentation Program may also suggest layouts and color and animation schemes for different types of presentations and offer professionally designed templates to help you to create a presentation that is sure to hold the attention of your audience.Select “Header & Footer” in the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. click on “Page Number” in the “Header & Footer Elements” group. Now click “Go to Footer” in the “Navigation” group. You can print selected sheets in the workbook. In the “Print What” section. select the name of the printer from the list in the “Name” field. you may enter the text “First Term Exam Report”. text. For this. With a few keystrokes you can quickly change. This will insert the date. In the “Print” window. Select all the sheets you want to print by clicking on the sheet tabs. An effective presentation puts your point across clearly and in an interesting manner. Press “Tab” and then press the “Esc” key to complete creation of the footer. correct and update the presentation. In addition. you can choose from a variety of computer tools called Graphics Presentation Programs. Here. Check the layout and close the preview by clicking “Close Print Preview” in the “Preview” group. On the “Design” tab under “Header & Footer Tools”. 83 | P a g e . click on “Active sheet(s)” and then click “OK”. Use the “Ctrl” key to select more than one sheet. Press “Enter” and type ‘Class VIII B’ on the second line.

The “Slide Show” tab contains tools that control how the slide show is presented. The “Animations” tab contains tools to animate objects and create transitions between slides. Click on the Office Button and select “New”. You may create a new presentation using a template provided by PowerPoint.Each presentation is divided into slides. The “Insert” tab contains the basic set of objects which you can insert into a slide. 2) The Quick Access toolbar which displays icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. Creating a Presentation Using Installed Templates A “Template” is a pre-designed presentation designed for common purposes such as a photo album or a quiz show. 84 | P a g e . Undo. 3) The Ribbon which has Task-oriented Tabs. and closing a file. The “Design” tab contains tools to design your slides. and Redo. You see the familiar Microsoft Office 2007 user interface which consists of: 1) The Office Button which displays a menu containing commands for opening. The “View” tab contains tools which help you view your presentation in the most suitable way. Each slide shows a different screen to your audience. The “Review” tab contains tools which help you proofread and correct a presentation. The following Ribbon tabs are displayed in PowerPoint: The “Home” tab contains the basic formatting tools. Groups and Command buttons. For more details on the Microsoft Office User Interface. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007”. printing. You will gradually learn to use the commands on all the tabs. Exploring Microsoft PowerPoint: To start the Microsoft PowerPoint application. saving. you may see the assignment titled “The User Interface” in the “Microsoft Word” topic.

you can find various tools that control how the slide show is presented. This is the main editing view. You can see how your graphics. You can make changes as required. In the Normal View. Slide Sorter View gives you an overall picture of it. which displays a large view of the current slide. The “Outline” tab shows your slide text in outline form. On the left are the “Slides” and “Outline” tabs.In the left panel. You can also rearrange. you see your presentation the way your audience will. To actually run a slide show. or delete slides. When you have finished creating and editing your presentation. PowerPoint Presentation Views Viewing a presentation: A “view” is a way of looking at a presentation. This view takes up the full computer screen. This is an exclusive view of your slides in thumbnail form. like an actual slide show presentation. Normal View: Select “Normal” in the “Presentation Views” group. You may also change the presentation views by clicking on the buttons displayed on the “Status Bar” at the bottom of the screen. Slide Show View: Select “Slide Show” in the “Presentation Views” group or press “F5” on your keyboard. Slide Sorter View: Click the “View” tab. making it easy to reorder. Click on a suitable one and then press the “Create” button. In this full-screen view. Now. add or delete slides. timings. Creating your First Slide 85 | P a g e . On the bottom is the “Notes Pane” in which you can type notes that you want along with a slide. Here. click “Installed Templates” to see a list of templates. you may specify the timing between the display of each slide and which slides are to be hidden during the presentation. movies. on the right you can see the “Slide Pane”. animated elements and transition effects will look in the actual show. you may use the options available on the “Slide Show” tab. and Slide Show View. The “Slides” tab shows your slides as thumbnail-sized images while you edit. This makes it easy to navigate through your presentation and to see the effects of changes. It has three working areas. Click on the tab names to view the respective tabs. if you need to make changes to the way your slide show runs. For example. Slide Sorter View. add. Select “Slide Sorter” in the “Presentation Views” group. you may select “Slide Show” in the “Presentation Views” group on the “View” tab or click the “Slide Show” button at the bottom right of the status bar. Microsoft PowerPoint has three main views: Normal View. under “Templates”. A new presentation is displayed with pre-defined settings.

The title is now a selected object and is surrounded by a selection rectangle. Click on the “Design” tab. you see a blank presentation in Normal View with the default name “Presentation1”.You are working for a company which offers various educational courses. Sizing and Moving Placeholders You know that placeholders are boxes that are part of most slide layouts. You may now edit the text as you wish. click in an area between the sizing handles on the side borders. In the “Themes” group. you see two boxes. you may make editing changes to your text on the Outline tab. Click on the title text. You wish to create a presentation which introduces your company and tells about its numerous activities. and pictures. Now click on a theme of your choice. You may need to change some of the text that you have entered on your slide. The sizing handles at the sides are used to adjust only the height or the width. An insertion point is displayed to show your location in the text. When you move your mouse over a sizing handle the pointer becomes a twoheaded arrow. Click in the first placeholder and type the name you want to give your presentation. In the Slide Pane on the right. tables. Sizing a placeholder: The “Sizing Handles” at the sides and corners of the selection rectangle can be used to adjust the size of the placeholder. First. Applying a Theme: You may enhance the appearance of this slide which looks quite plain. Dragging a corner sizing handle adjusts both the height and width at the same time. When you start PowerPoint. These are simultaneously reflected in the Slide Pane. Moving a placeholder: You may wish to change the position of your placeholder. To rotate a placeholder. Saving and Opening a Presentation 86 | P a g e . These boxes hold title and body text or objects such as charts. When the pointer becomes a four-headed arrow. You can see a “Rotation Handle” which is a round arrow at the top of the placeholder. In the existing slide. To move a placeholder. drag the rotation handle in the direction that you want to rotate it. click on the text in the title. Editing in the Slide Pane: You may make changes directly in the slide pane. It can be used to rotate the placeholder to any angle. These are called “Placeholders”. let us assume you need to make changes to the title. In the second placeholder type a subtitle. you can drag to the location you wish. Using the Outline Tab: Alternately. click on the arrow at the bottom right to see all available themes.

Now click the Office Button and select “Close” to close this file. Enter the title and text as shown. In the “Slides” group. Using a Slide Layout and Inserting Pictures A Slide Layout refers to the arrangement of elements. You may click on a style of your choice. As you did earlier. Enhancing the Picture: You may make changes to the picture by using various Picture Tools. In the “Save As” window specify the location at which you wish to save your presentation. Similarly. You may apply other effects to your picture by selecting from the various options available under “Picture Effects” in the “Picture Styles” group on the “Format” tab. Enter the title and text as shown. Click on the picture name and then click “Insert”. The picture is displayed on your slide in a placeholder. in the “Insert Picture” window. on a slide. You can see a new slide with the specified layout. You may use the default name for your presentation or enter a new one. create a slide using the “Picture with Caption” layout. The available layouts are displayed. click on the “More” arrow to see all available picture styles. browse to the location of your picture file. Let us create a new slide by specifying a layout. You may change the size and position as required. To open a recently used presentation you may click the Office Button and then click on the presentation name in the list displayed under “Recent Documents”.To save your presentation. Now click “Save”. click the Office Button and select “Open”. Click on the first slide on the Slides tab in the left pane. click on the lower part of the “New Slide” icon. tables. such as text. Now click on the “Format” tab under “Picture Tools”. Your file is stored with the extension “. You may also use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+S”. In the “Open” window. To open a file that you have previously saved. Now click on the “Insert” tab. Click the “Open” button to display the selected file on the screen. browse to the location of your presentation and click on the file name from the displayed list. Click on the “Home” tab. browse to the location of your picture file. charts and movies. In the “Picture Styles” group. pictures. Click on the picture name and then click “Insert”. Let us also insert the same picture on the first slide we created. In the “Insert Picture” window. To display a picture of your company logo on your slide. click the picture icon. In the “Illustrations” group.pptx”. Changing Fonts and Formatting 87 | P a g e . Select a suitable one. Click on the picture. you may click the Office Button and select “Save”. select “Picture”.

Similarly. Select the text to be formatted by highlighting the text on the slide. Applying different formatting to characters and paragraphs can greatly enhance the appearance of the slide. You may also change the color of the font by clicking on the arrow to the right of the “Font Color” icon and making your selection. click on the “Review” tab. Formatting: Enhancing the appearance of the slide to make it more attractive. Let us center the title of the slide. Underline and Text Shadow by clicking on the respective icons. To correct the misspelled words. Now to create a bulleted list. Now click on the “Home” tab. Now select “Spelling” in the “Proofing” group or use the keyboard shortcut “F7”. you may have unknowingly left several typing errors uncorrected. Make your selection from the various bullet styles displayed. Bullets and Numbering: You may enter text as a bulleted or numbered list. Checking Spellings As you may have entered the information on previous slides.Changing Font and Font Size: Let us change the Font and Font Size of the text on the second slide. Let us create such a list on the third slide. Italic. 88 | P a g e . to create a numbered list. Changing the Background Style: To change the background of your slides. In this way you can check the spellings on all the slides of the presentation at one time. You will now observe that the text has changed to the new font of the size you selected. You may select the desired Font and Font Size from the “Fonts” group. Click on the third slide on the Slides tab in the left pane. You may also increase or decrease the font size by clicking on the “Increase Font Size” and “Decrease Font Size” icons in the “Fonts” group. click on the “Design” tab. Changing Font Effects and Color: From the “Fonts” group. Click on the second slide on the Slides tab in the left pane. In the window displayed you may specify the size and orientation of your slides and then click “OK”. “Center” and “Align Text Right” icons in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. readable and user-friendly is called formatting. Changing Page Properties: Select “Page Setup” in the “Page Setup” group on the “Design” tab. you may use the “Numbering” icon in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. select the text and then click the arrow to the right of the “Bullets” icon in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. Changing Alignment: You may change the alignment of text by clicking on the “Align Text Left”. Select “Background Styles” in the “Background” group and make your selection. you may select other effects such as Bold.

You may now select “Delete” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab or press the “Delete” key on your keyboard. If you have a large number of slides in your presentation. Change to Slide Sorter View by clicking on the “Slide Sorter” button on the Status Bar at the bottom of the screen. Click “Change” to make the correction or “Change All” if there are multiple instances of the misspelled word in the presentation. you may highlight one of the suggestions displayed or manually correct it yourself by typing in the correct word in the “Change to” box. click “Ignore”.For each word that is misspelled. When your entire presentation has been scanned. To insert a slide between two slides. Running a Slide Show Running a Slide Show: Once all the slides are in the order that you want. click on the slide after which you want the new slide on the “Slides” tab and then click on the “New Slide” icon. Inserting. you will be informed accordingly. Let us move all slides back to their original positions. select one or more slide icons on the “Slides” tab. Now to delete the blank slide that was just inserted. and drag to a new location. Moving and Deleting Slides Inserting a Slide: You know that you can insert a new slide by selecting “New Slide” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. You may choose “Ignore All” if the word appears many times throughout the presentation. click the slide icon on the “Slides” tab. Deleting a Slide: You may use either the Normal View or the Slide Sorter View to delete a slide. Now click on the slide you wish to move and drag it to a new location. Let us revert to Normal View by clicking the “Normal” icon on the Status Bar. To select multiple slides in a row. To correct a word that is spelt incorrectly. you can see how your presentation would look when viewed by an audience to 89 | P a g e . you may find it more convenient to use the Slide Sorter View to view all your slides and change their positions. Moving a Slide: To move a slide in Normal View. a dialog box will appear and will prompt you to effect suitable corrections. press “Shift” before clicking the slide icon and then drag. If you do not wish to change what you have typed.

Print range: Under Print range you may specify which of the slides you want to print. Under “Choose Commands from:” select “All Commands”. notes pages or outline view. handouts. you may specify whether you wish to print the slides. click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. Click “Close Print Preview” in the “Preview” group to close the preview. Click the “Outline” button at the bottom left to hide the left pane. Clicking it displays your presentation as it would look in a web browser. The “Print” window is displayed. You can see the “Web Page Preview” button on the Quick Access toolbar. Web Page Preview: To preview your presentation as a web page. Click on the Office Button and then click “PowerPoint Options”. You may view all the slides by using the “Next Slide” and “Previous Slide” buttons at the bottom of the screen. Then click the “From Current Slide” icon in the “Start Slide Show” group on the “Slide Show” tab. In the window displayed. on the “Slides” tab. Viewing the slide show from the current slide: To do so. To save time and unnecessary printing and waste of paper.run a presentation. select “Web Page Preview”. you need to add the “Web Page Preview” command to the Quick Access toolbar. you may wish give copies to your colleagues for their comments. The “Print Preview” tab appears when you view the slide in the Print Preview mode. You may print all slides. To see a preview of your slide in a window on the screen. Previewing and Printing a Presentation Previewing A Presentation: As you work with your slides. Printing a Presentation: Click the Office Button and select “Print → Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. click “Customize” in the left pane. From the list displayed below. 90 | P a g e . Now click “Add” and then click “OK”. click the slide icon from which you wish to view your slides. it is always a good idea to preview onscreen how your slides will appear when printed. click “From Beginning” or use the keyboard shortcut “F5” to view the complete presentation You may click or press the spacebar to move to the next slide. the current slide only or any selection of slides. Print what: Here. click on the “Slide Show” tab in the “Start Slide Show” group.

Replacing Text: Click "Replace". In the “Editing” group. Enter your options and click “OK”. 91 | P a g e . Match case: You may check this box for a case sensitive search. Click on the “Home” tab. Enter some text and click “Find Next”. Click “Replace” to replace the current word with the new word. A window appears showing the number of replacements made. First let us create a small text box below the text on the slide. another document or to a Web site. The next occurrence of the specified term after the current cursor position is selected. Modifying and Refining a Presentation Finding and Replacing Text Finding Text: You may search for a word or phrase in your presentation. Click “Replace All” to replace all occurrences of the search text by the specified new text. Find whole words only: You may check this box to search for whole words matching the search criteria. Click on the slide below the existing text and drag with the mouse to draw the textbox. Creating a Text Box and Inserting a Hyperlink You may insert hyperlinks in your slides. Click on the third slide icon on the “Slides” tab.Color/grayscale: Here. Let us insert a hyperlink from the third slide to the first slide. Choosing the “Grayscale” or “Pure Black and White” option allows you to print without color. to replace text you may select “Replace” from the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab or press “Ctrl+H” to display the “Replace” window. Finding and Replacing: Alternatively. you may choose the color quality of the prints. Inserting a text box: A text box is a container for text or graphics. In the “Text” group. A hyperlink is a connection to a location in the current document. click “Find” or press “Ctrl+F” to display the “Find” window. click “Text Box". To create a new text box click on the “Insert” tab. you may enter the new text in the "Replace with" field. In the "Replace" window.

Click the arrow at the bottom right to view all the available styles. You may enhance the appearance of the text in your table. You may choose from various categories such as Process. Under “Select a place in this document”. Inserting a Hyperlink: Select the text entered in the text box. it is automatically resized as needed to display the entire entry. Select the text and then click “Quick Styles” in the “WordArt Styles” group on the “Design” tab under “Table Tools”. click on the “Insert” tab. In the “Insert Hyperlink” window. As you type the text in the text box. Now click on the “Insert” tab. Now click “OK”. click on “First Slide”. Relationship and others. Using SmartArt A “SmartArt” graphic is a visual representation of your information and ideas. You may also change the size and position of the text box by using the sizing handles. clicking on this link takes you to the first slide. Hierarchy. When you run the slide show. under “Link to:” click on “Place in This Document”. Enter the text “Go to Slide 1”. enter the number of rows and columns and click “OK”. You may select a style from the gallery displayed. You can see that the hyperlink text is underlined. indicating that you can enter text in it. click “Hyperlink”. You may select a table style from the gallery displayed. In the “Insert Table” window. Select a suitable one. To insert a table. In the “Links” group. Let us change the style of the heading text. Enter the headings and details in the other rows as shown. Cycle. You may size or move your table as required. Using SmartArt graphics. You may specify the dimensions of your table by dragging with the mouse or by clicking “Insert Table”. A “Design” tab is displayed under “Table Tools”. Create and Enhance a Table You may wish to display some data in tabular form in your presentation. Create a new slide using the “Blank” layout by selecting “New Slide” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. In the “Tables” group. you can effectively communicate your message in a quick and simple way. Each category contains several different layouts. click “Table”.Adding text to a text box: You will notice that the text box displays an insertion point. Now you are ready to enter the table content. 92 | P a g e .

In the “Search in” list box.Let us create a SmartArt graphic to describe the course structure of one of the courses offered. Changing Colors: You may apply color variations to the shapes in your SmartArt graphic. Now click on the “Insert” tab. click “SmartArt”. under “SmartArt Tools. you may enter text directly by clicking the text boxes. Let us search for clips of the type “Movies”. Now select a suitable graphic and click “OK”. Alternatively. A clip is a file that can contain sounds and animations. enter a word or phrase that describes the clip or the file name of the clip. Applying a SmartArt Style: A SmartArt Style is a combination of various effects that you can apply to the shapes in your SmartArt graphic to create a professionally designed look. In the “Illustrations” group. In the “SmartArt Styles” group. We shall insert a clip as well as Clip Art on one of our slides. sound. Now click “Quick Styles” in the “Drawing” group on the “Home” tab. Create a text box above the SmartArt graphic and enter the text as shown. Since yours is a company having operations related to computers. In the “Illustrations” group. Now make your selection from the gallery displayed. This displays the text pane where you can enter your text. including art. select a category. let us look for a clip using the word “Computer”. Click on the slide containing the SmartArt graphic on the Slides tab. For this. In the “SmartArt Styles” group on the “Design” tab under “SmartArt Tools”. in the “Create Graphic” group on the “Design” tab. Click on the “Insert” tab. “Clip Art” refers to a ready-to-use picture. In the graphic displayed on your slide. you may click “Text Pane”. animation or movies. ensure that “All collections” are searched by checking the box against “Everywhere”. click “Change Colors”. In the panel displayed on the right. A “Clip” may be a single media file. First create a new slide using the “Blank” layout. Close the text pane by clicking the “X” icon at the top right corner. Inserting Clips and Clip Art You may insert “Clips” and “Clip Art” in your slides. click “Clip Art”. Let us first insert a small clip. In the “Choose a SmartArt Graphic” window. in the “Search for” box. in the “Results should be” list 93 | P a g e . You may select a suitable background style for your text box from the gallery displayed. click the arrow at the bottom right to view all the available styles and select a suitable one.

click “Shapes” to display the various shapes that you can use. you may create a text box as shown in the slide in the figure. For this. click on “Hexagon”.box. Adding Text: To add text within the shape. Changing the Presentation Design and Color Scheme Changing the Presentation Design: After you have created many slides. check the box against “Clip Art” under “Results should be” and ensure other boxes are unchecked. Coloring the Shape: You may apply color to the shape by choosing from a variety of background styles. On the “Slides” tab. Under “Basic Shapes”. check the box against “Movies”. simply start typing as shown in the figure. A number of related clips are displayed. Now click “Go”. click on the arrow at the bottom right to see all available themes. click the “View” tab and select “Slide Show” in the “Presentation Views” group. 94 | P a g e . Simply click on the one you wish to insert and drag it to a suitable place on your slide. you can see that the new theme has been applied to all the slides. To see the clip that you inserted actually playing. Let us now insert some Clip Art. “Clip Art” refers to a ready-to-use picture. From the pictures displayed. drag a suitable one onto your slide. You may change the size of the clip as required. Drag your mouse to create a shape of the size you wish. You may size and position the shape as required. Create and Enhance Shapes PowerPoint offers many predefined shapes that you can insert into your document. you may decide to give a totally new look to your presentation. Click “Quick Styles” in the “Drawing” group and select a style from the gallery displayed. In the “Themes” group. In the “Drawing” group. Click on the “Design” tab. Now click on a theme of your choice. The entered text appears at the centre of your shape. To enter a title above the shape. you need to run the slide show. To insert Clip Art. Ensure other boxes are unchecked. Create a new slide using the “Blank” layout by clicking “New Slide” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. Now click “Go”.

In the “Animations” group. This results in the animation starting after the previous slide. click on the “View” tab. If you move your mouse over them. Click on a suitable one. First. In the "Presentation Views" group. Now click on the “Animations” tab. You can view the animation effect right away on your slide. You can see the various available layouts when you click on the lower part of the “New Slide” icon in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. in the “Transition to This Slide” group. Adding Animation and Other Effects “Animation” refers to the addition of special visual or sound effects to your slides. Applying animation to an object: Let us add some animation effects to the graphic in the slide shown. whether on the click of the mouse or after a stipulated time by entering related details under “Advance Slide”. You may click the “Preview” icon in the “Preview” group to view the transition effects for the current slide. This ensures consistency and saves time. It is applied to all slides. Changing the Slide Master You know that slides can be created using different layouts. You can see a number of slide icons in the left pane. 95 | P a g e . click on “Colors” in the “Themes” group on the “Design” tab. Now. To associate a sound with your transition. select one from the “Transition Sound” list box. click on the “More” arrow to see all the available transition styles. Click the “Apply to All” button if you want the same transition effects for all slides. Applying transition effects: A transition specifies how the display changes when you move from one slide to another. Now click “Play” to view your animation. You can see it is surrounded by a box. click on the graphic. You may select a color scheme by clicking on it. click “Custom Animation” in the “Animations” group. On the “Animations” tab. The “Slide Master” is used to make global changes to the slides in your presentation. In the panel at the right. You may specify how you wish to move to the next slide. In PowerPoint build effects are animations to slide contents. click in the “Animate” list box and select “Fly In”. screen tips explain they are masters for different layouts. To see the Slide Master.Changing the Color Scheme: To change the color scheme. click “Slide Master”. click the arrow in the list box below the “Speed” list box and select “Start After Previous”.

two. 96 | P a g e . You may also use this view to enter or edit notes by clicking in the lower placeholder. use the “Notes Pane” at the bottom of the slide to write notes about your slide. Printing Handouts You can print your presentation in the form of handouts with one. These can be used by your audience to follow along as you give your presentation or for future reference. Print range: Under Print range you may specify which of the slides you want to print. Creating Notes Pages You can create “Notes Pages” that include extra notes for yourself while you give your presentation. the current slide only or any selection of slides. Order: Select the order of printing the slides. Now close the Master View by clicking on “Close Master View” in the “Close” group. Slides per page: Select the number of slides you wish to print on one page. Any change made to this slide will be reflected on all slides created using the “Blank” layout. six. On the “Slides” tab. Let us change the background style. You see the master slide in the right pane. or for your audience. or nine miniature slides on a page. You may print all slides. Printing Handouts: Click the Office Button and select “Print → Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. Scale to fit paper: Check this box to print the slides of a size suitable to fit on the sheet of paper. In Normal View. three. Print what: Select “Handouts”. Click “Background Styles” in the “Background” group on the “Slide Master” tab and select a suitable one. four. you can see that all the slides with the “Blank” layout have the new background style applied. whether horizontal or vertical. Let us select 4.Click on the slide icon related to the “Blank Layout”. click the “View” tab. Let us select “Vertical”. Click “Notes Page” in the “Presentation Views” group. The “Print” window is displayed. To view your notes page.

select “Header & Footer”. time and slide number on the slide. On the “Slide” tab of the “Header and Footer” window. if you need to duplicate a slide. To display the same footer information on all slides. on the “Notes and Handouts” tab. Hiding a Slide: If there is a slide that you do not want to display to a particular audience. Adding a Footer to a Slide: Click the “Insert” tab. you may hide the slide. click the slide icon on the “Slides” tab. Duplicating a slide creates a copy of the selected slide and places it directly after the selected slide. Click “Apply” or “Apply to all”. On the “Slide” tab in the “Header and Footer” window. right-click the slide on the “Slides” tab and select “Hide Slide”. and then type the text that you want to appear at the top or bottom of each notes page or handout. click “New Slide” and click “Duplicate Selected Slides” below the layouts displayed. In the “Slides” group. On the “Slides” tab.Frame slides: Check this box to print the slides with an outer frame. check the box against “Footer”. handout or notes page. Using Headers and Footers Headers and Footers are used to add information such as slide numbers. In the “Text” group. Duplicating and Hiding Slides Duplicating a Slide: In a presentation. 97 | P a g e . Hiding the Footer: To hide the footer on a specific slide. it can be quite easily achieved. the time and date. click the slide you wish to copy. clear the “Footer” check box and click “Apply”. To insert the date. Select any other options that you want and then click “Apply”. check the box against “Don’t show on title slide”. Adding a Header or Footer to a Handout or Notes Page: In the “Header and Footer” window. select “Header & Footer”. click “Apply to All”. Click “Preview” to view your handouts onscreen and “Print” to print them. check the appropriate boxes. To hide a slide. select the “Header” or “Footer” check box. To hide the footer on the title slide. or to bottom of a slide. and then type the text that you want to appear at the bottom of the slide in the center. Click the “Insert” tab and in the “Text” group. a company logo or the presentation title to the top of a handout or notes page in your presentation. Click the “Home” tab.

Click the “Hide Slide” icon on the Ribbon once again to show the hidden slide. Before saving the completed presentation. In the “Document Information Panel”. You can then move your mouse and use it as a pen on your slide. you may wish to include some related documentation with the file. In the window displayed. Let us select “Ballpoint Pen”. The hidden slide icon with the slide number inside appears next to the slide that you have hidden. Now click “OK” and close the Document Information Panel. The hidden slide icon is then removed. “Advanced Properties”. this slide will not be displayed. underline an important point or draw checkmarks next to items that you have covered. “Previous”. click the “Slide Show” tab and select “Hide Slide” in the “Set Up” group. For this. Right-click on a slide during the slide show. Then on the Ribbon. click the arrow next to “Document Properties” to select the set of properties that you want to change. Also. Learning to Control and Annotate a Slide Show Navigating the Slide Show: Running the slide show and practicing how to control the slide show helps you have a smooth presentation. Enter your details on this tab. right-click the slide that you want to show. These may be a descriptive title.The hidden slide icon with the slide number inside appears next to the slide that you have hidden. A menu is displayed as shown. and keywords that identify topics or other important information in the file. You may move to any slide in your presentation. and then click “Hide Slide”. For example. Documenting a File Documenting a file: Document properties are details about a file that help identify it. There is another way in which you can hide a slide. you may want to point to an important word. To show a slide that you have previously hidden. 98 | P a g e . When you run your presentation. the subject. Click on the slide that you wish to hide on the “Slides” tab in the left pane. if someone has a question about a previous slide. Click the Office Button and select “Prepare → Properties” from the menu. the author name. Annotate a slide show: During your presentation. right-click on the slide and select “Pointer Options” from the menu displayed. click on the “Summary” tab. Use the “Next”. you can go backwards and redisplay it. you may decide the color of this pen by using the “Ink Color” option. for example. “Last Viewed” and “Go to Slide” options to move between slides.

moving to another slide or running another program when you click on them. The copied slide will be inserted in the presentation after the current slide. Now drag with the mouse to create the button of the size you require. simply save the presentation with a new name. 99 | P a g e . This has two tabs. In the “Illustrations” group. Right-click the first slide in the new presentation and select “Paste”. Saving the new presentation: Before you make any additional changes. Let us use the “Mouse Click” tab. The “Action Settings” window is displayed. In the “New Presentation” window. Copying a slide: You may want to copy the slide which describes a course structure from your presentation to a new presentation. Click the Office Button and select “Save As” and enter the new file name and location. Let us use an action button to play a sound in the slide shown in the figure. Click “Save”. To do this. you may use the slides from one of your existing presentations. If you want to use all slides from a presentation in a new presentation. Check the box against “Play sound”. the actions specified are performed when the mouse is clicked on the button and moved over the button respectively. Your original presentation does not get affected. Now create a new presentation by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “New”. “Mouse Click” and “Mouse Over”. Specify the location and the new file name in the “Save As” window and click “Save”. As the names suggest. you may save the file as a new presentation. Now you may make changes to the new presentation as required. You may make any changes with respect to colors. Under “Action Buttons”. on the “Slides” tab. click on the “Sound” icon. select “Blank Presentation” and press the “Create” button. Select “Chime” from the list of sounds. right-click the slide to be copied and select “Copy”. click “Shapes”. themes etc that you require. Adding Action Buttons You may add action buttons on your slides to perform functions such as playing sounds. Click the “Insert” tab. Save the file by clicking the Office button and selecting “Save”.Using Advanced Presentation Features Creating a New Presentation from Existing Slides To make the task of creating a new presentation easier.

it is important to rehearse the timing. In the “Set Up” group. Click “Yes”. Click “Next” to move to the next slide. If you do not want the slides in your presentation to advance automatically as per the slide timings recorded. PowerPoint includes a timing feature that records the length of time spent on each slide and the total presentation time while you are rehearsing. select “Rehearse Timings”. on the “Slide Show” tab. A network may consist of just two computers next to each other or can even extend to a large number of computers located in different parts of the world. a message box displays the total time for the presentation and asks you to confirm that you wish to keep the recorded slide timings. Now. and you can see the timing in the “Slide Time box” at the right. Click the “Slide Show” tab. “Slide Sorter” view appears and displays the time of each slide in your presentation. in the “Set Up” group. click the Office Button and then click the “Exit PowerPoint” button at the bottom right.During the slide show. they form a network. You may perform various actions using action buttons such as moving to another slide or running another program. The “Rehearsal” toolbar appears. so that you are sure that it fits within a certain time frame. when you click on this button you can hear the sound of a chime. Now when you run your slide show. your presentation can be delivered and you are ready to impress your audience. You may use the recorded times to advance the slides automatically when you actually give your presentation. After you set the time for the last slide. clear the “Use Rehearsed Timings” check box. the slides advance automatically as per these settings. To exit the PowerPoint application. Internet Internet Basics What is a Network? When computers are connected to each other. Delivering Presentations Rehearsing timing: Before delivering a presentation. 100 | P a g e .

They are sometimes referred to as “LAN adapters”. a printer or a computer. let us have a look at the types of networks. usually a minicomputer or a mainframe. 101 | P a g e . Network interface cards (NIC): These are expansion cards located within the system unit that connect the computer to a network. A non-dedicated server can function as both a client and a server. Network Administrator: This is a person who is a computer specialist responsible for efficient operation of the network and implementation of new networks. Hub: This is the central node for other nodes. Typically. Host Computer: This is a large centralized computer. To understand computer networks.A “computer network” is a communication system that connects two or more computers so that they can exchange information and share resources. computer systems at different locations are networked to a main or centralized computer. and are quite powerful. you need to get familiar with certain terms which are as follows: Node: This is a device that is connected to a network. Network operating systems (NOS): They control and coordinate activities such as electronic communication and resource sharing between the computers and devices on a network. Dedicated servers are typically used for websites that have high traffic. In decentralized organizations. Server: This is a node that shares resources with other nodes. a client is a user’s microcomputer. Client: This is a node that uses a resource from another node. Distributed Processing: This is a system where computing power is located and shared at different locations. Now that you are familiar with the terminology related to computer networks. Computers in a network can be set up in different ways to suit the needs of users. It could be any device such as a data storage device. A dedicated server is a computer that specializes in performing specific tasks. It may be a server or simply a connection point for cables from other nodes.

While LANs have been widely used within organizations for years. within the same building. They are frequently used as links between office buildings that are located throughout a city. Each connecting device is asked or 102 | P a g e . including a common internet connection. Unlike a LAN. Networks may also be citywide and even international. Configurations: A network can be configured or arranged in several ways.Network Types: Different types of channels allow different kinds of networks to be formed. They provide access to regional service (MAN) providers and span distances greater than 100 miles. A “Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)” is the next step up from the LAN. The widest of all WANs is of course. When this is done over longer distances. MANs span distances up to 100 miles. metropolitan area and wide area networks. They are used to link microcomputers and share printers and other resources. a number of small computers or peripheral devices are linked to a central unit which is the “network hub”. The hub may be a host computer or file server. The nodes of a LAN are in close physical proximity. All communications pass through the central unit and control is maintained by “polling”. bus. They use microwave relays and satellites to reach users over long distances. Network Architecture: This describes how a network is arranged and how resources are coordinated and shared. These LANs are called “Home Networks” and allow different computers to share resources. Usually when computers in one office are connected to one another. they are now being commonly used by individuals in their homes. the network is known as WAN which stands for Wide Area Network. Telephone lines for example may connect communications equipment within a home or building. The network types based on the geographical area they serve are local area. Typically. Wide Area Networks (WANs) are countrywide and worldwide networks. the network is known as a Local Area Network or LAN for short. Configurations describe the physical arrangement of the network while strategies define how information and resources are shared. ring and hierarchical. LANs span distances less than a mile and are owned by individual organizations. The four principal network topologies are star. This is called the network’s topology. the Internet which spans the entire globe. Network architecture encompasses network configurations and strategies. In a “star network”. a MAN is jointly owned by a group of organizations or by a network service provider who charges a fee to provide network services.

nodes have equal authority and can act as both clients and servers. This means that multiple users can share resources (or time) on a central computer. The minicomputers are in turn connected to the corporation’s mainframe which contains data accessible to all. However. For example. Distributed data processing is possible using a ring network. forming a ring. Strategies: Every network has a strategy of coordinating the sharing of information and resources. Processing tasks can be performed at different locations and programs. A hierarchical network is useful in centralized organizations. “Client/server networks” are based on specialization and use one computer to coordinate and supply services to other nodes on the network. 103 | P a g e . microcomputers in a department are connected to individual departmental minicomputers. The “hierarchical network” consists of several computers linked to a central host computer. Server nodes coordinate and supply specialized services and access to resources. In a “bus network”. Many airline reservation systems are terminal networks. these computers are also hosts to smaller computers or peripheral devices. client/server and peer-to-peer. data and resources can be shared. Client/server networks are widely used on the Internet. usually a mainframe. In a “ring network”. An advantage of the star topology is that it can be used to support a “timesharing system”. each device is connected to two other devices. In a “terminal network”. The nodes are either terminals with little or no processing capabilities or microcomputers running special software that allows them to act as terminals. The most common network strategies are terminal. All communications travel along a common connecting cable called a “bus” or “backbone”. In a “peer-to-peer network”. microcomputers may obtain files from other microcomputers as well as provide files to them. just like a star network. there is no host computer and each device handles its own communications. Client nodes request the services. Each device examines information as it passes along the bus to see whether it is the intended recipient.“polled” whether it has a message to send and is allowed to send its message in turn. processing power is centralized in one large computer. The star topology is commonly used to link microcomputers to a mainframe containing an organization’s database. There is no central computer and messages are passed around the ring till they reach the correct destination. For example. This arrangement is commonly used for sharing data stored on different microcomputers.

Such networks are known as “Intranets” and may or may not be connected to the Internet. 2) Like the public Internet. hardware or a combination of both. newsletters. prices. online order forms etc. The purpose is to increase efficiency and reduce costs. History of Internet: In the second half of the decade from 1960 to 1970. Extranets are used by some organizations to allow suppliers and others limited access to their networks. Specific information such as product ranges. mediating traffic between a protected network and the Internet. which can be accessed by certain external users via the Internet. All communications between the internal network and the outside world must pass through it. The main points of difference between an intranet and extranet are as follows: 1) An intranet is a private network within an organization while an extranet is a private network that connects more than one organization. Communication within and between organizations is supported using intranets and extranets. a firewall can also restrict data from flowing out of a network. Extranets: An “Extranet” is an intranet. Thus the Internet can be termed as a Network of Networks. In addition to preventing unrestricted access into a network.Organizational Internets: Most large organizations have a wide range of network configurations. and from where standard forms can be downloaded. may be made available to suppliers or potential customers using an extranet. What is Internet? The word “Internet” is derived from the word inter-networking which means connecting different networks together. They provide e-mail and other services accessible only to those within the organization. Internet technologies are applied to integrate all these networks. intranets use browsers. Entry into extranets is controlled by usernames and passwords which establish the identity of the user and grant access to the areas of the extranet that he is entitled to view. operating systems and strategies. Most organizational firewalls include a special computer called a “proxy server”. It then decides whether it is safe to allow a message or file to pass into or out of the organization’s network. Firewalls can be implemented in software. An Intranet is accessible only from within the organization. Intranets: Many organizations have internal networks similar to the Internet which have web pages that contain company information. Firewalls: A “firewall” is a system that secures a network. web sites and web pages. pricing structures etc. 104 | P a g e . or part of an intranet. shielding it from access by unauthorized users. It acts as a gatekeeper. the United States Department of Defense began a project on computer networks.

after 1970. new independent centers were created in different places. Instead of having a central system of limited machines. By 1993 the concept of Internet had changed completely. To send data along telephone lines. Universities.This project was named ARPANET. 105 | P a g e . Gradually. researchers developed a new set of rules called Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol or TCP/IP. Government Departments and Research Centers also began using this network. wireless telephones and even satellites. The roots of the giant network called Internet can be traced back to this project. This led to the birth of the modern Internet.

You can find the latest local. movie previews. 106 | P a g e . playing. “Searching” for all types of information has become very convenient using the Internet. shopping. You can have access to entertainment. companionship and many other opportunities on the Internet. “Shopping” is one of the fastest-growing Internet applications. anytime for anyone is possible due to the Internet. You have additional options such as live concerts. education. You can access some of the world’s largest libraries directly from your home computer. You can take classes on various subjects. advertisement and news. “Entertainment” in different forms such as movies. It has become a popular medium for business. book clubs and more. Some courses are free while others have to be paid for. national and international news using the Internet. you can search for bargains and make purchases or simply window shop or look for the latest fashions. Using the Internet. “Education” or “e-learning” which supports flexible learning anywhere. information. music and games is available using the Internet.Today the Internet has become a popular medium for information.

These include the inability to provide immediate delivery of goods. This is known as e-commerce. The Internet offers a chance to reach out to a larger number of customers. While there are numerous advantages of e-commerce. it offers the convenience of purchasing at any hour of the day or night. For a buyer. the inability to “try on” prospective purchases and questions relating to the security of online payments. the costs associated with operating a retail store can be eliminated. From the seller’s perspective. a seller is not required to maintain a physical inventory of goods and products are shipped directly from warehouses. monetary transactions are also being carried out. 107 | P a g e . The Internet offers a chance to survey a wide variety of products. With the help of Internet. It does away with the need to physically travel to the seller’s location. Electronic Commerce i. Also. e-commerce is the buying and selling of goods over the Internet.Transactions of large industries are also effected over the Internet.e. there are some disadvantages too.

1) Consult product review sites: These sites offer evaluations or opinions on products.epinions.com” are examples of review sites on the Web. This arrangement often eliminates the wholesaler by allowing manufacturers to sell directly to customers. Existing retail stores use B2C e-commerce to reach out to customers through the Web.bizrate. you need to check his reputation before placing an order.consumersearch. Two well-known shopping bots are located at “www.Tips on how to shop online: When you shop online. 2) The second type of e-commerce “Consumer-to-consumer (C2C)” involves individuals selling to individuals. This is done in the form of classified ads or an auction. transferring funds. In “Web auctions”. it would be useful to keep the following suggestions in mind. You may consider payment options from sites such as “www. You may visit vendor review sites such as “www. “Online shopping” as you know includes buying and selling consumer goods over the Internet.yahoo.gomez. You can enlist it to compare prices. 2) Use a shopping bot: A shopping bot is an automated shopping assistant that searches the Internet for the best price of a product. 4) Select a payment option: Once you have selected the product and the vendor.com” and “www. 3) Consult vendor review sites: Even if a vendor offers attractive prices.com”. Security of your credit card number is important.com”.com” and “www.buy.americanexpress.mysimon.com/privatepayments”.private. buy and sell stocks and bonds over the Internet.com” and “www. “www. “Online stock trading” allows investors to research.shopping. paying bills and applying for loans without having to visit the bank. The three most widely used B2C applications are as follows: “Online banking” enables customers to perform various banking operations such as accessing account information. There are three basic types of e-commerce: 1) “Business-to-consumer (B2C)” involves the sale of a product or service to the general public or end users. There are two basic types of Web auction sites: 108 | P a g e . you have to place the order and make the payment.com” and “www. sellers post descriptions of products at a web site and buyers submit bids electronically.

see the displayed figure. Security: The single greatest challenge for e-commerce is the development of fast. The merchandise presented is typically from a company’s surplus stock. the purchased item is dispatched by the seller. Sellers convert it to regular currency through the bank. a furniture manufacturer would require raw material such as wood. You can often get bargain prices and these sites are generally considered safe places to shop. This method is more secure than credit cards. 109 | P a g e . They facilitate the bidding process but are not involved in completing transactions and verifying the authenticity of the goods sold. Buyers and sellers need to be cautious while interacting with these sites. It is a system that allows a person to pay for goods or services by transmitting a number from one computer to another. paint and varnish which he would purchase from the related suppliers. For example. 3) “Digital cash” is electronic currency that only exists online. The buyer mails a cheque to the seller. 2) “Credit card” purchases are faster and more convenient. But credit card fraud over the Internet by criminals known as “Carders” is a major concern for both buyers and sellers. b) “Person-to-person auction sites” provide a forum for buyers and sellers. The three basic payment options are as follows: 1) “Cheques” are the most traditional and cheque purchases take the longest time to complete. This is typically a manufacturer-supplier relationship. If it is a valid cheque. For a list of digital cash providers. secure and reliable payment methods for purchased goods.a) “Auction house sites” sell directly to bidders. Buyers purchase digital cash from a bank that specializes in electronic currency and use it to purchase goods. 3) The third type of e-commerce “Business-to-business (B2B)” involves the sale of a product or service from one business to another.

“Downloading” is the process of copying a file from a computer on the 110 | P a g e . A “web-based application” is a software package that can be accessed through a web browser. “Web Utilities” are specialized utility programs that make using the Internet and Web easier and safer.Web Utilities: Utilities are programs that make computing easier. Excel and PowerPoint. The aim of “web-based services” such as ThinkFree is to free users from owning and storing applications. it is automatically deleted from your hard disk. Some utilities facilitate sharing resources over the Internet while others enhance the capabilities of your browser. File transfer protocol (FTP): FTP is an Internet standard for transferring files. When you exit the program. you must connect to the ASP’s web site. To use a web-based application. This free service provides access to programs similar to Microsoft’s Word. Web-based applications: Normally application programs are owned by individuals and organizations and stored on the computer’s hard disk. The ASP downloads a copy of the requested application to your computer’s hard disk drive from where you can run it. Most application service providers (ASPs) charge a fee to access and use their applications.

The Internet has a lot of content which is not suitable for unrestricted viewing. You can also use FTP to copy files from your computer to another computer on the Internet. you may visit some of the sites listed in the displayed figure. these programs can 111 | P a g e . RealPlayer from RealNetworks and Shockwave from Adobe.Internet and saving it on your computer. This is called “uploading”. Some plug-ins are included in browsers and operating systems. These are used for a variety of purposes ranging from viewing and printing documents to playing audio and video files. Additionally. Others need to be installed before they can be used by your browser. Some widely used plug-ins include Acrobat Reader from Adobe. To learn more about plug-ins and how to download them. Filters: “Filters” are programs that block access to selected sites. Plug-ins: “Plug-ins” are programs that are automatically started and operate as part of your browser. Filters allow parents of young children as well as organizations to block access to certain sites and set time limits. Many web sites require you to have some plug-ins in order to view their content fully. Windows Media Player from Microsoft. QuickTime from Apple.

data files. It is popularly known as the "Information Highway" which is used as a versatile means for information sharing. using voice chat. Internet Security Suites: An “Internet security suite” is a collection of utility programs designed to maintain your security and privacy while you are on the Web. have a look at the displayed figure. provide filters and much more. You may chat using the keyboard. Chatting with your friends in virtual chat rooms is another facility that is available.generate reports regarding time spent on the Internet as well as at individual web sites. These programs control spam. and programs with any other user. you can also chat 112 | P a g e . Two of the best known Internet security suites are from McAfee and Norton. For a list of some of the best known filters. protect against computer viruses. Using Internet you can communicate with or find out about what is happening in any part of the world. chat groups and newsgroups. Today. Anyone with access to the Internet can exchange text.

animations and videos. Internet Explorer. The Web is a multimedia interface to the resources available on the Internet. What is WWW? The World Wide Web (WWW) is information organized in the form of Web pages containing text and graphic images. The World Wide Web Consortium now manages it. This means that web pages consist of multiple media such as text. animation and sound. Mailing lists. Examples are Electronic Mail (e-mail).org. When you connect to this network you are described as being “online”. video. cables and satellites. graphics. 113 | P a g e . Instant Messaging: This supports direct. The Internet is the actual physical network made up of wires. It connects millions of computers and resources throughout the world. File Transfer Protocol (FTP).w3. the European Laboratory for Particle Physics. Some of the applications that depend on communication systems are as follows. The World Wide Web was originally developed in 1990 at CERN. You can retrieve documents. but they are not the same thing. Communications: Computer communications is the process of sharing data. Electronic Commerce: This means buying and selling goods electronically. A web page is simply a document formatted in a standard language known as Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). view images. There are a large number of applications that can be used on the Internet for various purposes. etc. It contains hypertext links represented by underlined text and images that lead to related information. Internet Telephone: This provides a low cost alternative to long distance telephone calls using electronic voice delivery. exchange voice data and view programs that run on practically any software in the world. “live” electronic communication between two or more individuals. Telnet to connect to another computer.with the other person as if you were talking on the telephone. Chat groups. Newsgroups. The name of its website is http://www. It is easy to get the Internet and the Web confused. You can also play different games on the Internet. programs and information between two or more computers. E-mail: This provides a fast and efficient alternative to traditional mail by sending and receiving electronic documents. You can access the World Wide Web on the Internet by using any browser application such as Mozilla. Netscape. listen to sound files. World Wide Web (WWW or Web) and Instant Messaging.

A network also has components called “Routers” that help choose the best path for an individual packet to travel and reach its destination. displaying graphics. either from a search or through a series of linked pages. Information Flow Over the Internet Sending and receiving devices follow a set of communication rules for the exchange of information. The information on WWW can be classified in different categories based on the type of their content such as Business and Commercial.Web pages also can contain special programs called “applets” that are generally written in a programming language such as Java. These addresses are used to deliver e-mail and to locate web sites. The Internet uses some rules or standard set of protocols for communication between computers. "Web Surfing" means moving through different web pages. News. TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the name of the core protocol used on the Internet. Java applets are used for presenting animation. You may even move between pages at random. The other protocols are Point to Point Protocol (PPP) and Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP). or just having fun. This may be done by following hyperlinks. TCP/IP: The essential features of this protocol involve: 1) Identifying sending and receiving devices AND 2) Reformatting information for transmission across the Internet. Educational. Advocacy (to influence readers to support a cause or idea). in the course of learning something. Each packet contains the address of its destination computer as well as the computer of its origin. Protocols are used to create an Internet connection for your computer and they handle the data transfer over network lines. Identification: Every computer on the Internet has a unique numeric address called an “IP address (internet protocol address)”. Because these numeric addresses 114 | P a g e . Statistical Information and Personal Information. The packets are reassembled at the destination to get the original information. Using this protocol. providing interactive games and more. These rules for exchanging data between computers are known as “protocols”. the information to be transmitted is broken down in the form of small packets. This ensures uniformity among users using various types of computer systems.

They convert messages into packets that can travel across the communication channel. Your modem would be the “connection device” which would modify the message so that it could travel efficiently across the “communication channel” which is the telephone line. your computer would be the “sending device”. Every communication system has four basic elements which are as follows: 1) Sending and receiving devices: These may be computers or specialized communication devices. It may be a physical cable or it can be wireless. say “www. a DNS might translate it to an IP address say. At the receiving end.example.4” before a connection can be made. “198. This system uses a “domain name server (DNS)” that converts text-based addresses to IP addresses. 4) Data transmission specifications: These are procedures that coordinate the sending and receiving devices by defining the way in which the messages will be sent across the communication channel. when you send an e-mail.132. if you enter a URL.com”. 115 | P a g e . a system was developed to automatically convert text-based addresses to numeric IP addresses. For example. Communication Systems “Communication Systems” are electronic systems that transmit data from one location to another.are difficult to remember. another modem modifies it once again so that it can be displayed on the “receiving device” which would be another computer. 2) Communication channel: This is the actual medium that carries the message. For example.103. 3) Connection devices: These act as the interface between the sending and receiving devices and the communication channel. How the message is modified and sent would be described in the “data transmission specifications”.

They include telephone lines.Communication Channels: You know that communication channels are an essential element of every communication system. coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable. Coaxial cable is a high-frequency transmission cable and consists of a single solid-copper core. A single twisted pair culminates in a wall jack into which you can plug your phone and computer. 116 | P a g e . The other category is wireless. There are two categories of communication channels. Compared to coaxial cable. “Physical Connections” use a solid medium to connect sending and receiving devices. Coaxial cable is used to deliver television signals as well as to connect computers in a network. Fiber-optic cable transmits data as pulses of light through tiny tubes of glass. One category connects sending and receiving devices by providing a physical connection such as a wire or cable. fiber-optic cable is lighter and more reliable at transmitting data as compared to coaxial cable. Telephone lines consist of twisted-pair cable which is made up of hundreds of copper wires.

GPS devices use that information to determine the geographical location of the device. We see a large number of cables in our offices. The “Global Positioning System (GPS)” is a network of 24 satellites developed by the United States Department of Defense which continually sends location information to the earth. microwave and satellite. They are sometimes mounted with a monitor to display maps and with speakers to provide spoken directions to the driver. One of the most common applications is to transfer data from a portable device such as a notebook computer or PDA to a desktop computer. It aims to simplify data synchronization between Internet devices and other computers. broadcast radio. mobile phones. GPS devices provide navigational support in some automobiles. printers. “Infrared” uses infrared light waves to communicate over short distances. homes and everywhere else. Cellular telephones and many Web-enabled devices use broadcast radio to place telephone calls and to connect to the Internet. sending and receiving devices must be in clear view of one another. They do not use any solid substances like wires and cables. “Bluetooth” is a short-range wireless standard that uses microwaves. “Bluetooth” is the name of a new technology that promises to change the way we use machines. “Broadcast radio” uses radio signals to communicate with wireless devices. Satellites can amplify and relay microwave signals from one transmitter on the ground to another. the waves are relayed by microwave stations with microwave dishes or antennas. Microwave is a good medium for sending data between buildings in a city or a large college campus. “Satellite” communication uses satellites orbiting above the earth as microwave relay stations. Microwaves travel in a straight line and therefore can be transmitted across relatively short distances. Primary technologies used for wireless connections are infrared. Since the light waves travel in a straight line. Bluetooth is essentially a cable-replacement technology which tries to solve this problem. It creates a wireless personal area network (PAN) and provides a way to connect and exchange information between two devices over distances of about 30 feet.Wireless Connections: Wireless connections use air to connect sending and receiving devices. cheap radio chip to be plugged into computers. They can be used to send and receive large volumes of data. Most Web-enabled devices follow a standard known as “Wi-Fi (i. Some users connect their notebook or handheld computers to a cellular telephone to access the Web.e. We often have a hard time trying to figure out which cable needs to go where. wireless fidelity)”. “Microwave” communication uses high-frequency radio waves. 117 | P a g e . Conceived initially by Ericsson. For longer distances. Bluetooth is a small. etc.

The modem thus enables digital microcomputers to communicate across analog telephone lines. A great deal of computer communication takes place over telephone lines. send and receive digital signals which are binary signals. Telephones send and receive analog signals which are continuous electronic waves. Computers. The various units to measure transfer speed are shown in the displayed chart. This is typically measured in “bits per second (bps)”. The speed at which modems transfer data is called “transfer rate”. on the other hand.Let us look at a summary of communication channels. Connection devices: We have seen that connection devices act as the interface between the sending and receiving devices and the communication channel. 118 | P a g e . “Demodulation” is the process of converting analog signals to digital form. Modems: The word “modem” stands for modulator-demodulator. “Modulation” is the process of converting digital signals to analog form.

PC Card and wireless.There are four basic types of modems: external. it does not use cables. internal. The “internal modem” consists of a plug-in circuit board inside the system unit. Connection Service: Standard telephone lines and conventional modems provide a “dial-up service” which is quite slow. A telephone cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. external or a PC Card. Unlike other modems. The “external modem” stands outside the computer and is connected by a cable to the computer’s serial port. A telephone cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. The “PC Card modem” is a credit card-sized expansion board that is inserted into portable computers. A “wireless modem” may be internal. Another cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. It sends and receives signals through the air. Large corporations lease special high-speed lines from telephone companies which provide very high 119 | P a g e .

Satellite/air connection services use satellites and the air to send data to users at faster rates than dial-up connections. “Digital subscriber line (DSL)” uses existing telephone lines to provide highspeed connections. satellite and cellular services. While special high-speed lines are very expensive. “Cellular services” are used by mobile devices and laptops. These devices use “3G cellular networks” to download data from the Internet. These include DSL. “Cable modems” use existing telephone cables to provide high-speed connections. ADSL (asymmetric digital subscriber line) is one of the most widely used types of DSL. cable modems. T2. there are other affordable connections which provide significantly higher capacity than a dial-up service.capacity. T3 and T4 lines and do not require conventional modems. 120 | P a g e . These lines are known as T1. Let us compare typical user connection costs and speeds.

Data Transmission: Several factors such as bandwidth and protocols affect how data is transmitted. cable and satellite connections use this bandwidth. Bandwidth: This is a measurement of the width or capacity of the communication channel. Audio and video files require a wider bandwidth than text documents to be transmitted. There are three categories of bandwidth. This is also known as low bandwidth. It indicates the volume of information that can move across the communication channel in a given time. “Voiceband” is used for standard telephone communication. “Medium band” is the bandwidth used in special leased lines to connect minicomputers and mainframes as well as to transmit data over long distances. “Broadband” is the bandwidth used for high capacity transmissions. Specialized high-speed devices and microcomputers with DSL. 121 | P a g e . Microcomputers with standard modems and dial-up service use this bandwidth.

“National Internet Service Providers” are providers who operate primarily on a National level. you can connect your Personal Computer (PC) to the Internet. The providers are already connected to the Internet and provide a path or connection for individuals to access the Internet.How Do We Connect? “Connectivity” is a concept related to using computer networks to link people and resources. there has been a dramatic change in connectivity. An “Internet Service Provider” is a company that provides access to the Internet for a monthly fee. They provide Internet connections with wireless modems and other wireless devices. To do so. the PC connects to the server of an Internet Service Provider (ISP). you are linked to the world of larger computers and the Internet. there are also other options for connecting to the Internet. Besides these. wired devices were required to be able to connect to the Internet. username. you can access the Internet through the LAN. Cable Modem. In the last five years. If a computer is part of a local area network (LAN) that has connectivity to the Internet. It is a special application program that brings information from any part of the world 122 | P a g e . In this method. Some companies also offer free Internet access. Today. They are basically large telecom companies that have nationwide coverage and operations. Set Top Boxes and other propriety solutions. You can connect your microcomputer by telephone or other telecommunications links to other computers and information sources almost anywhere. In the past. This is just the beginning of the “Wireless Revolution” which will change the way we communicate and use computer technology in a big way. Using the modem and dialer software. With this connection. You can also connect to the Internet using a leased line. Browsers A Web Browser is a software tool used to browse the Internet. Examples are DSL. This is how the PC establishes a connection to the Internet through an ISP. the data transmission rate is much higher. you need a device called the “Modem”. “Wireless service providers” do not use telephone or cable lines. The service provider gives you a software package. password and access phone number. They provide access through standard telephone lines or cable connections. there is widespread use of mobile and wireless communication devices for gaining access to the Internet. Colleges and universities mostly provide free access to students. Using a telephone.

click on the “Launch Internet Explorer Browser” icon on your desktop. images. Using a browser. you can communicate with any computer over the Internet. It allows navigation from one page to another. It is the name of the server where the resource is located. For example “.microsoft. Each web site has a distinct.through the Internet to your computer screen. Since it is created by Microsoft. You can connect directly to a web site by typing the URL of that site in the address bar or location bar of the web browser. The protocol “http://” is the most widely used Web protocol. Say you are looking for “digital cameras”. Internet Explorer. and animations. A browser does the work of connecting to the Internet and locating and displaying web pages. separate and unique address. you can find and view information about anything on the Web To start Internet Explorer. Protocols are rules for exchanging data between computers. It identifies the type of organization or what country the website is from.com” indicates a commercial site and “. 123 | P a g e . Another way to navigate the web is to go the address bar and type what you are looking for. If you do not see this icon. you see a long rectangular box called the “Address Bar”. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Internet Explorer”. When you want to visit a website. it is closely integrated with the Windows operating system. Type “digital camera” and press “Enter”. type the website address or URL in the address bar. The last part of the domain name following the dot is called the “top-level domain (TLD)”. The URL of the web page is displayed in the address bar. Navigating the Web Using Internet Explorer 7 Internet Explorer is a world-class browser that is designed to support various internet standards across a variety of platforms. The second part presents the “domain name”. for example. http://www. playing audio and video files and running programs. This allows easy viewing of text. The first part of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) presents the “protocol” used to connect to the resource. This address is known as the Uniform Resource Locator or URL in short.com/ and press “Enter”. With an Internet connection and Internet Explorer.in” indicates India. Netscape Navigator and Mozilla are some examples of the browser applications that are commonly used. At the top. Most browsers have a Graphical User Interface (GUI). Internet Explorer automatically sends your query to a search service and displays the results.

you may click the down arrow just to the right of the Forward button and select the webpage from the dropdown list. Selecting links: When you point to a link on a web page. click “Settings”. under “AutoComplete”. click “Settings”.To the right of the address bar. forms data. select “Tools → Internet Options”. Tabbed Browsing: Tabs enable you to have multiple websites open in one Internet Explorer window at one time. The Home Page of a website is the opening or main page of the website. If you clicked the Back button and you want to move forward to the page you were on just before you clicked it. Links may be in the form of underlined text. you may use the “Forward” button. you may enter the settings you require. the web page related to the link is opened. In the “AutoComplete Settings” window. You can quickly switch between open websites by simply clicking on the tabs. When you click on the link. On the “Content” tab. click the “Quick Tabs” button to the left of the first tab. You can scroll through a web page using the horizontal and vertical scrollbars. To access the Internet Explorer AutoComplete options. you may enter the settings you require. Use the “Back” button to the left of the address bar to go to the previous page you were on. To access the Internet Explorer Tabbed Browsing options. To close a tab. 124 | P a g e . you may enter your preferences under “Home page”. Quick Tabs: To see a thumbnail view of all the websites you have open in your tabs. click on the “X” to the right side of it. You now see a menu displayed above the toolbar. Below the address bar. select “Tools → Internet Options”. In the “Tabbed Browsing Settings” window. you can see a toolbar. you can see the “Refresh” button. You may use this to reload a web page. The “Stop” button to its right is used to stop a page from loading. You may change the Internet Explorer Home Page to a site of your preference. Click on a thumbnail to view a particular website. Select “Tools → Internet Options”. click the “New Tab” button or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+T”. AutoComplete: Internet Explorer automatically records Web addresses. To quickly go back to a website you visited earlier. the pointer changes to a hand and the URL is shown in the status bar. On the “General” tab. buttons or pictures. which is intended chiefly to greet visitors and provide information about the site or its owner. Under “Tabs”. Home Page: The default page displayed when you start Internet Explorer is called the “Home Page”. To create a new tab. Right-click on a blank space on the toolbar and select “Menu Bar”. and passwords.

select the desired folder and click “Add”. Displaying web pages in other languages: Some Web sites offer their content in several languages. you may pin it to the window by clicking on the “Pin the Favorites Center” button. You may adjust the size of the frames by dragging the border between the frames. The “Add a Favorite” window is displayed. simply click on the “X” shaped. If you would like to display the Favorites Center at the left of your screen at all times. from the “Create in” drop-down list. If a Web site offers multiple languages. Adding items to the Favorites list: Go to the page that you want to add to your list. click “Add”. This list appears under “Favorites” when you click the “Favorites Center” button on the toolbar. Creating a list of favorites allows you to visit those sites with a single click. On the “General” tab. the related page is displayed in another frame. To view these pages in your preferred language.”. Using the Favorites Center Internet Explorer Favorites are used to save links to sites that you want to visit again. Click on thumbnails to view related documents. content will appear in the language that has the highest priority. you can arrange them in order of priority. rather than having to type the sites URL each time you want to visit it. In the “Add Language” window. “Close the Favorites Center” icon. Click the “Add to Favorites” button on the toolbar and select “Add to Favorites. When you click on a link on one page included in a frame. Now click “Add” in the “Add a Favorite” window. The “Favorites” list contains all the favorites you have created.. click “Languages”.Using frames: The browser area can be divided into different scrollable areas called frames. Alternatively. you can add languages to your list of languages in Internet Explorer. In the “Language Preference” window. For this. 125 | P a g e . To place this favorite in an existing folder. You may organize your favorite pages in folders and save items under different folders. If you speak several languages. To unpin it. Enter a name for the new folder in the “Create a Folder” window and click “Create”. click “New Folder”. you may create a new folder for a favorite. Select “Tools → Internet Options”. Click “OK” in the other windows as well. select the language you want to add and click “OK”. Viewing thumbnails: Thumbnail images are small images shown on a web page because of space limitations and the time required for downloading. You may type a new name for the page in the “Name” text box.

right-click on it and select “Delete”. Using Forms Forms are part of the web page that can help you to enter data. You may print all pages. These must be filled in carefully before they are submitted. click on one of the calendar icons. the current page. Click the “Add to Favorites” button. Now. For this. select “Favorites → Add to Favorites. click the “History” button in the Favorites Center. You may re-sort your History items by clicking on the arrow next to the "History" button and making your selection. Preliminary validations are performed on some fields. and so on. you may use the different buttons in the lower part to create. Click “Yes” in the displayed window.” and “Favorites → Organize Favorites” from the Menu Bar. A form may have text boxes. you can login to your account and use all facilities available. select “File → Print” from the menu. Click on one of the yellow icons to see what pages you visited at a particular site. You may then click on a website link to open the related page. phone number. Online Application Forms: Online Application Forms are forms that are given to the user to fill when connected to the Internet. rename or delete a folder. Some mandatory fields must be entered before the data is accepted. To delete an item from the History List. The form shown is used to register for a Yahoo mail account. pop-up menus or drop-down lists. In the “Organize Favorites” window. The “Print” window is displayed. You can also move items from one folder to another by using the “Move” button or dragging the item to the appropriate folder You may also use the Menu Bar to add items to your Favorites list and to organize your Favorites.Organizing your Favorites: You may wish to organize your favorite pages by topic. You can fill information in it and submit the form contents by clicking on buttons provided. a specific page or range of pages by making the appropriate selection under “Print Range”. you may have to enter your personal details while booking an airline ticket online. check boxes. address. and then click “Organize Favorites”. Once you have completed your registration. Using the History list: Internet Explorer keeps track of the web pages you have previously visited in the form of history.. History items are displayed sorted by website. such as your name. selected text. buttons. 126 | P a g e . For example. Printing and Saving Web Pages Printing and saving web pages: To print the current page. To view the History list.

Web directories are databases of Internet sites that are organized by topics or subjects. if you entered the keyword “travel” you get 127 | P a g e . Right-click to display the pop-up menu. Web directories are databases of Internet sites that are organized by topics or subjects. Now click “Save”. Search services can be categorized into two types. Choose a folder in which to save this image. you can use the Preview option. Saving an image from a page: You may wish to save only an image from a web page. Search engines are also huge databases of web sites. Saving an entire web page: Select “File → Save As” from the menu. but typically offer no categories or differentiation between different types of material. Search services can be categorized into two types. A search can be done by entering a keyword. Search services help you to quickly locate information about a specific topic from multiple websites. The “Save As” window is displayed. For this. The search engine compares your entry against its database and displays a list of “hits” in the form of hyperlinks to related web pages. select “File → Print Preview” from the menu. For example. For this. Type a file name for the image and then click “Save”. Search engines provide two different search approaches: Keyword search and Directory search. but typically offer no categories or differentiation between different types of material. Specify the location at which you wish to save your file. The “Save Webpage” window is displayed. position the mouse pointer over the image. you enter a keyword or phrase reflecting the information you want. there is a vast ocean of information available on the World Wide Web. Search engines are also huge databases of web sites. You may choose a format for the page from the dropdown list in the “Save as type” field. web directories and search engines. Type a file name and then click “Save”. Specify the location at which you wish to download the web page. You may save the web page with a new name by making changes in the “File name” field. Choose “Save Picture As”. web directories and search engines. In a keyword search. Click “Close” when the download is completed. Finding Information on the Web Using Search Services As you know.Previewing a web page: To have a look at how a page will look before it is printed. A number of search tools have been developed and are available on different web sites. a descriptive world or phrase or by browsing a topic list. Right-click to display a pop-up menu. Choose “Save Target As”. The “Save Picture” window is displayed. Saving a page without displaying it: Position the mouse pointer over the link to the web page you wish to save.

thousands of hits. These are ordered according to those sites most likely to contain the information requested and are usually in groups of 10. You may find relevant information on the web using “Subject Directories”. Subject directories are collections of Internet resources organized into subject categories. They are useful for looking for information on a specific subject or to gain familiarity with a topic. Advantages of subject directories are that they generally contain good quality sites and they save time since subject wise information is available. Let us have a look at the Google subject directory. Enter the URL “http://directory.google.com” in the address bar and press “Enter”. You can see the Google directory on your screen showing links to various subjects. Clicking on a subject will show you more detailed lists from which you may make your selections. Using the Search Box: One of the new features of Internet Explorer 7 is the “Search Box” located at the top right. You can search the internet using most search engines from the search box instead of going to other search engine sites. If you want to find something on a page you are currently on, click on the down arrow to the right of the magnifying glass and select “Find on this Page”. Enter your search criteria and click “Next”. Using the Search Box: One of the new features of Internet Explorer 7 is the “Search Box” located at the top right. You can search the internet using most search engines from the search box instead of going to other search engine sites. If you want to find something on a page you are currently on, click on the down arrow to the right of the magnifying glass and select “Find on this Page”. Enter your search criteria and click “Next”. You may change the default search engine if you wish. For this, click on the down arrow to the right of the magnifying glass and select “Change Search Defaults”. Click “Set Default” and then “OK” to make the search provider you just added as the default one. Metasearch Engines: When you research a topic, you may need to visit different web sites in order to use different search engines. This would be time-consuming and duplicate responses would be inevitable. “Metasearch Engines” offer an alternative. They are programs that automatically submit your search request to several search engines simultaneously. The metasearch engine receives the results, eliminates duplicates, orders the hits and provides the edited list to you. You can see a list of some metasearch engines available on the Web in the displayed table.

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Specialized Search Engines: These search engines focus on subject-specific web sites. They save your time by narrowing your search. For a list of a few specialized search engines, have a look at the displayed table.

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Content Evaluation: You must keep in mind that not all information available on the Web is accurate. In fact, anyone can publish content on the Web. Many sites such as Wikipedia.com, allow anyone to post new material, sometimes anonymously and without critical evaluation. To evaluate the accuracy of information found on the Web, you need to consider the following points. Authority: Is the author an expert on the subject? Is the web site an individual’s personal one or an official one? Accuracy: Has the information been critically reviewed for correctness? Does the web site provide a method of reporting inaccurate information? Objectivity: Is the information reported biased or based on actual facts? Does the author gain personally by convincing the reader or changing his opinion? Currency: Is the information up to date. Is the date when the site was updated specified? Google

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Click the links to visit the related web pages. Language Tools: Click “Language Tools” to specify your language preferences for a particular search. The result displayed is page wise if the resulted list is big. The search results displayed have links to the pages containing matches to your desired keyword. Communication Using E-Mail Using Web E-Mail Services You know that communication is the most popular Internet activity. This takes you straight to the most relevant website that Google finds for your query. employees and customers. Click “more” to view additional links. Preferences: You may configure your search exactly as you want it. Start the Internet Explorer browser and type www. At a business level. Click “even more” to see some more useful links. you can save this as your default search behavior on the “Preferences” page.google. Click “Preferences” to enter your requirements. but if you do. electronic communication has become a standard and preferred way to stay in touch with suppliers. If you typically search only pages in a specific language. the "Iam Feeling Lucky" site would be listed on top. you might want to try Advanced Search. Press “Enter” to display the Google home page. Click “Advanced Search” to enter your options.com in the address box. friends and family can stay in touch even when separated by thousands of miles. You may click on the link of your choice. You will not see the search results page at all. You can filter inappropriate material.“Google” is one of the most popular search engines. Advanced Search: Once you know the basics of Google search. which offers numerous options for making your searches more precise and getting more useful results. At a personal level. Searching by Topic: The Google web site interface consists of many links to various topics and a search text box. use multiple words and leave out non-essential words. Then press the “Google Search” button”. 131 | P a g e . set the interface language and search for pages written in specific languages. Searching by Keyword: Some simple tips for entering keywords are be specific. Type the keyword on which you wish to search in the search text box. I am Feeling Lucky: You may try using the "I am Feeling Lucky" button when you have entered your search terms. use more descriptive words as opposed to general ones.

type “www. If the ID you select has already been taken by someone else. E-mail has become very popular because of its speed.com” in the address bar and press “Enter”. Now. To go to the Yahoo home page. When the recipient switches on his computer and connects to the mail service.com. enter an ID which will act as both your login name and your email address. 132 | P a g e . When the mail server identifies the recipient. all the mail that has been received is downloaded to his computer. You have already seen how to fill in an online form. After you have chosen a name. The use of e-mail in our country.com. Just as every web page has a unique address.com. You need an e-mail program and a connection to the Internet. Select a security question and enter a suitable answer.com. You will be asked to answer this question in case you forget your password.com” is the name of the domain or server. the identity of the recipient is verified and then the mail is forwarded. Some of the examples are mail. This is a very powerful tool for communication and a prime reason for the popularity of Internet. Then you may enter an alternate e-mail address if you have one. There are basically two types of e-mail services you can use. To use the e-mail facility the user has to register with the web site providing the facility. you have to create a password. Hotmail. The first step is to fill out your personal information. click “Free Mail: Sign Up”. try a variation of the name. A complete e-mail address is normally in the form of “ahmed@yahoo.com. “ahmed” is the name of the person. Creating an e-mail account is fairly simple. similarly every e-mail account has a unique address. Next. etc. Indiatimes. or for his computer to be on. In this. The other is based on Post Office Protocol (POP3) using which you may download mails onto your computer or send mails stored on your hard disk. Rediffmail. You see a form displayed on your screen. has increased rapidly in recent years.E-mail. The web site has a registration page that will ask you to enter some information and also make you accept a user agreement.com”. low cost and absence of time restrictions. or electronic mail. When an e-mail is sent.Yahoo. it sends the message to his address. At the other end. enables communication by sending and receiving written messages via a computer over the Internet. especially in urban areas.yahoo. Let us create a free e-mail ID on Yahoo. The most popular is the free web mail service that many web sites provide. “yahoo. The website provides you with a unique user name and you can also specify a password. The mail sent by you is sent to the mail server. it is not necessary for the person to whom the e-mail has been sent to be available.

in case of official mails. For this.You may check the “Marketing Preferences” box if you wish to receive promotional offers from Yahoo by e-mail. Some of the common features are a Login Page. comes the actual message text. many more personalization features are also provided. or something similar. The website authenticates your user login information and then provides access to your mailbox. After the header area. type the code shown in the box exactly as you see it. address and telephone number. We often receive many unwanted e-mails. If a message has an attachment. Address Book. message and signature. you have to enter the user name you selected during the registration process and also your password. Your e-mail account is then created and you may use it to send and receive messages. Typically. the signature line provides additional information about the sender. Auto Reply and Customized Signature. The different websites have different features for the e-mail facility they provide. Besides these. Subject: This is a one-line description used to present the topic of the message. These are mostly related to commercial advertising. This has limited impact because a lot of spam originates from other countries as well. A typical e-mail message has three basic elements: header. this information includes the sender’s name. You know that an e-mail address has two parts. some countries have anti-spam laws as part of their legal system. like many other valuable technologies does have some drawbacks. This unwelcome junk mail is called “spam”. Attachments: You can attach files such as documents and pictures to a mail message. you must first login. often for products of questionable quality. In an attempt to control spam. Login Page: To access your mail account. Finally. get-richquick schemes. The header appears first and includes the following information: Addresses: Addresses of the person sending. the file name is displayed in the header area on the attachment line. A more effective approach has been 133 | P a g e . Now click the “Create My Account” button. receiving and optionally persons receiving copies are generally included in an e-mail message. To verify your registration. E-mail. Read the "Terms of Service" agreement and “Privacy Policy” by clicking on the related links and check the box after “Do you agree?” to confirm that you agree to them. The first part is the user’s name and the second part is the domain name which includes the top-level domain. Inbox.

You may then close the “Customize” window. the recipient’s address is to be removed from future mailing lists. In the window displayed. click "News". Newsgroups are also called discussion groups. You can see this account under the “News” heading in the “Internet Accounts” window. Enter your name as you want it displayed and click “Next”. the CAN-SPAM Act has been enacted which requires that every marketing-related e-mail provides an opt-out option. which you can use to download newsgroup content and then work with it when you are not connected to the Internet. click “Add”. 134 | P a g e . a folder with this name is created in the list of folders in the left panel. to download and read news messages. If you do not find the “News” item in the “Go” menu of Microsoft Outlook. Adding a News Account: Let us add a new account. click on “Newsgroup Account” and then click “Next”. and to post replies to them. you can see that there is a default news account named “Microsoft Communities”. To start the Microsoft Outlook application. Also. Select “Go → News” from the menu. and then click "Customize". In Windows Mail. Point to "Add or Remove Buttons". This newsreader is a Network News Transport Protocol (NNTP) newsreader. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Outlook 2007”. The Mozilla Thunderbird e-mail program which is available for free download at “www. Click “Next”. In the United States of America. When “Congratulations” is displayed. Click on the "Commands" tab. These programs use a variety of approaches to identify and eliminate spam. click “Finish”. Here you are required to enter the Internet News Server Name. Microsoft Outlook automatically sets up the Windows Mail Newsreader. Enter the server name and then click “Next”. and drag it and place it in the "Go" menu. Newsreaders are used to gain access to various types of newsgroups. Now. When the option is selected. In the "Categories" list.com” comes with built-in spam blocking software.mozilla.the development and use of “Spam Blockers”. click "Go". In the “Internet Accounts” window. Select “Tools → Accounts” from the menu. Using Newsgroups A newsgroup is a forum on the Internet for discussions on a specified range of subjects. In the "Commands" list. perform the following steps. This indicates that you may subscribe to a newsgroup of your choice on the Microsoft news server. enter your e-mail address. If you have not previously set up a newsreader. On the Standard toolbar click the "Toolbar Options" arrow.

Enter your e-mail address and password and then click “Sign In”. On the “All” tab. “Work” and “Notes” sections. Use “Ctrl+Click” to select multiple groups. Click the “Add a contact” button. download the Windows Live Messenger and install it. Click on a newsgroup name in the folder list to see a list of messages. Click “OK” to confirm. Click “Reply Group” to send a reply to all members of a group and “Reply” to reply to the individual sender of the message. Windows Live Messenger. Using Messengers for Instant Messaging Instant Messaging enables you to have a conversation with another person or a group of people concurrently. Adding a Contact: Before you can chat with someone. The difference is that you can send and receive messages as soon as they are typed. Now. you may click on the group you wish to subscribe to. There are different instant messengers available such as Yahoo messenger. It is similar to e-mail. right-click on its name and select “Unsubscribe”. You may choose to reply to a message. The list is downloaded and the “Newsgroup Subscriptions” window is displayed. You see a window asking whether you would like to view a list of available newsgroups. Google talk etc. enter your message in the “Personal invitation” box and check the box against “Also send an e-mail invitation to this contact”. ensure that you are connected to the Internet and click “Yes”. You may read any message you wish by double-clicking on it. You 135 | P a g e . Click “Add Contact” after you are done. “Personal”. you need to add his name to your list of contacts. To use a messenger. To print this message. select “File → Print” from the menu bar. you can have a complete conversation. Since this list needs to be downloaded from the news server. In the “Windows Live” folder. click “Windows Live Messenger” to start the Windows Live Messenger. Select “Start → All Programs”. you can see which of your contacts are online and offline at any given time. If you wish. you may add additional information in the “Contact”. In the “Instant Messaging Address” box enter your contact’s e-mail address. If both parties are online at the same time. In the contacts list. You can see that the contact is displayed in your list.Click “Close”. The names of the newsgroups appear in the folder list. it must first be downloaded from the Internet and installed on your computer. Now click “OK”. Then click “Subscribe”. If your contact does not have Windows Live Messenger. To unsubscribe from a group. ICQ. Select “File → New → News Message” to create a new message to send to the complete group.

Click “OK” in the window that comes up. Social Networking 136 | P a g e . Offline contacts will receive the messages once they come online. Changing the Color Scheme: You may change the color scheme of the Messenger application by clicking on the Paint Brush icon at the top of the main Messenger window and selecting a color of your choice. also called “Smileys”. Type your message and then select an emoticon from the list. Now select “File → Save”. Right-click on a contact’s name in the main window to perform various activities such as sending an e-mail. Saving your conversation: You may save your complete conversation. In the main Messenger screen. Specifying Other Settings: You may specify other settings such as the way your name is displayed in a conversation. When you click “Send”. “Out to lunch” etc. For this. click on the “Show Menu” icon to the right of the Paint Brush icon in the conversation window. you are ready to begin your chat. Chatting with your contact: Now. click on your name at the top of the screen and then click on the status you wish. double-click the name of an online contact. Click “Options”. When you click on the name of a contact who is offline. This message is displayed immediately on your contact’s screen. deleting the contact etc. When a contact comes online. In the same way. editing contact details. After you have completed your chat. click on your name at the top of the screen. enter the file name in which you want to save it and press “Save”. are symbols that help to convey emotion or additional meaning in a written statement. For this. the emoticon is sent along with the text. For this. You can also send messages to contacts who are offline. You may send an emoticon along with your message. “Emoticons”. you are notified about it. Choose a picture and then click “OK” in the “Display Pictures” window. type your message and click “Send” or simply press “Enter”. You can see the complete conversation in the upper section of the “Conversation” window.can chat with any contact who is online. Click “Change display picture”. you may click on the different categories in the left pane to specify related settings. The new picture is then displayed. messages from your contact are displayed on your screen. In the window displayed. Changing the Display Picture: You may change the picture that is displayed against your name. you are informed about his status. In the “Save As” window. Click on your name at the top of the screen. In the box at the bottom of the conversation window that comes up. Changing your Status: You may wish to display a specific status against your name such as “Busy”. you may close the conversation window by clicking “Show Menu” and selecting “File → Close”.

Two well-known friend-of-a-friend sites are Friendster and MySpace. There are three basic categories of social networking sites: reuniting. connecting individuals to one another. For example. If you wanted to locate or create a special interest group. see the displayed table. For example. “Friend-of-a-friend” sites are designed to bring together two people who do not know each other but share a common friend. Members can search the database to locate individuals. Many sites even notify you when someone joins with parts of his profile matching yours. 137 | P a g e . you might join LinkedIn. you provide profile information such as your age. You must consider carefully what you are disclosing before providing information to any site or individual. gender.e. “Common interest” sites bring together individuals that share common interests or hobbies. Two popular reuniting sites are Facebook and Classmates Online. a network could be started by an acquaintance who provides his profile information and list of friends. friend-of-a-friend and common interest. school name etc. You could then visit his site to connect to his friends and join his list of friends as well. if you are looking for business contacts. When you join a social network by connecting to a reuniting site. This information is added to the site’s database. For a summary of social networking sites. “Reuniting” sites are designed to connect people who have known one another but have lost touch. you might join Meetup.One of the fastest growing uses of the Internet is “social networking” i.

138 | P a g e . the employment records are maintained on paper forms and stored in file cabinets organized alphabetically. Although the information is well maintained. retrieving any kind of information is time consuming. Also making reports quickly is a difficult task. Currently. You need to manually leaf through the pages to locate the required information. You are responsible for maintaining the employment records for all employees of the School.DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Overview Introduction to Databases You have recently accepted a new job as an Employment Administrator with All Saints High School.

Forms and Reports.accdb”. In the following labs. The first screen that appears is the “Getting Started with Microsoft Office Access” page. It is an electronic database management system which can store. you can also use queries to make changes to your database. Forms are windows that you create and arrange in order to easily view or change the information in a table. The tables are related or linked to one another by a common field. Each row is a record which contains all the information about a person. The table object is the basic object and has to be created first. Queries let you quickly perform an action on a table. access. Each column is a field which is the smallest unit of information about a record. enter data. edit data. Tables are made up of vertical columns (called fields) and horizontal rows (called records). manipulate. which are simply the components of a database. You can create as many tables as you need to store different types of information. Tables store information. data is organized in linked tables. Typically. A relational database is the most widely used database structure. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Access 2007”. every database is stored in a single file which has the extension “. However. Creating a Database Introduction to Access To start the Microsoft Access application. print and preview data and much more. Access 2007 is a relational database management application that is used to create and analyze a database. The software tool that you will use to accomplish the task you have been assigned will be Microsoft Access 2007. the information in a database is stored in a table. 139 | P a g e . Usually. Here. and present information in many different ways. The four main objects in an Access database are Tables. using Access 2007. organize. Queries. you will learn how to create a database. What is a database? : A database is an organized collection of related information. thing or place. In Access. before any other objects are created. That file contains database objects. this action involves retrieving a piece of information.The school has recently purchased new computers and the management now wants to update the employee record system to an electronic database management system.

you can quickly search the table to locate a specific record based on the data in a field. For example. You must plan the design of your database in respect of how many tables will be required. manage contacts. You must know how the structure or layout of each table in the database must be. there are templates that can be used to track issues. You must understand the purpose of the database. creating. -Its capability to sort records in a table according to different fields can provide more meaningful information. 140 | P a g e . By clicking the object tabs. queries. or you can customize them to suit your needs. -You can analyze the data in a table and perform calculations on different fields of data. For this you must study the existing employee records. Access provides you with a wide variety of templates that are ready-to-use databases that contain all that is needed for performing a specific task. and how its formatted. Creating a New Database Creating a database entails several basic steps: planning. You can choose where the information appears on the printed page. Template databases can be used as they are. forms and reports are displayed as tabbed objects in the Access window. The main table will include the employees’ basic information. -It is easy to add. you can easily switch between various objects. -You can quickly produce reports using some Access features. Several templates are displayed under “Featured Online Templates”. or keep a record of expenses. delete and modify records from a table. what data each of them will contain and how will they be related. and more become available if you click one of the categories under “Template Categories” at the left of the Access window. After studying the existing record keeping procedures and the reports that are created. Planning is the first step in the development of a database. Another will contain information of all the departments in the School and a third one will contain the payroll of the employees.Reports help you print some or all of the information in a table. -Your tables. The features of Access 2007 are as follows: -Once the data is entered in the database. you decide to create several separate tables of data in the database. how its grouped and sorted. entering and editing data and then previewing and printing.

accdb”. At the left. The Navigation Pane can be minimized into a vertical bar. saving. printing. Groups and Command buttons. the names of your database objects such as tables. You may specify the location where you wish to store your database. Change it to “Employee. a table named Table1 which is completely blank. Creating a database: Now that you have designed the database. with no defined fields. In the panel at the right. and configure the fields. To apply a command to a database object. Undo. or other database objects. forms and reports appear in the Navigation Pane. The two most commonly used views are “Datasheet View” and “Design View”. the default database name is displayed in the “File Name” box. To expand the minimized Navigation Pane. and closing a file. You see the familiar Microsoft Office 2007 user interface which consists of: 1) The Office Button which displays a menu containing commands for opening. click the arrow at the top. Access creates your first database object. 2) The Quick Access toolbar which displays icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. double-click the object in the Navigation Pane. To minimize the expanded Navigation Pane. In the “File New Database” window. You can also set keys and restrict the values entered here. But you cannot change the data in design view. Datasheet view shows the data in the database. This indicates that you are 141 | P a g e . At the bottom of the screen you see the words “Datasheet View” on the “Status Bar”.For now. to provide you with a larger work area. Click on the “Browse” icon to the right of the file name. Design view allows you to create or change a table. it is time to create it so that the data can be stored in it. Now click “Create”. you may see the assignment titled “The User Interface” in the “Microsoft Word” topic. 3) The Ribbon which has Task-oriented Tabs. click the arrow in the upper corner. you see the “Navigation Pane”. right-click the object and select an item from the context menu that appears. When you open a database or create a new one. and Redo. Click “Blank Database” under “New Blank Database”. The “View” icon in the “Views” group is used switch back and forth between the Datasheet view and the Design View. It also allows you to enter and edit the data. Creating a Table Access provides different window formats called “Views” to display and work with the objects in a database. form. For more details on the Microsoft Office User Interface. you will create only the table containing the employee information. To open a database object. click on “Desktop” in the left panel and then click “OK”.

Examples are names and phone numbers. In the “Save As” window. you must create the structure of the table. Access provides a number of data types to choose from. and queries. you need to enter a name for the table. You may also create a table using this view. Following are some examples of valid field names: First name. Let us first understand what is meant by a “Primary Key”. and numbers that are not used in calculations. except a period (. Type “Employee ID” as the field name and press “Enter”. forms. You will learn about the different data types shortly. You can see a small key to the left of the field name indicating that this field is the primary key of the table. etc. You can now see the name of your table in the Navigation Pane on the left. numbers. and brackets([]). Click on “View → Design View” in the “Views” group. and that it is always unique. Phone No. add and delete data. meaning the fields that will hold the data. Data type: The data type defines the type of data the field will contain. combinations of words and numbers. an exclamation (!). and search for data. We shall use the “Design View” to create a table. You must specify a primary key for all tables. Click on the drop down menu button to select the “Data Type”. When you create a new table. the default name “Table1” is displayed. Following are the data types you can use. It is important to choose the right kind of data type before you start entering data in the table. In Datasheet view. Before defining the fields in a table. 142 | P a g e . forms. Field name: A field name is used to identify the data stored in a field. which makes queries and other operations fast. This view can be used to create and view the design of all types of database objects such as tables. you can edit fields. You cannot start the name of a field with a space. The “Emp Info” tab is displayed in the document window on the right. Access automatically creates a primary key and assigns a field name of "ID" and the AutoNumber data type to it. Subject1.).now in datasheet view. Access also ensures that every record has a non-blank primary key field. You can enter up to 255 characters in a text field. A primary key is a field or set of fields in your table that provide Access with a unique identifier for every record. The name can consist of letters. and special characters. Before you can enter data into a table. Text: It is the default data type and is used to store text entries. queries and reports. like words. Enter the Table Name as “Emp Info” and click “OK”. This view provides a row and column view of the data in tables. Now let us begin creating the table structure. spaces. Access automatically creates an index for the primary key.

but is formatted to display decimal places and the currency symbol. Summary of a book is an example. Hyperlink: This is used to store web addresses. Some of the more common properties are as follows: Field Size: It decides the maximum number of characters that can be entered in the field. Description: The “Description” text box is used to describe the field. Attachment: This is used to store images. etc. the default field size of the “Text” data type is 255. For example. AutoNumber: It is a unique. etc. It can be used for fields like Fees Paid. spreadsheet files. As you can see. sequential number that is automatically incremented by one whenever a new record is added to the table. OLE Object: This data type is used to store images. Information about the data type is displayed in the left panel and on the right hand side is the help box displaying information about the current task. Format: Specifies how the data is displayed in the table and printed. documents. Calculations can be performed on the numbers stored in a Number field. True or False. etc. Fees. The description that you had entered is displayed in the “Status Bar”. Marks in an exam is an example. For example. Input mask: Simplifies data entry and controls what data is required and how it is to be displayed. documents. graphs etc. Yes/No: This data type accepts only two values – Yes or No. Type the description wherever applicable. A field property is a characteristic that helps define a field. Switch back to Design View by clicking “View → Design View” in the “Views” group. Date of joining. Click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar and switch to Datasheet View by clicking “View → Datasheet View” in the “Views” group. charts and other types of supported files to the records in your database. Birth date.Memo: It is used to store text that is too long to be stored in a Text field. Date/Time: It is used for storage of date and time information. its default properties are displayed under “Field Properties”. Each data type has its own set of field properties. and On or Off. When you select a data type. Number: It is used to store numbers only. Giving this description is optional. Currency: This is similar to the Number data type. Caption: Specifies a field caption or a prompt for the user to enter data. Pass. Select the “Text” data type. Price. 143 | P a g e .

enter the information shown in the table until you come to the “Birth Date” field. Now. But you cannot do so until you change the view. Indexed: An index is used to speed up queries. Do not make any other changes. Select the “Data Type” of this field as “Date/Time” from the drop down menu. We used the Design View to define the structure. The “Photo” field is of a different type – you want to store the photo of the employee. You can see that the name given to the field with the data type Attachment has been replaced by a paperclip icon. Click in the “Format” property box and open the drop down list. Entering and Editing Data You can now start entering data in the table. This field property specifies whether an index is to be created on that field. Type ‘First Name’ and select “Text” as the “Data Type” from the drop down menu. sorting. Click on “View → Datasheet View” in the “Views” group. and grouping operations run against large amounts of data. In the same manner. it can be used to indicate that you know no value exists for a field.Default Value: It specifies a default value for a field to be automatically filled in at the time of data entry. Follow the same procedure for the next field – Date_Of_Joining. You must save your table structure before you can start entering data into the table. This value can be changed. Click with the mouse in the “Field Name” column to enter the next field name. Select “General Date”. Required: Specifies whether or not a value must be entered in a field before the record is stored. 144 | P a g e . Let us change the primary key back to “Employee ID” as before. let us change some of the defaults. Double-click on 255 to select it and type ‘4’ to change the field size. Click the “Field Size” property text box. So select the “Data Type” as “Attachment”. Validation Text: It is displayed when the validation rule is violated. We now need to switch to Datasheet View. The structure of your table is now ready. Validation Rule: Restricts the data entry to meet certain conditions or requirements. If you set it to “Yes”. Click on the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. Click in the “Field Size” property box and change the field size to ’15’. Allow Zero Length: Specifies whether or not an entry containing no value is valid. You may change the primary key simply by clicking on another field name and then clicking on the “Primary Key” icon in the “Tools” group.

Inserting a picture: The photo can be inserted as an attachment. Then drag in the desired direction. Use the right arrow key or press “Enter” to move to the next field. Preview and Print a Table The table is now ready and you want to print it. click “Delete”. For the date fields. You can see the name of the picture in the “Attachments” window. The document will be printed using the default settings. double-click in the attachment field.The insertion point can be seen in the first column of the first row. You have been informed by the HR department. This displays the “Column Width” window where you can type the desired value. position the mouse on the right border of a column header. Double-click in the attachment field to open the “Attachments” window. This is the small box to the left of the record. For this. right-click a columns name and select “Column Width”. Click “OK”. Before printing it is advisable to preview it. To see that the picture has really been inserted. Check that you type data exactly as it appears in the accompanying table. On the “Home tab”. You may drag with the mouse to select multiple records. you may enter the date directly or use the Date Picker displayed at the right of the field. Click “Yes” to delete the record. navigate to the location of the picture file. For this. Alternatively. Then you must delete that employee’s record. In the “Choose File” window. that an employee has resigned and is no longer an employee of the School. If you make a mistake while typing. Now click “Add”. Remember not to use any spaces before or after the data. Changing Column Width The data you have entered may not be completely visible in the Table’s column. Complete the information for the first record except for the “Photo” field. use the “Backspace” key to delete characters to the left of the insertion point or the “Delete” key to delete characters to the right of the insertion point. See that there is consistency in the data that you enter. You will be asked to confirm the deletion. If you want to 145 | P a g e . Previewing the table gives you an idea how the table will look after it is printed. It displays the table in a reduced size so that you can see the layout. Deleting a record: Select the record to be deleted by clicking the “Record Selector”. in the “Employee ID” column. Then click “OK”. Click on the picture and then click “Open”. You may adjust the column width. Type the employee’s ID number. in the “Records” group. left or right until you get the desired width. that is. Click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. you may adjust the column width to a specific number of characters. Now double-click on the name of the picture in the “Attachments” window.

Clicking on “Cancel” will not close the window and you will be able to continue working. To close a table. two or multiple pages if there is more data than can fit on one or two pages. To print pages that are continuous. Select “All” to print all records. Close and Open a Table and Database You have finished working with the employee database for now and you want to stop working but continue later on. enter the page range. to print pages 1 to 5. in the “Pages From:” field. to print pages 1 to 5. type ‘1’ and in the “To” field enter ‘5’. click the “Close Print Preview” icon. Check once again whether everything is as you want it and click on the “Print” icon. The “Print Range” section of the window lets you specify how much of the document you want to print. The page is displayed with a heading and date in the “Header” and the page number in the “Footer”. type ‘1’ and in the “To” field enter ‘5’. Closing a table: Multiple table tabs may be open at one time. You may also print the table by clicking the Office Button and selecting “Print → Print” from the menu or use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+P”. After you have entered your print specifications. You have to close the table and database that you have created and have been working on until now. Since you have just one table open presently. After you have entered your print specifications. For example.change some settings you may do so. To print selected records. For example. you may first click on the related tab to make it active. Click on the Office Button and select “Close Database”. Closing the database: Next. To print pages that are continuous. Select “Pages From” to specify the number of the pages you want to print. To close the preview. The “Print Range” section of the window lets you specify how much of the document you want to print. enter the page range. Access will prompt you to save them before closing. click “OK”. you have to close the database. The “Print Preview” tab appears when you view the table in the Print Preview mode. You can see the preview consisting of one. The “Print” window is displayed. You are now back to the “Getting 146 | P a g e . the table will close without saving the changes. If you click “No” to discard changes. The table tab will close. simply click on the “X” shaped icon at the right end in line with the table name. Click “Yes” to save changes. To print selected records. Select “All” to print all records. select “Selected Record(s)”. click on the “Landscape” icon in the “Page Layout” group. click “OK”. If you have made any changes that have not been saved. If you want to change the page orientation. Select “Pages From” to specify the number of the pages you want to print. in the “Pages From:” field. select “Selected Record(s)”.

click on the database name in the list displayed under “Open Recent Database” on the right. Double click on the new table name in the Navigation Pane. For this. you may accept the default name displayed or enter a new name. Enter the words “(with data)” at the end of the name and click “OK”. click the Office Button and select “Save As → Access 2007 Database”. Right click on the name of the “Emp Info” table in the Navigation Pane and select “Copy”. Now right click once again in the Navigation Pane and select “Paste”. you may need to copy only the structure of a table. In such a case. Your Database window is displayed. in the “Getting Started with Microsoft Office Access” page. In the “Paste Table As” window. select “Structure Only” under “Paste Options”. Opening the database: When you need to work once again with the “Employee” database. Making Copies of Database Objects Copying a database object: You can make a copy of an object in the database such as a table. This time. Let us create another copy of the “Emp Info” table. To open the “Emp Info” table. you may not see the name of your database in this list. Let us modify the default name. In the document pane.Started with Microsoft Office Access” page. To exit Access. Let us make a copy of the table “Emp Info”. Now click the Office Button and select “Save As”. You may use the Copy-Paste method to copy both the data and structure of a table by selecting “Structure and Data” under the “Paste Options” in the “Paste Table As” window. Click the table name in the Navigation Pane. The table will open in Datasheet View. Making a Copy of the Database You can make a copy of the complete database. navigate to the location of your database and click “Open”. Enter the words “(structure only)” at the end of the name and click “OK”. This is an alternative method to using the “Save As” option of the Office Button. You may create a new database or open an existing one. In the “Open” window. You can see the new table displayed in the Navigation Pane and the data displayed in the document window on the right. This copy would be identical to the existing one complete with its objects and data. including its structure and data. you may click the Office Button and then click the “Exit Access” button at the bottom right. we shall copy the structure only. This would save time in creating a new table which required similar fields but had different data to be entered. Sometimes. If any database 147 | P a g e . In the “Save As” window. click “More…” at the top of the list. Sometimes. double-click the table name in the navigation pane. you can see that only the structure of the table has been copied and there is no data contained in it.

For example. type ‘7’ and in the “Format” field property text box. You want all the records to display the name of the state in uppercase. For this. The “Pin Code” field should be after the “State” field and the “Gender” field should be after the “Phone” field. Select “Insert Rows” in the “Tools” group on the “Design” tab. Type ‘Pin Code’ and make its data type as “Text”. you must insert those fields which you have missed while designing the database the first time.accdb” and click “Save”. Now. BS83DT will be displayed with a space between BS8 and 3DT. Also. Move to the “Format” field property text box and type ‘>’. You can easily make all these changes and put restrictions on the way data is entered or displayed. click on the upper part of the “View” icon in the “Views” group on the “Design” tab. You can even add and delete fields. you have forgotten to add two fields! The PIN code number needs to be added to make the address complete and the gender of the employee also needs to go on record. you realize that there is no uniformity in the data entered in the “State” field. switch to Design View. To define the format. you can use the four symbols used in the table shown.objects are open. In the “Save As” window. You can see that all data in the “State” field is displayed in uppercase. to change the “State” field’s format to display it in uppercase. Change to Datasheet View Click on “Yes” to save changes. 148 | P a g e . One is the “Pin Code” and the other is the “Gender” of the employee. enter the location and the name for the new database. A row is inserted between the “State” and “Phone” fields. you have to enter the appropriate symbol in the “Field Properties” window. Click “Yes”. To do so. say “Backup_Employee. The new database is created identical to the original database. In the “Size” field property. type ‘@@@ @@@’ with a space after the first three characters. So. you see a window asking whether the objects can be closed. The field’s “Format” property can be defined to tell Access the way you want the data to be displayed. Make the “State” field the current one by clicking on it. This will display the PIN codes of all records in the same format. you need to first change to Design View. Modifying a Table Customizing and Inserting Fields If you look through the records. Make “Phone” the current field. To set the display format.

by setting the default value of the “Sate” field to “Bristol” and that of “Gender” to “F”.Repeat the procedure for inserting a row and adding the “Gender” field after the “Phone” field. This is because of the “Default Value” property that you have set for these two fields. While looking through the records. The table above shows some examples of validity rule settings and corresponding messages. A validation rule is an expression that defines acceptable values. So. you can make data entry a bit quicker. make the “Gender” field the current one and click on the “Default Value” property text box. A default value is used to specify a value that is automatically entered in a field when a new record is added. Save the new table structure by clicking on the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. Now switch to Datasheet View. An expression is a formula consisting of a combination of symbols that evaluates to a single value. Switch to “Datasheet” view. “Field Size” as ‘1’ and “Format” as ‘>’. The table is displayed with two new columns which have no data in them. You can also add validation text. Similarly. Click on the “Default Value” property text box and type “Bristol” in it. You want the “Gender” field to accept only two values – “M” for male and “F” for female. 149 | P a g e . Fill in these empty fields in all the records. If you do not give a message. Enter its “Data Type” as “Text”. This value can either be accepted or another value can be entered by the user while adding a new record. which is an explanatory message that appears if the user enters invalid information in a field for which a validation rule has been set. Setting the “Validity Check” option makes sure that the values entered by the user are valid for the field type. Type ‘M’ in it. Observe that the new blank record has the “State” and “Gender” fields already filled with values. Save the design changes related to default values. you observe that most of the employees are from “Bristol” State and that there are more males than females as employees. Access displays a default message but it does not clearly explain the reason for the error. Switch to Design View and make the “State” field the current one by clicking on it.

The warning message is immediately displayed. Now. Click “Yes”. Type ‘k’ or any other letter in either upper or lower case. type ‘Please enter either “M” or “F” only. 150 | P a g e .Adding a Validity Rule: Switch to Design View and click on the “Gender” field. A warning message box is displayed saying that the data integrity rules have been changed. In the “Validation Rule” property box. Access asks you if you want to check the existing data with the new validity rule. You may change them if required. switch to Datasheet View. you often make changes that could result in the loss of data or existing data may become invalid. You will be asked to save the changes. Press “Backspace” and enter valid text. Type the data shown in the table in the new record. except ‘F’ or ‘M’. Click “OK” to continue. The “State” and “Gender” fields are already filled with default values. For now. type ‘ “M” Or “F” ’ and in the “Validation Text” property box. Now try entering an invalid value in the “Gender” field. click “No”. When you make changes to the structure of a table.

Click “Find Next”. Your original data appears. The “Find” command locates all specified values in a field and the “Replace” command finds a value and automatically replaces it. “NORTHSIDE” with “NS” and so on. in the “Match” box. click in the “Match Case” check box and click “Find Next”. the “Undo” command has no effect. Click on the “Cancel” button if you do not want to perform any action. select “All”. Now. You need not do this manually. In the “Search” box. close the “Find and Replace” window and make the necessary changes in the “Last Name” and the address fields. cancels the command. 151 | P a g e . The other is that. not part of it. In the “Replace With” box. Clicking on the “Cancel” button. The first occurrence of the search criteria specified is highlighted. Select “Whole Field” in the “Match” box and “All” in the “Search” box. select “Whole field”. Use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Z” or click on the “Undo” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. so. Check whether it the record you are looking for. you have to make changes in the “State” field. click in the “Last Name” field of the first record and select “Find”. type ‘BS’. If you make changes to a single record. You want to match the whole field. If the text is found and it is the one you want to replace.Finding and Replacing Data Finding and Replacing data: If you want to search for some information in the table and also replace it. then click on the “Replace” button. The “State” field will already be selected in the “Look In” box. Finding and replacing data is fast and accurate but you have to be careful not to replace unintended values. So. you may use the “Find” and “Replace” icons in the “Find” group on the “Home” tab. “EASTSIDE” with “ES”. Click in the “Search Fields As Formatted” check box which finds data based on its display format. The “Look In” box displays the “Last Name” field because the field was the current one when the command was given. One is that the “State” names should all be shortened to 2 lettered names. That means you have to replace “Bristol” with “BS”. type “Smith”. one of the employees. If it is. you have been told to make two changes. So click in the “State” field and select “Replace”. You may use the “Find and Replace” feature. While in the “Datasheet” view. In the “Find What” box. Click on the “Replace” tab and type “Bristol” in the “Find What” box. using the “Undo” command will cancel the last action as long as you have not made any further changes to the table. the last name of the employee. You want Access to find a perfect match to what you have typed in the “Find What” box. Once you move to another record or move to another window. The “Find and Replace” window is displayed with the “Find” tab selected. Now. “Jenny Smith” is married and needs to change her “Last Name” and “Address”.

Down.The “State” field in the next record is highlighted. type “BS” and switch to Datasheet View. and All (which is the default). warning you that the replace operation cannot be undone. In the “Default Value” property box. Sorting: Sorting the data often helps in finding some particular information quickly. When you select multiple columns to sort. you can sort data in ascending or descending order. you had set the default value for the “State” field as “Bristol”. uppercase or lowercase) as the specified text. click on “Replace All”. So you need to make a change in the default value too since you now need “BS”.e. You are asked whether you want to continue.. In Access. the “Last Name” will be the field which you will use to sort records. You also saw that the records in a table are arranged according to the primary key. A warning message is displayed by Access. You can sort on one field or more than one adjacent field. the data in all the fields containing “BRISTOL” is replaced with “BS”. If you want to search the entire table. Sorting Records In the first lab. You will see that the new record at the end has the default value changed to “BS”. click on “Yes” because that’s what you want. the search returns only those instances of the text that have the same case (i. “Whole Field” finds only data that is exactly the same. a search for “Smith” with the initial alphabet “S” in uppercase and “m-i-t-h” in lowercase will not display “SMITH” with all uppercase letters or “smith” with all lowercase letters. the “Look In” list contains the name of the field in which your cursor is currently positioned. Instantly. But the Accounts department has requested for the employee list in alphabetical order. “Start of Field” finds data only at the beginning of the field. By default. you may select the name of the table from the list. In the “Match” list options. “Any Part of Field” finds data anywhere in the field. Access sorts records starting from the leftmost 152 | P a g e . Since you want to replace all the fields containing “BRISTOL” with “BS”. you can sort them on a single field – the field on the basis of which you want to arrange them. How are you going to give it to them? To arrange the records in the table in alphabetical order. Let us have another look at the various options available in the “Find and Replace” window. For example. The options are Up. The “Search” box allows you to specify the direction to follow while searching. In this case. If you remember. you had seen what a primary key is and what its importance is. Save the changes made to the table. If you check the box against “Match Case”. Switch to Design View and click in the “State” field.

you need to sort on multiple fields. Select the “Ascending” icon in the “Sort & Filter” group on the “Home” tab to display the records sorted by Last Name. Click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar. so Ted’s record comes first and then comes Tom’s record. They are sorted on the “Employee ID” field which is the primary key. To change the order of fields. the temporary sort must be removed. you need to select the two fields. The “Last Name” field moves up one row so that it is the second field in the field name list. The records are displayed according to the changed order of fields. Drag to the right to select the next column – “First Name”. Switch to Datasheet View to see the order of the fields. Creating Forms Using the Form Wizard 153 | P a g e . The records will again be displayed in the order of the “Employee ID” field. The new sort order is saved with the table data and automatically applied every time you open the table. Observe the order of records after sorting on the “Last Name” field. sorting is done from the leftmost field. Click in the “Field Selector” of the “First Name” field. switch to Design View. They are arranged alphabetically first by “Last Name” and then by “First Name”. To remove the temporary sorting order. To return to the primary key sort order. Now drag the mouse down until you see a black line under the “Last Name” field. To sort on multiple fields. Now. Then release the mouse. So. Both the columns will be highlighted. You see that Ted and Tom are sorted by Last Name but not by “First Name”. select “Clear All Sorts” in the “Sort & Filter” group. In the “Datasheet” view. This is the small box to the left of the field name. The cursor will change to a solid black arrow pointing downwards.column and moves to the right across the columns. click in the “Last Name” field of any record. “Last Name” must be to the left of “First Name”. To sort first by “Last Name” and then by “First name”. position the mouse pointer in the column heading of “Last Name”. Select the “Ascending” icon in the “Sort & Filter” group on the “Home” tab again. To select the two columns. Observe the records of Tom and Ted now. To sort on multiple fields. in Datasheet View. Tom’s record appears before Ted’s which is not in ascending alphabetical order. observe the order of the records before sorting.

Read it so that you know what you are supposed to do in that step. the layout of the form is displayed. Information regarding what you are supposed to do in each step is mentioned on the top in the “Form Wizard” window. The field name is displayed in the “Selected Fields” list now. At the bottom of the form window is the record number indicator. Click on the “New (blank) record” button to add new records. “Emp Info” will be displayed by default. You can move one record up or down by clicking on the “Next record” or “Previous record” buttons respectively. Forms are based on a table and contain design control elements like descriptive text. The information on this form will be used as an input source for the new record that will be added for the new employee. It guides you through the steps required to create a form. Using the Form Wizard: Click on the “Create” tab. click the close 154 | P a g e . The “Form Wizard” window is displayed. type it and click “Finish”.To close the form. In the next step. Seeing the records at all times in the form of rows and columns can be tiring to the eyes. The form is displayed with the first record’s contents in it. The other two buttons below this. The “Form Wizard” feature of Access makes it very easy to design forms. Select all the fields in the same manner as the first field and click on “Next”. A form is a database object that is mainly used to enter and display records and make changes to existing records onscreen. To make it easy to view and use. If not. you are asked to select the style of the form. Click on “Employee ID” and click on the button with “>” symbol on it. The field names are on the left with the corresponding data in boxes in front of them. It is desirable for the onscreen form to be similar to the paper form filled in by each new employee when hired. The button below this can be used to move all fields into the “Selected Fields” list. “Columnar” is selected by default. as you may have realized can be used to move fields back into the “Available Fields” list. boxes and pictures. Access provides a feature to create onscreen forms.Being the one to be in charge of the employee records database. lines. titles. the name of the current table “Emp Info” is displayed. click “More Forms → Form Wizard”. labels. The fields from the current table are displayed in the “Available Fields” list. In the next step. Select the fields from the list one by one. The “First record“ button takes you to the first record and the “Last record” button takes you to the last one. Leave it as it is and click on “Next”. In the “Forms” group. where you are asked to give the form a name and save it. The next step is the last step. Select a suitable one and click “Next”. In the “Tables/Queries” list. one of your main objectives is to make the database easy to use.

In this way. Let us learn to modify the design of the form we created. Adding Records in a Form A new employee has recently joined the School and you need to input all related information into the database. For example. the “State” and the “Gender” fields have their default values. Open the form once again by double clicking the form name in the Navigation Pane. Click on the “New (blank) record” button at the bottom of the window. click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar. You may click on the tab names to switch between them. You see a box with a dotted outline enclosing the picture and the field label “Photo”. You can start typing the data of the new employee as shown in the accompanying figure.button on the form. You can see that both the form and the table are open on two separate tabs. Click on the field displaying the photo of the employee. Now. So framing a question correctly is important. Click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar to save your changes and close the form. you can enter and view as many records as you want. Now switch to Design View by selecting “View” in the “Views” group on the “Home” tab. to get information stored in the tables. You can see your form name displayed in the navigation pane on the left. Of course. to see all the records that you have entered. you first need to open the form. 155 | P a g e . Queries and Reports Using Queries To get any information. At the top left corner you see a four-headed arrow. To add records. Click on it and enter “Photograph”. The form with all blank boxes is displayed. You will add this information using the form you created. if you ask at the railway enquiry counter – “Is there a train to Central Park?” you will most probably not get the expected answer. But if you ask. Framing it correctly will give you the most accurate information. Click on it and drag the picture to position it a little lower down in the form. “When is the train to Central Park?” you may get the most appropriate answer “It leaves on Tuesday morning at 6:30 am”. click on the table name in the navigation pane and scroll if required. Now let us change the label “Photo”. In Access. you have to put questions in the form of queries. The form will be displayed. In the navigation pane. double-click on the form name “Emp Info”. After you are done. it is necessary to frame a question.

you see all the fields in the “Emp Info” table. to know about the employees who have been in service for 5 years or more. “City”. Select the following fields – “Employee ID”. There are five types of queries in Access: Select query. It was very simple. which you have already done. In the lower part. you have a request from the Administrative department. Queries can be used as a source for forms and reports because they are based on tables. Once you’ve saved a query. How are you going to specify this condition? You need to make some modifications in this query you have just created. Using the Query Wizard: Click on the “Create” tab. In the document window. If not. Action query and SQL query. like any other database object. But now. you can see all the fields of the table used for the query in a small window. analyze and even change existing data. they want a list of all employees. Queries are used to view data in different ways. for a “5 Years Service Award” they want to give. accept the default name for the query or type a new one and click “Finish”. at the top. In the “Tables/Queries” list. You will find this wizard similar to the one you used to create a form. click on the “Home” tab. The “New Query” window is displayed with “Simple Query Wizard” selected. A “Select” query retrieves the requested data from one or more tables and displays it in a query datasheet in the order you specify. “Address”. who have been in service for at least five years. Modifying a Query: There was nothing very different in this query. Here. In the “Other” group. Switch to Design View by clicking on the upper part of the “View” icon in the “Views” group. Creating a query in Access is very much similar to creating a table or form. Access saves each query in your database. While the query is open. In the “Available Fields” list. To select the required fields. Now. “First Name”. you need to check their dates of joining the 156 | P a g e . The query is displayed with all the records in the table. Parameter query. select it. click “Query Wizard”. select them one by one and click on the “>” button. the “Emp Info” table is already selected. but with selected fields. “Last Name”. and “Phone”. The most common is the “Select” query.Query: A query is a request for specific data in a database. Crosstab query. the fields selected in the query are displayed. Click “OK” to display the “Simple Query Wizard” window. which you are going to use. This is very interesting. you can run it any time you want to take a look at the actual data that meets your specifications. Click “Next”.

For this. SQL (Structured Query Language) is a powerful database language used in queries. Each query that you create has an underlying SQL statement. In the Tables/Queries list. Now close the query tab. “First Name”. It might be a simple listing of all fields or of selected fields based on a query. You will do this with the help of the “Report Wizard” that is provided by Access. you need to modify the query by adding the “Date_of_Joining” field and specifying criteria. as you did while selecting fields for the query. Creating Reports There is another request from the Administrative department – they need an address report of all employees sorted by name. If you do not see the “Date_of_Joining field in the window at the top. Click “Next”. and “Phone” one by one by clicking on the “>” button. In the “Reports” group. “City”. select “Table: Emp Info”. click “Report Wizard”. The records matching your criteria are displayed. scroll down a bit. Click “OK”. 157 | P a g e . You will be creating this address report based on the “Emp Info” table. which you are not going to need. type the condition as ‘>= 1/1/2001 AND < 1/1/2002’ and press “Enter”. Access adds the “#” signs before and after the dates to identify the values in the expression as dates. For this. Type the name ‘5 Year Service’ in the “Save As” window. “State”. You must now specify a criterion for this field. A report is a printed output generated from tables and queries. In the next “Report Wizard” window. Confirm that the “As” box has “Query” displayed in it. Saving the query: You now need to save this modified query. Using the Report Wizard: Click on the “Create” tab. “Address”. Now close the query tab. As soon as you press “Enter”. In the criteria row. The “Report Wizard” window is displayed. which you can view or edit by selecting “View → SQL View” in the “Views” group on the “Home” tab. Select fields “Last Name”. Running a query: To see the result of this query. “Pin code”. click the Office Button and select “Save As”. double-click on this field. Specifying criteria: You need the list of employees who have been in service for at least five years. Then. It is displayed in the first blank box after the “Phone” field. so click “Next”. there is an option for grouping fields.organization. click on the “Run” icon in the “Results” group on the “Design” tab.

select “Last Name” as the first field and “First Name” as the second field and click “Next”. You need to make some changes. click on it. You need the address list of employees in ascending order of “Last Name” and within that in ascending order of the “First Name”. You may find that the “State” field is too big for its two character contents. Click on the heading “Last Name”. To make these changes. close the report tab by clicking on the “X” shaped icon at the right end. click on it. drag the right edge of the box to a suitable size. “Adjust the field width so all fields fit on a page” and click “Next”. Click in the check box that says. tabular or justified and the page can be oriented either as a portrait or a landscape. Similarly. Modifying Report Layout Modifying report layout: Double-click on the report name in the Navigation Pane. You can sort the records by up to four fields in either ascending or descending order. You can reduce its size and make space for the other fields. Here enter the report title as “Employee Address List”. The next window lets you select the style of the report. Select a suitable one from the list and click on “Next”. If you see that a heading is not displayed completely. When the mouse pointer appears as a four-headed arrow.The next “Report Wizard” window asks for the sort order of the records to be printed in the report. the first thing you need to do is to exchange the order of the fields “First Name” and “Last Name”. You can have the fields laid out as either columnar. For now. But if you see the report properly. Switch to Layout View by selecting “View → Layout View” in the “Views” group. click on “Preview the report” and click “Finish”. The preview of the report is displayed with the title and footer and all the records arranged in the specified sort order. The next window is the last step of the wizard. 158 | P a g e . the headings and contents of some fields are not displayed completely. In the next window. You can see that the complete column is shifted to the right. So. Then drag the right edge or lower edge of the box that appears to a suitable position. you are asked about the layout of the fields and the page. where the data is not displayed completely. drag to the right to position it after the “First Name” column. you need to modify the report layout. When the mouse pointer appears as a two-headed arrow. A box appears around it. Now.

You can have the fields laid out as either columnar. Click “Close Print Preview” to close the preview. Select a suitable one from the list and click “Next”. The “Print” window is displayed. In the next window. In the “Reports” group. instead of the table. “Adjust the field width so all fields fit on a page” and click “Next”. Click on the “Create” tab. all the records of employees who have worked for five years. Click in the check box that says. click “Report Wizard”. Check if all the data contents are visible on the page. To create this report. You need the report in ascending order of the “Last Name” and within that. The next window is the last step of the wizard. The next window lets you select the style of the report. Then close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. To create a report from a query. you can make use of the query you created to list those employees. Click the Office Button and select “Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. So. in ascending order of the “First Name”. you may move and resize the fields again as required. select “Last Name” as the first field and “First Name” as the second field and click “Next”. Click “OK”. you have to follow all the same steps you performed to create a report from the table. in the “Report Wizard”. Select the “Print Range” by clicking on “Pages From” and typing ‘1’ to ‘1’. select View → Print Preview” in the “Views” group. tabular or justified and the page can be oriented either as a portrait or a landscape. Close the preview. click on “Preview the report” and click “Finish”. you will select the query. Here give a report title as “5 Year Service Awards”. Select the printer from the “Name” list. you are asked about the layout of the fields and the page. 159 | P a g e . The “Report Wizard” window is displayed. Select the query “5 years service” from the Table/Query list. If they are still not properly visible. The next “Report Wizard” window asks for the sort order of the records to be printed in the report. You can see in the preview. Click “Next” once again.To see the preview. Creating a Report from a Query There is a requirement to print a report of all those employees who were listed for the five years service award. Printing a Report Printing a report: The report is now ready to be printed. Add all fields in the “Available Fields” list by clicking on the “>>” button and click “Next”. Save the report either by using the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+S” or by clicking “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar. The difference is that.

Now click “OK”. In the “Open” window. In the “Database Tools” group. Click the database file and then click the arrow next to the “Open” button and select “Open Exclusive”. and then re-type it in the “Verify” box. So you do not have to worry anymore about sharing your Personal Computer. navigate to the location of your database. your company has decided to give laptops to each of its key employees. Removing a password: Open the database in Exclusive mode. Store the password in a secure place from where you can recover it in case you forget it. The steps to create and apply a password to your database are as follows. click on the Office Button and select “Open”. It is very important that you remember your password. click “Decrypt Database”. Close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. PERSONAL INFORMATION MANAGER Getting started with Outlook Introduction to Microsoft Outlook Your cherished dream has come true. In the “Set Database Password” window. Click the “Database Tools” tab. The “Password Required” window appears. Enter your password in the “Password Required” window and click “OK”. open the database in “Exclusive” mode. Close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. but away from access by unauthorized people. 160 | P a g e . Enter your password and click “OK”.Protecting the Database Using Passwords Assigning a password: Microsoft Office Access 2007 provides a number of features that can help make your data more secure. Your database can now be accessed without a password the next time it is opened. First. Your database is now open. You may exit Access by clicking on the Office Button and then clicking the “Exit Access” button. schedules etc. click “Encrypt with Password”. You want to use tools to organize your contacts. You have decided to use this opportunity to its maximum potential and are eager to personalize your work environment. Click the “Database Tools” tab. One of the first things you can do in this direction is to use a password for accessing your database. Close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. In the “Unset Database Password” window. it cannot be retrieved. In the “Database Tools” group. Using a password: Open the password protected database as you open any other database. type your password in the “Password” box. type your password and click “OK”. If you forget your password. For this.

The upper portion of the navigation pane contains “Category specific tools” for working with different types of information. In the time slot type ‘Meeting with the client’. having today’s date and time divisions. By default an appointment is allotted half an hour. tasks and important mail enabling you to prioritize your work. Click the button corresponding to “Calendar” in the navigation pane. To expand the minimized Navigation Pane. you have an integrated solution for managing your time and information. is displayed in the information viewer on the right. and storing addresses. If the To-Do Bar is not visible at any time. Using Calendar When you open Microsoft Outlook 2007. To begin with. Some of the important tasks that can be performed using Microsoft Outlook are maintaining a personal calendar of appointments. events and meetings. and Contacts etc. we shall take a look at the calendar. 161 | P a g e . Press “Enter”. to provide you with a larger work area. This enables you to see a minimized view of the To-Do Bar at all times. The Navigation Pane can be minimized into a vertical button bar. The calendar for the current month is displayed in the category specific tools window. The “Untitled Appointment” window is displayed. click “View → To-Do Bar → Minimized”. Calendar. Creating an Appointment Your immediate concern is to record all your important appointments in the calendar. Select the month from the calendar by using the arrows. Click the “New” button on the Standard toolbar. It can be used to organize and track all types of information. Let us create another appointment and enter more details. To minimize the expanded Navigation Pane. Let us create an Appointment. Starting Microsoft Outlook: To start the Microsoft Outlook application.With Microsoft Office Outlook 2007. click the arrow at the top. The To-Do Bar on the right gives you a consolidated view of your calendar. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Outlook 2007”. upcoming appointments. Select the time slot of 6 pm for the appointment in the information viewer of the Outlook window. The bottom portion contains Category buttons for different tasks. Your appointment has now been recorded. Select the day. you will see a navigation pane on the left which contains categories such as Mail. click the arrow in the upper corner. The “Day” view.

Now click on the “Save & Close” button in the “Actions” group. Under “Range of recurrence” you may specify the time frame for your recurring appointment. Click on Monday in the next week in the left panel. weekly. You can see that the recurring appointment has been recorded. In the text box below. select the amount of time in the “Reminder” list before the appointment when you want the reminder to appear. You may click the To-Do Bar to expand it and view details. Click on the “Today” tab in the Standard toolbar. Creating a recurring appointment There are some meetings which take place on a regular basis. such an entry is called an Event. Creating an event There is a two day exhibition for Product Promotions to be held in two weeks. To turn a reminder off. type your notes. Since it will last for at least 24 hours. You can specify details of the appointment in the “Appointment Recurrence” window. select “None”. Let us keep this setting unchanged. Click on “Save & Close” on the “Recurring Appointment” tab. Select “Out of Office”. On the “Appointment” tab. The current setting is “Weekly”. Click “OK”. Click the 9 am time slot. The current setting is “No end date”.Accounts Manager’ as the “Subject” and ‘Accounts office’ as the “Location”. 162 | P a g e . Click it once again to return to the minimized form.Type ‘Meeting with maintenance people’ as the “Subject”. You may wish to be reminded about your appointment by a bell. The “Out of Office” indicator is displayed at the left corner. You can see that one hour has been allotted for this appointment. monthly or yearly. Select “Actions → New Recurring Appointment”. say ‘Take along the maintenance log file & purchase bills’. You can also see the appointment on the To-Do Bar at the right. In the “Show As” field. “Recur every 1 week on Monday”.Appointment” window type ‘Weekly meeting . Now click the Monday of the next week and the following week on the calendar. In the “Untitled . Press the tab key and type ‘Factory Premises’ as the “Location”. in the “Options” group. in the “Actions” group. such as meetings with your Accounts Manager. Under “Recurrence pattern” you may specify the days in the week when the appointment is going to occur and also if it is going to occur daily. you may select the way in which you want your appointment to appear in the Calendar. Select 7 pm as the “End time” from the drop-down list. Under “Appointment time” you may set the start and end time of the appointment. Select the end time “10:30 AM” from the drop-down list. You may keep this setting.

Set the “Reminder” to 2 days in the “Options” group” of the “Event” tab. in the date navigator window.Click on the Monday of two weeks later. This means that you may click on the related button to see the appointments on your calendar as you wish. In addition. Select “View → Current view”. select “Out of Office” from the “Show As” list. Rightclick in any of the time slots and select “New All Day Event”. Type ‘International Trade Center’ as the “Location”. Type ‘Product Promotion Exhibition’ as the “Subject”. Changing the calendar view By default. Select the next day from the “End time” drop-down menu. Creating a task list 163 | P a g e . Click on the “Save & Close” button in the “Actions” group. To mark the calendar to show that you will be out of office during these days. you can view your calendar based on different criteria. you can view your calendar on Day/Week/Month basis.

You may make changes as per your requirements. If there are any tasks that have been entered previously. Select the Yellow Category and click “Rename”. A task can occur only once or happen on a recurring basis. select “View → Current View → Simple List”. if necessary. Setting up Categories A category is a descriptive keyword or phrase to which you can assign related items. To set up your categories. Updating the status of a task: Double-click on a task’s “Subject”. percentage complete and categories. Creating a new category: Click “New” in the “Color Categories” window. Click on “Save & Close”. Click on the “Tasks” button in the Navigation Pane. 2. Press “Enter”. Type ‘Create presentation displays for Product Promotion’. select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. From the “Priority” drop-down menu choose the option “High”. Create the following tasks in a similar way: 1. Click in the “Due Date” text box and select a date from the calendar. To change the view to a detailed list. Meeting at the Yoga Club. 3.A task is a personal work related action item. you have several tasks that need to be completed. Set the “% Complete” to 25%. subject. Click in the “Click here to add a new Task” text box. Meeting with the Accounts Department. Outlook has certain predefined categories. To change the view to a simple list. Click “OK” Renaming a category: You may rename an existing color category to make it more meaningful. For your weekly meetings with your assistants. 164 | P a g e . Now enter the category name as “Time & Expenses” and click “OK”. Your task has now been recorded. Meeting with the maintenance staff. status. Enter today’s date as the “Start date”. This view shows detailed information about each task. Outlook 2007 offers you Color categories that allow you to group information in a way that allows you to find and track all information most effectively. The “Task” window is displayed. From the “Status” drop-down menu. select “Actions → Categorize → All Categories”. Let us enter the category name as “Personal”. such as a weekly report. It includes different columns for priority. they are displayed. due date. choose the option “In Progress”.

Meeting with the maintenance staff – Orange Category You can use the same categorization techniques for other Outlook item like appointments and mails. Scroll the time line window to view all the tasks. Select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. To assign a category to this task. For example. In this view. select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. you might want to sort your tasks by Status or Due Date. select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. Now to return to the “Detailed list” view. each task will be represented by a task symbol. To switch to the “Detailed List” view. 165 | P a g e . You may sort your tasks according to Subject by selecting “View → Arrange By → Subject”. Using a task timeline In the Tasks Timeline view. You may click on the “Delete” icon on the Standard toolbar to delete a completed task from the list. Sorting tasks Sorting tasks is the process of rearranging items in ascending or descending order. click on the column heading “Categories”. select “View → Current View → Task Timeline”. right-click in the “Categories” column. The subject of the task is also displayed. Click in the “Status” column next to a task. Meeting with the Accounts Department – Blue Category 2. You can now see that this task appears crossed out with “% Complete” as 100%. From the drop-down list. select “Personal”. You may also sort tasks by using the “Arrange By” option from the View menu. Clicking in a column heading other than “Task Subject” sorts the list according to that column. you can see this column in the “Detailed List” view. For example. To change the view to “Task Timeline”. select “Completed” and press “Enter”. Similarly. they are sorted in descending order. Updating the task status You can update the status of the task at any time and specify the status and percentage completed. The next time you click. To update the status of the task. In the “Detailed list” view. assign the following categories to the tasks as follows: 1. You see that the tasks are sorted in ascending order by Categories. From the available categories list. the tasks are arranged according to their due dates.Categorizing tasks: Select the task “Meeting at the Yoga Club” from the list. the “Status” column must be visible. Now the task has been assigned to the “Personal” category.

select “File → Print”. The “Print range” section allows you to specify the rows in the table that are to be printed. Creating Notes The “Notes” tool is used to create a reminder for yourself. Select “File → Print”. Click the button corresponding to “Notes” in the navigation pane. the Print style. Type the required message and then close the window. If everything is OK. Select and delete the user name from the left footer box. “Table” or “Memo”. To display the preview in actual size. click on the “Actual Size” icon in the toolbar. click on the “Print” button in the preview window. Confirm that the “Notes” view is set to “Icons”. Here you need to specify details about the Printer. which includes detailed information of all the people with whom you communicate. A blank yellow colored note window is displayed. Click on the “New” icon on the Standard toolbar. Click on the “Preview” button. Now. Similarly. Let us assume that you need to create a note to remind you to send an email message for an event. Type your name in the left header text box. Let us make some changes. Click on the “Header/Footer” tab. You can reopen the note and make changes to it by double-clicking on it. You can choose to enter 166 | P a g e . select the appropriate printer for your system from the “Name” drop-down list. Before printing it is always a good idea to take a preview of the document you want to print. Select “View → Current View → Active Appointments”. The “Print” window is displayed. Using the Address Book What is an Address Book in Outlook The Address Book is an electronic book.Printing tasks and calendar items Many times you may need to print out your task list and appointment calendar so that it is available during a meeting. Here two styles are available. select “Calendar” in the Navigation pane. If necessary. to print the appointments. The “Print style” section specifies the format in which you want to print your task list. Print range and Copies. The “Copies” section allows you to enter the number of pages and copies. Click “OK”. Click on the “Page Setup” button. Notes are an electronic version of paper notes that you use to jot down quick reminders. Click “OK” in the “Print” window.

Choose “Personal Folder File (. By referring to your address book you can contact or communicate quickly with any individual from the contact list. “Company”. Select the “Contacts” folder from the “Select the folder to export from” list. you can enter the basic contact information such as “Full Name”. Like other outlook tools. 167 | P a g e . click “Contacts” in the navigation pane. Here. Adding and Removing Contacts To add a contact. You may also delete a contact by selecting “Edit → Delete” or pressing the “Delete” key after selecting the contact. birth-dates and anniversaries. By doubleclicking on the contact you may edit the information. Click the “New” button from the Standard toolbar. “Phone numbers” etc. Click “Next”. “Contacts” has several views like “Business Cards”. The “Import and Export Wizard” window is displayed. “Address Cards”.different types of information such as business and home address. This is called “Importing”. Enter the required information in the appropriate fields. “Addresses”. Choose “Export to a file”. Click “Next”. Specify the location where you wish to save the exported file in the “Open Personal Folders” window. Type ‘Contacts’ in the “File name” text box. Several of the fields include drop-down lists that allow you to further customize the information for each contact. Click “Next”. You can view the entire contact list in the “Business Cards” format. nick names. If you want to delete a particular contact from the contacts list. The names are automatically listed in ascending alphabetical order. “Phone List”. Exporting contacts: Select “File → Import and Export”. Click on the “Browse” button. email addresses. Click “OK”. “By Company” and others. Importing & Exporting Contacts You may need to save your contacts to a file so that they are available for use in the future. phone numbers. This file can then be used to copy details of your contacts to another location or another computer. you can see the “General” button of the “Show” group highlighted. This is called “Exporting”. “By Category”. right-click on the contact and select “Delete”. The “Untitled .pst)” from the “Create a file of type” list box. On the “Contact” tab. Click on the "Save & Close" button in the “Actions” group.Contact” window is displayed. This wizard guides you through the complete procedure.

Click on the “Browse” button. first or last name. in the “Members” group. To quickly open a contact you have previously searched for. e-mail address and company name. Click “Next”. choose “Import from another program or file”. In the list below. In the “Create Microsoft Personal Folders” window. Since there is a possibility that your imported file may contain contacts which you already have. In the “Name” field.pst)” from the “Select file type to import from” list. and then select the appropriate name. Click “Next”. It provides an easy way to send messages to a group of people. type the name of the contact you want to find and press “Enter”. The contacts you entered are now saved in a file and will be available when you want to import them later. On the “Distribution List” tab. In the “Find a contact” box on the Standard toolbar. click “OK”. click the arrow in the “Find a contact” drop-down list. You may add contacts from different address books into your list. The new contacts will be incorporated into the existing list. Searching Address Books You can search for an address and the information associated with it in the address book. Now click “Finish”. Choose “Personal Folder File (. click “Select Members”. Importing contacts: Select “File → Import and Export”. select the address book that contains the e-mail addresses you want in your distribution list. You can enter a partial name (such as “Hyosuke”). you may select from three possibilities with regards to duplicates. This list is saved with a name. Select the appropriate option and click “Next”. You can also enter new contacts. Select the “Contacts” folder from the “Select the folder to import from” list.Now click “Finish”. Under “Address Book”. In the “Import and Export Wizard” window. Creating and editing mailing lists A mailing list is a collection of contacts. select the 168 | P a g e . Outlook will search all the available address books. Creating a mailing list: To create a mailing list. select “File → New → Distribution List”. Select the file from the appropriate location and click “Open”. type a name for the mailing list.

Under “Server Information”. You can now make the changes you require. Now click “OK”. On the “Auto Account Setup” screen. check the box beside “Manually configure server settings or additional server types” and click “Next”. The “Untitled Message” window is displayed. Select “Tools → Account Settings”. select Account type. and then click “OK”. You are holidaying in Malaysia and you want to send an e-mail to your friends back home. Click the “New” button on the Standard toolbar. Under “Choose E-mail Service”. and then click “Members”. Click on “To” to display the “Select Names” window. In the “Internet E-mail Settings” screen. The “Distribution List” window is displayed. You may create your mails offline and connect to the Internet only when you are ready to send them. Now click “Save & Close”. This mail can then be sent to all members of the list after completing other details. For this. ensure that “Internet E-Mail” is selected and then click “Next”. Adding other members: You may also add members that do not exist in your address books to your mailing list. click “Add New” in the “Members” group in the “Distribution List” window. either POP3 or IMAP depending on the type of mailbox you use. Then click on the name of the mailing list and after that click “To”. For this. The mailing list is saved in your “Contacts” folder by the name you give it. click “New”. double-click on the list name in the “Contacts” folder. Do this for each person you want to add to the distribution list. Enter details in the “Add New Member” window and click “OK”. Let us delete a member from this list. simply click “Remove” in the “Members” group. Now click “Save & Close” in the “Actions” group. You may disconnect from the Net and read your mails at leisure. 169 | P a g e . Creating Mails: To create a mail to send to all members of a mailing list. Click “Mail” in the navigation pane. You can see the name of the mailing list in the message window. Editing a Mailing List: To make changes to your mailing list. Using Outlook for E-Mailing Setting up a Mail Account A very important feature of Outlook is sending and receiving e-mail. all incoming mail can be stored on your hard disk. enter your name and email address. Additionally. You first need to set up your mail account. under “User Information”. On the “E-mail” tab.name. POP3 is generally used. click “Mail” in the navigation pane.

You may add multiple names to any of the fields. To send an e-mail. Click “OK”. Using Attachments Attachments are separate files that are sent along with your e-mail message. check the box “My outgoing server (SMTP) requires authentication” and click “OK”. and then click “Finish” on the “Congratulations!” screen. Specify the location and name of the picture files on your computer that you would like to attach. Now. the name is not visible to other recipients of the message. click on the "To:" button. While composing the message. All files in a folder can also be selected by clicking “Organize” on the toolbar and then clicking “Select All”. Now click “Close”. “Cc” stands for carbon copy and “Bcc” stands for blind carbon copy. Then click on a name from the list to whom you wish to send the mail and click the “To ->” button. enter your email address in the “User Name” field and the password for that account. Select the appropriate “Address Book”. click on the Paperclip Icon in the “Include” group. type your message. If you add a recipients name using “Bcc”. database files. You may also directly type in e-mail addresses not included in your address book. including spreadsheets. Click the arrow next to the "New" button on the Standard toolbar and select "Mail Message". Under “Logon Information”. They can be compared to a covering letter sent with a parcel or a birthday card sent along with a present. Click the “More Settings” button. Creating an E-mail Message Creating a Mail message: This is also known as “Composing” a mail. Click “Next”. the subject and the content of the mail. Ensure that the “Remember password” box is checked. Use the “Cc ->” and “Bcc ->” buttons in the same way for entering the addresses to which you wish to send copies to. even sound recordings and graphic images. Attachments do not form part of your e-mail message but they can be opened and viewed or edited by the e-mail recipient. The list of files attached is 170 | P a g e . word processor documents. Attaching a file: You now want to send some digital pictures of Malaysia along with your message. Now enter the subject and in the large white box below the subject field. You can attach all sorts of files to an e-mail. you must enter details such as the e-mail address of the recipient.Enter the respective server names provided by your Internet Service Provider (ISP) in the “Incoming mail server” and “Outgoing mail server (SMTP)” fields. In the “Untitled Message” window. click “Insert”. This brings up the “Select Names” window. You may select multiple files by holding down the “Ctrl” key while you click each file. On the “Outgoing Server” tab.

when you start Microsoft Outlook. and want to quickly see what the attachment contains without opening it. A copy of all sent messages will be kept in your “Sent Items” folder. You may edit your message at any time by clicking on the “Drafts” folder in the left panel and then double-clicking on the related message in the right panel. You may also use the “Send/Receive” button to send and receive mail. For this. click the “Message” button. Receiving Mail Receiving Mail: By default. Your mail is now stored in the “Drafts” folder. When you connect. if you have received a picture as an e-mail attachment. click the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. your mail is stored in the “Outbox”. right click on the attachment name and select “Open”. To open an attachment of a mail in your Inbox. Click on it to see a list of all mails received in the center panel. click the “Send” button. you can preview it. Drafts: You may create a draft of a mail and send it at a later stage.displayed just below the Subject Field. Here you can see details such as the sender’s name and the subject of the mail. You can now read the message displayed in the right panel which is the Reading Pane. She has also written about submission dates for your projects. One of your friends has written to you that she has paid your college fees since you are out of town. then you must have the related software installed in order to see it. For example. all mails that you have received are deposited in your “Inbox”. 171 | P a g e . To return to the message body. Viewing and Saving an Attachment Viewing an attachment: You may also receive attachments from your friend like the ones you sent. You can see this folder in the left panel. click on the mail whose content you wish to see. Instead of clicking the “Send” button. simply click the attachment In the Reading Pane. It is very important to know how to view them. For this. If you are not connected to the Internet. Reading Mail: In the center panel. She has attached a picture of her visit to Malaysia last year. When you receive an attachment in a message. Sending Mail After you have finished entering all information. You may remove incorrect file attachments by clicking them and pressing the “Delete” key. You may also click the “Send/Receive” button when connected to send mails which are in the Outbox. create a mail as described earlier. In order to view an attached file. the recipient needs to have a copy of the software application that was used to create the attachment initially. mails from the Outbox are sent to the intended recipients.

Now send it like any other mail. Also. right click on the attachment name and select “Save As”. This may be changed if required. You may make any changes you require. You may also make any other changes to the message that you wish. enter details regarding the location where you wish to save the mail and click “Save”. click on it and then click on the “Delete” button on the Standard toolbar. click on the mail from the Inbox and then click the “Forward” button. You may click on the box to the right of the “Arranged By:” field to reverse the sort order. click on it and select “File → Save As” from the menu bar. enter the e-mail address of the person you wish to send it to in the “To:” field. You can also see the original sender’s name and e-mail address as well as the date and time it was originally received. Printing Messages: To print a mail. For this. You can see that the recipients e-mail address and subject with the words “RE:” before it are already filled in. click on it and then click on the “Print” button on the Standard toolbar. Specify the location to save the file and then click “Save”. You may forward the mail that you have received.Saving an attachment: To save an attachment of a mail in your Inbox. Enter your mail content and send it like any other mail. To reply to her mail. 172 | P a g e . You may sort your mails by date received. Let us edit the content to remove the statement regarding the payment of fees. Forwarding a mail: You might want to convey the information related to the project submission dates to another friend. For this. Replying to and Forwarding a Mail Replying to a mail: You now want to thank your friend for paying your fees. A new mail message window is displayed. You may want to empty the Deleted Items folder to make free space for additional storage. right-click on the folder name and select “Empty Deleted Items Folder” and then click “Yes” in the window that comes up. The “Subject” field displays the words “FW:” followed by the original subject. Saving Messages: To save a mail that you have received to another place on your hard disk. click on the Inbox folder and then click on the mail in the center panel. The message will be deleted and moved to your “Deleted Items” folder. A new mail message window is displayed with the original mail content and the subject. Now click the “Reply” button. In the “Save As” window. the original mail that you had received is appended at the end. sender’s name etc. Handling mails in the Inbox Sorting Mails: You may sort the mails in your Inbox by selecting a suitable option by clicking on the “Arranged By:” button in the center panel. Now. subject. Deleting Messages: To delete a mail.

Calendar and Contacts. Using Flags Flags are very useful throughout Outlook. It is replaced by a tick and is removed from the To-Do Bar. Click on the flag symbol next to an important mail. the related mail is displayed. although you may add files over multiple sessions until the total space has been used. When you have taken the necessary action. MAKING IT WORK CD Writing What is CD Writing? FOR YOU CD Writing is also known as “Burning of a CD”. You can make your search more focused by clicking the “Expand the Query Builder” arrow. On CD-RW disks. The reasons for burning a CD might be to create a backup of your files or simply to backup frequently used CDs. click “Add Criteria”. 173 | P a g e . Let us use it to find a message in your Inbox.also known as CD-R 2) Rewriteable CDs . To display more search fields in the Query Builder. such as Mail. or To fields. You can see that it gets added in the To-Do Bar. and then select the search fields you want from the list. The Instant Search pane is always available in all of your Outlook views. You can use a flag to quickly create a follow-up item that can be tracked in the To-Do Bar. in your Inbox. Type your search text in the From. A burned CD is a CD that has been written by using a process that involves using a device called a “CD Writer” or “CD Burner” to burn indentations into the CD. and even in the Calendar. Subject. All flagged mail items get added to the to-do bar making it easy for you to keep track of the tasks and mail that you need to reply to or act upon. There are two types of CDs: 1) Recordable CDs . the space can only be used once. Windows Vista comes with software that will burn your CDs for you. To burn a CD you need both a CD burner and CD burning software.Using Instant Search The “Instant Search” feature helps you to quickly find items in Microsoft Office Outlook 2007. You can use the same search techniques to find any Outlook item. Simply type a word in the search box. Let us flag a mail in the Inbox.also known as CD-RW On CD-R disks. Body. you can click the flag once again. The moment a match is found.

Open the folder that contains the files you want to burn. 174 | P a g e . and then drag the files into the empty disc folder. By default. Creating such a disk requires as much free space on your hard disk as the capacity of the disc you are burning. This format is advisable if you need to burn a large collection of files. It takes several minutes for the disc to be formatted in the Live File System format. Burning a CD using Windows Vista Using the Live File System format: To write a CD using the Live File System format. Now drag the files to be copied into the empty disc folder. In the “Burn a disc” window. An empty disc folder opens. an empty disc folder opens. This is the “Source Drive”. Windows burns discs in the Live File System format. You may delete individual files or reformat the disc to create additional disc space when you use a rewriteable disc. enter a name for this disc. Mastered discs enable you to burn multiple files to a disc at one time.the space can be erased and re-used many times. CD-RW disks are also more expensive. they are copied automatically to the disc. However. In the window that appears. Before you can copy files to a CD. You may change the files in this folder if you wish. In the window that appears. This is the “Destination Drive”. Open the folder that contains the files you want to write to the CD in another window. CD-RW disks can only be used on CD-RW drives and not on ordinary CD-ROM read-only drives. the disc must first be prepared using a process called formatting. When the formatting is complete. click “Burn files to disc”. Using the Mastered format: To write a CD using the Mastered format. enter a name for this disc and then click “Show formatting options”. Click “Mastered” and then click “Next”. As you drag files into the disc folder. such as a music CD. Live File System discs enable you to copy individual files immediately to a disc. perform the following steps: Insert a writeable CD into your computers CD Writer. Re-size and arrange the windows in such a way that both the “Source Drive” and the “Destination Drive” are visible on the screen. This is a convenient format if you need to copy a few files at a time. and click “Next”. The files are copied to a temporary folder on your hard drive. click “Burn files to disc”. You may format a CD using either the “Live File System” or “Mastered” format. Let us delete one of the files. perform the following steps: Insert a writeable CD into your computers CD Writer. In the “Burn a disc” window.

To delete a specific file on a disk. However. The insertion of a virus into the program is termed as an "infection". you can delete one or more files to make more room on the disc. A virus attaches itself to. click on the file name. An example of an executable file is a program. for example.After you are sure about the files to be written to the CD. An “Identity Theft” is a harmful act by deliberately impersonating a person. another executable program. Viruses generally do not affect network performance. Click “Finish” when the process is complete. press the “Delete” key. and the infected file. or executable code that is not part of a file. is called a "host". The selected files are copied to the disc. the disc burner tray will open and you can remove the disc. While viruses can be intentionally destructive. and becomes part of. on the toolbar. which spreads by inserting itself into living cells. “Adware” is a software package that 175 | P a g e . “Spyware” is software designed to take control of another computer system without the consent of the owner. A computer virus behaves in a way similar to a biological virus. burn these files to another disc”. You may write the same files to another CD by checking the box against “Yes. many other viruses are fairly benign or merely annoying. If you use the Live File System format. In the window that is displayed. Worms harm the network and add to network traffic. click “Erase this disc”. To select more than one file. as their malicious activities are mostly confined within the target computer itself. Trojan horses and other such software. To erase all files on a disc. by destroying data. The term “virus” is often extended to refer to worms. Now. Now. hold down the “Ctrl” key while you click the files you want. When the disc burning is complete. Viruses are one of the several types of malicious software. using someone else’s credit card. whereas viruses infect or corrupt files on a targeted computer. A virus can infect different parts of the computer’s operating and file system. Virus Protection What is a Computer Virus? A computer virus is a self-replicating computer program that spreads by inserting copies of itself into other executable code or documents. click “Burn to disc”. click “Next” Erasing a CD A rewriteable CD may be erased and written many times. for example. A “Trojan Horse” is a malicious program that is disguised as or embedded within legitimate software. on the toolbar. click “Next”. COM or EXE file. a worm is self-contained and does not need to be part of another program to spread itself.

This software typically uses two different techniques to accomplish this. network-borne worms are more common than viruses. Onscreen instructions guide you through the installation process. Even if CDs are read only. the files on them may already be infected. MacAfee. Internet security suites are available to protect you against all these hazards. has in turn expanded to cover worms and other threats such as spyware. Once installed. AVG Antivirus and Quick Heal. The first step towards making your computer safe while you are on the Internet is to install an Internet security suite. the software is automatically activated each time you start your computer. Anti-virus software. Some of the popular antivirus packages are Norton Antivirus. An infected file is either deleted or quarantined (i. with an emphasis on the virus dictionary approach. The second is identifying suspicious behavior from any computer program which might indicate infection. Most commercial antivirus software uses both of these approaches. It controls how frequently your computer is scanned for viruses. “VirusScan” is one of the programs included in an Internet security suite. before copying data to your hard disk.automatically plays. You must keep your antivirus program updated by downloading the latest releases by your antivirus program vendor. moved into a protected area where it won’t cause any more harm). It is important to regularly scan your computer using a good anti-virus program. port monitoring and other methods. Antivirus software consists of computer programs that attempt to identify and eliminate computer viruses and other malicious software. Always scan floppies and CDs for viruses. Fortunately. The first is scanning all files to look for known viruses matching definitions in a virus dictionary. Such analysis may include data captures. or downloads advertising material to a computer. 176 | P a g e . This can be installed either by downloading from the Internet or from a disc provided by the vendor. originally designed to protect computers from viruses. due to the popularity of the Internet. When a file is checked. Today.e. displays. identity theft and adware. it is compared to the profile of known viruses. It continually works to ensure your security and privacy. Virus Protection Are you worried that the precious data computer on your computer could be destroyed due to a virus attack? Did you know that your private e-mail could also be intercepted by unauthorized persons? It is even possible for others to gain control over your computer system. You are alerted when any possible threat is detected.

There’s nothing worse than buying a CD after you have heard a good song. You can use it to block certain Web sites. A sound card and speakers (or earphones) are also required to hear audio. 177 | P a g e . Playing video or sound in real time as it is transferred to your computer over the World Wide Web is called “Streaming”. Because these music files are compressed. Second. If you hear a great song on the radio. It allows access only to authorized users and applications. First. Using Windows Update: “Windows Update” is software designed to keep your computer current and more secure by automatically downloading and installing the latest security and feature updates from Microsoft. To listen to music. All done Downloading Music Rather than traveling to a store to buy a music CD. Getting More from Your Computer Listening to Music You can use your computer for lots more than just computational activities. Streaming has two advantages over downloading. buying online is fast and convenient. This means you can store thousands of songs without running out of hard drive space. “Privacy Service” is another program included in an Internet security suite that helps protect your privacy online. if so desired. only to find it’s the only good song in the album. You can hear the music as soon as your player starts receiving the stream.A “Personal Firewall” is a program that controls network traffic to and from a computer system. no files are left on your computer to take up space. a large hard drive is not required to store them. You may also listen to music online. you can always copy music to a CD to free up space. prevent sensitive information from being sent over the Internet and block unwanted advertisements. there is no download wait when streaming. you may use your Windows Media Player or download other players such as Winamp and Real Player from the Internet. By downloading from the Internet. you can log onto one of the music sites and download it within seconds. You may run Windows Update by connecting to the Internet and selecting “All Programs → Windows Update” from the Start menu. Streaming requires a powerful computer and a fast connection since the file is not stored on your computer. Audio files in mp3 and Windows Media Audio (WMA) format are optimized for storing music in compressed format. you can choose to purchase individual songs. However. after the music has finished playing.

net and music. listen to a sample to make sure it’s the one you want before downloading it. you will be prompted to type in a valid credit card number to pay for the music. While downloading music. To stop recording. There are many popular sites for music lovers such as MusicSites. you must respect copyright laws. there are others from which you can download legal music. Size and move the television window and control box window.The best way to find the music you want on the internet is to use a search engine. you could be subject to steep fines or other penalties. If it is not a free download. you may create a large music collection on your computer. By downloading music. It can be copied on CDs or a digital MP3 player so that you can take it wherever you wish. spyware and other unwanted software. For this. Once a song is found.lycos. You must specify the location on your computer to store the downloaded file. enabling the recording of television programs onto a hard disk. For this. click the “TV” icon on the desktop. double-click the file to play it. Some cheaper tuners cannot do much of the signal processing and rely on the systems CPU for that task. each version is designed for the radio frequencies and video formats used in each country. tuner. or distribution to other computer users. specify the location on your computer in which you wish to save the video clip by clicking the “Properties” button. Broadcasts can also be digitally recorded by the computer for later replay. You may capture a video playing in the TV window into a digital file. A Download Manager window shows the progress of the download. Then select the channel. Although many sites offer pirated music. Most internal tuners do all the low level demodulation needed to convert a radio signal into an on-screen image using a hardware chip and do not need to use the CPU. demodulator. 178 | P a g e . The card contains a receiver. you may view your favorite TV shows. and they could be exposing your computer to viruses. Many TV tuners can function as FM radios. TV Tuner Card A “TV tuner card” is a computer component that allows television signals to be received by a computer. Most TV tuners also function as video capture cards. Then click the “Record” button to start recording. and an analog-to-digital converter for analog TV. Like TV sets. This means that your computer can serve both as a computing device as well as a television. even while running other applications. Once a TV tuner card has been installed. If you are downloading pirated digital files. Once downloaded. click the “Stop” button. You may include video clips from television as part of a presentation.com.

These are mostly related to commercial advertising. Now in the “Media Clip” group. Today. as well as for providing value-added services such as reminders for payments. PC to Mobile: Sending SMS SMS is an abbreviation for “Short Message Service”. You require Internet connectivity and an SMS service provider to be able to send an SMS from your PC to a mobile phone. you may use it in any way you like. using an "SMS gateway" website. These programs use a variety of approaches to identify and eliminate spam. or from the Internet. This service is available on digital Global System for Mobile (GSM) networks allowing text messages to be sent and received via the network operators’ message center to your mobile phone. some countries have anti-spam laws as part of their legal system. The Mozilla Thunderbird e-mail 179 | P a g e . paging. There are numerous sites providing paid SMS services. This has limited impact because a lot of spam originates from other countries as well. Then size and move the image of the clip as required. Let us insert the clip in a presentation. current events. Spam Blocking Software In an attempt to control spam. like many other valuable technologies does have some drawbacks. This unwelcome junk mail is called “spam”. You have to register with a site in order to send SMS using the interface provided. If the phone is powered off or out of range. and voice mail systems. sports news and much more. SMS is a very popular service. get-richquick schemes. What is Spam? E-mail. messages are stored in the network and are delivered at the next available opportunity.Once you have saved the video clip. click the “Movie” icon. often for products of questionable quality. SMS is used by organizations for marketing. Navigate to your clip and press “OK”. information about flight delays. To play the video clip. mail it as an attachment or include it in a presentation. We often receive many unwanted e-mails. or something similar. A more effective approach has been the development and use of “Spam Blockers”. For this open the presentation file and click on the “Insert” tab. You may add it to a Web page. Choose “When Clicked” in the window displayed. There are others that provide this service free of cost as well. It is a globally accepted wireless service for sending messages of up to 160 alphanumeric characters between mobile subscribers and external systems such as email. you may click on its image anytime during the presentation. particularly among young people.

a list of e-mail addresses that should never be blocked. Now click “OK”. Creating a Junk Folder: You may choose to move new junk messages to a separate folder. Thunderbird displays an alert stating that remote images have been blocked.com” comes with built-in spam blocking software. When you have received a message in your Inbox which you consider to be spam.program which is available for free download at “www.e. What is Speech Recognition? Are you tired of typing lengthy documents using your keyboard? Now. and the images in the message body are replaced with simple place-holders. Once spammers know that your e-mail address is valid. you need to do three things: set up your microphone. 180 | P a g e . To set up your computer for Windows Speech Recognition. Training Spam Blocking Software: After you install Mozilla Thunderbird. such as those of family and friends. under “Local Folders”. select “Tools → Account Settings” from the menu. Check the box against “Move new junk messages to:”. all you need to do is click the "Show Images" or "Load Images" button that appears to the right of the alert message. Check the box against “Do not mark mail as junk if the sender is in:”. By default. This ability to accept voice input is called “Speech Recognition”. Similar messages will be marked as spam in future. click “Junk Settings”. In the left panel. Mozilla Thunderbird will become more efficient in recognizing spam and taking appropriate action. under “Local Folders”. click “Junk Settings”. When you receive a message with remote images. To specify a white list. Specifying Friends: You may create a “White List” i. After reviewing your actions for several weeks. You can verbally say commands that the computer will respond to. Then make a selection from “Personal Address Book” or “Collected Addresses” which contains the addresses of all viewed mail messages. Then make a selection for the location of the Junk folder and click “OK”. You can use your voice to control your computer. simply select it and click the “Not Junk” icon. For this. you need to have a microphone connected to your computer. they will continue to send mails. select it and then click the “Junk” icon on the toolbar. learn how to talk to your computer. If you do want to view the remote images. Blocking Images: Some e-mail messages contain images that let spammers know that you have received them. In the left panel. you need to train it to recognize unwanted messages. An icon appears between the Sender and Date fields indicating that the message is spam. For this select “Tools → Account Settings” from the menu.mozilla. The spam indicator is then removed. you have an alternative. and you can dictate text to the computer. Thunderbird blocks remote images in messages. If at any time you decide that the message is not spam.

and train your computer to understand your speech. Speech Recognition is available only in English and a few other languages. Setting up your microphone: Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Ease of Access”. Now select “Speech Recognition Options → Set up microphone” and follow the instructions in the wizard. Learning to talk to your computer: Windows comes with a speech training tutorial to teach you the commands used with Speech Recognition. To run the tutorial, click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Ease of Access”. Now select “Speech Recognition Options → Take Speech Tutorial” and follow the instructions in the tutorial. Training your computer to recognize your speech: Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Ease of Access”. Now select “Speech Recognition Options → Train your computer to better understand you” and follow the instructions in the wizard. Controlling your computer: Speech Recognition listens and responds to your spoken commands. You can use Speech Recognition to run programs and interact with Windows. There are various commands you can use with Speech Recognition such as selecting a menu option, clicking or doubleclicking an item, switching to an open program, scrolling up and down and many more. Dictating text: You can use your voice to dictate text to your computer. For example, you can dictate text to fill out online forms or dictate text to a word processing program to type a letter. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Accessories”. Now select “Ease of Access → Windows Speech Recognition”. A window appears at the top of the screen which shows you the working of the speech recognition software. To start dictating, open the program you want to use or select the text box you want to dictate text into and then begin speaking. What is Digital Video Editing? In the past, when you needed to compile movies or required professionalquality editing of home videos, you required the services of photo labs or studios. You can now manage this on your own using special software. “Digital Video Editing” is the process of editing videos on a computer using digital video editing software. The process of Digital Video Editing involves three steps. 1. Input: Captured video and audio files are sent to the system unit for processing. 2. Editing: The files are subdivided into a series of clips that can be merged to form a new file and special effects can be added.

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3. Output: The edited video is stored on hard disks or optical disks for later viewing or additional editing. Windows Movie Maker Windows Movie Maker is a feature of Windows Vista that enables you to create home movies and slide shows on your computer, complete with professional-looking titles, transitions, effects, music, and even narration. You can also use Windows Movie Maker to publish your movies and share them with your friends and family. Start the application by clicking the “Start” button and selecting “All Programs → Windows Movie Maker”. On the left is the “Tasks pane” which you can use to perform common tasks related to Digital Video Editing. Capturing Video: You may import a video from your digital video camera to your computer. First, connect your camera in playback mode to your computer. Then, from the “Import” group in the Tasks pane, click “From digital video camera” and follow the on-screen instructions. The video on the camera tape is encoded into a video file and saved to your computer’s hard disk. The “Contents pane” in the center shows clips, effects, or transitions youre working with while you create your movie. The area at the bottom where you create and edit your movie is displayed in two views, the “Storyboard” and the “Timeline”. To switch views, use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl + T”. The storyboard is the default view. You can use this to look at the sequence or ordering of the clips and easily rearrange them. This view also lets you see any video effects or video transitions that have been added. Audio clips are not displayed on the storyboard, but you can see them in the timeline view. Editing a Movie: Each movie is stored as a separate project. If you make changes to a clip, those changes are only reflected in the current project; they do not affect the source file. You can drag clips and pictures from the Contents pane to the storyboard and arrange them for your current project. To add a special effect, click on “Effects” in the Task pane and drag the effect you require to the storyboard. A transition controls how your movie plays from one video clip or picture to the next. To add a transition, click on “Transition” and drag the transition to the transition cell between two clips or pictures. The preview monitor on the right enables you to view individual clips or an entire project. By using the preview monitor, you can preview your project before publishing it as a movie. You can also drag clips to the preview monitor to play them. You can use the buttons underneath the preview monitor to play or pause a clip, or to move a clip frame-by-frame. The “Split”
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button allows you to split a clip into two parts at the point displayed in the preview monitor. Publishing a Movie: Once you movie is complete, you may create a DVD to share it with others. For this you would need a DVD writer and some special software such as Sonic MyDVD or Windows DVD Maker. Insert a recordable DVD into your DVD writer. Then, from the “Publish to” group in the Tasks pane, click “Recordable CD” and complete the steps to publish your movie. Understanding Terms and Technologies Netizens Today, the Internet is an integral part of our lives. As a powerful communications medium, the Internet offers great possibilities for social change. The term “Netizen” is now used regularly. This word has been created using the two words “Net” and “Citizen”. So a Netizen is a citizen of the world, thanks to the global connectivity that the Internet offers. A Netizen is also known as a “Cybercitizen”. Netizens physically live in one country but are in contact with much of the world via the global computer network. Virtually, they live next door to every other single netizen in the world. Geographical distances do not have much significance since everyone exists in the same virtual space - Cyberspace. The term “Netizen” indicates civic responsibility and participation. Netizens try to be conducive to the Internets use and growth. They use the Internet to engage in various intellectual and social activities such as giving and receiving viewpoints and furnishing information. Blogs The term "blog" is a contraction of "Web log." A weblog is a journal or newsletter that is frequently updated and intended for general public use. Blogs have reshaped the web and enabled millions of people to have a voice and connect with others. A typical blog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, web pages, and other related media. Most blogs are primarily textual although some focus on photographs (photoblog), videos (vlog), or audio (podcasting) and are part of a wider network of social media. A blog gives you your own voice on the web. Its a place to collect and share things that you find interesting — whether its your political views, a personal diary, or links to web sites you want to remember. Blogs often provide commentary or news on a particular subject, such as food, politics, or local news; some function as personal online diaries. Journalists often use blogs to publish breaking news, while others reveal inner thoughts through blogs. There are three main features of a blog. The first is reverse chronological order. This means that latest entries are displayed at the top. The second feature is unfiltered content. Opinions are given freely without any
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legal or otherwise. Infotainment or “soft news” refers to a part of the news trade that provides information in a way that is considered entertaining to its viewers. games which involve problem solving experiences with gentle intelligent creatures may be referred to as edutainment. such as multimedia encyclopedias or reference disks. Edutainment “Edutainment” refers to educational entertainment or entertainmenteducation. websites. Cyberspace 184 | P a g e . computer and video games. etc. music. It is a form of entertainment designed to educate as well as to amuse. multimedia software. The term “Edutainment” is used to distinguish regular computer games from more educational software. Edutainment is also used to refer to the use of elearning modules to put across concepts in an entertaining manner. Infotainment “Infotainment” is a term applied to software that seeks to inform and entertain simultaneously. films. Edutainment is normally used to provide education related to one or more specific subjects. The third feature is comments. Many non-fiction CD-ROM titles are classified as infotainment. They have videos and lessons that use edutainment as a basis for teaching in a more efficient and faster way. Edutainment makes learning enjoyable. Infotainment is a combination of information and entertainment. along with celebrity interviews and human drama stories. Edutainment seeks to instruct by using some familiar form of entertainment such as television programs. There are also blogs on edutainment that give the latest news and updates on available software. Examples include educational software for children that teach them to spell or count while playing games and CD-ROMs about machines that contain animations showing how the machines work.restrictions. travel or shopping that are not actually "news" at all. It refers to a general type of broadcast program which consists of both "hard news" segments and interviews. Comments can be made on any issue discussed on the blog or from outside. Other stories may deal with current trends such as a shift in political views or a change in the attitudes of teenagers. Infotainment may include information related to topics such as health tips or gardening tips. On the other hand. It consists of an informal group of rules and ways of behaving on the Internet. Netiquette “Netiquette” or Network etiquette is etiquette on the Internet. It attempts to minimize the dryness of regular news coverage by adding a certain amount of light-hearted or sensational style. Fast moving shooting games are not edutainment.

under-the-hood diagnostics can be performed while a car is speeding along a track. So. Respect the time and bandwidth of others: “Bandwidth” is the informationcarrying capacity of the channels that connect everyone in cyberspace. Follow the same standards of behavior online that you follow in real life. For example. and sound. You must remember that your communication via email or on discussion groups involves written words. For example. Give people the benefit of the doubt. when you accidentally post a note to a newsgroup five times. but try not to hurt people’s feelings. always be cautious with your words. As a result. Always try to be polite: You may stand up for yourself when you have been wronged. They should not misuse this to read private email.whether it involves a spelling error or asking a stupid question or giving an unnecessarily long answer. naturally you wouldn’t read anyone’s email. Some people in cyberspace such as system administrators have more power than others. Not knowing the rules for behaving properly online might result in unintentionally offending or misunderstanding someone. mechanics can know what parts needed to be replaced even before the car has come in for servicing. There’s a limit to the amount of data that can be carried at a given moment.has its own culture. Be tolerant: Everyone makes mistakes -. you would wasting both bandwidth and the time of the people who have to check all copies of the posting. Respect the privacy of others: In the same way as you wouldn’t wish to snoop through your colleagues desk drawers. you may make use of a gadget to make your off-key singing sound really melodious! These are just a few of the huge advancements in technology. Technology Today Today. Be tolerant and if you do decide to inform someone of a mistake. video clips. It now has an additional dimension. there are loads of gadgets and new technologies that can equip you to deal with nearly every personal or business contingency. Think before writing: The most important rule relevant to e-mail marketing is not to send promotional messages to anyone who has not agreed to receive them. Let us have a look at some of the core rules of Netiquette. Reading is not what it used to be in the past. There are chances that theyre stored at the other end and may be used for purposes that you did not intend. point it out politely and preferably by private email rather than in public. Even if you are not a great singer. 185 | P a g e . Digital versions of books are available complete with pictures.

In the displayed window. Before you can share files with a contact. To create a sharing folder. Till date. ICQ. For this. browse to the file you wish to share and press “Open”. Sharing Files: You can share files with your contacts by using the “Sharing Folders” feature. To hold a video conference. VoIP allows users to not only talk but also broadcast video conferences via the Web. we learnt to send instant messages using Windows Live Messenger. Your contact is given an option to accept the file. Your contact is given an option to accept the video conference. click the “Show Menu” icon at the right end of the toolbar and select “File → Send a single file”. Google talk etc. Using a Webcam: In addition to text communication. Messenger allows you to have a voice or video conversation with an online contact. Chatting and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). click the “Show Menu” icon at the right end of the toolbar in the Conversation window and select “Actions → Video → Start a Video Call”. the video conference begins. There are different instant messengers available such as Yahoo messenger. both you and your contact can access it. Instant Messaging enables you to have a conversation with another person or a group of people concurrently. click the “Add Files” button. it is possibly the best-selling digital 186 | P a g e . Browse for the file you would like to share and click “Open”. It is similar to e-mail. the file is transferred to him. When he does so. You and your contact can access all the files in the shared folder at any time. This enables you to see and hear your contact. Windows Live Messenger. If both parties are online at the same time. you can have a complete conversation.It is possible to easily contact and communicate with people you do not even know using technologies such as Instant Messaging (IM). both you and your contact need to have a microphone and speakers. You may also drag the files you wish to share with your contact into the “Sharing Folders” window. The difference is that you can send and receive messages as soon as they are typed. In the Conversation window. You may also exchange files with your contacts in the course of your conversation. even if one of you is offline. click the “Show Menu” icon at the right end of the toolbar in the Conversation window and select “Actions → Create a sharing folder”. Transferring files: In the “Internet” topic. 2001. When your contact agrees to share the file. as well as Web cameras for video conferencing. Podcasting and RSS iPod: iPod is a brand of portable media players created by Apple and launched on October 23. In the “Sharing Folders” window. iPods. both you and your contact must agree to share files with each other by creating sharing folders. When he does so.

games. The term “Podcast” is derived from the words ‘iPod and ‘broadcast. click “Music” in the “Library” list and drag them to “iPod” in the left panel. They store music files internally. or any portable music player . videos. but to create a podcast or even to listen to one. Connect your iPod to your computer. 187 | P a g e . Now select your playlist and click the “Play” button at the top to hear your music. iTunes starts automatically. “iPod touch” is a model which has a touch screen. Select your playlist and click the “Burn Disc” button at the bottom right. other than the iPod touch. talk shows or anything else. First. Using iTunes: Let us learn how to use Apple’s iTunes software. it is not mandatory to possess an iPod. An important feature about podcasting is that you can subscribe to a series so that it automatically downloads on to your computer and MP3 player. You can also purchase digital music files from within iTunes. you may create a custom CD. Click the “Create a playlist” button at the bottom-left corner and enter a name for your playlist. They vary in size and features. Finding Music: Select “iTunes Store” in the left panel and follow the onscreen instructions to locate and purchase music files. Put simply. iPod is a music player and more. you need to connect to “www. iPods. Creating a Custom CD: Using iTunes.audio player series in history. Podcasting: “Podcasting” is a new type of online media delivery which consists of free audio and video broadcasts. The smaller iPods like “nano” and “shuffle” use flash memory which is a non-volatile memory device. Devices in the iPod family are designed according to the latest demands and technology. Now click on the “Burn Disc” button once more. Click “Music” in the “Library” list in the left panel to view your songs. Apples “iTunes” software is used to transfer music to the devices. Insert a blank CD into your CD drive. You would need to have a CD Writer on your computer for this. “iPod classic” is a model which has a hard-drive. To transfer individual music files. iTunes stores a music library on the users computer and can play and write music from a CD.com” and follow the on-screen instructions for downloading and installing the iTunes software. Digital media players are lightweight digital storage devices that do not require cassettes or disks.apple. It also transfers photos. podcasting allows you to download files onto your computer and MP3 player which can contain music. can also serve as external data storage devices. Drag songs you would like to hear to your playlist. and calendars to those iPod models that support them. Uploading to a Digital Media Player: Another way to carry your favorite tunes is to upload them to your iPod using iTunes. This is one of the ways in which you can take your favorite tunes with you.

Bluetooth is essentially a cable-replacement technology which tries to solve this problem. Odeo. using the Internet. homes and everywhere else. It creates a wireless personal area network (PAN) and provides a way to connect and exchange information between two devices over distances of about 30 feet. with a short range.Podcasting enables you to compile all your favorite music. Podnova and Feedburner to subscribe to your favorite podcasts. They may also be used in story telling for children or the visually-impaired. radio programs and news stories and you may listen to them whenever and wherever you wish. Bluetooth and Wi-Fi have slightly different applications. It was originally developed for use by wireless devices and local networks but it is now used for Internet access as well. RSS is a method of publishing content on frequently updated web sites. Wi-Fi: “Wi-Fi” is short for "Wireless Fidelity" and is a set of standards for wireless local area networks. Bluetooth vs. for Commentaries. Short for Really Simple Syndication (or Rich Site Summary). It is a radio standard and communications protocol primarily designed for low power consumption. We often have a hard time trying to figure out which cable needs to go where. Sportscasts and lots more. Juice. Some browsers also include the RSS reading functions. Using this technology. Podcasts are downloaded via a feed such as RSS. You can use podcasting software such as iTunes. Podcasts can be used for a number of different things such as creation of informational. have all mobile and fixed computer devices in total co-ordination. in general. printers. which will then be automatically downloaded for you. and. Users access headlines and see web site updates via an RSS reader which is an application that displays a short summary and provides links to the full article on the Web site. 188 | P a g e . users of cellular phones can buy a multi-purpose phone that can serve as a portable phone and also be used to get information from a computer. It aims to simplify data synchronization between Internet devices and other computers. Today. film reviews. technologies like Podcasting empower you with a voice that can literally reach around the world. instructional and promotional material. Conceived initially by Ericsson. Such software is available for free download from the Internet. Bluetooth & Wi-Fi Technology “Bluetooth” is the name of a new technology that promises to change the way we use machines. mobile phones. Bluetooth is a small. cheap radio chip to be plugged into computers. We see a large number of cables in our offices. etc. This allows users to "subscribe" to a site so that they can quickly scan the updated headlines and then go to specific articles of interest. RSS Feeds: A “web feed” is a data format used for providing users with frequently updated content.

189 | P a g e . and Internet connection that you have. It consists of 195 independent language editions sponsored by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. Using the Network: Once your network has been installed. Installing the Network: The steps to install the network are as follows. A home network is commonly used to share files. Wikipedia has grown rapidly into one of the largest reference Web sites. computers are commonly found in homes. It offers quick understanding on various issues and current affairs. 2) Set up an Internet connection: If you want to use your network to share an Internet connection. 1) Install the Hardware: Install network adapters in the computers that need them by following the installation instruction manuals that come with the adapters. It is the result of the combined efforts of an online community of people interested in building a high-quality encyclopedia in a spirit of mutual respect. but with higher power resulting in a stronger connection. Open the “Connect to the Internet” wizard and follow the instructions. 3) Connect the computers: There are several ways to connect computers depending on the type of network adapters. but requires more expensive hardware and higher power consumption. 4) Run the “Set Up a Wireless Router or Access Point” wizard: If your network is wireless. modem. you can use a home network to share files and printers and play multiplayer computer games.Wi-Fi uses the same radio frequencies as Bluetooth. multilingual encyclopedia written by contributors around the world. printers and Internet access as well as to run multiplayer computer games. If you have more than one computer. Home Networking Today. It also depends on whether or not you want to share an Internet connection among all the computers on the network. It covers greater distances. It is a web-based free content. you need to set up the connection first. It enables a faster connection. Since its creation in 2001. you may use it to share different resources. you need a cable or DSL modem and an account with an Internet service provider (ISP). run the “Set up a Wireless Router or Access Point” wizard on the computer attached to the router. Home networks allow multiple users to access the Internet at the same time. For this. and offers better security than Bluetooth. Popular Websites Wikipedia “Wikipedia” is one of the most popular reference sites on the Internet.

Simply click a link to view the related page. while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos.com. provided it is not potentially offensive. You see a page which displays links to other pages. Anyone is welcome to add information as long as they do so within Wikipedias editing policies. There are a number of other video sharing sites but so far. you must include appropriate references. Started in 2005. none of them have been able to match the cultural impact or enormous volumes of YouTube.youtube. using Wikipedia. This encyclopedia can be found at www. The visitors to this site are mostly teenagers and young adults. Unregistered users can watch most videos on the site. YouTube YouTube is a website that specializes in publishing user-posted video clips. singing.com. On the lefthand side of the screen you can see a “search” box with two buttons under it labeled "Go" and "Search". Let us click on “English”. if you add information to an article. YouTube discourages users from downloading videos to their own computers. and in other creative ways. YouTube’s phenomenal appeal lies in its simplicity and global reach. While much of the content consists of original amateur videos. Various people have used YouTube to achieve celebrity status by dancing. Content is meticulously appraised and inappropriate changes are removed. 190 | P a g e .This is a special type of website. Repeat offenders may be blocked from editing. Here you will most likely find all the information you need. It is one of the top ten most popular websites on the Internet. preferring that they watch videos online. professional content is now being provided by some advertisers and media producers. Its slogan is “Broadcast Yourself” meaning that everyone is free to broadcast whatever they wish. Browsing through the loads of available videos is simple and uploading your own video is almost as simple. called a “Wiki” where anybody can edit and add to an article. This will take you directly to Wikipedias most relevant article on the entered keyword. For example. posting video resumes. So. Type “Einstein” into the box. you can research on any topic with great ease. click “Search” after you have entered your keyword.wikipedia. the site was purchased one year later by Google. Let us look for information related to the great scientist Albert Einstein. If you wish to look up additional Wikipedia pages. It can be found at www. and press enter or click “Go”. Many people are constantly improving Wikipedia content. Select the language of your choice to go to the Main Page.

YouTube has been the focus of controversies related to some sensitive political and personal issues. the site has been banned in a few countries. *****THE END**** 191 | P a g e . Because of this.Like most other social-networking sites.

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