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ALL ABOUT COMPUTERS
Introduction to Computers The purpose of this course is to help you become competent with computer technology. Computer competency refers to acquiring computer-related skills. They include the effective use of popular application packages and the Internet. Today, computer competency is undoubtedly a prerequisite in all walks of life. To begin with, you must understand the impact of computers in the world today. Computers are affecting our lives is some way or the other. Airline and railway reservations, telephone and electricity bills, banking, medical diagnoses, weather forecasts… the list of services using computers is almost endless. A computer is a device that allows you to input data, process data quickly and efficiently, receive outputs and store data. Thus a computer consists of one or more input devices, output devices, storage devices and a processing unit.

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WINDOWS VISTA
WINDOWS BASICS What is an Operating System? Mac

Other Operating Systems Mac OS: “Mac OS” is the trademarked name for a series of graphical user interface-based operating systems developed by Apple Inc. for their Macintosh line of computer systems. The Macintosh user experience is credited with popularizing the graphical user interface. It is a powerful, easyto-use operating system that is popular with professional graphic designers, desktop publishers and many home users. One of the latest versions of the Macintosh operating system is “Mac OS X”, also known as “Tiger”. It provides powerful features such as “Spotlight” and “Dashboard Widgets”. Spotlight is an advanced search tool that can rapidly locate files, folders, e-mail messages, addresses and much more. Dashboard
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Widgets are specialized programs that constantly update and display information. The next version of Mac OS, “Leopard” includes “Boot Camp” which allows appropriately equipped Apple computers to use both Mac OS and Windows XP. UNIX and Linux: UNIX is a powerful multitasking operating system that was developed in 1969. It was originally designed to run on minicomputers in network environments. Now, it is also used by powerful microcomputers and Web servers. Linux is a popular version of UNIX. It was initially created as a hobby in 1991 by a graduate student, Linus Torvalds, at the University of Helsinki in Finland. He allowed free distribution of the operating system code and encouraged others to modify and further develop the code. Introduction to Windows Vista Windows Vista has a more elegant and sophisticated looked than all previous versions of Windows. The new Vista interface is great to look at, with a lot of added functionality making working in Vista a really pleasant experience -and a more secure one. Windows Aero: This is the graphical user interface for Windows Vista. Its name is a contraction of the words Authentic, Energetic, Reflective and Open. It includes new transparencies, live thumbnails, live icons and animations which are visually very appealing. Glass window borders and surfaces make the interface both professional and beautiful. Windows Sidebar: This is a long, vertical bar that is displayed on the side of your desktop. It contains mini-programs called gadgets, which offer information at a glance and provide easy access to frequently used tools. To add a gadget, right-click on the side bar and select “Add Gadget”. Now simply drag a gadget from the Gadget gallery onto the sidebar. To remove a gadget from the sidebar, move your mouse over it and click on the “X” sign next to it. Additional gadgets can also be downloaded from the Microsoft Gadgets website by clicking on “Get more gadgets online”. Search Boxes: Search boxes are prominently integrated into Windows Explorer, the Start menu, Control Panel, Windows Internet Explorer and Help. So no matter where you are, you can always search for related files, folders or information. Two types of searches are supported: Regular search, where a search is performed when you click the “Search” button, and Instant search, where the results are displayed immediately as you type.
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It helps to protect you from the effects of a disk failure. In the displayed window. b) “Antivirus programs” that guard against programs that can damage your computer system. Under “System and Maintenance”. Specify the location where you wish to store the backup and click “Next”. specify the file types that you wish to backup and click “Next”. Disk Cleanup is used to remove unnecessary files on your hard disk to free up disk space and help your computer run faster. click “Change settings”. Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel”.Utilities: “Utilities” are specialized programs designed to make computing easier. c) “Uninstall programs” that allow you to safely remove programs that you do not need from your hard disk. You may backup your entire computer by clicking “Back up computer”. The “Backup Status and Configuration” window is displayed. To backup specific files. 4| Page . you may use the “Back up files” button. To enter settings regarding where the backup is to be stored and which files are to be backed up. and Disk Defragmenter is used to rearrange your files so that they are not broken up. Click “Change backup settings”. e) “File compression programs” that reduce the size of files for easy storage and transfer over the Internet. There are various utility programs such as: a) “Troubleshooting” or “diagnostic programs” that recognize and correct problems before they become serious. Now click “Save settings and start backup” to begin the backup process. Backup “Backup” is a utility program included with Windows Vista that makes a copy of all or selected files that have been saved onto a disk. Windows Vista has maintenance utilities such as “Disk Cleanup” and “Disk Defragmenter”. Click “Continue” in the “User Account Control” window. d) “Backup programs” that make copies of files to be used in the event of the originals being lost. Specify how often and when you wish to take a backup. click “Back up your computer”.

click “Delete Files”. Then select the drive you want to clean up and click “OK”. this is not always possible and the file has to be broken up or fragmented. “Disk Defragmenter” is a utility program that eliminates unnecessary fragments and rearranges files and unused disk space to optimize operations. “Disk Cleanup” is a utility that eliminates such files and frees up valuable disk space and improves system performance. The operating system tries to save a file on a single track across contiguous sectors i. Whenever a file is retrieved. sectors that are adjacent to each other. many nonessential files are saved on your hard disk. However. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Accessories → System Tools → Disk Defragmenter”. Verify the files and click “OK”. Disk Defragmenter Files are stored and organized on a disk according to “tracks” and “sectors”. To specify which partitions of your hard disk you wish to defragment. Click “Continue” in the “User Account Control” window. To start the defragmentation process. You may modify the scheduled time for defragmentation by clicking “Modify schedule”. The space that will be made free by the cleanup is calculated and the files suggested for cleanup are displayed. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Accessories → System Tools → Disk Cleanup”. In the displayed window specify whether all files or only your files are to be cleaned up. A track is a concentric ring. In the displayed window.Disk Cleanup When you surf the Web. click “Defragment now” and click “OK” in the displayed window. the hard disk becomes highly fragmented and results in slower operations. it is reconstructed from the fragments. click “Select volumes”. After a period of time. It runs automatically at a scheduled time by default.e. Each track is divided into wedge-shaped sections called sectors. 5| Page . The disk cleanup process begins and the selected files are removed. into small parts that are stored wherever space is available.

Norton SystemWorks and V Communications.Utility Suites: A “Utility Program” performs a specific task. history files and cookies. Existing viruses are removed and the virus list is automatically updated so that your system is checked for the newest viruses. as well as clean up your hard disk. locate lost files and repair damaged files. Norton SystemWorks The Norton SystemWorks utility suite includes the following: “Norton AntiVirus” is a collection of antivirus programs that can protect your system from different viruses. “Web CleanUp” is a collection of programs that remove unnecessary files from your computer such as temporary files. When a new device such as a mouse or a printer is added 6| Page . Three popular utility suites are McAfee Office. Device Drivers: “Device drivers” are specialized programs designed to allow particular input or output devices to communicate with the rest of the computer system. Viruses enter your computer in various ways such as opening e-mail attachments and downloading from the Internet. “Norton CleanSweep” is a collection of programs that help you to safely remove programs that you do not need. They protect existing files from damage when new programs are installed. “Norton Utilities” is a collection of separate troubleshooting utilities that can be used to prevent and fix problems and improve system performance. These suites also include programs that protect your system from dangerous programs called computer “viruses”. “One Button Checkup” integrates several of the separate utilities. it is known as a “Utility Suite”. “GoBack Personal Edition” can be used to restore system configurations. Buying the package is less expensive than buying the programs separately. It is a quick evaluation that looks for typical PC problems and alerts you accordingly. These protection programs are loaded into memory and run continually in the background and monitor all operations looking for actions associated with viruses. When several utility programs are combined into a single package. They also compress and make backups of programs. Virus protection programs set up a barrier to viruses attempting to enter a computer system.

to a computer system, a new device driver must be installed before it can be used. Each time the computer system is started, the operating system loads all device drivers into memory. Windows supplies many device drivers which are automatically installed when a new device is connected. If a particular device driver is not included with the Windows systems software, it is supplied by the manufacturer of the product. When a device driver needs to be manually installed, wizards provided by Window assist you in the process. For example, the “Add Printer” wizard provides step-by-step guidance for installing a driver for a printer. Ex.: Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel”. Under “Hardware and Sound”, click “Printer”. Click the “Add a printer” button on the toolbar to display the “Add Printer” wizard. Follow the onscreen instructions to install the driver. Sometimes, when your computer behaves unpredictably, you could try reinstalling or updating your device drivers. Windows makes it easy to update your drivers using “Windows Update”. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Windows Update”. In the left pane, click “Check for updates”. To see if updated drivers are available, click “View available updates”. Windows Update will list any updated drivers that are available for devices installed in your computer. If updates are available, click the driver that you want to install, and then click “Install”. Some of the security and safety features of Windows Vista are as follows: Windows Defender: This is a software product which is a part of Windows Vista. It is designed to prevent and remove spyware. Spyware on your computer could result in information being transmitted from your computer without your knowledge. Windows Firewall: This helps in guarding your computer against many types of malicious software. User Account Control: This is an infrastructure that requires user consent before allowing any action that requires administrative privileges such as installing new software or changing system settings. Parental controls: An administrator can apply parental control restrictions to other users on the computer. Facilities include web content blocking,
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restrictions on what kind of games may be played and what programs may be executed. Exploring the Desktop Desktop When your computer is booted up and ready to use, the screen you see is called the “Desktop”. It is the background for all programs and contains the commands needed for accessing those programs. The background graphic is called “Wallpaper”. The desktop can be customized to suit individual needs.

Icon Another important graphic feature that you find on the desktop is an “Icon”. Icons are small pictures that are linked to programs. Most icons and toolbar buttons display a “Tool Tip” containing a brief description of the item when you rest the mouse pointer on it. Double-clicking on the icon runs the program or accesses the file and rightclicking accesses a menu offering options, actions and properties. Icons can be moved around on the desktop by clicking and dragging them. Vista’s live icons graphically depict the content of files stored on your computer.

Recycle Bin The "Recycle Bin" on the desktop serves as a trash can. When you delete a file or folder, it goes into the Recycle Bin where it stays until the bin is emptied. Double-clicking on the icon opens a window that shows you its contents. If you delete something you shouldn't have, you can find it in the Recycle Bin and restore it to its proper place. When the Recycle Bin is emptied, everything in it is permanently deleted.

Taskbar At the bottom of the screen, you see a long, thin bar which is called the “Taskbar”. The currently active tasks are displayed in the form of buttons on
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the taskbar. When you move your mouse over a button, a thumbnail image of the window is displayed. The taskbar has a circular button displaying the Windows logo at one end and a clock on the other. The button at the left end is the "Start" button which is used to start a program, open a document, get help, find information and change the system settings. If you click on the "Start" button, a box called a “Menu” appears. This menu contains several items. Some of them have sub-items which can be accessed by clicking on them. You may see icons on the taskbar, too. These are called "Quick Launch" icons that allow one-click access to frequently used programs. The right end of the taskbar is the “Notification” area. In the “Notification” area, to the left of the clock are several icons that indicate the tools that are automatically started when you turn on your computer and are running in the background, such as antivirus protection. This area also temporarily displays icons while a tool is in use, such as a printer when printing is in progress.

Personalize your Desktop You may set different display properties for your desktop. Right click on the desktop and select “Personalize”. Changing the Wallpaper: You can make your desktop as attractive and colorful as you wish by setting a wallpaper of your choice. For this, click on “Desktop Background”. In the “Picture Location” box, select the location of the picture. Now from the pictures displayed, make your choice by clicking on it. You may use the “Browse” button to search for a background picture from another location not in the list. Specify how you want the picture to be positioned and click on “Change background color” to select a color to fill the space not used by the picture. You may also save a picture from a Web site as your desktop background. Right-click the picture and then click “Set as Background”. Setting a Screen Saver: A screen saver is a program that displays an image, animation, or just a blank screen on a computer after no input has been received for a certain length of time. Screen savers were originally designed to prevent damages (called burn-in) to CRT screens. The screens manufactured nowadays are much more resistant to damages. To set a screen saver, click on “Screen Saver” in the “Personalization” window. Now
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Click on one and then click “Open”. Click “OK” to save your settings. items appear smaller. At higher resolutions. You can see a variety of cursors displayed in the “Browse” window. Screen resolution refers to the clarity of the text and images on your screen. At higher resolutions. At lower resolutions. move the slider to the resolution you want. Under “Resolution”. In the displayed figure. You may even specify a different pointer for a specific action. Now select a different scheme from the “Scheme” list. you can see the recommended resolution based on the size of the monitor. In the “Wait” field. Click “OK” to save your settings. To change the setting options for your screen saver. In the displayed figure. you can see the recommended resolution based on the size of the monitor. To clear the screen saver after it has started. Click on “Mouse Pointers” in the “Personalization” window. fewer items fit on the screen. Changing the Mouse Pointer: You may choose a different mouse pointer and also change the way it appears during activities such as clicking and selecting. items appear smaller. Screen resolution refers to the clarity of the text and images on your screen. In the “Customize” box. Click on “Display Settings” in the “Personalization” window. specify the number of minutes of idle time after which you want the screen saver to start. In the “Custom Text” box enter some other text. move the slider to the resolution you want. simply move your mouse or press any key. Changing the Display Settings: You may change various settings related to the display of your monitor. so more items fit on the screen. Under “Resolution”.select “3D Text” from the list. but they are larger and easier to see. Click on “Busy” in the “Customize” box and then click “Browse”. say “Good Morning!”. Click “Preview” once again to see how the screen saver will look with the new settings. Changing the Display Settings: You may change various settings related to the display of your monitor. so more items fit on the screen. click “Settings”. select “See-saw”. you may try using other screen savers and make changes to the related settings. At lower resolutions. Click “Preview” to see how the selected screen saver will appear on your monitor. Click on “Display Settings” in the “Personalization” window. fewer items fit on the screen. 10 | P a g e . Now click “OK”. you can see the way your mouse pointer will appear when different actions are performed. In the “Rotation Type” box. In this way. but they are larger and easier to see.

Click “Advanced Settings”. The list of programs on the Start menu is divided into two parts. A refresh rate of at least 75 hertz generally produces less flicker. You can add programs to the pinned items list. the monitor can flicker. The first part is the “Pinned Items List”. Programs are added to the most frequently used programs list when you use them. Windows colors and themes work best when you have your monitor set to 32-bit color. The next part is the “Most frequently used programs list”. Using Windows Vista The “Start” button is one of the most important features in Windows. You may explore the various other options in the “Personalize” window to further personalize your Windows experience. To save your settings. From within “Pictures”. The programs on the pinned items list remain there and are always available for you to click to start them. When you point to an item with an arrowhead symbol. click “OK” in the “Display Settings” window. Pictures: The “Pictures” folder in Windows Vista offers a variety of options for viewing and managing your digital pictures. or other files you want to access quickly. It is a convenient place to store documents. graphics. As you learn more about Windows Vista. Documents: “Documents” is your personal folder.To get the best color display from your monitor. you 11 | P a g e . Click the “Monitor” tab and make a selection from the “Screen refresh rate” box and click “Apply”. a submenu with additional options is displayed. Programs you have not recently used are removed from the list and replaced with the more recently used programs. you will find there are many ways to perform the same task. you may make a selection from the “Colors” box. If the refresh rate is too low. Clicking an icon in the “Start” menu starts a program or accesses an item or feature immediately. Another consideration in getting the best possible display from your monitor is the screen refresh rate. you need to start application programs and access files you have created using these applications. Pointing to an item in the “Start” menu moves the selection cursor to the item and displays a pop-up description. To use your computer. as it is the starting point for most features on your computer. causing eye strain and headaches. Click “Yes” in the displayed window and then click “OK”.

Music: The “Music” folder is the place where Windows automatically saves all the audio clips you download from the Internet or save on your hard drive with Windows Media Player. double-click the hour. To set the time. you can access many support applications that enable you to customize the appearance and functionality of your computer system. click on the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Clock. such as a printer or shared folder. The shortcuts are created automatically whenever you open a shared network resource. printers and other hardware. and then click the arrows to increase or 12 | P a g e . To play a particular audio file that you have saved. Date and Time Settings The “System Date” and “System Time” are the date and time as maintained by the computer's internal clock. To change only the hour. enter the correct time into the box under “Time”. rotate them. view a slide show. Help and Support: You can click “Help and Support” to learn how to use Windows Vista. and Region → Date and Time”. printers. you can access hardware settings for the keyboard. and year under “Date” to set the date. simply double-click on it. and other resources on the network. All Programs: Clicking “All Programs” opens a list of programs currently installed on your computer. Windows uses these settings to identify when files are created or modified. Language. month. From the Control Panel. Computer: This item in the “Start” menu is used to access drives. On the “Date and Time” tab. printers and modem. click on “Change date and time”. mouse. receive support and more. as well as settings for the monitor display and sound. the “Control Panel” and other system applications. Control Panel: Using the Control panel. Network: “Network” displays shortcuts to shared computers. Changing the date and time manually: To make changes to the system date and time. print photos or copy photos to a CD.can view photos at different sizes. Now click the correct day. obtain troubleshooting information.

On the “Internet Time” tab. Changing the Time Zone: Time zones are areas of the Earth that have adopted the same standard time. On the “Formats” tab. Similarly you may change the value of the minutes. For this. Most windows have the same basic parts:Title bar: This displays the name of the window which indicates which program is running. If the box against “Synchronize with an Internet time server” is empty. select your current format and then click “Customize this format”. respectively Menu bar: This contains several items that that you can click to make choices in a program. usually referred to as the local time. Maximize. Updating the Date and Time: You may also synchronize your computer clock by an Internet time server. and Close buttons: These buttons reduce the window to a button on the task bar. Borders and corners: You can drag these with your mouse pointer to change the size of the window. Select your current time zone from the list and click “OK”. Enter the formats you require on the “Time” and “Date” tabs of the “Customize Regional Options” window.decrease the value. Using the buttons in the Title Bar you can 13 | P a g e . Changing the date and time display: You may change the way in which your computer displays the date and time. and close it. Language. click “Change time zone” on the “Date and Time” tab. click on it. Each program that you open is opened in its own window. you can move and size windows. seconds and the AM/PM indicator. Select the appropriate server and then click “Update Now”. Now click “OK”. enlarge it to fill the whole screen. and Region → Regional and Language Options”. Sizing and Moving Windows: To make the desktop more workable. make sure you are connected to the Internet. To change your time zone. Scroll bar: This lets you scroll the contents of the window to see information that is currently out of view. click “Change Settings”. Working with Windows A window is a rectangular section on the screen that is used to display information and other programs. Minimize. Select “Control Panel → Clock.

it is unavailable and cannot be clicked. Arranging windows automatically: You can also have the windows on your desktop automatically arranged. option buttons. then choose one of the options “Cascade Windows”. menus are hidden until you click their titles in the “menu bar”. To choose an arrangement. Clicking the main part of the button performs a command.minimize the window. point to the title bar and drag the window to the new location on the desktop. or provides you with information. scroll bars appear on the window. change settings. or “Show Windows Side by Side”. maximize the window to its largest size. check boxes. 14 | P a g e . text boxes. list boxes. whereas clicking the arrow opens a menu with more options. restore the window to the original size or close a window. Let us have a look at some of them. There are two types of scroll bars Vertical and Horizontal. Changing the Size of the Window: You can change the size of the window by pointing to the border of the window with your mouse and dragging to make it smaller or bigger. Moving a Window: To move a window. or perform other actions related to the working of the window. click on it. Data may be entered using push buttons. Split buttons: These buttons change into two parts when you point to them. If a command is shown in gray. Dragging a corner changes the height and width simultaneously. Windows Controls: Most windows have “controls” that allow you to select commands. combo boxes and other such controls. allows you to select options to perform a task. Dialog Boxes: A dialog box is a special type of window that asks you a question. right-click on an empty area of the taskbar. To choose a command listed in a menu. Scrolling a Window: When there is more information in a window than can be viewed on the screen. “Show Windows Stacked”. Command buttons may also appear as small icons without any text. Menus: To keep the screen free of unnecessary items. Command buttons: A command button performs an action when you click it. To scroll you can either click the arrow of the scroll bar or you can drag the scroll box to move the content within the window. Some menu controls are shown by an arrow next to a word or picture.

Sliders: A slider enables you to adjust a setting along a range of values by dragging the slider toward the value that you want. 15 | P a g e . In the “Search Help” text box. Click on the magnifying glass or press “Enter” to display a list of related topics. Using Help With Windows Vista Help features. options are available for selection instead of commands to be executed. Here. List boxes: A list box displays a list of options that you can select from. information is displayed on multiple tabs. The other options are displayed when you click the control. Windows communities or from Microsoft Customer Support online. Maintenance and Troubleshooting by selecting appropriate options. You may perform tasks related to Security. A drop-down list shows only the currently selected option when it is closed. Drop-down lists: These are similar to menus. you can choose multiple options at the same time using check boxes. Under “Ask someone” you may click on the various links for additional assistance and support from friends. you may enter the keywords you wish to search on. Click the “Start” button and then click “Help and Support” to display the “Windows Help and Support” window. You can switch to a different tab by clicking on it. Tabs: In some dialog boxes. You may click on any topic under “Find an answer” to see help for that topic. you may search across multiple remote and online providers to get the most information for the topic that you are investigating. They are also called “radio buttons”. Unlike a drop-down list.Option buttons: Option buttons enable you to make one choice among multiple options. Text boxes: A text box is used to type textual information. This is the most commonly used windows control. Check boxes: Check boxes enable you to select one or more independent a single option only. The currently selected tab appears at the front. some or all of the options are displayed without having to open the list.

You can see that each program is displayed in its own window. A new window opens on the desktop and the taskbar displays an additional button for this open window. Working with Multiple Windows The capability to run multiple programs at the same time is called “Multitasking”. This makes working with your computer more like you would actually work. that is. Switching between windows: Using the taskbar: Each running program has a corresponding button on the taskbar. To switch to a specific program. You can tell it is the active window because the taskbar button and title bar appear dark whereas those of the inactive windows are dimmed. just click its taskbar button. Double-click on it. the taskbar buttons resize themselves automatically to fit in the taskbar. Multiple windows can be open on the desktop at once. “Computer” and “Document1”. The newly opened window is automatically the active window and appears on top of other open windows on the desktop. Opening a New Window: Notice the “Document1” icon on the desktop. “Windows Help and Support”. The window in which the program is running appears in front of the other windows. Click the button to see a menu of the items in the group. but only one window is active at a time. 16 | P a g e . This is now the “active” window. As more windows are opened. then select an item to make it the active window. There are now three programs running at the same time. When a new window is opened. it appears in the size in which it was last used and at any location on the desktop. This indicates that clicking this link will open the associated item on your computer. On the Start menu click “Computer” and then “Help and Support”. then the buttons for the same program become grouped into a single button. in this case. allowing you to switch easily between tasks without having to put one away before beginning the other. the Microsoft Word document named “Document1”. the window currently in use. The “Document1” window is the active window. If the taskbar becomes too crowded with buttons.Under “Information from Microsoft” you will find guidance on various tasks which will make your experience of working with Windows Vista smooth and convenient.

and then click the “Power” button in the lower right part of the Start menu. Using Windows Flip 3D: This feature allows you to flip through a cascading stack of your open windows. select “Log Off”. Alternatively. Shutting down Windows Vista It is very important to shut down Windows Vista correctly. Shut Down: To shut down your computer completely. shuts down Windows and puts off your computer. shuts down Windows and restarts the computer once again. click any part of a window in the stack to display that window. Sleep: Sleep is a power-saving state. This action puts your computer in “sleep” mode. Log Off: If you share the computer with someone else. you see various options. It saves all open documents and programs. This closes all your open programs but does not put the computer off. You may also click on the “Switch between windows” icon on the taskbar to enable the “Windows Flip 3D” feature. and allows you to resume working within seconds. When you click the arrow next to the “Lock” button. Lock: This is used to lock the computer when you do not want anyone else to access your files. It closes all open programs. Release the Windows logo key to display the window at the front. While holding down the Windows logo key. Release the “Alt” key to show the selected window. To turn off your computer. Restart: This closes all open programs. click the “Start” button. Organizing Your Work Files and Folders 17 | P a g e . use this option.Using ALT+TAB: You can cycle through all open windows and the desktop by holding down the “Alt” key and repeatedly pressing the “Tab” key. Do not turn off the computer by pressing the power button as you may lose valuable data. Let us see what each of them does. Switch User: This enables you to switch to another user without closing the programs of the current user. press the “Tab” key repeatedly or rotate the mouse wheel to cycle through open windows.

and network drives. Click the triangle to expand the folder. Click the resulting triangle to collapse the expanded list. A Folder System is also called a “Directory System”. Click the “Organize” button to organize the contents of a folder. Arranging files into logical groups makes it easy to locate any particular file. In the Folder List. commonly used folders are displayed under the heading “Favorite Links”. the folder contents in the right panel change to display the contents of the location you clicked. hard disks. To close the Folders list. It is a named area on a disk that is used to store related subfolders and files. Windows Vista offers “Live Icon” views of files and folders. At the top. CD-ROM drive.In a computer. You know that Windows has some common folders such as Documents. When you move the mouse pointer into the area of the Folders list. Pictures. Using Computer To open the “Computer” window. and gain access to options in the Control Panel to modify your computer settings. folders created in the main folder appear indented below the main folder. A “folder” is a container in which you can store files. click on the “Start” button and select “Computer”. Your computer represents files with icons. spreadsheets. Click “Layout” to specify whether to display Menus. a Details Pane. You can graphically view the content saved on your computer in ways that enable you to visualize what is inside a folder or file. Music and others that you can use to organize your files. This displays the “Windows Explorer” which shows you the contents of your floppy disk. By looking at a file icon. When you click a location in the Navigation pane. A folder within a folder is known as a “Subfolder”. where you can click any folder to navigate directly to it. you can tell what kind of file it is. You can also search for and open files and folders. So a “Folder System” is made up of folders and subfolders. This displays the “Folders list”. you see a small triangle next to each folder which has subfolders. The panel at the left is the Navigation pane. You can view additional folders by clicking “Folders” at the bottom of the Navigation pane. and even songs. click “Folders” again. a “file” is an item that contains a collection of related information. digital pictures. Examples of files are text documents. Some common file icons are displayed. a Preview 18 | P a g e . Subfolders appear indented below their parent folders.

and search for files and folders. move. and then drag the file to another folder or drive. click on the folder name and select “File → Rename” from the menu bar. You may type a new name for this folder. Clicking again reverses the sort order from ascending to descending. Deleting Folders: When you no longer need a folder you can delete it. Alternately. select “File → New → Folder” from the menu bar. Click the “Views” button to specify how you wish to view the contents of a folder. These links let you open folders quickly. Let us select “Menu Bar”. rename. you can open a folder that contains a file you want to copy or move. you may select the location where you wish to store your data files. The following characters cannot be used in a folder or file name: \ / : * ?><| If you think you will need to use a folder frequently. drag it to the Favorite Links area. right-click and select “Rename”. Medium Icons. Folder and File Names: When a file or folder is created. A folder icon with “New Folder” written next to it is displayed. If you delete a folder containing subfolders and files. You can use the context menu that appears on right-clicking the mouse to perform various functions. and/or the Navigation Pane. Large Icons. Edit. Sorting and Grouping Files and Folders: You may click on any column heading to sort the files by that column.Pane. Confirm deletion by clicking “Yes” in the “Folder Delete” window. Using Windows Explorer. you can copy. Let us click on “Documents”. all the subfolders and files contained within the folder are removed. Press the “Delete” key or select “File → Delete” from the menu bar. You can now see a menu with the items File. Working with Folders Creating Folders: Using the Folders list. it must be assigned a name. Working with Files 19 | P a g e . Select the folder that you wish to delete. You can choose from the options: Extra Large Icons. no matter which folder you are presently in. you may select the folder. Renaming Folders: To rename a folder. Small Icons. Details and Tiles. List. View. Tools and Help. To create a new folder. For example.

such as part of its name. To quickly select adjacent files you may similarly use the “Shift” key. while a document created using Notepad is stored with the extension “. For this. The file that was copied remains at the original location. Keep the “Ctrl” key pressed and then select multiple files. Then. 20 | P a g e . Type anything you can remember about the file. select the item to be copied or moved. The file is removed from the original location and placed at the new one. and then click a result to open it. For example. the File Name and the Extension. Drag and Drop: All Windows applications have the ability to copy or move selections using the “Drag and Drop” feature. click “Select All” on the “Edit” menu. A copy of it is created at the new location. a document created using Microsoft Word 2007 is stored with the extension “. The “Move Items” window is displayed. Copying a file: You may make a copy of a file. Click on the folder you wish to copy it to. you can use the Search box at the top to search the current folder. point the mouse to it and drag the pointer to the new location by keeping the mouse button pressed. you can select these files to copy or move them at the same time. A file can also be copied to a folder by selecting ““Edit → Copy To Folder” from the menu bar and clicking on the appropriate folder in the “Copy Items” window. To select all the files and folders in the window. click on the file name and select “Edit → Move To Folder” from the menu bar. For this. You may now drop the selection by releasing the mouse button. Selecting Multiple Files: When you want to copy or move several files into the same folder. First. Finding Files: If you are looking for a specific file from a large number of files in a folder. Now this file can be copied to one or more locations. you can use the Start menu to search instead.txt”.The name of a file consists of two parts. Moving a file: You may move a file from one location to another. Now click on the location you wish to move the file to and then click “Move”. If you do not know which folder to search. Renaming and deleting a file: A file can be renamed or deleted in the same way as a folder by clicking on it and selecting “File → Rename” and “File → Delete” respectively. click on the file name and select “Edit → Copy” from the menu bar. Different types of files are stored with different extensions.docx”. Type in the Search box. Now select “Edit → Paste” from the menu bar.

type your Name and then press “Enter”. re-size the “Notepad” window to an appropriate size. right-click and select “Send To → Desktop (create shortcut)”. all the changes you have made will be lost. In the “Font” window. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → Notepad”. For this. When the application first opens. Select “File → Save As”. locate the folder you have created to save your work. Point the mouse pointer to the folder name. If necessary. You may use this shortcut to quickly access your data file location again. Type your Address and press “Enter” again. In the open Notepad. Formatting a Document: You may wish to change the way your text appears. In the “Save As” window. Press the “Up Arrow” key twice and then type the date. Take the mouse cursor to the beginning of your name and press “Enter” twice. you may specify the location 21 | P a g e . To start Notepad. you can create a shortcut icon for the location and place it on the desktop. Using Notepad: “Notepad” is a basic text editing program and it is most commonly used to view or edit text files. select the font along with the style and size you require. If you fail to save the file. Using Applications Using Notepad Some useful applications are available as a part of Windows Vista.Using Shortcuts You may need to use a particular file or folder stored on your computer frequently. Editing a Document: One of the advantages of using a computer is that you can edit the contents of your file. A shortcut icon with an arrow at the bottom left appears on the desktop. The default name of the shortcut is the same as your folder name followed by the word “Shortcut”. Saving Files: A permanent copy of the work you have created using an application program is stored as a file on the disk only when you save it. select “Format → Font” from the menu bar. To create a shortcut to your folder. Press “OK” to apply your selection to the complete text in your document. a blank workspace is ready for you to begin typing to create a new document. To access the location of this file quickly.

The “Ruler” is used to set tab stops by clicking on it where you want a tab stop to appear. format bar. A tab stop specifies the place that the cursor stops at when you press the “Tab” key. You may create. Menus: Let us have a brief look at the different menus available on the menu bar. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → WordPad”. Printing a Document: Now. you may want to print a copy of your document. Using WordPad Using WordPad: “WordPad” is an application used to create rich text documents. The “View” menu is used to specify whether or not you want to display the toolbar. The “Status Bar” provides additional information about the buttons and commands in WordPad. Make the appropriate selections from the “Print” window and click “Print”. This method is called using a “Keyboard Shortcut”. you cannot accidentally save special formatting in documents that need to remain pure text. such as creating or saving a file. Another way is to do this is by directly pressing “Ctrl+P”. To start WordPad. Click “Save”. The “Edit” menu is used to perform tasks related to the content of your document such as entering and modifying your data. A new blank document is displayed. The buttons on the “Format Bar” are used to change the format of text.txt”. Your file is stored with the extension “. You can delete tab stops by dragging them off the ruler. open. status bar and the ruler. Because Notepad supports only very basic formatting. The “Insert” 22 | P a g e . The “File” menu is used to perform tasks related to your document as a whole.where you wish to save the file and the name of the file. Toolbars: The buttons on the main “Toolbar” are shortcuts for common file management tasks. Each menu has different menu items. Select “File → Print” from the menu bar. save and print your documents using this menu. This is especially useful when creating HTML documents for a Web page because special characters or other formatting may not appear in your published Web page or may even cause errors. WordPad includes many features and can be used to create and format large and complex text documents. A lightweight editor: Notepad is a basic text editor that you can use to create simple documents.

Font size is measured in points. The two most common means to remove text are to use the “Backspace” key to delete unwanted characters to the left of the insertion point. ready for you to begin entering text. you will make the title text bold and apply a color to it. After looking over the text. “Font size” refers to the height and width of printed characters. To select text. The “Help” menu contains items through which you can get assistance whenever you require. or the “Delete” key to remove characters to the right. To further enhance the appearance of the title. you first need to select the text you want to format. the text automatically moves to the next line when it reaches the right edge of the margin. You want to center it between the margins. Editing text: After you have entered your text. Entering text: As you type. Formatting Text: You decide you want to improve the appearance of the title by applying various formatting effects to the text. Click the “Bold” button on the Format Bar to add a bold effect. The “Format” menu is used to enhance the appearance of your document content. which refers to the height of the character. This feature is called “Word Wrap”. A quicker way to select a word is to double-click on it. Most documents use a font size of 10 or 12 point. Finally. You may use the “Center” button on the Format Bar to center the title. Since you want to select the entire title. You can also select the text you want to delete and then press “Delete” to remove it.menu is used to insert the date and time and other objects in your document. you may decide to remove a word. The insertion point is positioned at the top of the document. Press “Enter” twice and then use the “Up Arrow” key to move the insertion point up. you may need to make some modifications. The title now appears in the selected color. you would like to increase the font size. Click the “Font Size” drop-down list button on the Format Bar and select the font size you wish. 23 | P a g e . you can click in the left margin of the line to select the entire line quickly. drag from one end of the area of text to the other. Now enter the title and press “Enter”. This is called “Editing” text. make the characters larger and display the characters in a color. with a point equal to about 1/72 inch. Before you can apply the formatting effects. Click at the beginning of your text. The first change you want to make to this document is to add a title. Click the “Color” button and select a color of your choice.

The associated program. To save the document. The “Save As” window appears on the screen. place the insertion point where you want to paste the text. and then select “Edit → Copy” from the menu. Finding and Replacing Text: To find or replace specific characters. You may refine your search by checking the boxes against “Match whole word only” to find whole words matching your search criteria and “Match case” to make your search specific to capital and small alphabets. and the file is opened and displayed in the workspace. Let us now see some additional features of WordPad. select “File → Save As…” from the menu. Moving. To paste text you have cut or copied. To open this file. Notice that this icon does not display the arrow symbol that appears in shortcut icons. This is because the file is actually stored in the desktop folder and the icon is not a shortcut to an object that is in another location. Copying and Deleting Text: To cut text that you want to move to another location. select the text. You may undo your actions by selecting “Edit → Undo” from the menu. double-click on the file name on the desktop. Creating a graphic using Paint 24 | P a g e . Then click "Save" to save the file on the desktop. is started. The document icon for the WordPad file appears on the desktop. Click “Replace” to replace the original text with the new text. The file name is displayed in the title bar before the program name and the Windows taskbar displays a button for the open application. and then select “Edit → Cut” from the menu. WordPad in this case. To copy text for writing to another location. Your file is stored with the extension “. If you plan to use this file again shortly. If you want to replace that text with other text enter it in the “Replace with” field. Type the desired file name and select “Desktop” as the location to save the file. select the text. and then select “Edit → Paste” from the menu.Saving a file to the Desktop: If you like how the document looks then you may save the document. you can save the file on the desktop using a new file name for easy access.rtf”. You may click “Replace All” to replace all occurrences of the original text. select “Edit → Find” or “Edit → Replace” from the menu and specify your search criteria in the “Find what” field.

Specify the location as “Desktop” and then select the type of file you want to create from the “Save as type” list. The “Ellipse” tool creates an ellipse or circular shape. First. called a toolbox. move the pointer to where you want the circle to begin. which is the picture of a palm tree. you need to select this application by clicking on the icon on the desktop. The toolbox buttons are used to draw shapes. The mouse pointer appears as a pencil when this tool is selected and you are pointing to the drawing area. it changes to a plus (+). and then create and save the file. Select “File → Save”. A circle or 25 | P a g e . The text under the icon displays the default icon name "New". Let us create a logo for your organization. that you can add to the document you previously created using WordPad. To start Paint. By default the toolbox is displayed on the left edge of the window. The “Save As” window is displayed. we open the application first. Paint has many of the same features. when we create a file. Since you want to use Paint to create the graphic. the desktop icon displays a blank square. Generally. Your file is stored with the extension “. a drawing program that can be used to create and modify graphic images. Since the file is blank. To begin drawing. The Paint program also includes a toolbar. including a title bar. Displayed at the top of the window is the color box that is used to add color to the graphic.Another application that is included with Windows is “Paint”. The white area in the workspace is the drawing area where you may create the drawing. you are ready to open the file and create a graphic. edit the drawing and so on. you need to draw the plot of grass below the tree. Now. The pre-selected icon is the “Pencil” button. The tool you select is drawn when you drag or click in the drawing area. When you move the mouse pointer into the drawing area. The Paint program is loaded with the blank file open. In this case you will create a blank file called “New” on the desktop using the “24 bit Bitmap” image file type. Try to draw a picture of a palm tree. similar to the one shown above. You may wish to create a blank file on the desktop.bmp”. fill shapes with colors. You can tell it is selected because it appears in a box. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → Paint”. menu bar and status bar as you have seen in the other application programs.

you may create a custom color. If you select colors before creating a shape. The first button draws an ellipse with an outline border in the selected fill color without filling the object. The eraser uses the background colors. To clean up the drawing. You need to delete the oval and replace it with another that contains color. The “Edit Colors” window contains a palette of basic colors. The brush applies the foreground color when you drag to create the shape. To set the background color. Notice the three additional buttons. you want to create the palm fronds. You need to use the Airbrush tool for this purpose. The Airbrush sprays with the foreground color. For this you may need to erase sections of your drawings.ellipse is created by dragging the mouse until the shape is displayed as you want it to appear. You have created a simple oval shape with a black outside borderline and white interior. Creating a Custom Color: Since the color selection of green colors on the palette is limited. Using different shapes can add interest to the drawing. You may do this by selecting colors from the color box. Adding Color: You now want to fill the shape with a green color. called “fill-style” buttons. you want to create two tree trunks. This is the default selection and the setting you have used. Using the “Eraser”: You may make mistakes or to not like the appearance of your drawing. Using the “Brush” Tool: Next. The Brush tool creates broad lines of color as you drag. Double-click on a color in the color box. while the inside of the shape is filled with the background color. You need to use the Brush tool to create the shape and apply the color at the same time. drag with the right mouse button held down while spraying. you can use the Eraser tool to delete the parts of the trunk you may not like. The second button draws an outline border and also fills the object with the selected fill color. The color box consists of two areas. the “select colors area” and the “color palette”. You may change the foreground color to brown. right-click in the color palette. displayed at the bottom of the toolbox. To use the background color. The last fill style creates an object without a border using the selected fill color. the outline of the shape is created using the foreground color. 26 | P a g e . Using the “Airbrush” Tool: Finally. This tool also provides several "spray" shapes.

automatically replacing the original contents with the new contents. You can also use the slider on the color gradient bar at the right to change the elements. Let us now see some additional features of Paint. Drag the mouse to draw the line. Draw a straight line by dragging the pointer. click a line width. you may click anywhere on the matrix. This is a color matrix. You can only create two curves for each line. Click on the page where you want each new line segment to appear. The green color you selected is the selected color in the “Basic colors” palette. and then hold down the left mouse button to drag the pointer to adjust the curve. or click the “Rounded Rectangle” to create a round-cornered shape. To draw a rectangle. Your logo is now ready. click a fill style. click the “Line” icon. click the “Curve” icon. press the “Shift” key while dragging the pointer. Drawing a Rectangle or Square: In the toolbox. At the bottom of the toolbox. hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer to draw a straight line. At the bottom of the toolbox. Drawing a Curved Line: In the toolbox. At the bottom of the toolbox click a line width. Drawing a Polygon: In the toolbox. You can see a small picture of the graphic you created. Click “Add to Custom Colors” and then click “OK”. The “Save” command saves the document as it appears onscreen to the same file name. click the “Polygon” icon. such as hue and saturation. Click on the page where you want one arc of the curve to be. The custom color automatically becomes the foreground color and replaces the originally selected green. Release the mouse button and repeat this step for a second arc. Press the “Shift” key while dragging to get a straight line. At the bottom of the toolbox. 27 | P a g e . To define a custom color. Now you may apply this color to the fronds. Repeat these steps and double-click when done. associated with the selected color. Now see the live icon representing your Paint document. hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer diagonally in the direction you want. Drawing a Straight Line: In the toolbox. click a fill style. To draw a square.many of which are displayed in the color box. click the “Rectangle” icon to create a square-cornered shape. The box below the matrix displays the selected color. Click “Define Custom Colors >>” to display the color area to the right. To draw the polygon.

To do this. You can copy the entire picture or any part of the drawing by selecting an area. You would like the palm tree picture that is stored in the Clipboard to be centered at the top of the document. Click inside the text frame to type text. you may select the entire drawing area. You may also resize your picture by dragging the image resize handles that are located at the bottom right corner and along the sides of your picture. It is surrounded by a box and eight solid squares called “handles”. Since the drawing occupies almost the entire space. click the “Text” icon. On the text toolbar. Now you are positioned in the document where you want the picture inserted. Changing the Picture Size: To change the size of your picture. The insertion point appears at the center of the blank line. click the font. size and style you require. An object can be inserted into another document by pasting. Contents of the selected area are copied to the Clipboard. select “Image → Attributes” from the menu. linking or embedding it. The graphic of the palm tree that was stored in the Clipboard is pasted into the document. Embedding an Object: You are now ready to insert the picture into the WordPad document. You can select an item from an open document and copy it to another location in the same or another document. in this case the entire picture. This is because the “Center” feature was in effect for the line the insertion point was on when the two new lines were created.Typing and Formatting Text: In the toolbox. Enter the dimensions you require. The “Paste” and “Paste Special” commands on the “Edit” menu are used to insert a copy from the Clipboard into a document. Select “Edit → Paste”. You can adjust the size of any selected object by dragging the handles in the same manner as sizing windows. To create a text frame. You will embed the palm tree object in the document. hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer diagonally to the size you want. you need to copy the graphic from Paint and insert it into the WordPad document. 28 | P a g e . Copying between Applications Now you can insert the logo of your organization (the palm tree) into your WordPad document. These indicate the object is selected and can be manipulated. A dotted line identifies the selected area.

you can always use “Edit → Undo” from the menu and try it again. You may verify that the original file created using Paint. Notice that there is still only one Paint application button in the taskbar. When adding text. Select “File → Print Preview” from the menu. Also notice that the title bar still displays "WordPad" and if you scroll down. you are not prompted to save the file before it is closed. and the graphic appears in its own editing window. You may want to increase the font size to 14 point. You now have access to the Paint menu and toolbar so you can edit the object while you are still in the WordPad document. you want to give a copy of the document to a friend to get feedback regarding the content and layout. the server application is opened within WordPad. you first create a box. Paint. This indicates that the Paint program has not been opened a second time in its own application window. To make the background the same as the grass. Previewing. because it was the last-used application. you may decide you want to add some text inside the graphic.Editing an Embedded Object: After looking at the inserted graphic. containing the palm tree. Before typing the text. has not changed. This allows you to edit the embedded graphic from within WordPad. The “Print Preview” feature displays each page of your document in a reduced size so you can check the layout. The Text tool is used to add text to a Paint object. and the “Fonts” window is displayed. If you do not like how your text box looks. To save time and unnecessary printing and paper waste. called a text frame and then type the text inside it. you can also choose a color for the text. you can open the object server by double-clicking on it. WordPad is displayed again. You may want to add the company name to the grass area of the graphic. It shows the default type style and size that will be used when you type the text entry. The text frame displays an insertion point. you make the text frame transparent so that the background is visible. The color that is applied to the text is the foreground color. it is always a good idea to preview on screen how your document will appear when printed. the text of your document is still displayed. Printing and Saving Although you still plan to make several formatting changes to the document. 29 | P a g e . To edit an embedded object. Since no changes were made to the file.

“-” to subtract. The Preview window also includes its own toolbar.The Preview window displays a reduced view of how the current page will appear when printed. You can now see that the file icons are no longer on the desktop and are now located in the selected folder. Cleaning up the desktop You have a few files stored on the desktop of your computer. type the next number in the calculation. or “/” to divide. Finally you will remove the shortcut icon. 30 | P a g e . The desktop should be cleared of all icons you created and should appear the same as when you started. Double-click the shortcut icon you created to your data location. such as addition and subtraction. Then. click “+” to add. click “=” or press the “Enter” key to get your result. To start Calculator. perform the following steps: First. Using Calculator Using Calculator: “Calculator” is an application which performs functions parallel to a handheld calculator. It performs basic arithmetic. After that. Backspace --> Removes the last digit of the displayed number. Select “View → Refresh” from the menu to refresh the display of the window. “*” to multiply. The functions of the different buttons on the Calculator are as displayed. Right-drag the selected icons to the right pane of the window. click the “Save” icon on the Toolbar. Open the folder where you save your files. Choose “Move Here” from the shortcut menu. Performing a simple calculation: To perform a simple calculation involving addition. type the first number in the calculation. This view allows you to check your page layout before printing. such as logarithms and factorials. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → Calculator”. You may want to clear these from the desktop and move them to the folder where you store your data. multiplication or division. subtraction. Type other operators and numbers in the same way. To save the current document. as well as functions found on a scientific calculator. Finally. The flyer looks good and does not appear to need any further modifications immediately. You can print the flyer directly from the Preview window using the “Print” button.

Word Processing Overview of Word Processing What is Word Processing? Typing text using a computer is commonly known as Word Processing. retrieve and print part or all of a document. the Scientific Calculator has complete trigonometrical calculations. you can easily correct errors. % --> Calculates percentages. move paragraphs and reprint your document. The activity of word processing includes typing text using the keyboard and using various facilities of formatting. form letters. MC --> Clears the numbers in the memory. store. For this. faxes and even professional manuals. Performing a scientific calculation: Your calculator can be made into a full-functioned scientific calculator. Octal and Binary. C --> Clears the entire calculation. M+ --> Adds the displayed number to the memory. Documents that you use often can be saved as templates. programming calculations and statistical calculations for averages and standard deviation.org Writer are a few of the popular Word Processors. an invoice form. Sqrt --> Calculates the square root of the number on the screen. for example. MR --> Recalls a number from the memory.CE --> Clears the number displayed at that time. With a few keystrokes. Word Processor Applications help you to create different types of written documents such as personal letters. printing etc. modify. 1/x --> Calculates the reciprocal of the displayed number. MS --> Stores numbers in the memory. Creating and Editing a Document 31 | P a g e . Through a word processor you can create. brochures. Microsoft Word and OpenOffice. select “View → Scientific” from the menu. You have a choice of four numbering systems: Hexadecimal. Decimal. In addition to handling simple calculations. editing.

The text frames can be linked anywhere. Undo.Introduction to Microsoft Word Microsoft Word is a complete Word Processor Application. It consists of three main parts: 1) The Office Button 2) The Quick Access toolbar 3) The Ribbon The Office Button: This appears at the top-left corner of your screen. even beyond page limits to create a newspaper format. Clicking the Office Button displays the “File” menu. Word comes with a variety of templates for almost every purpose. To add an additional command to the Quick Access toolbar. saving. You can also create your own templates. a file is called a “document”. Microsoft Word contains numerous functions to assist you in creating perfectly styled documents. and closing a file. The User Interface The User Interface is the way in which you interact with your computer. and Redo. such as “New”. You can define the structure and appearance of the indexes and tables according to your needs. To start the Microsoft Word application. graphics. This contains commands for opening. printing. tables. integrated into it. from the menu that appears. you can create various indexes and tables in text documents. Text can be formatted multi-columnar and have text frames. click the arrow on the right. You can add an icon to the toolbar by just clicking on an icon name. The Microsoft Office user interface is uniform across most of its components. Microsoft Word offers a wide variety of options to design documents. Additionally. 32 | P a g e . It is designed to put your most commonly used commands in a place where you can always find them. displaying icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. Once the “New” icon is added. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Word 2007”. In Word. The Quick Access toolbar: This appears to the right of the Office Button near the top of the screen. you can simply click on it when you need to create a new document. etc.

b) Groups within each tab that break a task into subtasks. “Cut”. citations. 33 | P a g e . the “Home” tab has the “Clipboard”. The following Ribbon tabs are displayed in Word: The “Home” tab has common formatting commands. “Styles” and “Editing” groups. and spacing properties. pages. Click an icon and then click the “Add” button. The “Mailings” tab contains the items needed for a mail merge. and index. The “Review” tab contains spell check. c) Command buttons in each group that carry out a command or display a menu of commands. orientation. and text boxes. The “References” tab contains the most common items needed when generating a professional paper. The “View” tab contains the view options for the document and is the location of the Switch Windows command to move between files open in that application. This provides a detailed description of what the button does. table of contents. and track changes. It consists of:a) Task-oriented tabs. For example. Under “Choose commands from:” you can see a list of commands that you may add to your Quick Access toolbar. The “Clipboard” group in turn has the “Paste”. You can see that your chosen icons now appear on the Quick Access toolbar. and copy/paste.Now. The “Insert” tab contains all items that can be inserted into the file. Click “OK”. such as pictures. click “More Commands”. clip art. thesaurus. When you move your mouse over most command buttons. “Font”. “Copy” and “Format Painter” command buttons. “Paragraph”. bullets. including footnotes. You will gradually learn to use the commands on all the tabs. The “Page Layout” tab contains margin. a “Super-tooltip” is displayed. styles. The Ribbon: The Ribbon is a component of the Office Fluent user interface. To remove an icon. right-click on it and select “Remove from Quick Access Toolbar”.

click the Office Button and select “New”. and every access key is assigned a Key Tip. You can hide the Ribbon if you wish to have more space to write. showing the Key Tips for all the tabs. Creating New Documents Let us now learn to effectively use Microsoft Word using the following simple Case Study. groups. 34 | P a g e . Now click “Create” in the “New Document” window. When you first start Word. You may use them when you are more familiar with the commands. right-click any tab and choose the “Minimize the Ribbon” command again. You are required to create a document listing the special offers of your company. When you first launch most of the Microsoft Office applications you’ll find yourself in the Ribbons Home tab. For this. and command buttons change as you take on various activities. and the Quick Access Toolbar has an access key. The tabs.Equivalent keyboard shortcuts are also displayed if applicable. right-click anywhere on the Ribbon and choose “Minimize the Ribbon”. how to include all such features into your document. They relate directly to the tabs. You first need to press the “Alt” key. You are working for Global Tours and Travels. Every single command on the Ribbon. To restore the Ribbon. We shall now learn step-bystep. you see a question mark symbol. At the right end of the Ribbon. the Microsoft Office Button menu. You then see little labels. to create a new blank document. a new blank document is opened. When an existing word document is open. It is like a blank piece of paper that has certain default settings which are the most commonly used settings. After you press a key to activate a particular tab. the badges showing the Key Tips for the commands on that tab appear. You want your document to be attractive and at the same time informative. commands. which includes the most commonly-needed commands. or badges. and other things that you see on the screen. Access keys: Access keys are another type of keyboard shortcut used to access the Ribbon. You decide to create a document like the one displayed above. Clicking this brings up the Help window related to the Office application that you are using.

To change the color of the text click on the arrow next to the “Font Color” icon and select a color. in the “Font” group. Justifying Text: 35 | P a g e . For now. To insert a blank line. You may choose other underline styles and colors by clicking on the arrow to the right of the “Underline” icon. You will be comfortable using it after you are more familiar with the Word application. Setting up the way a page of text will look by entering certain attributes is called “Formatting”. When text is selected. from the drop-down menu. invoice or business letter. click at the point you want to begin and drag your cursor to the right and release it when you have reached the end of the selection. on the “Home” tab. a "Mini Toolbar" is automatically displayed. Selecting Text: To select a section of text.A “Template” is a pre-designed document designed for common purposes such as a fax. Similarly. select it and then click on the “Bold” icon. Entering and Formatting Text Let us now enter text into a new document. Let us insert some more text. Click on the font you would like. Underlining: To underline your text. move your mouse over the different fonts displayed. The "Live Preview" feature allows you to have a preview of how the selected font would affect the appearance of the text. select it and then click on the “Underline” icon in the “Font” group. click on the “Bold” icon in the “Font” group and begin text entry. you may change the Font Size. It remains semi-transparent until you move your mouse pointer over it. let us use the command buttons on the Ribbon. Type "SPECIAL OFFERS". On the “Home” tab. A “Font” is a design for a set of characters. Press "Enter" once to come to the next line. It provides easy access to the most-used formatting commands. click the “Italic” icon. Changing the Font: Let us select the text “SPECIAL OFFERS” and change the font. To make the text appear in italics. You may create a new document using standard templates provided by Word by clicking on a template name in the “New Document” window. Now type “Come to any of the offices”. without actually applying it. Making text Bold: To enter text with a bold display. press “Enter” once again. To make existing text bold.

When you save a new file for the first time. line breaks. you may select Align Text Left. Click the Office Button and select “Save”. click on this button once again. Enter the name.Select the text you would like to justify. You may open a recently used document by clicking on the Office Button and then clicking a document name under the list of “Recent Documents” displayed on the right. Click the “Line spacing” icon in the “Paragraph” group and make your selection. click the “Show/Hide” icon in the “Paragraph” group. Then. the “Save As” window is displayed. folder and location for the file and then click “Save”. Closing a File: To close a file. Displaying formatting marks: You can display nonprinting characters in your text. Saving. You may use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+O”. 2. Using the shortcut keys “Ctrl+S”. Click on Center. Align Text Right or Justify. 36 | P a g e . Changing Line Spacing: Select the text you would like to change the line spacing for. In the “Paragraph” group. you may click on the “X” shaped icon at the top right corner of the window or use the keyboard shortcut “Alt+F4” to exit the Word application. Center. Closing and Opening files Saving Documents: Your file is stored with the extension “. Alternatively. you may click the Office Button and select “Open”. There are three ways to save a document. 1. Moving through Text Moving through text using the Keyboard: You can use the arrow keys and other keys on the keyboard which are shown above to position the cursor at the location you want to type or modify text.docx”. 3. tab stops and spaces. Click the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. click the Office Button and select “Close” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+W”. such as paragraph marks. For this. select the file and click “Open”. Opening Documents: There are many ways in which you can open a document. navigate to the location of your document. To remove the display. Alternatively.

type enough so that the name is different from that of any other building block and then press “F3”. it is shaped as an I-beam. As it is typed. These corrections are effected as you enter your text. Creating a Reusable Building Block: Select the text or graphic that you want to store as a reusable building block. and then click “Word Options”. Building Blocks: Building Blocks in Word are designed specifically for the addition of frequently used content to your documents. When you type the digit “1” followed by the alphabets “s” and “t”. click “Quick Parts”. Using a Building Block: Let us insert this building block into another document. you can see that it is corrected. Click “Gallery” to sort by gallery. Using AutoComplete: Another useful feature is “AutoComplete”. The building block is inserted. say “Global Tours Logo”. you may check the boxes against the options you require. and then click “Building Blocks Organizer”. in the “Text” group. and then click “Save Selection to Quick Part Gallery”. Click the Office Button. Now try typing the text “HAppy” with two initial capitals. You can even replace some text with alternate text as it is typed using the “Replace text as you type” option. Ensure that the box against the option is checked. they are replaced by the text “First”. Click on a building block name and then click “Insert”. Using Automatic Editing Features Using AutoCorrect: You may use the numerous features provided by Microsoft Word to automatically correct your document. In the Create New Building Block window. When you can use the mouse to move the insertion point. Now click “OK”. Begin typing the unique name of the building block you created. On the “AutoCorrect” tab. Now click “Proofing” and then click the “AutoCorrect Options” button. Click at the point where you wish to position the cursor. You can see that the “Correct TWo INitial CApitals” option is checked. enter a unique name for the building block in the “Name” field. Now enter numeric “1st” in the “Replace” box and alphabetic “First” in the “With” box. Select “AutoText” from the “Gallery” drop-down list. Click where you want to insert a building block in the document. On the “Insert” tab. in the “Text” group. click “Quick Parts”. On the “Insert” tab.Moving through text using the Mouse: You can use the mouse to move the insertion point to a specific location in a document. 37 | P a g e .

click “Line” in the “Go to what” list. Your cursor moves to the specified line. Simply click “OK”. Now click “Proofing” and then check the boxes against the spelling and grammar checks you require. section. Now remove the word “Discounts” from the sentence. You may also use the “Page Up” and “Page Down” keys on your keyboard. Now enter the sentence “Discounts are available on international tickets” with the word “Discounts” incorrectly spelled. If you then press “Enter”. Right and Left Arrow keys on your keyboard. This time. the wavy line is removed.When you begin typing in the name of a month. Let us leave the default settings. These checks are enforced as you enter your text. On the “Go To” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. The green wavy line disappears since the sentence is grammatically correct once again. a green wavy underline appears. Re-enter “Discounts”. Now enter the line number to which you wish to go and click the “Go To” button. You can see that as soon as this word is entered. endnote etc. click the “Page Layout” tab and select “Line Numbers → Continuous” in the “Page Setup” group. it is underlined with a red wavy line. Navigating a Document There are different ways you can move through your document. using the “Go To” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. To display the line numbers in a document. Word brings up a little box above the incomplete word. Word automatically finishes the name. 2. Click the “Home” tab and select “Find” in the “Editing” group. Once you correct the spelling. Some of them are as follows: 1. You can also navigate to a specific page. Use the “Ctrl+Home” keys to go to the beginning of the document and the “Ctrl+End” keys to go to the end. 38 | P a g e . This results in a grammatically incorrect sentence. Use the Up. Click “Close” in the “Find and Replace” window. Down. and then click “Word Options”. Let us move to a specific line number. footnote. 3. such as “January”. 4. Alternatively you may use the scrollbars on the right and bottom of your screen. You may navigate to a specific item in your document. Automatic Spelling and Grammar checking: Click the Office Button.

Working with graphics Inserting Graphics: You now wish to insert a picture of one of the buses of your company along with your company name. Select the entire line and press “Delete”. You can reverse your last action by using the “Undo” command. Now to undo this action. Point to a handle and drag with your mouse to the size you require. Click the “Picture” icon. Undoing and Redoing Editing Changes: After making some changes. To change the size. you may select “Undo” from the Quick Access toolbar or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Z”. you would like to proof read it for accuracy and completeness and modify or edit the document as needed. click on the picture. color etc. The picture now appears in your document. you may select it and press “Delete”. Let us insert a picture from an existing file on the hard disk. Editing a Document After entering the text of a document. You can also redo an action that has been undone. click the “Page Layout” tab and select “Line Numbers → None” in the “Page Setup” group. you may also use "Ctrl+Delete" for words to the right of the insertion point or "Ctrl+Backspace" for words to the left. In the “Insert Picture” dialog box. select “Redo” from the Quick Access Toolbar or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Y”. To remove individual characters. To delete a blank line. Click at the point where you wish to insert the picture. To move your 39 | P a g e . To delete an entire word. Let us first delete a line of text. specify your picture and its location and click “Insert”. you may decide they are not necessary after all. you may press "Delete" for characters to the right of the insertion point and "Backspace" for characters to the left. It is surrounded by eight boxes called “sizing handles”.To remove the display of line numbers. For this. location. You may select from the various options available in the “Illustrations” group on the “Insert” tab. Selecting and Deleting Text: In order to delete a section of text. Sizing and Moving Graphics: You may change the graphic that you have inserted in respect of size. The line that was displayed is now deleted. click on that line and press “Delete”. The line is displayed once again.

you may select the name of the printer on which you wish to print the document. The “Print” window is displayed. In the “Name” field. This is particularly useful for documents which have only a small amount of text on the last page. place the cursor on the picture and drag with your mouse to the new location. click the “Zoom” icon and select “Many pages”. Shrink One Page: Click this icon to prevent the document from being printed on an additional page. To view a document in the Print Preview mode. In the “Number of copies” box. Click the Office Button and select “Print” from the menu. To specify the number of pages to view. 2. Drag the slider to the right or left as required. To display Multiple Pages. you may specify how many copies of the document you wish to print. Default settings are displayed which are normally acceptable. Zoom: The “Zoom” icon can also be used to specify the zoom percentage. you may specify whether you wish to print the entire document or a specific part. Use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+P”. Let us have a look at few of the basic options you might need to change. click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. The Print Preview tab appears when you view the current document in the Print Preview mode. click on the icon below the “Many pages” button and drag towards the right and down. Two Pages: Click this icon to display two pages in the preview window. Previewing and Printing a Document Previewing a document: It is always a good practice to preview your document onscreen before you print it. Printing a document: There are two ways to print a document: 1. The Zoom level can be adjusted using the slider at the bottom right of the window. 40 | P a g e . Under “Print Range”.picture. One Page: Click this icon to display one page in the preview window. The preview size will be adjusted accordingly.

such as proper nouns which are not really errors may be shown as spelling mistakes. 2. REVISING AND REFINING A DOCUMENT Revising a Document Spelling and Grammar checking: There are two ways you can do this: 1. It lets you print a document with one click but does not offer the flexibility to specify whether to print all or just part of your document. click “OK” to print the document. number of copies and other such things. select “Thesaurus”. 41 | P a g e . Click on the correct spelling and then click “Change”. in the “Pages per sheet” box. you may specify how many pages of your document you want printed on a sheet of paper. select “Spelling & Grammar”. you are informed accordingly. You may click “Options” in the “Spelling and Grammar” window to specify the spelling and grammar checks that you require. Thesaurus: The “Thesaurus” is a dictionary of synonyms which you can use to find words that are synonymous with a term. When the checking is completed. On the “Review” tab. 2. in the “Proofing” group. The “Spelling and Grammar” window appears only when a mistake is found. it determines which words in its dictionary are similarly spelled and displays a list of those words in the “Suggestions” box. Press “Shift+F7”. with the most likely match highlighted. You can see that the incorrect spelling has been corrected. in the “Proofing” group. When the spelling checker encounters a word it doesn’t recognize. You may also select “Print→ Quick Print” from the Office Button menu. Use the keyboard shortcut “F7”. After you have entered your options. There are two ways to start the thesaurus. They are no longer displayed as spelling mistakes. On the “Review” tab. You may add these words to the dictionary by clicking the “Add to Dictionary” button.Under “Zoom”. Some words. 1.

On the “Home” tab. say “Contact”.)” from the dropdown list below. Moving and Copying Selections Using Copy: Let us select some text for copying to the clipboard. in the “Clipboard” group. enter your expression. Paste: This command is used to insert the contents of the clipboard into the document. the word is inserted at the current cursor position. Press “Ctrl+V”. You may use any of the following methods: 1. The document itself does not change. in the “Clipboard” group. In the “Search for:” text box. You may choose from the options Insert. Press “Ctrl+X”. Press “Ctrl+C”. On the “Home” tab. Click on the arrow to the right of the search box. When you select “Insert”. moving it to the clipboard and then pasting it to a location of your choice. 2. Select “Copy” to copy the word which can be pasted to another location. Select “Thesaurus: English (U. 2. A list of synonymous terms is displayed. 42 | P a g e . in the “Clipboard” group. You may use any of the following methods for cutting: 1. On the other hand. Select “Look Up” to look up further variations of the selected word. 2.You now see a panel on the right. Using Cut and Paste: You may decide to move a section lower down in your document. Now move lower down in the document and click where you want to place your selection. You may point to a synonym of your choice and specify the action you wish to perform by viewing the drop-down list. The “Cut-Paste” commands involve deleting the section from the document. Copy and Look Up. Then press “Ctrl+V” to paste. but any existing clipboard contents are overwritten. Any selected text or objects are replaced by the pasted contents. the “Copy-Paste” commands create a copy at the new location. select “Cut”. leaving the original location unchanged. The contents are inserted at the position of the cursor. select “Paste”. For this select it and use “Cut” to move the selected section. On the “Home” tab. You may use any of the following methods for pasting: 1.S. select “Copy”.

Copying between Documents: The dormant program appears dimmed on the taskbar. Let us leave our graphic on the first page and display the other text on the next page. Copy the contents by clicking “Copy” in the “Clipboard” group. The next occurrence of the specified term after the current cursor position is selected. Click “Select” in the “Editing group on the “Home” tab. Working with Multiple Documents Opening a Second Document: Save the current document by clicking the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. 43 | P a g e . Select “Find” from the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab or press “Ctrl+F” to display the “Find” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. A blank document is displayed in a new window. To insert a Page Break. First. Inserting Page Breaks To control document paging so that important titles and headlines appear on the top of the pages. Alternatively. The previous document is the “dormant” program now. Move to the new document by clicking on the taskbar. Paste the contents by clicking on “Paste” in the “Clipboard” group of the “Home” tab. Make it active by clicking on the taskbar. This becomes the “active” program. A fixed page break is inserted and the cursor is now at the beginning of the new page. You may now drop the selection by releasing the mouse button.Drag and Drop: All Windows applications have the ability to copy or move selections using the “Drag and Drop” feature. place the cursor at the point where you want a new page to begin and click “Page Break” in the “Pages” group of the “Insert” tab. Then. Click “Select All” from the menu displayed. Let us now move the text back to its original location. Now open a second Word document by clicking “New” in the Office Button menu. Click “Create” in the “New Document” window. you may use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Enter”. say “office” and click “Find Next”. select the item to be copied or moved. you may need to insert Page Breaks just before them so that they start on a new page. point the mouse to it and drag the pointer to the new location by keeping the mouse button pressed. Click “Find Next” once again. Finding and Replacing text Finding Text: You may search for a word or phrase in a document. Enter some text.

Replace: You may click this button to replace the next occurrence of the search text by the specified new text. Select “Replace” from the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab or press “Ctrl+H” to display the “Replace” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. This function provides many advanced options to help make your search as specific as necessary to find what you are looking for. Modifying Page Layout Changing Margin Settings: To set margins. Select from the “Portrait” or “Landscape” options. More: You may click this button to specify additional search options. You may click on any of the 44 | P a g e . You may click on any of the available options or click “Custom Margins” to enter your own specifications. A window appears showing the number of replacements made. Entering the Page Size: To set the Page Size. you may enter your requirements in one or more of the fields. You can see that your document is displayed with wider side margins. Replace All: You may click this button to replace all occurrences of the search text by the specified new text. Enter the text you wish to find in the “Find what” field and the text with which you wish to replace it. This updating is seen when you next open your document. Let us change the left and right margins to 4 inches each. select “Margins” from the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. Position the cursor above your text and select “Date & Time” from the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. say “new office” in the “Replace with” field.Finding and Replacing: You may search for a word or phrase in a document and replace it by some other text. Select the format you require. Changing the Orientation: You may orient your document vertically or horizontally by clicking on “Orientation” from the “Page Setup” group of the “Page Layout” tab. Click “Undo” on the Quick Access toolbar to revert to the original margins. If you want the date to be automatically updated when the current date changes. check the “Update automatically” box. On the “Margins” tab. Click “OK”. Inserting the Current Date Let us now insert the current date into this document. select “Size” from the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab.

Alternatively. Now enter the text as shown. you may use the “Decrease Indent” and “Increase Indent” icons in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab for indenting your text. although this method is not as precise. You may also manually set the dimensions you require in the “Width” and “Height” fields. you may select the paper size from preset formats like A4. You can see on the ruler that each word appears at a distance of 2 cm from the other. Character Formatting in detail 45 | P a g e . etc. Let us learn to set the position of a tab stop in a blank document. click “Tabs” to display the “Tabs” window. Paragraph Formatting in detail Indents: Indentation determines the distance of the paragraph from either the left or the right margin. Now enter the same text pressing the “Tab” key after each word. If you do not see the horizontal ruler displayed just below the Ribbon. the distance between the words is as per the new tab stops specified. Press “Undo” twice on the Quick Access toolbar to remove these indents. Click “OK” to save your settings. In the “Paragraph” group. you may specify your indent requirements in the “Indent Left” and “Indent Right” boxes. This brings up the “Paragraph” window. Spacing: You may specify the spacing between paragraphs by adding space above or below selected paragraphs. You can quickly set tabs by clicking the ruler at the location you want your tab stop. enter “2 cm” and click “OK”. click the “View Ruler” button at the right corner. click on the arrow at the bottom right. In the “Default tab stops” box. You can see that this time. When more than a single space is required to be inserted between words. Then click on the “Page Layout” tab. Setting Tab Stops: A “Tab Stop” is the amount of spacing that is applied each time you press the “Tab” key. A5. On the “Paper” tab. You can also use your mouse to set the tab stops in the “Ruler”. For this use the “Spacing Before” and “Spacing After” boxes in the “Paragraph” group on the “Page Layout” tab. it is advisable to use tabs rather than spaces to avoid problems with text alignment. In the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. from the drop-down list. pressing the “Tab” key after each word.available options or click “More Paper Sizes” to enter your own specifications. Select a paragraph of text. On the “Indents & Spacing” tab.

So you may use a “Hyperlink”.Changing the capitalization of text: You may change a portion of text in respect of case. Let us select “UPPERCASE”. You may use a bulleted list or a numbered list. First. select it and click on the “Format Painter” icon on the “Home” tab in the “Clipboard” group. you may decide to go in for a numbered list. Creating Lists You may want to display the information about the special offers that you have entered as an itemized list so that it stands out from the rest of the text. Joining and Separating Numbering: You have the option to restart numbering. “Continue Numbering” or “Set Numbering Value”. This means you may specify which parts you want in capital letters and small letters. Your text now appears as a bulleted list. in the “Font” group. the document will lose its clarity regarding the main information that it is meant to convey. You can see that your text is displayed with all capital letters. In that case. This brings up the “Font” window. You may select an option from the menu displayed. Simply right-click on the number and select from the options “Restart at”. You can see that your mouse pointer changes to a paint brush. Using Hyperlinks Inserting Hyperlinks: You now want to give information related to the different routes and their timings. Bulleted List: Select your text and then click on the arrow next to the “Bullets” icon in the “Paragraph” group of the “Home” tab and select a bullet style. A hyperlink is a connection to a location in the current 46 | P a g e . Format Painter: You can copy the formatting applied to a section of text to another section. Now. Bulleted lists are normally used to list logically related information. Effects: On the “Home tab. click on the “Change Case” icon from the “Font” group. Now to copy the formatting of this text. Highlighting: Select some text to highlight. drag it over the text to which you wish to apply the same format. click on the arrow next to the “Numbering” icon in the “Paragraph” group of the “Home” tab and select a numbering style. continue numbering or even skip some numbers from the previous list used. Numbered List: Alternatively. Numbered lists are normally used to convey a sequence of events. Giving all this information in a single document will crowd the document. click on the arrow at the bottom right. You may specify effects for your text by checking the boxes against the effects you require on the “Font” tab. Also. Click on the arrow next to the “Text Highlight Color” icon in the “Font” group and select a color. let us change the font color of a section of text. Now. Select the text “Time Table”.

Removing Hyperlinks: To remove the hyperlink while retaining the text. Let us insert a hyperlink to another document called “time_table. This document exists in the same folder as your document. A hyperlink may be in the form of text or a graphic. Right click on the banner and select “Add Text”. make a selection from the “Shape Style” group. Editing while previewing Now you will preview your document to see if any changes are required. right-click on it and select “Remove Hyperlink”. Use any of them to display the “Insert Hyperlink” window.docx”. Select this text. we shall use the text “Time Table” as a hyperlink.docx” which contains the complete time table. You may use the sizing handles to modify the size of the shape. Drag your mouse to create your shape of the size you wish. Place the cursor in your document at the point where you wish to insert the hyperlink. Now enter your text. You may also drag to place the shape at another location. To make this banner more attractive. click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. you can view the time table document. Under “Stars and Banners” select the “Double Wave” banner. Because you wish to create a link to another document. Use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+K”. You now wish to insert a banner at the bottom of your document. 2.document. Click “Shapes” in the “Illustrations” group on the “Insert” tab to display the various shapes that you can use. another document or to a Web site. You may format the text by selecting it and using the mini toolbar displayed. click “Current Folder” and then click on “time_table. In this case. Click “OK”. To view a document in the Print Preview mode. There are two ways to insert a hyperlink: 1. You now see that the hyperlink text is underlined. 47 | P a g e . The Print Preview tab appears when you view the current document in the Print Preview mode. When you press the “Ctrl” key and click on this text. Inserting Shapes Word offers many predefined shapes that you can insert into your document. Click the “Hyperlink” icon in the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. Let us add some text to this banner.

Click “OK” in the “Object” window. You can edit the object later using the application which created the source file. Use the “Tab” key to go to the next level and “Shift+Tab” to move up one level. When you wish to edit the document. Different items are indented to represent their level in a document’s structure. Click again to see it in a compressed size. You may now save your changes. Inserting Objects You may insert external objects such as pictures. You may create a new object to insert or insert an existing one from a file. This indicates that you can now make changes to the text.When the mouse pointer moves over the document it is shaped as a magnifying glass with a plus sign. Click “Browse” and navigate to the file you wish to insert. You see that the object is now a part of your document Using Additional Word Features Creating Multilevel Lists A multilevel list shows the list items at different levels rather than at one level. in the “Paragraph” group. In the “Object” window. a spreadsheet or even another word document into your current document. click on the “Create from File” tab. Now enter your list. For this. click the “Multilevel List” icon and select a list style. Check the box against “Link to file” if you want your document to be updated whenever the file containing the inserted object is edited. The mouse pointer changes to an “I” beam. Creating a multilevel list: Click where you want to begin your list. uncheck the box against the “Magnifier” button in the “Preview” group on the Print Preview tab. select “Object” from the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. Check the box against “Display as icon” if you want to display your object as an icon. Saving to a New Folder 48 | P a g e . Click on the page you wish to magnify to see it in normal size. It makes the hierarchy of items in a document very clear and easy to understand. Let us insert an existing spreadsheet created using Microsoft Excel. Now click “Insert”. On the “Home” tab. Make your changes and then click “Close Print Preview” to close the preview window. video clips. You can easily change the level of an item in the hierarchy by simply increasing or decreasing the indent by using the “Tab” or “Backspace” keys respectively.

Type the name of the new folder in the “Name” field in the “New Folder” window and press “Enter”. Now click “Proofing”. Enter the appropriate location where you wish to place the file in the “Save in” field. At the bottom of the window. Hiding Spelling and Grammar When you go through a document.Next. You can create a new folder at the time you save a file. The red and green wavy lines are no longer displayed. Click the Office Button. and then click “Word Options”. They are mostly for words that are not in the dictionary. you sometimes notice that many spelling and grammar errors are indicated by red and green wavy lines. 2. The steps to save the file are: 1. You can still run spelling and grammar checks manually by using functions like “Spelling & Grammar” on the “Review” tab at any time you wish. make appropriate changes in the “File name” field and then click “Save”. you will save the multilevel list you have created in a folder on your disk. The new folder is created as a subfolder in the active directory. switch to the Print Layout view by selecting “Print Layout” from the “Document Views” group on the “View” tab. Press “Save” to save your file with the same name in the new folder. As you move the mouse pointer over different areas. If you wish to change your file name. the I-beam pointer displays an icon indicating the formatting that will be applied when you double-click at that location. Your document is now saved in the newly created folder. 3. Move the mouse pointer across the page and observe the change in it. You may turn off the display of these errors if you do not wish to be distracted as you work. Click “New Folder”. The chart displayed in the figure lists the different pointer shapes and formatting that is applied. Using Click and Type: On a new blank page. Formatting Documents Automatically There are two ways in which you can format your document automatically. 49 | P a g e . check the boxes against “Hide spelling errors in this document only” and “Hide grammar errors in this document only” and click “OK”. You will use this folder to hold related files. Click the Office button and select “Save As”.

Simply click “OK”. in the “Table of Contents” group. Formatting a Document Section 50 | P a g e . the topics that are included in the document and makes it easier to locate information. select “Table of Contents”. avoiding the need to enter blank lines. For now. Your table of contents is ready. You would need to update your table of contents. select “Update Table”. Let us create a Table of Contents for the document you created in the previous assignment. in the “Styles” group select the “Heading1” style. Updating the Table of Contents Updating the Table of Contents: You may introduce new headings or move certain information to another page in your document at a later stage. Creating a Table of Contents A Table of Contents is a listing of the topics that appear in a document with their associated page references. The “Update Table of Contents” window is displayed. On the “Home” tab. On the “References” tab. It shows you at a glance. Similarly. Doubleclick at the center of the document. On the “References” tab. you may apply styles “Heading2” and “Heading3” to subsequent heading levels. To see the complete list of styles click on the arrow at the bottom of the “Styles” group. let us apply different styles to different heading levels. You may enter your specifications here. You may choose to update page numbers only or the entire table. You can now see “Region 3” in the table of contents. Click “Insert Table of Contents” at the bottom of the window that comes up. Select “Update entire table” and click “OK”. You may now press the “Ctrl” key and click on any heading to move to the related content in your document. in the “Table of Contents” group.You can use this method to quickly insert text. In the document displayed. Applying Styles: This is the second way in which you can format your document automatically. You can see in the displayed document that “Region 3” is not displayed in the table of contents. A particular style can be applied to a heading or any other text to improve its appearance or make it stand out clearly. Place the cursor at the beginning of the document. The “Table of Contents” window appears. This style is now applied to your selected text. This makes your document attractive as well as clear. Click on the “Table of Contents” tab. Click on a style to apply it to the selected text. it is best to use the default settings. Select the main heading. graphics or other items in a blank area of a document. You can now enter text which will be formatted as per the pointer shape.

Inserting a Footnote: To insert a footnote. Formatting a section: Let us now make some changes to the section that you have created. Select “Insert Footnote” from the “Footnotes” group on the “References” tab. When you are done. Sometimes. Position your cursor before the first point. Deleting a Footnote or Endnote: When you want to delete a note. “Odd Page” or “Even Page” starts the section on the next odd or even numbered page. Footnotes appear at the end of each page and endnotes appear at the end of the document. A reference mark is inserted at the point you selected and you are taken to the bottom of the page. “Continuous” creates the section at the cursor position. Using Footnotes and Endnotes Footnotes or Endnotes are used to explain. You may make changes to your footnotes and endnotes in respect of numbering. To do so. Click “OK”. comment on. Under “Preview”. location and format by clicking on the arrow at the bottom right of the “Footnotes” group. or provide references for text in a document. Type your footnote. Endnotes: You may insert endnotes in the same way using the “Insert Endnote” button in the “Footnotes” group on the “References” tab. right-click the footnote and select “Go to Footnote” to take you back to the insertion point in the main body so you can continue working on your document. select “Breaks” from the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. position your cursor at the text you want the footnote to appear. Deleting the text in the note does not delete the note. A footnote or an endnote consists of two linked parts — the note reference mark and the corresponding note text. you can create sections within the document and apply the formatting to the required section. Let us consider the document we had created earlier. select the type of section break you wish. Under “Section Breaks”. meanings of difficult words are given in the form of footnotes. change the left margin to “5”. Adding Bookmarks 51 | P a g e . To insert a section in your document. Click on the arrow at the bottom right of the “Page Setup” group. ensure that “This section” is selected in the “Apply to” field. “Next Page” moves the section to the new page. simply delete the note reference mark in the document window. In the “Page Setup” window.You may need to apply specific formatting to only a part of your document. Let us select “Continuous”. You can see that the text in the section after the cursor position gets indented as per the new left margin.

A Bookmark is used to mark a certain location in a document. but not among multiple documents. Click on the bookmark and then click “Delete”. If you have assigned a bookmark to a location. Select “Insert Caption” from 52 | P a g e . in the “Arrange” group. select “Position”. and then click “Word Options”. Under “Picture Tools”. references allow you to move within a document. select “Bookmark” from the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. the bookmark appears in brackets on the screen. Click before this text. Your cursor now moves to the bookmark location. Clicking on the reference takes you to the referred location in the document. Adding a Bookmark: You now wish to insert a bookmark before the text “Contact Us”. enter a name for your bookmark and click “Add”. Move your mouse over the various options under “With Text Wrapping” and click on your choice. You must now add a caption to this figure. Now click “Advanced”. you may need to change the position of a graphic. In the “Bookmark” window. Referencing Figures Setting References: A cross-reference is a reference from one part of a document to related information in another part. You can also set cross-references to the captions of charts and tables. click on it and then click on the “Format” tab under “Picture Tools”. Click on the bookmark and then click “Go To”. You first must define a reference target for the cross-reference. drawing or object in your document or type some text around it. Wrapping text around graphics: To change the way text wraps around the picture. Under “Show document content”. Click “Close” in the “Bookmark” window. Moving to a specific bookmark: Select “Bookmark” from the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. Click on the figure you want to refer to. Formatting Picture Layout Sometimes. the bookmark appears as an Ibeam. Showing Bookmarks: Click the Office Button. on the “Format” tab. Select “Text Wrapping” in the “Arrange” group and choose a suitable option from the ones displayed. You can define the wrapping style around an object. Deleting a Bookmark: To delete a bookmark. This caption will be used for reference. In contrast to hyperlinks. check the box against “Show bookmarks” and click “OK”. Your text now appears by the side of the picture. Then select “Bookmark” from the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. It identifies a location in the document or a selection of text that you name for future reference. If you have assigned a bookmark to an item. Changing the Object Position: Click on the picture.

Inserting additional rows and columns: To insert additional rows or columns at a later stage. say “For your information. select the same number of rows or columns required to be inserted and then click on the appropriate icon. click in the table. select “Table” in the “Tables” group on the “Insert tab.This handle appears whenever the mouse pointer rests over the table. 53 | P a g e . “Insert Left” inserts a column to the left and “Insert Right” inserts a column to the right. Select “Cross-reference” from the “Captions” group on the “References” tab. Enter your text. Now click “Close”. We have created a table with 2 rows and 5 columns. Inserting a Table: To insert a table. You see that the data has been moved to the right and a new blank column has been inserted. drag the resize handle at the bottom right corner of the table to an appropriate location. To insert multiple rows or columns. In the “Cross-reference” window.the “Captions” group on the “References” tab. In the “Rows & Columns” group. This displays the caption near your text. place the cursor on the top left corner and drag with your mouse to the new location. Press “Tab” to move to the next cell. Under “Table Tools”. Click on the arrow at the bottom right of the “Rows & Columns” group. In the “Insert Table” window. Entering data: Click on a cell and enter your data. enter your caption. In the “Caption” window. Similarly. You may now press the “Ctrl” key and click on the caption to see the captioned picture. Select some cells which you would like to shift. Your table is displayed on the screen. Shifting Cells: You may shift a few cells or a complete row or column. click on the “Layout” tab. Moving a table: To move your table. Click “OK”. select the position of the caption and press “OK”. select “Figure” as “Reference type” and “Entire Caption” as “Insert reference to” from the respective drop-down lists. You may drag with your mouse to specify the dimensions of the table or click “Insert Table”. Now let us insert a cross-reference for this reference. select “Shift Cells Right” and click “OK”. Select “Insert Below” to insert a row below the current row. select “Insert Above” to insert a row above the current row. enter the Table size in respect of number of rows and columns. see “. In the “Insert Cells” window. Sizing a table: To quickly change the overall table size. Under “For which caption:” click on the appropriate caption and then click “Insert”. Position your cursor at an appropriate location. Creating a Simple Table A table is used to organize information into an easy-to-read format of horizontal rows and vertical columns.

and then click “Select Table”.Formatting a table: This is similar to formatting a document. click the “Design” tab. Click “OK”. click the Layout tab. you may make your selection. In the window that comes up. Inserting a Header: Let us now add a header to the document you created previously. click on your choice in the “Style” box. Under “Table Tools”. Inserting Headers and Footers Headers and footers provide information that typically appears at the top and bottom of each page in a document and helps the reader to locate information in a document. Sorting a List: The “Sort” feature and various sorting options can also be used for non-tabled text. patterns. Let us let the displayed field “Coach Number” remain as the field to sort by. Using table Styles: A quicker way of applying formats to a table automatically is to use the Table Styles offered by Word. Under “Table Tools”. Simply click “OK” to see a sorted list. You may select the cells. Select the first column and click the “Center” icon in the “Paragraph” group Borders: You may specify the border style for your table. In the “Sort” window. Let us center the text in the first column of the table displayed. select the text and then click the “Sort” icon in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. Click it to select the table. The available auto formats consist of a combination of fonts. Click in the table. In the “Table” group. Now let us remove the borders of the table. Move the pointer over the table until you see a four headed arrow at the top left corner. Now. let us leave the default options in the “Sort Text” window unchanged. click “Select”. except that the formatting affects the selected cells only. The same header and footer can be used throughout the document or different ones can be used in different sections. In the “Table Styles” group. Sorting Data Word can quickly sort text. Click in the table. 54 | P a g e . You can see that the data in the table is now sorted by Coach Number. In the “Table Styles” group. and use the different formatting options from the “Home” tab. colors. For now. click the arrow next to the “Borders” icon and select “Borders and Shading”. Let us sort data contained in the time table document displayed. For this. data or numbers according to specified criteria in ascending or descending order. click the “Design” tab. Under “Table Tools”. in the “Data” group. on the “Layout” tab. click “Sort”. For this click on the arrow next to the “Borders” icon and select “No Border”. under “Table Tools”. borders and alignment settings. you may select the options that you want.

if any. The header area becomes active. Now click “Close Header and Footer” on the “Design” tab and scroll down to see your footer. For this. Now click on “Bottom of Page”. You now see the page number and number of pages displayed at the bottom right of the page. Now click “Advanced”. Checking Formatting Inconsistencies: To turn on this feature. Inserting a Footer: You may insert a “Footer” in the same way as the header. Under “Editing options”. select the word “North”. Respond appropriately to any other located errors. If the Format Consistency Checker finds at least two instances of a scheme that are identical. A list of header styles is displayed. Enter the words “Style” and “Economy” in the second and third placeholders in the same way. Press the “Tab” key twice and enter the name of your company in the header area. select “Page Number” in the “Header & Footer” group on the “Insert” tab. scroll down and click on “Bold Numbers 3”. Word indicates formatting inconsistencies with a blue wavy underline. The footer area becomes active. Similarly. Click “Close Header and Footer” on the “Design” tab. special terms and abbreviations. You may recall that you 55 | P a g e . click the Office Button. right-click on it and select “Styles → Select Text with Similar Formatting”. This is because all three words have been entered by applying a specific style. Inserting the page number at the bottom of the page overwrites a previously inserted footer. Inserting the Page Number: You may insert the page number and the total number of pages in your document on every page of your document at a position of your choice. Now. Click the “Spelling & Grammar” icon in the “Proofing” group on the “Review” tab. you may like to check it in respect of spelling and grammar as well as formatting consistency. Click in the first placeholder and enter the word “Comfort”.Select “Header” in the “Header & Footer” group on the “Insert” tab. It identifies different formatting schemes that are very similar to each other. Now click “Close Header and Footer” on the “Design” tab under “Header & Footer Tools”. Choose “Ignore All” for all proper names. it offers you the opportunity to make all similar formatting schemes identical to the format scheme that occurs most frequently. if any. In the document displayed. and then click “Word Options”. check the boxes against “Keep track of formatting” and “Mark formatting inconsistencies” and then click “OK”. inserting the page number at the top of the page overwrites a previously inserted header. Click on the first one. You can see the words “East” and “West” highlighted as well. From the list displayed. Checking the document After your document is ready. Select “Footer” in the “Header & Footer” group on the “Insert” tab and select the style “Blank (Three Columns)”.

Select the text that you wish to display in columnar format. you need to click the Office Button and select “Print” from the menu. Right click on this underline to display formatting suggestions. select “Columns” in the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. narrow columns help the reader read the articles more quickly. If you want. by using the format “3-6. 8. 10. To print single pages. Click “OK” to print your document. Let us select “Two” as the number of columns under “Presets”. Click “OK”. In the document displayed. 11”. Printing Selected Pages You know that to print a document.learnt about applying styles in the assignment titled “Formatting Documents Automatically”. the word “South” has been entered using the size and font of an existing style without applying the style. You may apply these column settings to the whole or part of the document. The default column style is one column across the full width of the page. To print only selected pages in your document. You may click on the number of columns you require. Pages: You may use this option to print only the pages that you specify in the “Pages” field. You may select other settings for the size and display of the columns under “Width and spacing”. Selection: You may use this option to print only the selected areas or objects in the current document. Under “Print Range”. Using Word Art 56 | P a g e . you may use either the “Current page” or “Pages” option under “Print Range”. Your text is displayed in columnar format. Click “More Columns” to display the “Columns” window. To print a range of pages. 9. The “Print” window is displayed. you can print a combination of page ranges and single pages. In a newsletter. use the format “3-6”. Then. Changing the Display of the Document Creating Newsletter Style Columns A newsletter is a common application for newspaper columns. select “All” to print the entire document. use the format “7. You may choose to ignore or remove the inconsistency from the different options displayed. 12”.

covering several lines. To select an effect. you may enhance your WordArt text. typically a file of names and addresses with a document to create new documents. 3-D Effects: You may apply 3-D effects to your WordArt text. Click on the “Format” tab under “WordArt Tools” to modify the WordArt as per your requirements. Then select “Drop Cap” in the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. Using Mail Merge Using Mail Merge The Mail Merge feature combines a list of data. Click on a style. The symbol is inserted at the current cursor position. Click “OK” to display the drop cap in your document. in the “Text” group. Then click “Close”. The names and 57 | P a g e . You may change the font. Click “Drop Cap Options” to display the “Drop Cap” window. To change the direction of the 3-D effect. Spacing: To modify the spacing between the characters of the WordArt. Leave them unchanged for now. On the “Symbols” tab. You may also specify the font and the distance of the drop cap from your text. font size and font style if you wish. click “3-D Effects” once again and click the appropriate “Tilt” button on the right side of the displayed box.WordArt is used to enhance your documents by changing the shape of text and adding special effects such as 3-D and shadows. click on “Spacing” in the “Text” group. click on a symbol of your choice and click “Insert”. The “Edit WordArt Text” window is displayed. Click “More Symbols” to display the “Symbol” window. Select the text “Special Offers”. select “WordArt”. On the “Format” tab. Adding a Drop Cap Drop caps are the first character/s at the beginning of a paragraph that are enlarged. You can see that your text has been adjusted accordingly. Inserting Symbols To insert Symbols or Special Characters in your document. Select the first letter “C” from the list of offers. click “3-D Effects”. On the “Insert” tab. click on the left side of the displayed box. Then set the “Lines to drop” field as “2”. The “WordArt Gallery” is displayed. Now select “Tight”. Let us use a drop cap in our document. Then click “OK”. In this way. Click on “Dropped” under “Position”. Let us use WordArt to enhance the heading of the document created. select “Symbol” in the “Symbols” group on the “Insert” tab.

Make sure to insert a space between each field. Click "More items" to display the "Insert Merge Field" window. You wish to mail your document about special offers to a large number of people. Use the right and left arrows to preview letters to the others.addresses are entered (merged) into the document in the blank spaces provided. First Name and Last Name of the first person. Click "New Entry" to add subsequent entries. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. Let us add the text at the beginning of our document as shown. Enter your file name. click "Next" Creating a List: Let us create a list of people we wish to send our document to. You see that the field names are now inserted in your document. since you are ready with your letter. your letters to everyone are ready. Printing Mailing Labels Now that your letters are ready. Printing or Editing Letters: You may now click "Print" to print your letters or click "Edit individual letters" to make changes to any letter. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". Starting the Wizard: Select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. Click "Next" to complete the merge. then on "Insert". say "List1" and click "Save". Inserting Fields: Now. The result is a personalized letter. you may add the items that you wish to be incorporated in it. Now. Previewing Letters: You now see a preview of the letter to the first person on your list. Click "OK" in the "Mail Merge Recipients" window. enter the fields First Name and Last Name. After you are done. This is very simple using Word’s Mail Merge feature. Click on Title. Select "Type a new list" and then click "Create". 58 | P a g e . Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. Selecting the starting document: Now. We are now ready to insert the field names. Click "Next". The "Save Address List" window appears. Enter the Title. Enter a space. click "OK". Set the document type to "Letters" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. A personal touch can be added by addressing each person by his individual name at the top of the document. You may make your selections from the windows that are displayed. you want to create labels for the envelopes. A wizard guides you and in a few steps. Click after the word "Dear". Now click "Close". select "Use the current document". The "New Address List" window is displayed. Similarly.

Use the right and left arrows to move between labels. Similarly. Here. Preparing and Printing Envelopes 59 | P a g e . Address Line 2 and City fields for all the people in the list. enter the fields First Name. Then insert a space before each field in the first line. Address Line 2 and City. Now click “OK” and then click "Next". Click "More items" to display the "Insert Merge Field" window. You see that the field names are inserted in your document.Starting the Wizard: In a new blank Word document. Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. Now click "Label options". Enter the Address Line 1. the type of label product. Selecting Recipients: You have a list of people you wish to send your document to. you may select the type of printer. Set the document type to "Labels" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. Printing or Editing Labels: You may now click "Print" to print your labels or click "Edit individual labels" to make changes to any label. click "OK". Inserting Fields: Now. move the Address Line 2 and City fields to the following lines. Click "Update all labels". For now. select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. Click on the name of the list in the box at the bottom and then click "Edit". select “Formtec” in the “Label vendors” box and "Formtec AT-7210" under Product Number and click "OK". Replicating Labels: You may copy the layout of the first label to the other labels. then on "Insert". and the product number. After you are done. Click on the Title field. Press “Enter” after the Last Name field to bring the Address Line 1 to the next line. Arranging Fields: Let us now arrange the fields. Previewing Labels: You now see a preview of the labels. The "Label Options" window is displayed. Similarly. Now click “Close”. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". Last Name. In the "Select Data Source" window. Address Line 1. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. Let us now include address details. Click “Yes” to confirm the address details in the window that comes up. you may add the names and address details on the labels. Then click "Next". Select "Use an existing list" and then click "Browse". The "Mail Merge Recipients" window is displayed. navigate to the location of your list. Click on your list "List1" in the appropriate location and then click "Open". Click "Next" to complete the merge. Click "Next". The default location is the sub folder “My Data Sources” in the “Documents” folder.

You may specify different settings related to the appearance and printing of the envelope on the "Envelope options" and "Printing options" tabs. In the "Select Data Source" window. Now click "Next". For now. Now. Click "Address block". Starting the Wizard: Select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. browse to the location of your list.Sometimes. simply click “OK”. You may use "More items" to insert any individual items you wish. On the "Envelope options" tab. Click “Next”. In the “Insert Address Block” window. Now click "Envelope options". Let us make envelopes for some of them. your system must include a compatible e-mail program. Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. Set the document type to " Envelopes" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. click "Next". Use the right and left arrows to preview other envelopes. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. click on "List1" and then click "Open". The "Mail Merge Recipients" window is displayed. Starting the Wizard: In a new blank Word document. you make changes as required. Selecting Recipients: You already have a list of people. The "Envelope Options" window is displayed. select an appropriate Envelope size and click "OK". such as Microsoft Outlook. 60 | P a g e . Select "Use an existing list" and then click "Browse". This directly inserts all address fields on your envelope. Click "Next" to complete the merge. Set the document type to "E-mail messages" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. Previewing Envelopes: You now see a preview of the first envelope. as you did for labels. Arranging your envelope: Let us use the "Address block" feature. You can use the Mail Merge task pane to create a group email distribution. Merging for sending E-mails using Outlook You may also want to e-mail your document so as to reach out to a larger number of people. Printing or Editing Envelopes: You may now click "Print" to print your envelopes or click "Edit individual envelopes" to make changes to any envelope. you may want to quickly address a single envelope instead of printing and pasting a label. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. Un-check the boxes in front of the names for which you do not want envelopes and then click "OK". For this.

verify that "Email_Address" is displayed. since you are ready with your message. Brochures and Reports. Select "Use an existing list" and then click "Browse". click on "List1" and then click "Open". Using Standard Templates Using a Template from Word Every Microsoft Word document is based on a template. page layout. Now click "Next". Adding details: Just click on the parts marked in square brackets and enter your details. menus. Let us use this list. Now. Let us create a new document based on an existing template. You may make changes if required. Selecting the Template type: Click on the “Equity Letter” template and then press the “Create” button. select "Use the current document". Previewing your messages: You now see a preview of the first e-mail message. Replace body text with your own text. Just ensure that you have entered the e-mail addresses of the people on the list. Use the right and left arrows to preview other messages. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. Selecting Recipients: You already have a list of people. select the mail format you want to use. click "Next". Enter a space. type the subject line you want to use for all the messages. Under "Send records”. In the "Select Data Source" window. special formatting and styles. Click "Next" to complete the merge. 61 | P a g e . A template determines the basic structure for a document and contains document settings such as fonts. Click after the word "Dear". Click the Office Button and select “New” from the menu. Click "More items" to display the "Insert Merge Field" window. The "Merge to E-mail" window is displayed. In the "To" field. A new document is displayed with pre-defined settings. Sending mails: You may now click "Electronic Mail" to send your e-mails. In the "Mail format" field. Now click "Close". You may use any of the standard templates provided by Microsoft Word for your document such as Resumes. Click on First Name. click "Next". In the "Mail Merge Recipients" window. In the "Subject line" field. under “Templates”. you may add the items that you wish to be incorporated in it. key assignments. Then click "OK". click "OK". browse to the location of your list. select the records you want to merge. click “Installed Templates” to see a list of templates. Then. In the right left panel. Inserting Fields: Now. then on "Insert".Selecting the starting document: Now.

before you can start using some languages on your computer. Finally. In the box at the bottom. SPREADSHEET Overview of Excel Introduction You have recently accepted a new job as an Administrative Assistant with All Saints High School. Now start typing your text. Word Processing in Other Languages Language Settings in Windows Vista Setting a language for the Windows Vista operating system: By default Windows Vista does not support entry in certain languages. enter “Special Package” in the “File name” field and click “Save”. click “Apply” and then “OK” in the “Text Services and Input Languages” window. click “Change keyboards or other input methods” under “Clock. Click “Add” to add a new language. Click on the “Arabic” language in the window that comes up. If you see the “Classic View” displayed. let us add the Arabic language as an example. In the “Save As” window.Saving the document: You may save this file just like a normal document. Using a Configured Language in Word Start the Microsoft Word application. Now. In the “Add Input Language” window. the box at the top displays the default input language. Now. click “OK” in the “Regional and Language Options” window. Then click “Control Panel”. Check the box next to the first keyboard type and click “OK”. Language. Your document is created based on the template you selected. Click on the plus sign in front of “Arabic (Saudi Arabia)”. Language. Click on the “EN” icon on the taskbar. click “Control Panel Home”. Click on the “Start” button. Click the Office Button and click on the arrow next to “Save As”. You can see that your text appears in the new language. and Region” option of the “Control Panel”. Hence. you see a list of languages that Windows Vista has been configured to use. In the “General” tab of the “Text Services and Input Languages” window. you must configure Windows Vista to be able to use fonts specific to those languages. Now click “Word Document”. Now click “Change keyboards”. and Region” This displays the “Keyboards and Languages” tab of the “Regional and Language Options” window. Currently the school records are maintained on paper 62 | P a g e . Now click on the plus sign in front of the word “Keyboard” displayed below it. To exit the Word application. You can do this by configuring the language settings in the “Clock. click the Office Button and then click the “Exit Word” button at the bottom right.

It is very easy to manage. You are responsible for maintaining the exam records of all students. This data can be edited. It is mainly used for different type of calculations varying from very simple to complex. since you can add. filled with numerical or textual data. therefore there is no paper used. . The Microsoft Office user interface is uniform across most of its components. The school has purchased new computers and it plans to computerize all administrative operations. consisting of rows and columns. Whenever a hard copy is required. whole or part of the spreadsheet can be printed. it still takes time to manually leaf through the folders to locate the information you need. It consists of three main parts: 1) The Office Button 2) The Quick Access toolbar 3) The Ribbon 63 | P a g e . and unwanted data can be deleted. Microsoft Excel is the world’s most widely-used spreadsheet program. To start the Microsoft Excel application. Features of Microsoft Excel 2007 Features of Microsoft Excel 2007: . and is part of the Microsoft Office suite. update and delete data with a few keystrokes. An electronic spreadsheet or worksheet is made up of rows and columns.It is a general purpose electronic spreadsheet used to organize. You will prepare the Exam Record of students in Microsoft Excel 2007. Although the information is well organized. A spreadsheet is like an accountant’s ledger. new data can be added.forms and stored in file cabinets organized alphabetically. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Excel 2007”. . The User Interface The User Interface is the way in which you interact with your computer. change. . calculate and analyze data. .You can create well-designed spreadsheets that produce accurate and professional-looking results.All data is stored in the computer.You can create charts to represent data more effectively.

For more details on the Microsoft Office User Interface. filtering. The “Review” tab contains proofing tools like spell check. saving. The Ribbon: The Ribbon is a component of the Office Fluent user interface. Undo. charts. You will gradually learn to use the commands on all the tabs. It also includes tools for dealing with large amounts of information. The “Data” tab lets you get information from an outside source for analysis. c) Command buttons in each group that carry out a command or display a menu of commands. paper orientation. and hyperlinks. The “View” tab lets you select from a variety of viewing options. The “Page Layout” tab helps you in getting your worksheet ready for the printer. You can specify margins. and Redo. Clicking the Office Button displays the “File” menu. printing. The following Ribbon tabs are displayed in Excel: The “Home” tab has some of the most commonly used buttons.The Office Button: This appears at the top-left corner of your screen. displaying icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. and closing a file. It also enables you to view several separate Excel spreadsheet files at the same time. formatting your data. It is designed to put your most commonly used commands in a place where you can always find them. This contains commands for opening. The “Formulas” tab helps you build useful formulas that can resolve a great deal of problems. The Quick Access toolbar: This appears to the right of the Office Button near the top of the screen. please refer to the following: Topic: Word Processing Lab: Creating and Editing a Document 64 | P a g e . like sorting. b) Groups within each tab that break a task into subtasks. and grouping. It also has buttons that let you add comments to a worksheet and manage revisions. like those for cutting and pasting information. It consists of:a) Task-oriented tabs. graphics. The “Insert” tab lets you add special ingredients like tables. and other page settings. and searching for important pieces of information with search tools.

chart sheets containing graphic pictures of your worksheet data. up or down. There are some keyboard shortcuts to navigate within the worksheet. BB. To enter data in a cell.384 columns which works out to more than 17 billion cells. Each cell has its own address called the cell address.048. A special feature of Excel is “AutoCalculate”.… AA. Navigating the Excel Worksheet There are several methods for navigating a worksheet. AB. a single file or document is called a workbook. optionally. use the vertical scroll bar on the right edge of the window or horizontal scroll bar at the bottom of the window. Suppose you want to refer to a cell in the third row and fifth column. right. …AZ. The worksheet is divided into a grid of rows and columns. Specifically. the address of that cell will be E3. you must first move to the cell. Excel also calculates workbooks each time they are opened. It contains a collection of one or more worksheets and.576 rows by 16. To enable you to explore massive amounts of data in worksheets.The number of the third row is obviously 3 and the name of the fifth column is E. B. At the bottom of the workbook window are tabs that give you instant access to other worksheets in the workbook. The intersection of a row and a column is called a cell. The simplest way is to click the cell that you want to activate with the mouse. C. Microsoft Excel automatically recalculates formulas when the cells that the formula depends on have changed. the Excel 2007 grid is 1. 65 | P a g e . As you move from one cell to another. The columns are named as A. To view the part of the worksheet that is currently not visible. Each worksheet can be used to organize different types of related information. Microsoft Office Excel 2007 supports up to 1 million rows and 16 thousand columns per worksheet. To move among the worksheets in your workbook. Cell address: The address of a cell is made up of two parts – the column name and the row number. BA. the reference or address of the active cell appears in the Name Box. By default.Assignment: The User Interface Workbooks and Worksheets In Microsoft Excel 2007.… XFD and the rows are numbered from one onwards. you need to click the worksheet tabs. You can use the arrow keys to move left.

click in the cell you want to begin. A template is a file that is provided by the application in a “ready to use” form. To activate a particular cell. Whenever you create a new workbook using a template. 66 | P a g e . Template: You may also create a new workbook using a template. Click the Office Button and select “New”. Expense Statement. Now click “Create” in the “New Workbook” window. To enter data. The cell pointer will move down one row. activate cell B1 and repeat the same procedure as you did for column A. Type the address of the cell you want to make active and click “OK”. To select a group of cells. drag your cursor and release it when you have reached the end of the selection.Use the Home key to move to column A of the current row . You can also design and create your own workbook templates. a new blank Excel workbook is opened. Click in cell A1 to activate it and type ‘Roll_No’ and press “Enter” to complete the entry. For example a Sales Report. When you finish entering data in one column. move to a cell where you want to enter data and type the entry using the keyboard.xltx”.Page Up and Page Down keys can be used to move up or down one screen . etc. It is here that you will be entering the data. Continue typing the data in column A as shown in the accompanying figure. CREATING AND EDITING Creating a New Workbook When you first start Excel. Balance Sheet.. the same default settings are used. There is another way to create a new blank worksheet. A template file has an extension “. Entering and Editing Data After you are presented with a blank worksheet.Use “Ctrl+Home” to go the cell A1 and . It includes predefined settings that can be used as a pattern to create many different types of workbooks.“Ctrl+End” to go to the cell in the last row and last column that contains data. use the F5 function key or press “Ctrl+G”. you can enter data in it.

This is particularly useful when a cell contains a large amount of information. You may wish to change only a part of the text in a cell. Below the Ribbon. To remove individual characters. you will see that the data overflows into the next column. Leave it as it is for now. you can also resize the name box. how to adjust the column width. To adjust the width of the name box move your mouse between the name box and the formula box until the pointer changes to a horizontal two-headed arrow and then drag with your mouse to where you want it. Move the mouse to the boundary between column B and column C in the bar where column names are given on top. The shape of the cursor will change to a double sided arrow pointing to the right and left. To accommodate long names. you see the Name Box on the left and the Formula Bar on the right. use the “Backspace” key on the keyboard to erase the wrong character typed and continue typing. Correcting typing mistakes: While entering the data.While entering the data in the “Name” column. a checkmark and an "X" icon appear just to the left of the box. column C. Click the checkmark to confirm your entry. You may make the changes you require. We will see later on. You can also click and drag the mouse to adjust the width of the column. if you make a typing mistake. The width of the column will be automatically adjusted to the maximum length of characters in the column. you can adjust the size of the formula box in the formula bar. When you start typing in the formula box. Place the mouse on the boundary between the columns. that is. or "X" to roll it back. To adjust the height of the formula box. double-click on the cell. move your mouse over the bottom of the formula box until the pointer changes to a vertical twoheaded arrow and then drag with your mouse to where you want it. press "Delete" for characters to the right of the insertion point and "Backspace" for characters to the left. instead of editing directly in your worksheet. Double click on the boundary while the cursor is a double sided arrow. To overwrite the contents of a cell simply make the cell active and type whatever you want to. You can use the formula bar to enter and edit data. Now move the cursor to the point at which you want to edit the text. When the cursor 67 | P a g e . The “Delete” key on the keyboard can be used to clear the contents of a cell. For this. Resizing the Formula or Name Box: To make it easier to view and edit a large amount of text in a cell. Changing Column Width Now you will adjust the width of the column B. Enter data in all five columns as shown.

To do so. “Ctrl+S”. Now close the file. browse to select the file you want to open. The height of a row can be changed in a similar manner. by placing the mouse in cell A1. Your file is stored with the extension “. To open an existing workbook. Select all the data you have entered. Release the mouse when you reach cell E11. Enter the column width and press “OK”. To save a file. save it. you must save the file. As soon as you have opened a new file. Release the mouse when you reach cell E11. Once a file has been saved. by placing the mouse in cell A1. to click the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. The background color of the cells changes as you drag the mouse. Select all the data you have entered. click and drag the mouse to widen the column as much as needed. You now have to add a heading to the worksheet. Keep saving it as you work. you must make place on the worksheet. click the Office Button and select “Save” or use the keyboard shortcut. Then click and drag the mouse up to the last cell containing data to be moved. Moving Cells You now have to add a heading to the worksheet. The name of the workbook appears in the “Title Bar”. You may also use the “Cut” and “Paste” commands to move cells. to save it again. Closing and Opening a Workbook Now that all the data has been entered. You can also specify the width of the column by clicking on a column and selecting “Format → Column Width” in the “Cells” group on the “Home” tab. From the window that is displayed. Another way to save is file is. Then type ‘Exam Record’ in the box in front of the label “File name” and then click on the “Save” button. click the Office Button and select “Save As”.shape changes. It is a good practice to save a file often to prevent data loss due to unforeseen circumstances like power failure. The background color of the cells changes as you drag the mouse. Select the data from the cells to be moved and then select “Cut” in the “Clipboard” 68 | P a g e . To do so. click the Office Button and select “Open” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+O”. To close the file. Now click “Open”. click the Office Button and select “Close”. Then click and drag the mouse up to the last cell containing data to be moved. Saving.xlsx”. you must make place on the worksheet.

69 | P a g e . you have to make use of a formula. one heading at a time You have to now insert cells to make place so that we can give a combined heading for the three subjects. Type ‘Total’ in cell F8. If a formula contains operators of the same precedence. When you see the item you want. they are evaluated from left to right. Select “Insert” from the pop-up window and select “Shift cells down” from the “Insert” window. all the selected cells are merged and the heading is centered. /. A formula is evaluated from left to right and in the following order: percent. -. Merge and center ‘Marks’ above the three subject marks as shown in the accompanying figure. The total of the marks for the three subjects is displayed in cell F10 as 248. You now have to calculate the total marks for each student. Select the cells C8 to E8 and right-click on the selection.group on the “Home” tab. *. multiplication. subtraction. type ‘Marks’. including a description of each item. multiplication and division. and ^ to perform addition. When you begin typing a formula. Centering and Merging Cells To merge and centre headings:Type the headings in appropriate cells as shown in the accompanying figure. a formula always begins with an equal sign (=) and uses arithmetic operators like +. %. Select cells starting with A1 to E1 and click on the “Merge & Center” icon in the “Alignment” group on the “Home” tab. Formula AutoComplete: The Formula AutoComplete feature makes entering formulas very simple. To do this in Excel. addition and subtraction. In regular Mathematics. press Tab to enter it into your formula. as shown in the figure. Move the cursor down and type ‘=C10+D10+E10’ and press “Enter”. percent and exponentiation respectively. Excel displays a drop-down list of matching items. As soon as you click on the icon. Move the data for ‘Roll_No’ and ‘Name’ one row down. exponentiation. Exam Record and Class VIII – B. Do the same for the other headings – . division. Using Formulas Formula: A formula is nothing but an expression that performs calculation on data contained in the worksheet. Let the text overflow into the neighboring cells. You will soon see how to bring the heading to the center of the data. In the cell above Sub1. Click on the cell where you want to move your data and then click on the upper part of the “Paste” icon in the “Clipboard” group on the “Home” tab. A moving border appears around the selection. In Excel. Total Marks secured = Marks of Subject 1 + Marks of Subject 2 + Marks of Subject 3.

You have now to calculate the percent marks for each student. you may use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+C” or select “Copy” from the “Clipboard” group on the “Home” tab. The row numbers have changed relative to the positions of the cells containing the formula.to cancel the moving border. Let us change the marks of one student. Duplicating Cell Contents You have to calculate the ‘Total’ and ‘Percent’ marks for all students in the same way. The formula for adding marks and calculating percent is copied from cells F10 and G10 respectively and pasted into all selected cells. Move the cursor down and type ‘=F10 * (100/300)’ which is the formula to calculate percentage and then press “Enter”. The formula in cell F12 is “=C12+D12+E12”. a range. Select all cells from F11 to G19. Right-click anywhere in the selection Select “Copy” from the pop-up window. What-If Analysis: If you change one or more numbers in your spreadsheet.66667. This is called “Relative Cell Referencing”. It shows “=C11+D11+E11”. This is called “What-If Analysis”. Thus you can change the value in a cell and see the effect on other related cells. This indicates that the contents have been copied. The Percent marks for the three subjects are displayed in cell G10 as 82. that is. But you don’t have to type the formula every time. An adjacent range is a block of adjoining cells. press Esc key. all related formulas are recalculated automatically. Select cells F10 and G10. In the Formula Bar. observe the formula you have pasted in cell F11. another workbook or in a totally different application. The formula can be copied and pasted in the other cells. In regular Mathematics. A non-adjacent range is two or more cells or ranges that are not adjoining. Right click in anywhere in the selection. Alternatively. You can see that the value in the “Percent” field is changed automatically. Percentage = Marks secured multiplied by 100 and divided by the Maximum Marks. Type ‘Percent’ in cell G8. A moving border appears around the selection. another worksheet. The contents of several continuous cells. Range: A range is a selection of two or more cells. can also be copied and pasted in a similar manner on the same worksheet. Select “Paste” from the pop-up window. You may also use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+V” or select “Paste” from the “Clipboard” group on the “Home” tab. 70 | P a g e . The cells in a range can be adjacent or non-adjacent.

=IF(G10>=35. B grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 50. It is possible to nest multiple IF functions within one Excel formula. Click on the first cell."Pass". A non-adjacent range is specified by giving the cell addresses separated by a comma (. You will again use the “IF” function to do so. C7.In formulas. A grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 60."PASS". In regular English. IF(G10>=35. "A". "B". IF(G10>=50. “Copy” this function and “Paste” it in the cells from I11 to I19. IF(G10>=75. The condition for a student to pass is that he must secure at least 35 percent marks. This means a new “IF” statement is started inside another “IF” statement. A+ grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 75. Now select C14:F21. "FAIL"))))) Press “Enter”. Click on the cell A11 and drag to the cell A18. "Fail"). 71 | P a g e . The grades for all students are displayed. Type the heading ‘Result’ in cell H8 and type the function as shown in cell H10. Type the heading ‘Grade’ in cell I8 and type the function as shown in cell I10. press the “Ctrl” key and then click on the next two cells. The grades will be given as follows: Percent marks greater than or equal to 80. Using Functions A “Function” is a prewritten formula that performs calculations automatically. IF(G10>=60. You have to decide whether a student has passed or failed. The result of the function is displayed in cell I10. Pass grade All others fail. Press “Enter”. E9. You now have to give Grades to the students according to their marks. Let us learn to use a nested IF this time. C grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 35. In Excel. The results for all students are displayed. This is called “nested IF”. an adjacent range is specified by giving the starting and ending cell addresses separated by a colon (:). you would write this condition as follows: If percentage is greater than or equal to 35. "A+". you will use the “IF” function. The result of the function is displayed in cell H10. otherwise he would be declared “FAILED”. “Copy” this function and “Paste” it in the cells from H11 to H19. =IF(G10>=80.) like A4. the student will be declared “PASSED”. Let us select the range A11:A18 using the mouse. "C".

Activate cell C23. and B24 respectively. The “Function Arguments” window is displayed. To find the average marks. Select “Insert Function” in the “Function Library” group on the “Formulas” tab. select “Statistical” from the “Or select a category” list. Activate cell C24. click in the drop down box next to “Or select a category”. The result is displayed in cell C24. activate it. You can simply type the function you want to use in the cell. Press “Enter” to complete the entry. B23. you have to use “MIN” function. To insert a function in cell C22. and type ‘=Average (F10:F19)’ in it. It is written for you by Excel as =MIN (F10:F19) There is another way of using functions. Observe the formula bar to see how the function is written. You can type all the functions in the same manner whenever you want to use them. Enter the numbers or the range from which you want to find the minimum number. you can make use of some statistical functions. Since the “MAX” function has been most recently used. If the category is something else. you have to use the “AVERAGE” function. The maximum number in the range is displayed in cell C22 as 262. From the “Select a function” list. It is written for you by Excel as =MAX (F10:F19) Now. From the window that opens. 72 | P a g e . Observe the formula bar to see how the function is written. Select the “Statistical” category. ‘Minimum marks’ and ‘Average marks’ in cells B22. select “MIN” from the alphabetical list of functions and click “OK”.Now to find the maximum. select “MAX” from the alphabetical list of functions and click “OK”. Type ‘Maximum marks’. minimum and average marks scored by the students. The minimum number in the range is displayed in cell C23. Here you can enter the numbers or the range from which you want to find the maximum number. to find the minimum marks. Type the range as ’F10:F19’ next to”Number1” and click “OK”. From the “Select a function” list. The Function Arguments window is displayed. Select “Insert Function” in the “Function Library” group on the “Formulas” tab. the “Statistical” category will already be selected. Type the range as ‘F10:F19’ next to “Number1” and click “OK”.

Alignment: To bring the headings to the center. Changing the “Font” and “Font Size” of the headings: Select cell A1 and click on the “Font” list in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. Select “Blue”. Now click on “Format Cells” and from the window that opens. you can make them bold. You can choose from a variety of predefined styles by selecting “Cell Styles” in the “Styles” group on the “Home” tab. Select “Format” in the “Cells” group on the “Home tab. A5. Click “OK”. font set. Changing the font color of the headings: Select all headings and click on the arrow next to the “Font Color” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. You may use the “Align Text Left” or “Align Text Right” icons to move the headings to the left or right if you wish. Now select “Thick Box Border” from the displayed list. Adding a thick border: Select the range of cells from A8 to H19 and click on the arrow next to the “Borders” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. and effects. The font and the font size of the heading are changed. The numbers in the “Percent” range are displayed with two decimal places.Formatting the Worksheet You can make your spreadsheet look more coordinated and professional by using Styles and Themes. Let us see how we can enhance our worksheet which looks quite plain. Hold down the Ctrl key and click in cells A4. The font color of all headings is displayed with the color Blue. A list of fonts is displayed. “Styles” are individual designs that can be applied to different parts of the document. click on the “Number” tab. You want the percent marks to be displayed with only two decimal places. Select “Bodoni MT Black”. “Themes” are universal designs that unify all of the styles. select them first. then click on the “Bold” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. A window of colors is displayed. Select the range of Percent marks. To bring the headings to the center. A theme consists of a color palette. You may access the theme gallery by selecting “Themes” in the “Themes” group on the “Page Layout” tab. 73 | P a g e . With the Ctrl key still held down. select range A8:H8 and range C9:E9. The accompanying figure shows an enhanced view of the worksheet. click in cell A1. Decimal Places: The percent marks are displayed with many decimal places. click on the “Center” icon in the “Alignment” group on the “Home” tab. To select all headings. While the headings are still selected. you must first select all of them. Then click on the “Font Size” list and select 14. If the headings are not selected. A thick border is displayed around the entire range. All the headings are centered. Select “Number” from the “Category” list and change “Decimal places” to 2.

Highlighting: To highlight the range of “Maximum, Minimum and Average Marks”, select the range B22:C24. Click on the “Fill Color” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. Select the color “Yellow”. The cell range is filled with the color Yellow. Indenting: To adjust the indenting of the contents of a cell, click on the cell. Then, in the “Alignment” group on the “Home” tab, click on the “Increase Indent” or “Decrease Indent” icon as required. Working with Graphics You now have to insert the logo of the School. To do so, activate cell G3 and select “Clip Art” in the “Illustrations” group on the “Insert” tab. In the “Clip Art” panel at the right, type ‘concepts’ in the “Search for:” box. Check in the boxes before “My Collections” and “Office Collections” in the drop down list of “Search in”. Click in the box before “Clip Art” in the drop down list of “Results should be” and click “Go”. Resizing the graphic image: Click on the “Bull’s Eye” image. It will be bigger in size. You have to resize it so that it occupies less space and looks proportionate to the rest of the data on the page. To resize it, click on the lower right corner handle of the image, and drag the mouse so that the image becomes smaller in size. Release the mouse when the image becomes the desired size. Entering the Date Inserting a row: Click on row number 7 on the left side. Right click and select “Insert”. One Row will be inserted. To insert multiple rows, select an equal number of rows. This means that when you select four rows, four more rows are inserted. Activate cell A7 and type ‘Date:’. Then place the cell pointer in cell B7 and select “Insert Function” in the “Function Library” group on the “Formulas” tab. Select “Date & Time” as category. Select “Date” as function and click “OK”. Type the “Year” as ‘2007’, “Month” as ‘02’ and “Day” as ‘21’ in the “Function Arguments” window. Click “OK”. The date is displayed as “2/21/2007” in cell B7. Formatting the date: To change the date format, right-click in cell B7 and select “Format cells”. The “Format Cells” window is displayed. Click on the “Number” tab. Select “Date” from the “Category” list and select the “Type” as “14-Mar-01”. The sample format is visible in the “Sample” box. Click “OK”. The date is displayed in the format 21-Feb-07. Previewing and Printing
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The worksheet is now ready. You can print it. Before getting a hard copy, you can preview the worksheet. If you do not like the way it looks, you can make more changes. To preview your worksheet, click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. The “Print Preview” tab appears when you view the worksheet in the Print Preview mode. Click “Close Print Preview” in the “Preview” group to close the preview. Everything seems to be OK. But the logo of the school needs to be moved up, in line with the school’s name. Moving the graphic image: Click and drag the “Bull’s Eye” image so that it is in line with the school’s name. Release the mouse when done. The image can also be moved by using the arrow keys on the keyboard by selecting it first. Click on the image to select it. Use the right arrow key to move the graphic image to the right, left arrow key to move it to the left and so on. Printing the worksheet: Click the Office Button and select “Print → Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. Select the printer name from the list in front of “Name”. Under “Print Range” enter “Pages From” as ‘1’ To ‘1’. Select “Active Sheet” under “Print what” and click “OK”. Sorting Data Excel can quickly sort text, data or numbers according to specified criteria in ascending or descending order. In the worksheet displayed you can see a list of people along with their ages. Let us sort this list according to the names. Click in any of the cells containing names and then click “Sort & Filter” in the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab. To sort the list in ascending order of names, click “Sort A to Z”. To sort it in descending order, click “Sort & Filter” and select “Sort Z to A”. Now, to sort this list according to the ages of the people, click in a cell containing an age and follow the same procedure. When you click the “Sort & Filter” icon, you see the options “Sort Smallest to Largest” and “Sort Largest to Smallest”. This is because previously it was an alphabetic list and now it is a list containing numbers that is being sorted. To sort the list in ascending order of ages, select “Sort Smallest to Largest”. Now if you had to sort the data in the worksheet containing student marks that you previously created in descending order of roll numbers, you would need to follow a slightly different procedure. This is because this worksheet contains headings and information other than simply data. First select all columns which contain data and then select “Sort & Filter → Sort Largest to Smallest” in the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab. Using Charts
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Learning about Charts

You have to present the exam results of the students of class VIII-B. The most easy and effective manner to do this would be to present it in the form of a chart. A chart is a visual representation of data and conveys the information in an easy to understand and attractive manner. There are different types of charts available in Microsoft Excel 2007 such as Column charts, Line charts, Bar charts, Area charts, Bubble charts and many more. You may select a suitable type depending on the data you want to chart and the emphasis you want the chart to impart. Here you will learn to make a single data series chart. Parts of a Chart: A chart has different parts as labeled in the accompanying image. Chart Title – The tile of the chart “Student Vs Marks”. Value Axis – The Y-axis on which the value is shown. Value Axis Title – The title “Marks”. Category Axis – The X-axis on which the category for which you have charted the values is shown. Category Axis Title – The title “Name” Chart Area – The entire area on which the chart is drawn. Legend – The legend, as in a map, shows which color is used to represent what: “Series 1” in this case. Creating a Chart To present the marks of all students as a chart, select the “Name” range (B11 to B20), hold down the “Ctrl” key and select the “Total” range (F11 to F20), without selecting the titles in cells B9 and F9. On the “Insert” tab, in the “Charts” group, select “Column”. Now select “Clustered Column”, the first image from the Chart sub-types displayed. You can now see the chart on your worksheet. You can make changes to your chart and enhance its appearance using various “Chart Tools”. If you do not see “Chart Tools” displayed on the Ribbon, click in the chart area to ensure that the chart is selected. Now, under “Chart Tools”, on the “Design” tab, select a suitable style from the “Chart Styles” group. Now let us add more details in our chart. For this we shall use the “Labels” group on the “Layout” tab under “Chart Tools”. Click “Chart Title” and select “Above Chart”. Now type the title ‘Student Vs Marks’. As you type, it appears

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Modifying a Chart You may decide that you want to plot only the marks of Subject 1 in the chart. Press “Enter”. After a chart has been created. select “Axis Titles → Primary Vertical Axis Title → Rotated Title”. Select a Shape Style from the “Shape Styles” group. Then select a WordArt Style from the “WordArt Styles” group. You may explore the various other options on the “Format” tab to further enhance your chart. the spelling checker locates all misspelled words and proposes the correct spelling. Sizing the chart: Click on the center of any side of the chart or at a corner. Now. 77 | P a g e . Data Labels are used to label the elements of a chart with their actual data values. The chart title is displayed above your chart. On the “Design” tab under “Chart Tools”. You can see that the chart displays the marks of Subject 1. You may enhance the appearance of your chart. if some spelling mistakes have been made. type “Names” and press “Enter”. to enter the description for the X-axis. on your worksheet. Similarly. select the cells that contain the data that you want to appear in the chart. The “Select Data Source” window is displayed. select “Axis Titles → Primary Horizontal Axis Title → Title Below Axis”. To print only the chart.in the Formula Bar at the top. you can even change the Chart Type. Now click “OK”. select it by clicking in the chart area. Your chart appears as a bar chart. Now click on the Office Button and then select “Print”. For this. select the data in the “Name” column and “Subject 1” column and click “OK” in the “Select Data Source” window. drag it to a position of your choice. Select “Data Labels → Outside End”. Now click “Select Data” in the “Data” group. click on the “Design” tab under “Chart Tools”. Select “Bar” in the left pane of the “Change Chart Type” window and then click “Clustered Bar” in the right pane. type “Marks” and press “Enter”. select “Change Chart Type” in the “Type” group. You can now see the actual marks of each student. Moving the chart: Click on the chart and when the mouse pointer changes to a four-headed arrow. Managing a Workbook Correcting Errors While entering data. Click on the “Format” tab under “Chart Tools”. When the mouse pointer changes to a two-headed arrow. drag to a suitable size. To enter the description for the Y-axis. This time.

Select “Spelling” in the “Proofing” group on the “Review” tab or use the keyboard shortcut “F7”. select the book you want to move the sheet to. a message saying so is displayed. From the “Before sheet” list. You may copy a sheet to another workbook. All you need to do is to add data. The range copied from Sheet1 is pasted in cell A1 of Sheet2. click on Sheet2. select the correct word from the suggestions list and click on the “Change” button. such as proper nouns which are not really errors may be shown as spelling mistakes. You may also move or copy sheets with the mouse. If the spelling is correct but shown as incorrect for some reason. Some words. Select the “Paste” option. Click a sheet you want move and drag it to the place you want to copy it and release the mouse 78 | P a g e . the spelling checker moves to the next word. If there are more than one occurrences of the same word spelt wrongly.Place the cell pointer at the beginning of your worksheet or from wherever you want to start checking for errors. Moving or copying sheets: Right click on the Sheet1 tab. When the checking is completed for the entire worksheet. Simply copy them from one sheet to another. Right-click in cell A1 of Sheet2. If you change a word which you did not want to. click in the “Create a copy” check box. Right-click on the selection and click on “Copy”. You may make changes in this sheet for another class. You can use the same format of the worksheet. The “Spelling” window is displayed and one by one every word in your worksheet is checked. You do not have to type all the headings once again. “Ignore” etc. In the “To book” list. In that case. click on the “Change All” button. When you click on any button such as “Change”.. options are displayed in the “Suggestions” box from the spelling checker’s dictionary. Select all headings in the range A1 to H10. click on “Ignore All” or “Ignore Once” whichever is appropriate. A whole new worksheet with the same layout but with different data is ready. select the sheet. To copy the sheet. On the sheet tabs below. You may add these words to the dictionary by clicking the “Add to Dictionary” button. The Sheet2 will be displayed. click on “Undo Last”. If a spelling is found to be wrong. The “Move or Copy” window is displayed. Working with Sheets You want to make the exam record for another class now. You can also select the sheet before which you want to insert it. Select the “Move or Copy” option.

Autofill recognizes and automatically extends data and alphanumeric headings as far as you specify. The name will be highlighted. Manage a sheet: When you right-click on the sheet tab. without opening the sheets. To copy a sheet with the mouse. A ‘+’ sign appears on the page icon while copying the sheet. from which you can select whether you want to insert a worksheet. You can name the sheet accordingly. Double-click on the name of the sheet. and change the tab color. select all sheets. Absolute reference: An absolute reference is a cell or range reference used in a formula whose location does not change when a formula is copied. hold down the “Ctrl” key while you drag a sheet. delete. it becomes difficult to remember what data is stored on each sheet.days of the week in short.button. When you copy. If you select “Delete”. All the range you selected will be filled with names of months starting with January. To stop 79 | P a g e . When you release the mouse. the current sheet will be deleted after confirmation. a number of options are displayed in the pop-up window. right-click on a sheet tab and select “Tab Color”. names of the months in short. Drag the mouse as far as you want the cells to fill and release the mouse. This is the fill handle. To deselect the sheets. Using Autofill: Autofill is a feature of Microsoft Excel 2007 that makes entering a series of headings easier by logically repeating and extending the series. Simply type the new name. The number of the copy appears in brackets in the sheet tab Naming a sheet: When you have many sheets. You may change the tab color of sheets to distinguish between the data stored on each sheet. rename. to give you an idea of what data is stored on the sheet. 2000. While you drag. move or copy. For this. You can select all sheets by selecting the “Select all sheets” option. you can insert. number series like 1000. The name of the sheet is changed. You will see a black plus sign. Other such autofill entries are . a solid black triangle appears along with a blank page icon. Through the options in this window. Move the mouse to the corner of the selection. another copy of the sheet is made. Type the entry ‘January’ in a cell. right click in any of the sheet tabs and select “Ungroup Sheets”. If you select “Insert”. the “Insert” window is displayed. etc. the sheet will be moved to the new location. 3000. a chart or something else.

If you reduce the percentage. starting with cell ‘J1’. in the cell A1. This makes the cell reference absolute. more data will fit on the screen and vice versa. you can change the display percentage of the sheet. Now. there can be data in a number of rows and columns all of which cannot be seen at the same time. Thus “Sheet1!A1” refers to cell A1 on Sheet1. But the problem comes when you need to refer to some other part while working in one part of the sheet. while rows or columns in the non-scrolled area remain visible. Sheet1 has the value 100 in cell A1 and Sheet2 has the value 200 in cell A1.the automatic relative cell references. When a formula containing an absolute cell reference is copied to another row or column in the worksheet. Copy this formula from cell M6 to the remaining students and check the formula for each student in the “Formula Bar”. Let us now go to Sheet3. You can then scroll in one area of the worksheet. Although the formula has been copied. the reference of cell O2 has remained constant. you have made the column and the row references absolute. the cell reference does not change. type a $ (dollar) character before the column and row number. 20% of the Unit Test marks are to be calculated. In the zoom window you may select a zoom percentage of your choice. You can see that the sum of the figures on the other two sheets is displayed here. You can work in any part of the worksheet at any time. enter “=Sheet1!A1+Sheet2! A1” and press “Enter”. You may copy the Roll Nos and the Names. Select “Zoom” in the “Zoom” group on the “View” tab. By adding ‘$’ before ‘O’ and ‘2’. Now both panes have a common vertical scroll bar but 80 | P a g e . but data for marks will have to be typed. Zooming the worksheet: In Microsoft Excel 2007. Managing Large Sheets You already know the massive size of the worksheet in Microsoft Excel 2007. At such times. This is called referencing multiple sheets. Here. to calculate 20% marks. Prepare the data as shown in the accompanying figure in the neighboring space. Now. Splitting Panes: You can split the window either horizontally. For the Final exam. vertically or both horizontally and vertically. Select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. activate cell M6 and type ‘=L6 * $O$2’ in it. Referencing multiple sheets: While working you may have to reference data from more than one sheet. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the top row. you can view two areas of a worksheet and lock rows or columns in one area by splitting or freezing panes. At such times. To split the window vertically.

Select “Freeze Panes → Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. Select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab once again. you can freeze either. This means that. rows and columns. the top left pane freezes. select “Freeze Panes → Unfreeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. To freeze the top row or first column. Moving using the vertical scrollbar keeps the row numbers in the frozen pane unchanged. Select “Freeze Panes → Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab.individual horizontal scroll bars to enable you to move separately in the two panes. Select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. or both. 81 | P a g e . Select “Freeze Panes → Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. Now both panes have a common horizontal scroll bar but individual vertical scroll bars to enable you to move separately in the two panes. To remove a split. To freeze the left pane of the window. regardless of where you are in the worksheet. if you click on the top left cell. To freeze the top pane of the window. For this. You can freeze information in the top and left panes of the window only. Freezing panes: With the “Freeze Panes” option. select the appropriate options from those displayed on selection of “Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. Moving using the horizontal scrollbar keeps the column numbers in the frozen pane unchanged. you can see that the frozen panes are visible at all times. To split the window horizontally. Also. To split the window both horizontally as well as vertically. Let us assume that you wish to have the headings and roll numbers & names of the students visible always. selecting “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab results in a horizontal and vertical split. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the top row. As you scroll through your worksheet. you can see the information in those rows and/or columns at all times. To remove the freeze. When a window is split both horizontally and vertically. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the leftmost column. place the cell pointer in the appropriate cell where you want the split to appear. You can see that three panes have appropriate vertical and horizontal scroll bars. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the leftmost column. click the cell below and to the right of the row and column you want to freeze.

Select “WhatIf Analysis → Goal Seek” in the “Data Tools” group on the “Data” tab. If the data is not properly visible on the page. The header is usually the title you would give to the page. if a student has failed. Click “OK”. how much he should have scored in the failed subject to score pass marks. containing the “Total” marks of the student. Student with Roll Number 6 has failed. The text that appears in the top margin of the page is called the Header. The text that appears in the bottom margin of the page is called the Footer. If you know the result that you want from a formula. you can change the orientation of the page so that data can be fitted accordingly. If you have say 15 pages in your workbook. the cell with the marks below pass level. During analysis. In the “Goal Seek” window. you may change page orientation to “Landscape” by selecting “Orientation” in the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. The header and footer give additional information about the data on the page. The “Goal Seek Status” window is displayed. Click “OK”. If there is more data to be fitted on one page. You can do this with Goal seek. Activate cell F16. you may decide that the pages of your worksheet must have a header and footer. you often come across situations. The page number is usually given as the footer. The marks in the failed subject are adjusted to 35. It is a method which aids you in forecasting values. The value in cell C16 is adjusted to get the target value. You can see that he has scored very poor marks in one of the three subjects. but not the input value the formula needs to get that result. Click in the “By changing cell” field and then click C16. how many marks he should have scored in that subject so that he would have secured a Pass grade. You now want to find out. For example. you can change the page orientation to landscape. you want to find out. The default setting is “Portrait”. you can use the Goal Seek feature. you can use the “Header & Footer” option to add the same header and footer on each page. Footers and Print Settings Page orientation: Depending on the area of the worksheet you want to print. type ‘105’ (the passing total marks) in the “To value” box. Headers.Forecasting Values Goal Seek: One of the features of Microsoft Excel is analyzing data. Click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. where you have to see the effects of changing selected factors in a worksheet. 82 | P a g e . Header and Footer: Before you print your data.

you can choose from a variety of computer tools called Graphics Presentation Programs. This displays another box to the right. select the name of the printer from the list in the “Name” field. For this. In addition. In the “Print What” section. 83 | P a g e . click on “Active sheet(s)” and then click “OK”. Check the layout and close the preview by clicking “Close Print Preview” in the “Preview” group. Graphics Presentation Programs include features to handle pictures. We shall insert the page number in the box displayed. whether to the Board of Directors of a company or to your fellow colleagues.Select “Header & Footer” in the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. On the “Design” tab under “Header & Footer Tools”. A box is displayed at the center of the header area. movies and sounds. click on “Current Date” in the “Header & Footer Elements” group. Use the “Ctrl” key to select more than one sheet. An effective presentation puts your point across clearly and in an interesting manner. correct and update the presentation. With a few keystrokes you can quickly change. Presentation Graphics Overview of Presentation Graphics Introduction to Presentation Graphics If you have to make a presentation to an audience and you want it to be good. Printing selected worksheets: You do not always need to print the entire workbook. you may enter the text “First Term Exam Report”. Now press the “Tab” key. a Graphics Presentation Program may also suggest layouts and color and animation schemes for different types of presentations and offer professionally designed templates to help you to create a presentation that is sure to hold the attention of your audience. Click on the Office Button and select “Print”. click on “Page Number” in the “Header & Footer Elements” group. You can print selected sheets in the workbook. Here. These programs are designed to help you to create an effective presentation. This will insert the date. Now click “Go to Footer” in the “Navigation” group. text. Press “Tab” and then press the “Esc” key to complete creation of the footer. In the “Print” window. charts and tables. Click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. Select all the sheets you want to print by clicking on the sheet tabs. Press “Enter” and type ‘Class VIII B’ on the second line.

you may see the assignment titled “The User Interface” in the “Microsoft Word” topic. The “Review” tab contains tools which help you proofread and correct a presentation. 3) The Ribbon which has Task-oriented Tabs. Each slide shows a different screen to your audience. For more details on the Microsoft Office User Interface. Undo.Each presentation is divided into slides. Creating a Presentation Using Installed Templates A “Template” is a pre-designed presentation designed for common purposes such as a photo album or a quiz show. The “Design” tab contains tools to design your slides. You will gradually learn to use the commands on all the tabs. The “View” tab contains tools which help you view your presentation in the most suitable way. Groups and Command buttons. saving. The following Ribbon tabs are displayed in PowerPoint: The “Home” tab contains the basic formatting tools. Click on the Office Button and select “New”. The “Insert” tab contains the basic set of objects which you can insert into a slide. Exploring Microsoft PowerPoint: To start the Microsoft PowerPoint application. The “Animations” tab contains tools to animate objects and create transitions between slides. and Redo. You see the familiar Microsoft Office 2007 user interface which consists of: 1) The Office Button which displays a menu containing commands for opening. 84 | P a g e . click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007”. and closing a file. The “Slide Show” tab contains tools that control how the slide show is presented. You may create a new presentation using a template provided by PowerPoint. 2) The Quick Access toolbar which displays icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. printing.

On the bottom is the “Notes Pane” in which you can type notes that you want along with a slide. When you have finished creating and editing your presentation. you may select “Slide Show” in the “Presentation Views” group on the “View” tab or click the “Slide Show” button at the bottom right of the status bar. The “Slides” tab shows your slides as thumbnail-sized images while you edit. movies. Normal View: Select “Normal” in the “Presentation Views” group. click “Installed Templates” to see a list of templates. you can find various tools that control how the slide show is presented. PowerPoint Presentation Views Viewing a presentation: A “view” is a way of looking at a presentation. On the left are the “Slides” and “Outline” tabs. This is the main editing view. or delete slides. Here. For example. This makes it easy to navigate through your presentation and to see the effects of changes. under “Templates”. Microsoft PowerPoint has three main views: Normal View. In the Normal View. It has three working areas. on the right you can see the “Slide Pane”. A new presentation is displayed with pre-defined settings. Click on the tab names to view the respective tabs. This is an exclusive view of your slides in thumbnail form. You can see how your graphics. Now. if you need to make changes to the way your slide show runs. like an actual slide show presentation. To actually run a slide show.In the left panel. Creating your First Slide 85 | P a g e . add. Slide Sorter View. you may specify the timing between the display of each slide and which slides are to be hidden during the presentation. You can also rearrange. This view takes up the full computer screen. you may use the options available on the “Slide Show” tab. You can make changes as required. Select “Slide Sorter” in the “Presentation Views” group. animated elements and transition effects will look in the actual show. Click on a suitable one and then press the “Create” button. which displays a large view of the current slide. you see your presentation the way your audience will. Slide Show View: Select “Slide Show” in the “Presentation Views” group or press “F5” on your keyboard. You may also change the presentation views by clicking on the buttons displayed on the “Status Bar” at the bottom of the screen. Slide Sorter View: Click the “View” tab. add or delete slides. In this full-screen view. timings. making it easy to reorder. The “Outline” tab shows your slide text in outline form. Slide Sorter View gives you an overall picture of it. and Slide Show View.

In the Slide Pane on the right. Click in the first placeholder and type the name you want to give your presentation. When you move your mouse over a sizing handle the pointer becomes a twoheaded arrow. Sizing and Moving Placeholders You know that placeholders are boxes that are part of most slide layouts. Now click on a theme of your choice. and pictures. drag the rotation handle in the direction that you want to rotate it. tables. You can see a “Rotation Handle” which is a round arrow at the top of the placeholder. click on the arrow at the bottom right to see all available themes. You may now edit the text as you wish. In the “Themes” group. click on the text in the title. you see two boxes. you can drag to the location you wish. To move a placeholder. It can be used to rotate the placeholder to any angle. These are called “Placeholders”. Applying a Theme: You may enhance the appearance of this slide which looks quite plain. Saving and Opening a Presentation 86 | P a g e . Sizing a placeholder: The “Sizing Handles” at the sides and corners of the selection rectangle can be used to adjust the size of the placeholder. To rotate a placeholder. In the existing slide. When you start PowerPoint. you may make editing changes to your text on the Outline tab. These are simultaneously reflected in the Slide Pane. The sizing handles at the sides are used to adjust only the height or the width. Using the Outline Tab: Alternately. First. These boxes hold title and body text or objects such as charts. Click on the title text. In the second placeholder type a subtitle. The title is now a selected object and is surrounded by a selection rectangle. click in an area between the sizing handles on the side borders. Click on the “Design” tab. Moving a placeholder: You may wish to change the position of your placeholder. An insertion point is displayed to show your location in the text. let us assume you need to make changes to the title. Dragging a corner sizing handle adjusts both the height and width at the same time. When the pointer becomes a four-headed arrow.You are working for a company which offers various educational courses. you see a blank presentation in Normal View with the default name “Presentation1”. You may need to change some of the text that you have entered on your slide. You wish to create a presentation which introduces your company and tells about its numerous activities. Editing in the Slide Pane: You may make changes directly in the slide pane.

Click on the first slide on the Slides tab in the left pane.To save your presentation. browse to the location of your picture file. select “Picture”.pptx”. such as text. on a slide. In the “Illustrations” group. click on the lower part of the “New Slide” icon. Now click on the “Insert” tab. Let us also insert the same picture on the first slide we created. Your file is stored with the extension “. click on the “More” arrow to see all available picture styles. Select a suitable one. browse to the location of your presentation and click on the file name from the displayed list. Now click “Save”. Let us create a new slide by specifying a layout. In the “Open” window. You can see a new slide with the specified layout. To open a recently used presentation you may click the Office Button and then click on the presentation name in the list displayed under “Recent Documents”. To display a picture of your company logo on your slide. create a slide using the “Picture with Caption” layout. Click on the “Home” tab. The available layouts are displayed. In the “Insert Picture” window. Click on the picture. Enhancing the Picture: You may make changes to the picture by using various Picture Tools. In the “Slides” group. You may change the size and position as required. Click on the picture name and then click “Insert”. The picture is displayed on your slide in a placeholder. browse to the location of your picture file. Similarly. Using a Slide Layout and Inserting Pictures A Slide Layout refers to the arrangement of elements. As you did earlier. click the picture icon. Changing Fonts and Formatting 87 | P a g e . in the “Insert Picture” window. Click the “Open” button to display the selected file on the screen. In the “Save As” window specify the location at which you wish to save your presentation. Click on the picture name and then click “Insert”. Now click the Office Button and select “Close” to close this file. Now click on the “Format” tab under “Picture Tools”. Enter the title and text as shown. you may click the Office Button and select “Save”. Enter the title and text as shown. pictures. In the “Picture Styles” group. You may also use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+S”. tables. You may apply other effects to your picture by selecting from the various options available under “Picture Effects” in the “Picture Styles” group on the “Format” tab. charts and movies. To open a file that you have previously saved. You may click on a style of your choice. click the Office Button and select “Open”. You may use the default name for your presentation or enter a new one.

Applying different formatting to characters and paragraphs can greatly enhance the appearance of the slide. you may use the “Numbering” icon in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. Changing Page Properties: Select “Page Setup” in the “Page Setup” group on the “Design” tab. Click on the second slide on the Slides tab in the left pane. select the text and then click the arrow to the right of the “Bullets” icon in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. In the window displayed you may specify the size and orientation of your slides and then click “OK”. to create a numbered list. Similarly. readable and user-friendly is called formatting. “Center” and “Align Text Right” icons in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. You may select the desired Font and Font Size from the “Fonts” group. To correct the misspelled words. Select “Background Styles” in the “Background” group and make your selection.Changing Font and Font Size: Let us change the Font and Font Size of the text on the second slide. Now click on the “Home” tab. Italic. Checking Spellings As you may have entered the information on previous slides. Changing Alignment: You may change the alignment of text by clicking on the “Align Text Left”. In this way you can check the spellings on all the slides of the presentation at one time. you may have unknowingly left several typing errors uncorrected. Bullets and Numbering: You may enter text as a bulleted or numbered list. click on the “Review” tab. you may select other effects such as Bold. Select the text to be formatted by highlighting the text on the slide. click on the “Design” tab. Click on the third slide on the Slides tab in the left pane. Now select “Spelling” in the “Proofing” group or use the keyboard shortcut “F7”. You may also increase or decrease the font size by clicking on the “Increase Font Size” and “Decrease Font Size” icons in the “Fonts” group. Let us create such a list on the third slide. You may also change the color of the font by clicking on the arrow to the right of the “Font Color” icon and making your selection. You will now observe that the text has changed to the new font of the size you selected. Formatting: Enhancing the appearance of the slide to make it more attractive. Let us center the title of the slide. Changing Font Effects and Color: From the “Fonts” group. 88 | P a g e . Make your selection from the various bullet styles displayed. Changing the Background Style: To change the background of your slides. Underline and Text Shadow by clicking on the respective icons. Now to create a bulleted list.

For each word that is misspelled. click “Ignore”. To correct a word that is spelt incorrectly. Let us revert to Normal View by clicking the “Normal” icon on the Status Bar. If you do not wish to change what you have typed. Let us move all slides back to their original positions. you can see how your presentation would look when viewed by an audience to 89 | P a g e . and drag to a new location. click on the slide after which you want the new slide on the “Slides” tab and then click on the “New Slide” icon. Now to delete the blank slide that was just inserted. Click “Change” to make the correction or “Change All” if there are multiple instances of the misspelled word in the presentation. Moving and Deleting Slides Inserting a Slide: You know that you can insert a new slide by selecting “New Slide” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. Now click on the slide you wish to move and drag it to a new location. press “Shift” before clicking the slide icon and then drag. To select multiple slides in a row. click the slide icon on the “Slides” tab. When your entire presentation has been scanned. Inserting. Change to Slide Sorter View by clicking on the “Slide Sorter” button on the Status Bar at the bottom of the screen. you will be informed accordingly. select one or more slide icons on the “Slides” tab. Moving a Slide: To move a slide in Normal View. a dialog box will appear and will prompt you to effect suitable corrections. Deleting a Slide: You may use either the Normal View or the Slide Sorter View to delete a slide. Running a Slide Show Running a Slide Show: Once all the slides are in the order that you want. To insert a slide between two slides. If you have a large number of slides in your presentation. You may now select “Delete” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab or press the “Delete” key on your keyboard. you may find it more convenient to use the Slide Sorter View to view all your slides and change their positions. you may highlight one of the suggestions displayed or manually correct it yourself by typing in the correct word in the “Change to” box. You may choose “Ignore All” if the word appears many times throughout the presentation.

you may specify whether you wish to print the slides. From the list displayed below. notes pages or outline view. The “Print” window is displayed. Previewing and Printing a Presentation Previewing A Presentation: As you work with your slides. you may wish give copies to your colleagues for their comments. Print what: Here. Then click the “From Current Slide” icon in the “Start Slide Show” group on the “Slide Show” tab. The “Print Preview” tab appears when you view the slide in the Print Preview mode. Print range: Under Print range you may specify which of the slides you want to print. select “Web Page Preview”. Web Page Preview: To preview your presentation as a web page. Clicking it displays your presentation as it would look in a web browser. In the window displayed. click the slide icon from which you wish to view your slides. it is always a good idea to preview onscreen how your slides will appear when printed. click on the “Slide Show” tab in the “Start Slide Show” group.run a presentation. 90 | P a g e . you need to add the “Web Page Preview” command to the Quick Access toolbar. To see a preview of your slide in a window on the screen. Viewing the slide show from the current slide: To do so. Printing a Presentation: Click the Office Button and select “Print → Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. You may print all slides. handouts. Click “Close Print Preview” in the “Preview” group to close the preview. click “From Beginning” or use the keyboard shortcut “F5” to view the complete presentation You may click or press the spacebar to move to the next slide. To save time and unnecessary printing and waste of paper. Under “Choose Commands from:” select “All Commands”. click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. on the “Slides” tab. Click the “Outline” button at the bottom left to hide the left pane. You may view all the slides by using the “Next Slide” and “Previous Slide” buttons at the bottom of the screen. Click on the Office Button and then click “PowerPoint Options”. Now click “Add” and then click “OK”. You can see the “Web Page Preview” button on the Quick Access toolbar. the current slide only or any selection of slides. click “Customize” in the left pane.

you may enter the new text in the "Replace with" field. The next occurrence of the specified term after the current cursor position is selected. Click on the slide below the existing text and drag with the mouse to draw the textbox. Click on the “Home” tab. to replace text you may select “Replace” from the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab or press “Ctrl+H” to display the “Replace” window. Finding and Replacing: Alternatively. In the “Text” group. Choosing the “Grayscale” or “Pure Black and White” option allows you to print without color. In the “Editing” group. you may choose the color quality of the prints.Color/grayscale: Here. Click “Replace All” to replace all occurrences of the search text by the specified new text. 91 | P a g e . click “Text Box". Let us insert a hyperlink from the third slide to the first slide. click “Find” or press “Ctrl+F” to display the “Find” window. Replacing Text: Click "Replace". Creating a Text Box and Inserting a Hyperlink You may insert hyperlinks in your slides. A window appears showing the number of replacements made. Modifying and Refining a Presentation Finding and Replacing Text Finding Text: You may search for a word or phrase in your presentation. Enter your options and click “OK”. First let us create a small text box below the text on the slide. To create a new text box click on the “Insert” tab. Inserting a text box: A text box is a container for text or graphics. Match case: You may check this box for a case sensitive search. Click “Replace” to replace the current word with the new word. In the "Replace" window. Find whole words only: You may check this box to search for whole words matching the search criteria. Enter some text and click “Find Next”. A hyperlink is a connection to a location in the current document. another document or to a Web site. Click on the third slide icon on the “Slides” tab.

Using SmartArt graphics. click “Table”. Under “Select a place in this document”. When you run the slide show. Now click on the “Insert” tab. In the “Tables” group. You may also change the size and position of the text box by using the sizing handles. Each category contains several different layouts. Create a new slide using the “Blank” layout by selecting “New Slide” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. Inserting a Hyperlink: Select the text entered in the text box. click on “First Slide”. As you type the text in the text box. indicating that you can enter text in it. You can see that the hyperlink text is underlined. Let us change the style of the heading text. enter the number of rows and columns and click “OK”. Now click “OK”. In the “Insert Table” window. click on the “Insert” tab. You may specify the dimensions of your table by dragging with the mouse or by clicking “Insert Table”. Hierarchy. it is automatically resized as needed to display the entire entry. Cycle. Enter the headings and details in the other rows as shown. You may choose from various categories such as Process. you can effectively communicate your message in a quick and simple way. You may select a table style from the gallery displayed. Enter the text “Go to Slide 1”. You may enhance the appearance of the text in your table.Adding text to a text box: You will notice that the text box displays an insertion point. To insert a table. Select a suitable one. Relationship and others. Now you are ready to enter the table content. Click the arrow at the bottom right to view all the available styles. You may size or move your table as required. Select the text and then click “Quick Styles” in the “WordArt Styles” group on the “Design” tab under “Table Tools”. under “Link to:” click on “Place in This Document”. Using SmartArt A “SmartArt” graphic is a visual representation of your information and ideas. 92 | P a g e . A “Design” tab is displayed under “Table Tools”. Create and Enhance a Table You may wish to display some data in tabular form in your presentation. In the “Insert Hyperlink” window. In the “Links” group. clicking on this link takes you to the first slide. You may select a style from the gallery displayed. click “Hyperlink”.

Let us create a SmartArt graphic to describe the course structure of one of the courses offered. ensure that “All collections” are searched by checking the box against “Everywhere”. Now click “Quick Styles” in the “Drawing” group on the “Home” tab. animation or movies. click “Clip Art”. Click on the slide containing the SmartArt graphic on the Slides tab. let us look for a clip using the word “Computer”. Now click on the “Insert” tab. Now make your selection from the gallery displayed. under “SmartArt Tools. select a category. in the “Create Graphic” group on the “Design” tab. sound. In the “SmartArt Styles” group. In the “Illustrations” group. Create a text box above the SmartArt graphic and enter the text as shown. First create a new slide using the “Blank” layout. click “Change Colors”. This displays the text pane where you can enter your text. including art. enter a word or phrase that describes the clip or the file name of the clip. Now select a suitable graphic and click “OK”. In the “SmartArt Styles” group on the “Design” tab under “SmartArt Tools”. Click on the “Insert” tab. For this. in the “Results should be” list 93 | P a g e . Since yours is a company having operations related to computers. You may select a suitable background style for your text box from the gallery displayed. Inserting Clips and Clip Art You may insert “Clips” and “Clip Art” in your slides. Alternatively. you may click “Text Pane”. Close the text pane by clicking the “X” icon at the top right corner. in the “Search for” box. A “Clip” may be a single media file. click the arrow at the bottom right to view all the available styles and select a suitable one. click “SmartArt”. you may enter text directly by clicking the text boxes. We shall insert a clip as well as Clip Art on one of our slides. Let us search for clips of the type “Movies”. Applying a SmartArt Style: A SmartArt Style is a combination of various effects that you can apply to the shapes in your SmartArt graphic to create a professionally designed look. In the “Search in” list box. In the “Choose a SmartArt Graphic” window. In the graphic displayed on your slide. In the “Illustrations” group. A clip is a file that can contain sounds and animations. Let us first insert a small clip. In the panel displayed on the right. Changing Colors: You may apply color variations to the shapes in your SmartArt graphic. “Clip Art” refers to a ready-to-use picture.

94 | P a g e . A number of related clips are displayed. To see the clip that you inserted actually playing. Coloring the Shape: You may apply color to the shape by choosing from a variety of background styles. From the pictures displayed. you can see that the new theme has been applied to all the slides. To enter a title above the shape. In the “Drawing” group. Under “Basic Shapes”. Click “Quick Styles” in the “Drawing” group and select a style from the gallery displayed. drag a suitable one onto your slide. check the box against “Clip Art” under “Results should be” and ensure other boxes are unchecked. “Clip Art” refers to a ready-to-use picture. You may size and position the shape as required. Create a new slide using the “Blank” layout by clicking “New Slide” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. Now click “Go”. check the box against “Movies”. click on the arrow at the bottom right to see all available themes. simply start typing as shown in the figure. Simply click on the one you wish to insert and drag it to a suitable place on your slide. you may decide to give a totally new look to your presentation. Create and Enhance Shapes PowerPoint offers many predefined shapes that you can insert into your document. To insert Clip Art. click on “Hexagon”. Now click on a theme of your choice. Changing the Presentation Design and Color Scheme Changing the Presentation Design: After you have created many slides. The entered text appears at the centre of your shape. Drag your mouse to create a shape of the size you wish. you may create a text box as shown in the slide in the figure. On the “Slides” tab. For this. You may change the size of the clip as required. Adding Text: To add text within the shape. In the “Themes” group. Ensure other boxes are unchecked. click “Shapes” to display the various shapes that you can use. click the “View” tab and select “Slide Show” in the “Presentation Views” group. you need to run the slide show. Let us now insert some Clip Art.box. Now click “Go”. Click on the “Design” tab.

in the “Transition to This Slide” group. In the “Animations” group. Applying transition effects: A transition specifies how the display changes when you move from one slide to another. click in the “Animate” list box and select “Fly In”. You can see the various available layouts when you click on the lower part of the “New Slide” icon in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. You may select a color scheme by clicking on it. click “Custom Animation” in the “Animations” group. You can see a number of slide icons in the left pane. click “Slide Master”. If you move your mouse over them. Now click on the “Animations” tab. You can view the animation effect right away on your slide. First. screen tips explain they are masters for different layouts. whether on the click of the mouse or after a stipulated time by entering related details under “Advance Slide”.Changing the Color Scheme: To change the color scheme. This ensures consistency and saves time. Now click “Play” to view your animation. Adding Animation and Other Effects “Animation” refers to the addition of special visual or sound effects to your slides. click on the “View” tab. On the “Animations” tab. select one from the “Transition Sound” list box. Now. click on “Colors” in the “Themes” group on the “Design” tab. You may click the “Preview” icon in the “Preview” group to view the transition effects for the current slide. The “Slide Master” is used to make global changes to the slides in your presentation. To associate a sound with your transition. This results in the animation starting after the previous slide. To see the Slide Master. It is applied to all slides. Applying animation to an object: Let us add some animation effects to the graphic in the slide shown. click on the graphic. In the "Presentation Views" group. Changing the Slide Master You know that slides can be created using different layouts. Click on a suitable one. Click the “Apply to All” button if you want the same transition effects for all slides. In the panel at the right. In PowerPoint build effects are animations to slide contents. click on the “More” arrow to see all the available transition styles. You may specify how you wish to move to the next slide. click the arrow in the list box below the “Speed” list box and select “Start After Previous”. You can see it is surrounded by a box. 95 | P a g e .

Click “Background Styles” in the “Background” group on the “Slide Master” tab and select a suitable one. the current slide only or any selection of slides. Print what: Select “Handouts”. three. 96 | P a g e . To view your notes page. Let us select 4. six. Let us change the background style. use the “Notes Pane” at the bottom of the slide to write notes about your slide. two. Scale to fit paper: Check this box to print the slides of a size suitable to fit on the sheet of paper. You may also use this view to enter or edit notes by clicking in the lower placeholder. whether horizontal or vertical. You see the master slide in the right pane.Click on the slide icon related to the “Blank Layout”. Order: Select the order of printing the slides. Slides per page: Select the number of slides you wish to print on one page. Creating Notes Pages You can create “Notes Pages” that include extra notes for yourself while you give your presentation. you can see that all the slides with the “Blank” layout have the new background style applied. Printing Handouts: Click the Office Button and select “Print → Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. The “Print” window is displayed. or for your audience. In Normal View. Let us select “Vertical”. Now close the Master View by clicking on “Close Master View” in the “Close” group. On the “Slides” tab. Printing Handouts You can print your presentation in the form of handouts with one. Any change made to this slide will be reflected on all slides created using the “Blank” layout. You may print all slides. four. Print range: Under Print range you may specify which of the slides you want to print. Click “Notes Page” in the “Presentation Views” group. These can be used by your audience to follow along as you give your presentation or for future reference. or nine miniature slides on a page. click the “View” tab.

Hiding the Footer: To hide the footer on a specific slide. a company logo or the presentation title to the top of a handout or notes page in your presentation. you may hide the slide. check the box against “Footer”. Duplicating a slide creates a copy of the selected slide and places it directly after the selected slide. and then type the text that you want to appear at the top or bottom of each notes page or handout. check the box against “Don’t show on title slide”. Click “Preview” to view your handouts onscreen and “Print” to print them. it can be quite easily achieved. Adding a Header or Footer to a Handout or Notes Page: In the “Header and Footer” window. handout or notes page. In the “Text” group.Frame slides: Check this box to print the slides with an outer frame. To hide a slide. On the “Slide” tab of the “Header and Footer” window. Click the “Insert” tab and in the “Text” group. if you need to duplicate a slide. or to bottom of a slide. time and slide number on the slide. On the “Slides” tab. select the “Header” or “Footer” check box. select “Header & Footer”. click “Apply to All”. click “New Slide” and click “Duplicate Selected Slides” below the layouts displayed. check the appropriate boxes. and then type the text that you want to appear at the bottom of the slide in the center. the time and date. on the “Notes and Handouts” tab. 97 | P a g e . Duplicating and Hiding Slides Duplicating a Slide: In a presentation. To hide the footer on the title slide. In the “Slides” group. Hiding a Slide: If there is a slide that you do not want to display to a particular audience. Adding a Footer to a Slide: Click the “Insert” tab. Using Headers and Footers Headers and Footers are used to add information such as slide numbers. To insert the date. Click “Apply” or “Apply to all”. click the slide you wish to copy. right-click the slide on the “Slides” tab and select “Hide Slide”. clear the “Footer” check box and click “Apply”. On the “Slide” tab in the “Header and Footer” window. Select any other options that you want and then click “Apply”. Click the “Home” tab. select “Header & Footer”. To display the same footer information on all slides. click the slide icon on the “Slides” tab.

Click on the slide that you wish to hide on the “Slides” tab in the left pane. underline an important point or draw checkmarks next to items that you have covered. “Previous”. Right-click on a slide during the slide show. Enter your details on this tab. for example. and keywords that identify topics or other important information in the file. “Last Viewed” and “Go to Slide” options to move between slides. “Advanced Properties”. The hidden slide icon with the slide number inside appears next to the slide that you have hidden. You may move to any slide in your presentation. Use the “Next”. you can go backwards and redisplay it. For this. In the “Document Information Panel”. Annotate a slide show: During your presentation. Now click “OK” and close the Document Information Panel. A menu is displayed as shown. this slide will not be displayed. For example. In the window displayed. The hidden slide icon is then removed. you may decide the color of this pen by using the “Ink Color” option. Before saving the completed presentation. you may want to point to an important word. Click the Office Button and select “Prepare → Properties” from the menu. right-click the slide that you want to show. if someone has a question about a previous slide. Let us select “Ballpoint Pen”. click the arrow next to “Document Properties” to select the set of properties that you want to change. the subject. right-click on the slide and select “Pointer Options” from the menu displayed. To show a slide that you have previously hidden. There is another way in which you can hide a slide. 98 | P a g e . click the “Slide Show” tab and select “Hide Slide” in the “Set Up” group. Documenting a File Documenting a file: Document properties are details about a file that help identify it. Also. You can then move your mouse and use it as a pen on your slide. the author name. These may be a descriptive title. Learning to Control and Annotate a Slide Show Navigating the Slide Show: Running the slide show and practicing how to control the slide show helps you have a smooth presentation. Click the “Hide Slide” icon on the Ribbon once again to show the hidden slide. you may wish to include some related documentation with the file. Then on the Ribbon. When you run your presentation. and then click “Hide Slide”.The hidden slide icon with the slide number inside appears next to the slide that you have hidden. click on the “Summary” tab.

themes etc that you require. Your original presentation does not get affected. Saving the new presentation: Before you make any additional changes. Now you may make changes to the new presentation as required. Let us use the “Mouse Click” tab. Copying a slide: You may want to copy the slide which describes a course structure from your presentation to a new presentation. Check the box against “Play sound”. Click the Office Button and select “Save As” and enter the new file name and location. Save the file by clicking the Office button and selecting “Save”. click on the “Sound” icon. This has two tabs. you may save the file as a new presentation. Adding Action Buttons You may add action buttons on your slides to perform functions such as playing sounds. The “Action Settings” window is displayed. moving to another slide or running another program when you click on them. As the names suggest. on the “Slides” tab. you may use the slides from one of your existing presentations. You may make any changes with respect to colors. simply save the presentation with a new name. Now drag with the mouse to create the button of the size you require. Select “Chime” from the list of sounds. In the “Illustrations” group. If you want to use all slides from a presentation in a new presentation. right-click the slide to be copied and select “Copy”. Let us use an action button to play a sound in the slide shown in the figure. Click the “Insert” tab. the actions specified are performed when the mouse is clicked on the button and moved over the button respectively. select “Blank Presentation” and press the “Create” button. 99 | P a g e . click “Shapes”. The copied slide will be inserted in the presentation after the current slide. Click “Save”. Specify the location and the new file name in the “Save As” window and click “Save”. To do this. “Mouse Click” and “Mouse Over”. Now create a new presentation by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “New”. Right-click the first slide in the new presentation and select “Paste”. In the “New Presentation” window. Under “Action Buttons”.Using Advanced Presentation Features Creating a New Presentation from Existing Slides To make the task of creating a new presentation easier.

click the Office Button and then click the “Exit PowerPoint” button at the bottom right. and you can see the timing in the “Slide Time box” at the right. 100 | P a g e . PowerPoint includes a timing feature that records the length of time spent on each slide and the total presentation time while you are rehearsing. You may use the recorded times to advance the slides automatically when you actually give your presentation. it is important to rehearse the timing. they form a network. Click the “Slide Show” tab. so that you are sure that it fits within a certain time frame. Internet Internet Basics What is a Network? When computers are connected to each other. in the “Set Up” group. Delivering Presentations Rehearsing timing: Before delivering a presentation. Now. Click “Next” to move to the next slide. Click “Yes”. After you set the time for the last slide. If you do not want the slides in your presentation to advance automatically as per the slide timings recorded. the slides advance automatically as per these settings. In the “Set Up” group. when you click on this button you can hear the sound of a chime. your presentation can be delivered and you are ready to impress your audience. “Slide Sorter” view appears and displays the time of each slide in your presentation. You may perform various actions using action buttons such as moving to another slide or running another program. clear the “Use Rehearsed Timings” check box. a message box displays the total time for the presentation and asks you to confirm that you wish to keep the recorded slide timings. on the “Slide Show” tab.During the slide show. The “Rehearsal” toolbar appears. select “Rehearse Timings”. A network may consist of just two computers next to each other or can even extend to a large number of computers located in different parts of the world. To exit the PowerPoint application. Now when you run your slide show.

Typically. A non-dedicated server can function as both a client and a server. To understand computer networks. In decentralized organizations. Server: This is a node that shares resources with other nodes. They are sometimes referred to as “LAN adapters”. It may be a server or simply a connection point for cables from other nodes. Client: This is a node that uses a resource from another node. computer systems at different locations are networked to a main or centralized computer. Computers in a network can be set up in different ways to suit the needs of users. Hub: This is the central node for other nodes.A “computer network” is a communication system that connects two or more computers so that they can exchange information and share resources. usually a minicomputer or a mainframe. Dedicated servers are typically used for websites that have high traffic. 101 | P a g e . Network operating systems (NOS): They control and coordinate activities such as electronic communication and resource sharing between the computers and devices on a network. Host Computer: This is a large centralized computer. and are quite powerful. Network Administrator: This is a person who is a computer specialist responsible for efficient operation of the network and implementation of new networks. A dedicated server is a computer that specializes in performing specific tasks. Now that you are familiar with the terminology related to computer networks. let us have a look at the types of networks. It could be any device such as a data storage device. Network interface cards (NIC): These are expansion cards located within the system unit that connect the computer to a network. a printer or a computer. you need to get familiar with certain terms which are as follows: Node: This is a device that is connected to a network. Distributed Processing: This is a system where computing power is located and shared at different locations. a client is a user’s microcomputer.

They are used to link microcomputers and share printers and other resources. a number of small computers or peripheral devices are linked to a central unit which is the “network hub”.Network Types: Different types of channels allow different kinds of networks to be formed. They provide access to regional service (MAN) providers and span distances greater than 100 miles. Networks may also be citywide and even international. the network is known as a Local Area Network or LAN for short. Configurations describe the physical arrangement of the network while strategies define how information and resources are shared. a MAN is jointly owned by a group of organizations or by a network service provider who charges a fee to provide network services. metropolitan area and wide area networks. the network is known as WAN which stands for Wide Area Network. Telephone lines for example may connect communications equipment within a home or building. The network types based on the geographical area they serve are local area. The nodes of a LAN are in close physical proximity. Usually when computers in one office are connected to one another. Network Architecture: This describes how a network is arranged and how resources are coordinated and shared. within the same building. Unlike a LAN. When this is done over longer distances. While LANs have been widely used within organizations for years. This is called the network’s topology. A “Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)” is the next step up from the LAN. The hub may be a host computer or file server. The four principal network topologies are star. All communications pass through the central unit and control is maintained by “polling”. including a common internet connection. MANs span distances up to 100 miles. They use microwave relays and satellites to reach users over long distances. The widest of all WANs is of course. Typically. Wide Area Networks (WANs) are countrywide and worldwide networks. the Internet which spans the entire globe. ring and hierarchical. Network architecture encompasses network configurations and strategies. Configurations: A network can be configured or arranged in several ways. they are now being commonly used by individuals in their homes. LANs span distances less than a mile and are owned by individual organizations. In a “star network”. These LANs are called “Home Networks” and allow different computers to share resources. They are frequently used as links between office buildings that are located throughout a city. Each connecting device is asked or 102 | P a g e . bus.

In a “bus network”. A hierarchical network is useful in centralized organizations. In a “peer-to-peer network”. there is no host computer and each device handles its own communications.“polled” whether it has a message to send and is allowed to send its message in turn. each device is connected to two other devices. usually a mainframe. The “hierarchical network” consists of several computers linked to a central host computer. “Client/server networks” are based on specialization and use one computer to coordinate and supply services to other nodes on the network. Strategies: Every network has a strategy of coordinating the sharing of information and resources. The nodes are either terminals with little or no processing capabilities or microcomputers running special software that allows them to act as terminals. In a “terminal network”. Client nodes request the services. these computers are also hosts to smaller computers or peripheral devices. This means that multiple users can share resources (or time) on a central computer. nodes have equal authority and can act as both clients and servers. Processing tasks can be performed at different locations and programs. data and resources can be shared. Client/server networks are widely used on the Internet. just like a star network. 103 | P a g e . The star topology is commonly used to link microcomputers to a mainframe containing an organization’s database. For example. The minicomputers are in turn connected to the corporation’s mainframe which contains data accessible to all. Distributed data processing is possible using a ring network. Each device examines information as it passes along the bus to see whether it is the intended recipient. client/server and peer-to-peer. For example. Many airline reservation systems are terminal networks. All communications travel along a common connecting cable called a “bus” or “backbone”. microcomputers may obtain files from other microcomputers as well as provide files to them. An advantage of the star topology is that it can be used to support a “timesharing system”. Server nodes coordinate and supply specialized services and access to resources. However. The most common network strategies are terminal. There is no central computer and messages are passed around the ring till they reach the correct destination. In a “ring network”. microcomputers in a department are connected to individual departmental minicomputers. This arrangement is commonly used for sharing data stored on different microcomputers. forming a ring. processing power is centralized in one large computer.

Firewalls can be implemented in software. which can be accessed by certain external users via the Internet. Most organizational firewalls include a special computer called a “proxy server”. operating systems and strategies. It acts as a gatekeeper. Extranets are used by some organizations to allow suppliers and others limited access to their networks. It then decides whether it is safe to allow a message or file to pass into or out of the organization’s network. may be made available to suppliers or potential customers using an extranet. 104 | P a g e . the United States Department of Defense began a project on computer networks. Specific information such as product ranges. All communications between the internal network and the outside world must pass through it. In addition to preventing unrestricted access into a network. shielding it from access by unauthorized users. An Intranet is accessible only from within the organization. Entry into extranets is controlled by usernames and passwords which establish the identity of the user and grant access to the areas of the extranet that he is entitled to view. prices. pricing structures etc. Thus the Internet can be termed as a Network of Networks. or part of an intranet. What is Internet? The word “Internet” is derived from the word inter-networking which means connecting different networks together. Communication within and between organizations is supported using intranets and extranets.Organizational Internets: Most large organizations have a wide range of network configurations. The purpose is to increase efficiency and reduce costs. web sites and web pages. The main points of difference between an intranet and extranet are as follows: 1) An intranet is a private network within an organization while an extranet is a private network that connects more than one organization. mediating traffic between a protected network and the Internet. Such networks are known as “Intranets” and may or may not be connected to the Internet. and from where standard forms can be downloaded. Intranets: Many organizations have internal networks similar to the Internet which have web pages that contain company information. Firewalls: A “firewall” is a system that secures a network. online order forms etc. intranets use browsers. 2) Like the public Internet. History of Internet: In the second half of the decade from 1960 to 1970. newsletters. Extranets: An “Extranet” is an intranet. They provide e-mail and other services accessible only to those within the organization. hardware or a combination of both. a firewall can also restrict data from flowing out of a network. Internet technologies are applied to integrate all these networks.

after 1970. new independent centers were created in different places. Instead of having a central system of limited machines. Government Departments and Research Centers also began using this network. By 1993 the concept of Internet had changed completely. The roots of the giant network called Internet can be traced back to this project.This project was named ARPANET. To send data along telephone lines. Gradually. This led to the birth of the modern Internet. wireless telephones and even satellites. Universities. 105 | P a g e . researchers developed a new set of rules called Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol or TCP/IP.

playing. music and games is available using the Internet. advertisement and news. It has become a popular medium for business. education. Some courses are free while others have to be paid for. You can take classes on various subjects.Today the Internet has become a popular medium for information. Using the Internet. companionship and many other opportunities on the Internet. “Searching” for all types of information has become very convenient using the Internet. You have additional options such as live concerts. national and international news using the Internet. shopping. book clubs and more. You can access some of the world’s largest libraries directly from your home computer. “Education” or “e-learning” which supports flexible learning anywhere. anytime for anyone is possible due to the Internet. 106 | P a g e . you can search for bargains and make purchases or simply window shop or look for the latest fashions. movie previews. information. “Shopping” is one of the fastest-growing Internet applications. “Entertainment” in different forms such as movies. You can have access to entertainment. You can find the latest local.

e-commerce is the buying and selling of goods over the Internet. the costs associated with operating a retail store can be eliminated.Transactions of large industries are also effected over the Internet. 107 | P a g e . While there are numerous advantages of e-commerce. Also. For a buyer. These include the inability to provide immediate delivery of goods. It does away with the need to physically travel to the seller’s location. The Internet offers a chance to survey a wide variety of products. a seller is not required to maintain a physical inventory of goods and products are shipped directly from warehouses. This is known as e-commerce. With the help of Internet. it offers the convenience of purchasing at any hour of the day or night. monetary transactions are also being carried out. The Internet offers a chance to reach out to a larger number of customers.e. there are some disadvantages too. From the seller’s perspective. Electronic Commerce i. the inability to “try on” prospective purchases and questions relating to the security of online payments.

Two well-known shopping bots are located at “www.gomez.com” are examples of review sites on the Web.com”. “Online shopping” as you know includes buying and selling consumer goods over the Internet.com/privatepayments”. “Online stock trading” allows investors to research. Existing retail stores use B2C e-commerce to reach out to customers through the Web.Tips on how to shop online: When you shop online.com”. Security of your credit card number is important. paying bills and applying for loans without having to visit the bank. transferring funds. you have to place the order and make the payment. “www. This is done in the form of classified ads or an auction. There are two basic types of Web auction sites: 108 | P a g e .shopping. You can enlist it to compare prices. 2) Use a shopping bot: A shopping bot is an automated shopping assistant that searches the Internet for the best price of a product.com” and “www.com” and “www.com” and “www. 3) Consult vendor review sites: Even if a vendor offers attractive prices.bizrate. sellers post descriptions of products at a web site and buyers submit bids electronically.yahoo. In “Web auctions”.buy. you need to check his reputation before placing an order.consumersearch.private. 1) Consult product review sites: These sites offer evaluations or opinions on products.mysimon. 4) Select a payment option: Once you have selected the product and the vendor. The three most widely used B2C applications are as follows: “Online banking” enables customers to perform various banking operations such as accessing account information. You may visit vendor review sites such as “www. You may consider payment options from sites such as “www. 2) The second type of e-commerce “Consumer-to-consumer (C2C)” involves individuals selling to individuals.americanexpress. buy and sell stocks and bonds over the Internet. it would be useful to keep the following suggestions in mind. This arrangement often eliminates the wholesaler by allowing manufacturers to sell directly to customers.epinions. There are three basic types of e-commerce: 1) “Business-to-consumer (B2C)” involves the sale of a product or service to the general public or end users.com” and “www.

If it is a valid cheque. the purchased item is dispatched by the seller. 3) The third type of e-commerce “Business-to-business (B2B)” involves the sale of a product or service from one business to another. secure and reliable payment methods for purchased goods. a furniture manufacturer would require raw material such as wood. b) “Person-to-person auction sites” provide a forum for buyers and sellers. 3) “Digital cash” is electronic currency that only exists online. You can often get bargain prices and these sites are generally considered safe places to shop. This method is more secure than credit cards. paint and varnish which he would purchase from the related suppliers. The three basic payment options are as follows: 1) “Cheques” are the most traditional and cheque purchases take the longest time to complete. They facilitate the bidding process but are not involved in completing transactions and verifying the authenticity of the goods sold. For example. 2) “Credit card” purchases are faster and more convenient. This is typically a manufacturer-supplier relationship. It is a system that allows a person to pay for goods or services by transmitting a number from one computer to another. Buyers and sellers need to be cautious while interacting with these sites. Sellers convert it to regular currency through the bank. see the displayed figure. For a list of digital cash providers. The merchandise presented is typically from a company’s surplus stock. Buyers purchase digital cash from a bank that specializes in electronic currency and use it to purchase goods. Security: The single greatest challenge for e-commerce is the development of fast. But credit card fraud over the Internet by criminals known as “Carders” is a major concern for both buyers and sellers. The buyer mails a cheque to the seller. 109 | P a g e .a) “Auction house sites” sell directly to bidders.

Web Utilities: Utilities are programs that make computing easier. The aim of “web-based services” such as ThinkFree is to free users from owning and storing applications. it is automatically deleted from your hard disk. “Web Utilities” are specialized utility programs that make using the Internet and Web easier and safer. Excel and PowerPoint. This free service provides access to programs similar to Microsoft’s Word. “Downloading” is the process of copying a file from a computer on the 110 | P a g e . When you exit the program. The ASP downloads a copy of the requested application to your computer’s hard disk drive from where you can run it. Most application service providers (ASPs) charge a fee to access and use their applications. you must connect to the ASP’s web site. A “web-based application” is a software package that can be accessed through a web browser. To use a web-based application. Web-based applications: Normally application programs are owned by individuals and organizations and stored on the computer’s hard disk. Some utilities facilitate sharing resources over the Internet while others enhance the capabilities of your browser. File transfer protocol (FTP): FTP is an Internet standard for transferring files.

Windows Media Player from Microsoft. Some plug-ins are included in browsers and operating systems. Many web sites require you to have some plug-ins in order to view their content fully. Some widely used plug-ins include Acrobat Reader from Adobe. The Internet has a lot of content which is not suitable for unrestricted viewing. QuickTime from Apple. To learn more about plug-ins and how to download them. these programs can 111 | P a g e . You can also use FTP to copy files from your computer to another computer on the Internet. you may visit some of the sites listed in the displayed figure. RealPlayer from RealNetworks and Shockwave from Adobe. This is called “uploading”. These are used for a variety of purposes ranging from viewing and printing documents to playing audio and video files. Plug-ins: “Plug-ins” are programs that are automatically started and operate as part of your browser. Filters: “Filters” are programs that block access to selected sites. Additionally. Filters allow parents of young children as well as organizations to block access to certain sites and set time limits. Others need to be installed before they can be used by your browser.Internet and saving it on your computer.

and programs with any other user. Using Internet you can communicate with or find out about what is happening in any part of the world. Chatting with your friends in virtual chat rooms is another facility that is available. using voice chat. These programs control spam. Two of the best known Internet security suites are from McAfee and Norton. chat groups and newsgroups. protect against computer viruses. Internet Security Suites: An “Internet security suite” is a collection of utility programs designed to maintain your security and privacy while you are on the Web. you can also chat 112 | P a g e . You may chat using the keyboard. have a look at the displayed figure. For a list of some of the best known filters. data files. provide filters and much more. Anyone with access to the Internet can exchange text. Today. It is popularly known as the "Information Highway" which is used as a versatile means for information sharing.generate reports regarding time spent on the Internet as well as at individual web sites.

the European Laboratory for Particle Physics. Newsgroups. Telnet to connect to another computer. video. The Web is a multimedia interface to the resources available on the Internet. Internet Telephone: This provides a low cost alternative to long distance telephone calls using electronic voice delivery.org. What is WWW? The World Wide Web (WWW) is information organized in the form of Web pages containing text and graphic images. File Transfer Protocol (FTP). It is easy to get the Internet and the Web confused. Communications: Computer communications is the process of sharing data. A web page is simply a document formatted in a standard language known as Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). graphics. Netscape. animations and videos.w3. You can access the World Wide Web on the Internet by using any browser application such as Mozilla. You can retrieve documents. Internet Explorer.with the other person as if you were talking on the telephone. You can also play different games on the Internet. programs and information between two or more computers. There are a large number of applications that can be used on the Internet for various purposes. When you connect to this network you are described as being “online”. It connects millions of computers and resources throughout the world. This means that web pages consist of multiple media such as text. etc. cables and satellites. E-mail: This provides a fast and efficient alternative to traditional mail by sending and receiving electronic documents. view images. Instant Messaging: This supports direct. Chat groups. animation and sound. The name of its website is http://www. World Wide Web (WWW or Web) and Instant Messaging. exchange voice data and view programs that run on practically any software in the world. Some of the applications that depend on communication systems are as follows. The World Wide Web Consortium now manages it. 113 | P a g e . The World Wide Web was originally developed in 1990 at CERN. The Internet is the actual physical network made up of wires. but they are not the same thing. Mailing lists. It contains hypertext links represented by underlined text and images that lead to related information. listen to sound files. Electronic Commerce: This means buying and selling goods electronically. Examples are Electronic Mail (e-mail). “live” electronic communication between two or more individuals.

Using this protocol. Because these numeric addresses 114 | P a g e . The other protocols are Point to Point Protocol (PPP) and Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP).Web pages also can contain special programs called “applets” that are generally written in a programming language such as Java. A network also has components called “Routers” that help choose the best path for an individual packet to travel and reach its destination. The packets are reassembled at the destination to get the original information. Advocacy (to influence readers to support a cause or idea). The Internet uses some rules or standard set of protocols for communication between computers. These addresses are used to deliver e-mail and to locate web sites. This may be done by following hyperlinks. This ensures uniformity among users using various types of computer systems. providing interactive games and more. TCP/IP: The essential features of this protocol involve: 1) Identifying sending and receiving devices AND 2) Reformatting information for transmission across the Internet. in the course of learning something. Java applets are used for presenting animation. either from a search or through a series of linked pages. Protocols are used to create an Internet connection for your computer and they handle the data transfer over network lines. the information to be transmitted is broken down in the form of small packets. Educational. Identification: Every computer on the Internet has a unique numeric address called an “IP address (internet protocol address)”. You may even move between pages at random. Information Flow Over the Internet Sending and receiving devices follow a set of communication rules for the exchange of information. These rules for exchanging data between computers are known as “protocols”. "Web Surfing" means moving through different web pages. Statistical Information and Personal Information. displaying graphics. The information on WWW can be classified in different categories based on the type of their content such as Business and Commercial. Each packet contains the address of its destination computer as well as the computer of its origin. TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the name of the core protocol used on the Internet. News. or just having fun.

For example. They convert messages into packets that can travel across the communication channel. a DNS might translate it to an IP address say.are difficult to remember. if you enter a URL. a system was developed to automatically convert text-based addresses to numeric IP addresses. when you send an e-mail. another modem modifies it once again so that it can be displayed on the “receiving device” which would be another computer. For example. Your modem would be the “connection device” which would modify the message so that it could travel efficiently across the “communication channel” which is the telephone line. your computer would be the “sending device”.132. Every communication system has four basic elements which are as follows: 1) Sending and receiving devices: These may be computers or specialized communication devices. Communication Systems “Communication Systems” are electronic systems that transmit data from one location to another. At the receiving end.103. 2) Communication channel: This is the actual medium that carries the message. “198. 3) Connection devices: These act as the interface between the sending and receiving devices and the communication channel. How the message is modified and sent would be described in the “data transmission specifications”.com”. 115 | P a g e . say “www.example. This system uses a “domain name server (DNS)” that converts text-based addresses to IP addresses. It may be a physical cable or it can be wireless.4” before a connection can be made. 4) Data transmission specifications: These are procedures that coordinate the sending and receiving devices by defining the way in which the messages will be sent across the communication channel.

Compared to coaxial cable. The other category is wireless. Fiber-optic cable transmits data as pulses of light through tiny tubes of glass. They include telephone lines. One category connects sending and receiving devices by providing a physical connection such as a wire or cable. There are two categories of communication channels. 116 | P a g e . coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable. Coaxial cable is a high-frequency transmission cable and consists of a single solid-copper core. A single twisted pair culminates in a wall jack into which you can plug your phone and computer.Communication Channels: You know that communication channels are an essential element of every communication system. Coaxial cable is used to deliver television signals as well as to connect computers in a network. fiber-optic cable is lighter and more reliable at transmitting data as compared to coaxial cable. Telephone lines consist of twisted-pair cable which is made up of hundreds of copper wires. “Physical Connections” use a solid medium to connect sending and receiving devices.

“Satellite” communication uses satellites orbiting above the earth as microwave relay stations. Microwaves travel in a straight line and therefore can be transmitted across relatively short distances. Bluetooth is essentially a cable-replacement technology which tries to solve this problem. It creates a wireless personal area network (PAN) and provides a way to connect and exchange information between two devices over distances of about 30 feet. GPS devices use that information to determine the geographical location of the device. They are sometimes mounted with a monitor to display maps and with speakers to provide spoken directions to the driver. Microwave is a good medium for sending data between buildings in a city or a large college campus. The “Global Positioning System (GPS)” is a network of 24 satellites developed by the United States Department of Defense which continually sends location information to the earth. sending and receiving devices must be in clear view of one another. We see a large number of cables in our offices. Satellites can amplify and relay microwave signals from one transmitter on the ground to another. etc. “Infrared” uses infrared light waves to communicate over short distances. 117 | P a g e . wireless fidelity)”. It aims to simplify data synchronization between Internet devices and other computers.Wireless Connections: Wireless connections use air to connect sending and receiving devices. They can be used to send and receive large volumes of data. Some users connect their notebook or handheld computers to a cellular telephone to access the Web. Most Web-enabled devices follow a standard known as “Wi-Fi (i. We often have a hard time trying to figure out which cable needs to go where. the waves are relayed by microwave stations with microwave dishes or antennas. Bluetooth is a small. They do not use any solid substances like wires and cables. broadcast radio. microwave and satellite. “Microwave” communication uses high-frequency radio waves. Conceived initially by Ericsson. mobile phones. homes and everywhere else. For longer distances. “Bluetooth” is the name of a new technology that promises to change the way we use machines. “Broadcast radio” uses radio signals to communicate with wireless devices. cheap radio chip to be plugged into computers.e. Primary technologies used for wireless connections are infrared. Cellular telephones and many Web-enabled devices use broadcast radio to place telephone calls and to connect to the Internet. GPS devices provide navigational support in some automobiles. printers. “Bluetooth” is a short-range wireless standard that uses microwaves. One of the most common applications is to transfer data from a portable device such as a notebook computer or PDA to a desktop computer. Since the light waves travel in a straight line.

send and receive digital signals which are binary signals. A great deal of computer communication takes place over telephone lines. The various units to measure transfer speed are shown in the displayed chart.Let us look at a summary of communication channels. Modems: The word “modem” stands for modulator-demodulator. Telephones send and receive analog signals which are continuous electronic waves. Connection devices: We have seen that connection devices act as the interface between the sending and receiving devices and the communication channel. This is typically measured in “bits per second (bps)”. “Demodulation” is the process of converting analog signals to digital form. 118 | P a g e . on the other hand. Computers. The modem thus enables digital microcomputers to communicate across analog telephone lines. The speed at which modems transfer data is called “transfer rate”. “Modulation” is the process of converting digital signals to analog form.

Connection Service: Standard telephone lines and conventional modems provide a “dial-up service” which is quite slow. Another cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. Large corporations lease special high-speed lines from telephone companies which provide very high 119 | P a g e . PC Card and wireless. A “wireless modem” may be internal. internal. A telephone cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. The “PC Card modem” is a credit card-sized expansion board that is inserted into portable computers. It sends and receives signals through the air. The “external modem” stands outside the computer and is connected by a cable to the computer’s serial port. external or a PC Card. Unlike other modems.There are four basic types of modems: external. A telephone cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. The “internal modem” consists of a plug-in circuit board inside the system unit. it does not use cables.

there are other affordable connections which provide significantly higher capacity than a dial-up service.capacity. T2. ADSL (asymmetric digital subscriber line) is one of the most widely used types of DSL. cable modems. “Digital subscriber line (DSL)” uses existing telephone lines to provide highspeed connections. “Cable modems” use existing telephone cables to provide high-speed connections. “Cellular services” are used by mobile devices and laptops. Satellite/air connection services use satellites and the air to send data to users at faster rates than dial-up connections. T3 and T4 lines and do not require conventional modems. These include DSL. These devices use “3G cellular networks” to download data from the Internet. satellite and cellular services. These lines are known as T1. While special high-speed lines are very expensive. Let us compare typical user connection costs and speeds. 120 | P a g e .

“Voiceband” is used for standard telephone communication. Microcomputers with standard modems and dial-up service use this bandwidth. “Broadband” is the bandwidth used for high capacity transmissions. cable and satellite connections use this bandwidth. There are three categories of bandwidth. Specialized high-speed devices and microcomputers with DSL. This is also known as low bandwidth. Bandwidth: This is a measurement of the width or capacity of the communication channel. It indicates the volume of information that can move across the communication channel in a given time. “Medium band” is the bandwidth used in special leased lines to connect minicomputers and mainframes as well as to transmit data over long distances. Audio and video files require a wider bandwidth than text documents to be transmitted.Data Transmission: Several factors such as bandwidth and protocols affect how data is transmitted. 121 | P a g e .

The providers are already connected to the Internet and provide a path or connection for individuals to access the Internet. Cable Modem. In the last five years. Using the modem and dialer software. They provide Internet connections with wireless modems and other wireless devices.How Do We Connect? “Connectivity” is a concept related to using computer networks to link people and resources. They are basically large telecom companies that have nationwide coverage and operations. you can access the Internet through the LAN. This is just the beginning of the “Wireless Revolution” which will change the way we communicate and use computer technology in a big way. Some companies also offer free Internet access. you can connect your Personal Computer (PC) to the Internet. wired devices were required to be able to connect to the Internet. An “Internet Service Provider” is a company that provides access to the Internet for a monthly fee. Besides these. It is a special application program that brings information from any part of the world 122 | P a g e . you are linked to the world of larger computers and the Internet. Examples are DSL. you need a device called the “Modem”. Set Top Boxes and other propriety solutions. “Wireless service providers” do not use telephone or cable lines. In the past. The service provider gives you a software package. username. With this connection. there has been a dramatic change in connectivity. “National Internet Service Providers” are providers who operate primarily on a National level. To do so. In this method. there are also other options for connecting to the Internet. Using a telephone. the data transmission rate is much higher. password and access phone number. This is how the PC establishes a connection to the Internet through an ISP. the PC connects to the server of an Internet Service Provider (ISP). If a computer is part of a local area network (LAN) that has connectivity to the Internet. Today. Colleges and universities mostly provide free access to students. there is widespread use of mobile and wireless communication devices for gaining access to the Internet. You can connect your microcomputer by telephone or other telecommunications links to other computers and information sources almost anywhere. Browsers A Web Browser is a software tool used to browse the Internet. You can also connect to the Internet using a leased line. They provide access through standard telephone lines or cable connections.

It identifies the type of organization or what country the website is from. Internet Explorer. Each web site has a distinct. The second part presents the “domain name”. http://www. It is the name of the server where the resource is located. Say you are looking for “digital cameras”. you can communicate with any computer over the Internet. The protocol “http://” is the most widely used Web protocol.through the Internet to your computer screen. You can connect directly to a web site by typing the URL of that site in the address bar or location bar of the web browser. it is closely integrated with the Windows operating system. If you do not see this icon. Internet Explorer automatically sends your query to a search service and displays the results. The first part of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) presents the “protocol” used to connect to the resource. images. Type “digital camera” and press “Enter”. click on the “Launch Internet Explorer Browser” icon on your desktop.com/ and press “Enter”. A browser does the work of connecting to the Internet and locating and displaying web pages. For example “. The last part of the domain name following the dot is called the “top-level domain (TLD)”.microsoft.com” indicates a commercial site and “. separate and unique address. The URL of the web page is displayed in the address bar. for example. Protocols are rules for exchanging data between computers. Navigating the Web Using Internet Explorer 7 Internet Explorer is a world-class browser that is designed to support various internet standards across a variety of platforms. At the top. This address is known as the Uniform Resource Locator or URL in short. type the website address or URL in the address bar. Netscape Navigator and Mozilla are some examples of the browser applications that are commonly used. Most browsers have a Graphical User Interface (GUI). Another way to navigate the web is to go the address bar and type what you are looking for. When you want to visit a website. and animations. This allows easy viewing of text. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Internet Explorer”.in” indicates India. With an Internet connection and Internet Explorer. 123 | P a g e . you see a long rectangular box called the “Address Bar”. playing audio and video files and running programs. It allows navigation from one page to another. Using a browser. Since it is created by Microsoft. you can find and view information about anything on the Web To start Internet Explorer.

To quickly go back to a website you visited earlier. click the “Quick Tabs” button to the left of the first tab. To access the Internet Explorer Tabbed Browsing options. select “Tools → Internet Options”. You now see a menu displayed above the toolbar. Links may be in the form of underlined text. forms data. you may enter the settings you require. You can quickly switch between open websites by simply clicking on the tabs. which is intended chiefly to greet visitors and provide information about the site or its owner. click “Settings”. When you click on the link. Right-click on a blank space on the toolbar and select “Menu Bar”. click on the “X” to the right side of it. To create a new tab. To access the Internet Explorer AutoComplete options. Use the “Back” button to the left of the address bar to go to the previous page you were on. you can see a toolbar.To the right of the address bar. On the “Content” tab. click “Settings”. Select “Tools → Internet Options”. under “AutoComplete”. Tabbed Browsing: Tabs enable you to have multiple websites open in one Internet Explorer window at one time. In the “Tabbed Browsing Settings” window. You may change the Internet Explorer Home Page to a site of your preference. The “Stop” button to its right is used to stop a page from loading. and passwords. select “Tools → Internet Options”. If you clicked the Back button and you want to move forward to the page you were on just before you clicked it. you may use the “Forward” button. Quick Tabs: To see a thumbnail view of all the websites you have open in your tabs. 124 | P a g e . you can see the “Refresh” button. you may enter the settings you require. Selecting links: When you point to a link on a web page. In the “AutoComplete Settings” window. you may enter your preferences under “Home page”. You may use this to reload a web page. To close a tab. On the “General” tab. buttons or pictures. you may click the down arrow just to the right of the Forward button and select the webpage from the dropdown list. Below the address bar. Home Page: The default page displayed when you start Internet Explorer is called the “Home Page”. You can scroll through a web page using the horizontal and vertical scrollbars. AutoComplete: Internet Explorer automatically records Web addresses. the pointer changes to a hand and the URL is shown in the status bar. Click on a thumbnail to view a particular website. the web page related to the link is opened. Under “Tabs”. click the “New Tab” button or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+T”. The Home Page of a website is the opening or main page of the website.

The “Add a Favorite” window is displayed. from the “Create in” drop-down list. “Close the Favorites Center” icon. To unpin it. select the language you want to add and click “OK”. Click the “Add to Favorites” button on the toolbar and select “Add to Favorites. Creating a list of favorites allows you to visit those sites with a single click. Select “Tools → Internet Options”. Using the Favorites Center Internet Explorer Favorites are used to save links to sites that you want to visit again. You may adjust the size of the frames by dragging the border between the frames. To place this favorite in an existing folder. click “New Folder”. This list appears under “Favorites” when you click the “Favorites Center” button on the toolbar. The “Favorites” list contains all the favorites you have created. simply click on the “X” shaped. content will appear in the language that has the highest priority. select the desired folder and click “Add”. Click “OK” in the other windows as well. When you click on a link on one page included in a frame. If you speak several languages. Displaying web pages in other languages: Some Web sites offer their content in several languages.Using frames: The browser area can be divided into different scrollable areas called frames. For this. If you would like to display the Favorites Center at the left of your screen at all times. you may create a new folder for a favorite. Click on thumbnails to view related documents. On the “General” tab. Now click “Add” in the “Add a Favorite” window. the related page is displayed in another frame. To view these pages in your preferred language. 125 | P a g e . click “Add”. In the “Language Preference” window. You may type a new name for the page in the “Name” text box. In the “Add Language” window. you can arrange them in order of priority. Adding items to the Favorites list: Go to the page that you want to add to your list. Viewing thumbnails: Thumbnail images are small images shown on a web page because of space limitations and the time required for downloading. rather than having to type the sites URL each time you want to visit it. You may organize your favorite pages in folders and save items under different folders. If a Web site offers multiple languages.”.. you can add languages to your list of languages in Internet Explorer. Alternatively. Enter a name for the new folder in the “Create a Folder” window and click “Create”. click “Languages”. you may pin it to the window by clicking on the “Pin the Favorites Center” button.

Using Forms Forms are part of the web page that can help you to enter data. You may then click on a website link to open the related page. right-click on it and select “Delete”. The “Print” window is displayed. Printing and Saving Web Pages Printing and saving web pages: To print the current page. address. To delete an item from the History List.” and “Favorites → Organize Favorites” from the Menu Bar. Online Application Forms: Online Application Forms are forms that are given to the user to fill when connected to the Internet. pop-up menus or drop-down lists. you can login to your account and use all facilities available. Click the “Add to Favorites” button. The form shown is used to register for a Yahoo mail account. Preliminary validations are performed on some fields. and so on. You can also move items from one folder to another by using the “Move” button or dragging the item to the appropriate folder You may also use the Menu Bar to add items to your Favorites list and to organize your Favorites. History items are displayed sorted by website. select “File → Print” from the menu. phone number. You may print all pages. Using the History list: Internet Explorer keeps track of the web pages you have previously visited in the form of history. Once you have completed your registration. you may have to enter your personal details while booking an airline ticket online.Organizing your Favorites: You may wish to organize your favorite pages by topic. rename or delete a folder. check boxes. Some mandatory fields must be entered before the data is accepted. In the “Organize Favorites” window. You may re-sort your History items by clicking on the arrow next to the "History" button and making your selection. These must be filled in carefully before they are submitted. click on one of the calendar icons.. For this. For example. a specific page or range of pages by making the appropriate selection under “Print Range”. Now. click the “History” button in the Favorites Center. Click “Yes” in the displayed window. the current page. 126 | P a g e . you may use the different buttons in the lower part to create. select “Favorites → Add to Favorites. You can fill information in it and submit the form contents by clicking on buttons provided. selected text. such as your name. buttons. Click on one of the yellow icons to see what pages you visited at a particular site. A form may have text boxes. and then click “Organize Favorites”. To view the History list.

Search engines are also huge databases of web sites. Specify the location at which you wish to save your file. Specify the location at which you wish to download the web page. but typically offer no categories or differentiation between different types of material. Click “Close” when the download is completed. A search can be done by entering a keyword. For example. Search services can be categorized into two types. Right-click to display a pop-up menu. A number of search tools have been developed and are available on different web sites. Type a file name for the image and then click “Save”. Saving an entire web page: Select “File → Save As” from the menu. a descriptive world or phrase or by browsing a topic list.Previewing a web page: To have a look at how a page will look before it is printed. Type a file name and then click “Save”. Choose “Save Target As”. Search services can be categorized into two types. Search services help you to quickly locate information about a specific topic from multiple websites. Now click “Save”. there is a vast ocean of information available on the World Wide Web. Web directories are databases of Internet sites that are organized by topics or subjects. The “Save As” window is displayed. You may choose a format for the page from the dropdown list in the “Save as type” field. Web directories are databases of Internet sites that are organized by topics or subjects. web directories and search engines. Search engines are also huge databases of web sites. The “Save Webpage” window is displayed. Finding Information on the Web Using Search Services As you know. select “File → Print Preview” from the menu. For this. You may save the web page with a new name by making changes in the “File name” field. Saving a page without displaying it: Position the mouse pointer over the link to the web page you wish to save. position the mouse pointer over the image. The search engine compares your entry against its database and displays a list of “hits” in the form of hyperlinks to related web pages. you can use the Preview option. you enter a keyword or phrase reflecting the information you want. Right-click to display the pop-up menu. Choose “Save Picture As”. Choose a folder in which to save this image. but typically offer no categories or differentiation between different types of material. The “Save Picture” window is displayed. Search engines provide two different search approaches: Keyword search and Directory search. In a keyword search. if you entered the keyword “travel” you get 127 | P a g e . Saving an image from a page: You may wish to save only an image from a web page. For this. web directories and search engines.

thousands of hits. These are ordered according to those sites most likely to contain the information requested and are usually in groups of 10. You may find relevant information on the web using “Subject Directories”. Subject directories are collections of Internet resources organized into subject categories. They are useful for looking for information on a specific subject or to gain familiarity with a topic. Advantages of subject directories are that they generally contain good quality sites and they save time since subject wise information is available. Let us have a look at the Google subject directory. Enter the URL “http://directory.google.com” in the address bar and press “Enter”. You can see the Google directory on your screen showing links to various subjects. Clicking on a subject will show you more detailed lists from which you may make your selections. Using the Search Box: One of the new features of Internet Explorer 7 is the “Search Box” located at the top right. You can search the internet using most search engines from the search box instead of going to other search engine sites. If you want to find something on a page you are currently on, click on the down arrow to the right of the magnifying glass and select “Find on this Page”. Enter your search criteria and click “Next”. Using the Search Box: One of the new features of Internet Explorer 7 is the “Search Box” located at the top right. You can search the internet using most search engines from the search box instead of going to other search engine sites. If you want to find something on a page you are currently on, click on the down arrow to the right of the magnifying glass and select “Find on this Page”. Enter your search criteria and click “Next”. You may change the default search engine if you wish. For this, click on the down arrow to the right of the magnifying glass and select “Change Search Defaults”. Click “Set Default” and then “OK” to make the search provider you just added as the default one. Metasearch Engines: When you research a topic, you may need to visit different web sites in order to use different search engines. This would be time-consuming and duplicate responses would be inevitable. “Metasearch Engines” offer an alternative. They are programs that automatically submit your search request to several search engines simultaneously. The metasearch engine receives the results, eliminates duplicates, orders the hits and provides the edited list to you. You can see a list of some metasearch engines available on the Web in the displayed table.

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Specialized Search Engines: These search engines focus on subject-specific web sites. They save your time by narrowing your search. For a list of a few specialized search engines, have a look at the displayed table.

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Content Evaluation: You must keep in mind that not all information available on the Web is accurate. In fact, anyone can publish content on the Web. Many sites such as Wikipedia.com, allow anyone to post new material, sometimes anonymously and without critical evaluation. To evaluate the accuracy of information found on the Web, you need to consider the following points. Authority: Is the author an expert on the subject? Is the web site an individual’s personal one or an official one? Accuracy: Has the information been critically reviewed for correctness? Does the web site provide a method of reporting inaccurate information? Objectivity: Is the information reported biased or based on actual facts? Does the author gain personally by convincing the reader or changing his opinion? Currency: Is the information up to date. Is the date when the site was updated specified? Google

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Searching by Topic: The Google web site interface consists of many links to various topics and a search text box. At a business level. The search results displayed have links to the pages containing matches to your desired keyword. employees and customers. 131 | P a g e . Communication Using E-Mail Using Web E-Mail Services You know that communication is the most popular Internet activity. Click “even more” to see some more useful links. friends and family can stay in touch even when separated by thousands of miles. use multiple words and leave out non-essential words. Advanced Search: Once you know the basics of Google search. Language Tools: Click “Language Tools” to specify your language preferences for a particular search. This takes you straight to the most relevant website that Google finds for your query. electronic communication has become a standard and preferred way to stay in touch with suppliers. set the interface language and search for pages written in specific languages. use more descriptive words as opposed to general ones. you can save this as your default search behavior on the “Preferences” page. which offers numerous options for making your searches more precise and getting more useful results. Click “Preferences” to enter your requirements.google. You may click on the link of your choice. The result displayed is page wise if the resulted list is big. you might want to try Advanced Search.com in the address box. You will not see the search results page at all. Type the keyword on which you wish to search in the search text box. Searching by Keyword: Some simple tips for entering keywords are be specific. If you typically search only pages in a specific language. Then press the “Google Search” button”. Click “more” to view additional links. Click “Advanced Search” to enter your options. You can filter inappropriate material. I am Feeling Lucky: You may try using the "I am Feeling Lucky" button when you have entered your search terms. Press “Enter” to display the Google home page. the "Iam Feeling Lucky" site would be listed on top. Start the Internet Explorer browser and type www. At a personal level. but if you do.“Google” is one of the most popular search engines. Click the links to visit the related web pages. Preferences: You may configure your search exactly as you want it.

enter an ID which will act as both your login name and your email address.yahoo.com” is the name of the domain or server. the identity of the recipient is verified and then the mail is forwarded. etc. You will be asked to answer this question in case you forget your password. Indiatimes.com.com” in the address bar and press “Enter”. Just as every web page has a unique address. Rediffmail. 132 | P a g e . it is not necessary for the person to whom the e-mail has been sent to be available. The web site has a registration page that will ask you to enter some information and also make you accept a user agreement. If the ID you select has already been taken by someone else. Some of the examples are mail. Next.com”.com. You have already seen how to fill in an online form. or for his computer to be on. all the mail that has been received is downloaded to his computer. Hotmail. “yahoo. To go to the Yahoo home page. low cost and absence of time restrictions. The use of e-mail in our country. Let us create a free e-mail ID on Yahoo. This is a very powerful tool for communication and a prime reason for the popularity of Internet. Select a security question and enter a suitable answer. After you have chosen a name. To use the e-mail facility the user has to register with the web site providing the facility.com. The first step is to fill out your personal information.E-mail. click “Free Mail: Sign Up”. or electronic mail. The mail sent by you is sent to the mail server. You need an e-mail program and a connection to the Internet. A complete e-mail address is normally in the form of “ahmed@yahoo. you have to create a password. In this.com. especially in urban areas. The other is based on Post Office Protocol (POP3) using which you may download mails onto your computer or send mails stored on your hard disk. “ahmed” is the name of the person. try a variation of the name. You see a form displayed on your screen. enables communication by sending and receiving written messages via a computer over the Internet. The website provides you with a unique user name and you can also specify a password. The most popular is the free web mail service that many web sites provide.Yahoo. it sends the message to his address. At the other end. similarly every e-mail account has a unique address.com. When the mail server identifies the recipient. has increased rapidly in recent years. There are basically two types of e-mail services you can use. type “www. Creating an e-mail account is fairly simple. Then you may enter an alternate e-mail address if you have one. When an e-mail is sent. E-mail has become very popular because of its speed. When the recipient switches on his computer and connects to the mail service. Now.

address and telephone number. Address Book.You may check the “Marketing Preferences” box if you wish to receive promotional offers from Yahoo by e-mail. These are mostly related to commercial advertising. For this. If a message has an attachment. This has limited impact because a lot of spam originates from other countries as well. Read the "Terms of Service" agreement and “Privacy Policy” by clicking on the related links and check the box after “Do you agree?” to confirm that you agree to them. This unwelcome junk mail is called “spam”. like many other valuable technologies does have some drawbacks. message and signature. Typically. A typical e-mail message has three basic elements: header. receiving and optionally persons receiving copies are generally included in an e-mail message. In an attempt to control spam. Your e-mail account is then created and you may use it to send and receive messages. Login Page: To access your mail account. Besides these. Finally. comes the actual message text. get-richquick schemes. some countries have anti-spam laws as part of their legal system. Now click the “Create My Account” button. To verify your registration. Subject: This is a one-line description used to present the topic of the message. A more effective approach has been 133 | P a g e . many more personalization features are also provided. type the code shown in the box exactly as you see it. After the header area. Auto Reply and Customized Signature. or something similar. E-mail. The first part is the user’s name and the second part is the domain name which includes the top-level domain. often for products of questionable quality. this information includes the sender’s name. Some of the common features are a Login Page. you have to enter the user name you selected during the registration process and also your password. Inbox. the signature line provides additional information about the sender. Attachments: You can attach files such as documents and pictures to a mail message. The header appears first and includes the following information: Addresses: Addresses of the person sending. We often receive many unwanted e-mails. The website authenticates your user login information and then provides access to your mailbox. You know that an e-mail address has two parts. you must first login. the file name is displayed in the header area on the attachment line. in case of official mails. The different websites have different features for the e-mail facility they provide.

When “Congratulations” is displayed. click “Finish”. If you do not find the “News” item in the “Go” menu of Microsoft Outlook. Enter your name as you want it displayed and click “Next”. perform the following steps. you can see that there is a default news account named “Microsoft Communities”. Here you are required to enter the Internet News Server Name. On the Standard toolbar click the "Toolbar Options" arrow. In the window displayed. Select “Tools → Accounts” from the menu. to download and read news messages. Adding a News Account: Let us add a new account. Now. You can see this account under the “News” heading in the “Internet Accounts” window. Select “Go → News” from the menu. In Windows Mail. The Mozilla Thunderbird e-mail program which is available for free download at “www. In the “Internet Accounts” window.the development and use of “Spam Blockers”. click "News". the recipient’s address is to be removed from future mailing lists.com” comes with built-in spam blocking software. This indicates that you may subscribe to a newsgroup of your choice on the Microsoft news server. Also. This newsreader is a Network News Transport Protocol (NNTP) newsreader. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Outlook 2007”. a folder with this name is created in the list of folders in the left panel. When the option is selected. and to post replies to them. These programs use a variety of approaches to identify and eliminate spam. To start the Microsoft Outlook application. Using Newsgroups A newsgroup is a forum on the Internet for discussions on a specified range of subjects. If you have not previously set up a newsreader. 134 | P a g e . the CAN-SPAM Act has been enacted which requires that every marketing-related e-mail provides an opt-out option. and then click "Customize". Newsreaders are used to gain access to various types of newsgroups. Click “Next”. and drag it and place it in the "Go" menu. click on “Newsgroup Account” and then click “Next”. In the United States of America. Newsgroups are also called discussion groups. Enter the server name and then click “Next”. Microsoft Outlook automatically sets up the Windows Mail Newsreader. In the "Commands" list. Click on the "Commands" tab. which you can use to download newsgroup content and then work with it when you are not connected to the Internet. enter your e-mail address. In the "Categories" list. Point to "Add or Remove Buttons".mozilla. click "Go". click “Add”. You may then close the “Customize” window.

In the “Windows Live” folder. The difference is that you can send and receive messages as soon as they are typed. you can have a complete conversation. You see a window asking whether you would like to view a list of available newsgroups. Google talk etc. you need to add his name to your list of contacts. On the “All” tab. You may choose to reply to a message. ensure that you are connected to the Internet and click “Yes”.Click “Close”. you may add additional information in the “Contact”. To unsubscribe from a group. “Work” and “Notes” sections. Enter your e-mail address and password and then click “Sign In”. Use “Ctrl+Click” to select multiple groups. Click “Add Contact” after you are done. Click “Reply Group” to send a reply to all members of a group and “Reply” to reply to the individual sender of the message. Select “Start → All Programs”. Click “OK” to confirm. Select “File → New → News Message” to create a new message to send to the complete group. Adding a Contact: Before you can chat with someone. In the “Instant Messaging Address” box enter your contact’s e-mail address. If both parties are online at the same time. Then click “Subscribe”. The names of the newsgroups appear in the folder list. You may read any message you wish by double-clicking on it. There are different instant messengers available such as Yahoo messenger. To print this message. right-click on its name and select “Unsubscribe”. It is similar to e-mail. Using Messengers for Instant Messaging Instant Messaging enables you to have a conversation with another person or a group of people concurrently. If you wish. Now. you may click on the group you wish to subscribe to. Windows Live Messenger. Click on a newsgroup name in the folder list to see a list of messages. Click the “Add a contact” button. it must first be downloaded from the Internet and installed on your computer. click “Windows Live Messenger” to start the Windows Live Messenger. In the contacts list. enter your message in the “Personal invitation” box and check the box against “Also send an e-mail invitation to this contact”. You 135 | P a g e . You can see that the contact is displayed in your list. select “File → Print” from the menu bar. ICQ. To use a messenger. The list is downloaded and the “Newsgroup Subscriptions” window is displayed. download the Windows Live Messenger and install it. Now click “OK”. If your contact does not have Windows Live Messenger. “Personal”. you can see which of your contacts are online and offline at any given time. Since this list needs to be downloaded from the news server.

In the same way. In the “Save As” window. click on your name at the top of the screen and then click on the status you wish. Now select “File → Save”. Changing your Status: You may wish to display a specific status against your name such as “Busy”. You can see the complete conversation in the upper section of the “Conversation” window. Changing the Display Picture: You may change the picture that is displayed against your name. “Emoticons”. Click on your name at the top of the screen. In the box at the bottom of the conversation window that comes up. messages from your contact are displayed on your screen. Specifying Other Settings: You may specify other settings such as the way your name is displayed in a conversation. You may send an emoticon along with your message. type your message and click “Send” or simply press “Enter”. double-click the name of an online contact. click on the “Show Menu” icon to the right of the Paint Brush icon in the conversation window. Type your message and then select an emoticon from the list. When a contact comes online. When you click on the name of a contact who is offline. you are ready to begin your chat. After you have completed your chat. also called “Smileys”.can chat with any contact who is online. you are notified about it. “Out to lunch” etc. the emoticon is sent along with the text. Choose a picture and then click “OK” in the “Display Pictures” window. Right-click on a contact’s name in the main window to perform various activities such as sending an e-mail. In the main Messenger screen. In the window displayed. Social Networking 136 | P a g e . This message is displayed immediately on your contact’s screen. editing contact details. Changing the Color Scheme: You may change the color scheme of the Messenger application by clicking on the Paint Brush icon at the top of the main Messenger window and selecting a color of your choice. you may click on the different categories in the left pane to specify related settings. Offline contacts will receive the messages once they come online. Chatting with your contact: Now. For this. The new picture is then displayed. Saving your conversation: You may save your complete conversation. click on your name at the top of the screen. Click “OK” in the window that comes up. you are informed about his status. Click “Change display picture”. For this. are symbols that help to convey emotion or additional meaning in a written statement. You can also send messages to contacts who are offline. you may close the conversation window by clicking “Show Menu” and selecting “File → Close”. enter the file name in which you want to save it and press “Save”. deleting the contact etc. For this. Click “Options”. When you click “Send”.

connecting individuals to one another. if you are looking for business contacts. Members can search the database to locate individuals. friend-of-a-friend and common interest.e. If you wanted to locate or create a special interest group. Two well-known friend-of-a-friend sites are Friendster and MySpace. This information is added to the site’s database. You could then visit his site to connect to his friends and join his list of friends as well. You must consider carefully what you are disclosing before providing information to any site or individual. “Common interest” sites bring together individuals that share common interests or hobbies. “Reuniting” sites are designed to connect people who have known one another but have lost touch. Two popular reuniting sites are Facebook and Classmates Online. you provide profile information such as your age. For example. a network could be started by an acquaintance who provides his profile information and list of friends. Many sites even notify you when someone joins with parts of his profile matching yours.One of the fastest growing uses of the Internet is “social networking” i. “Friend-of-a-friend” sites are designed to bring together two people who do not know each other but share a common friend. school name etc. For example. gender. you might join LinkedIn. For a summary of social networking sites. you might join Meetup. see the displayed table. 137 | P a g e . There are three basic categories of social networking sites: reuniting. When you join a social network by connecting to a reuniting site.

Although the information is well maintained.DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Overview Introduction to Databases You have recently accepted a new job as an Employment Administrator with All Saints High School. Also making reports quickly is a difficult task. the employment records are maintained on paper forms and stored in file cabinets organized alphabetically. retrieving any kind of information is time consuming. 138 | P a g e . You need to manually leaf through the pages to locate the required information. You are responsible for maintaining the employment records for all employees of the School. Currently.

139 | P a g e . Queries. The software tool that you will use to accomplish the task you have been assigned will be Microsoft Access 2007. data is organized in linked tables. What is a database? : A database is an organized collection of related information. In the following labs. However. Each row is a record which contains all the information about a person. A relational database is the most widely used database structure. print and preview data and much more. every database is stored in a single file which has the extension “. Access 2007 is a relational database management application that is used to create and analyze a database. using Access 2007. Forms are windows that you create and arrange in order to easily view or change the information in a table. That file contains database objects. The first screen that appears is the “Getting Started with Microsoft Office Access” page. It is an electronic database management system which can store. The table object is the basic object and has to be created first. Typically. In Access. you will learn how to create a database. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Access 2007”. organize. thing or place.The school has recently purchased new computers and the management now wants to update the employee record system to an electronic database management system. and present information in many different ways. the information in a database is stored in a table. Here. Queries let you quickly perform an action on a table. before any other objects are created. Forms and Reports. enter data. access. you can also use queries to make changes to your database. Creating a Database Introduction to Access To start the Microsoft Access application. Tables store information. which are simply the components of a database. Each column is a field which is the smallest unit of information about a record. Usually. You can create as many tables as you need to store different types of information. The tables are related or linked to one another by a common field. this action involves retrieving a piece of information.accdb”. The four main objects in an Access database are Tables. edit data. Tables are made up of vertical columns (called fields) and horizontal rows (called records). manipulate.

By clicking the object tabs. You must know how the structure or layout of each table in the database must be. -Your tables. The main table will include the employees’ basic information. You must plan the design of your database in respect of how many tables will be required. delete and modify records from a table. Template databases can be used as they are. and how its formatted. After studying the existing record keeping procedures and the reports that are created. 140 | P a g e . Planning is the first step in the development of a database. Several templates are displayed under “Featured Online Templates”. -You can analyze the data in a table and perform calculations on different fields of data. you decide to create several separate tables of data in the database.Reports help you print some or all of the information in a table. you can easily switch between various objects. forms and reports are displayed as tabbed objects in the Access window. you can quickly search the table to locate a specific record based on the data in a field. what data each of them will contain and how will they be related. -It is easy to add. Another will contain information of all the departments in the School and a third one will contain the payroll of the employees. For example. creating. -You can quickly produce reports using some Access features. Access provides you with a wide variety of templates that are ready-to-use databases that contain all that is needed for performing a specific task. how its grouped and sorted. You must understand the purpose of the database. manage contacts. Creating a New Database Creating a database entails several basic steps: planning. or keep a record of expenses. or you can customize them to suit your needs. You can choose where the information appears on the printed page. For this you must study the existing employee records. queries. The features of Access 2007 are as follows: -Once the data is entered in the database. entering and editing data and then previewing and printing. and more become available if you click one of the categories under “Template Categories” at the left of the Access window. -Its capability to sort records in a table according to different fields can provide more meaningful information. there are templates that can be used to track issues.

To expand the minimized Navigation Pane. and configure the fields. In the “File New Database” window. form. It also allows you to enter and edit the data. right-click the object and select an item from the context menu that appears. In the panel at the right. At the bottom of the screen you see the words “Datasheet View” on the “Status Bar”. and Redo. You can also set keys and restrict the values entered here. 3) The Ribbon which has Task-oriented Tabs. Undo. The Navigation Pane can be minimized into a vertical bar. Creating a database: Now that you have designed the database. the default database name is displayed in the “File Name” box.For now. to provide you with a larger work area. Click “Blank Database” under “New Blank Database”. The two most commonly used views are “Datasheet View” and “Design View”. forms and reports appear in the Navigation Pane. or other database objects. saving. You may specify the location where you wish to store your database. Click on the “Browse” icon to the right of the file name. Now click “Create”. When you open a database or create a new one. you may see the assignment titled “The User Interface” in the “Microsoft Word” topic. Access creates your first database object. You see the familiar Microsoft Office 2007 user interface which consists of: 1) The Office Button which displays a menu containing commands for opening. a table named Table1 which is completely blank. To apply a command to a database object. and closing a file. it is time to create it so that the data can be stored in it. But you cannot change the data in design view. you see the “Navigation Pane”.accdb”. 2) The Quick Access toolbar which displays icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. with no defined fields. you will create only the table containing the employee information. The “View” icon in the “Views” group is used switch back and forth between the Datasheet view and the Design View. click the arrow in the upper corner. This indicates that you are 141 | P a g e . At the left. Creating a Table Access provides different window formats called “Views” to display and work with the objects in a database. printing. double-click the object in the Navigation Pane. Datasheet view shows the data in the database. click on “Desktop” in the left panel and then click “OK”. To open a database object. the names of your database objects such as tables. Groups and Command buttons. Change it to “Employee. For more details on the Microsoft Office User Interface. Design view allows you to create or change a table. To minimize the expanded Navigation Pane. click the arrow at the top.

which makes queries and other operations fast. forms. A primary key is a field or set of fields in your table that provide Access with a unique identifier for every record. This view provides a row and column view of the data in tables. In Datasheet view. You can enter up to 255 characters in a text field. an exclamation (!). Examples are names and phone numbers. You must specify a primary key for all tables. We shall use the “Design View” to create a table. except a period (. You will learn about the different data types shortly. forms. and numbers that are not used in calculations. you need to enter a name for the table. Before you can enter data into a table.now in datasheet view. You cannot start the name of a field with a space. like words. 142 | P a g e . and search for data. and brackets([]). Access also ensures that every record has a non-blank primary key field. meaning the fields that will hold the data. Access provides a number of data types to choose from. Click on “View → Design View” in the “Views” group. combinations of words and numbers. you must create the structure of the table. you can edit fields. Type “Employee ID” as the field name and press “Enter”. Access automatically creates a primary key and assigns a field name of "ID" and the AutoNumber data type to it. The name can consist of letters. the default name “Table1” is displayed. It is important to choose the right kind of data type before you start entering data in the table. Access automatically creates an index for the primary key. Following are the data types you can use. When you create a new table. add and delete data. You may also create a table using this view. Let us first understand what is meant by a “Primary Key”. This view can be used to create and view the design of all types of database objects such as tables. You can see a small key to the left of the field name indicating that this field is the primary key of the table. etc. Before defining the fields in a table. Click on the drop down menu button to select the “Data Type”. Field name: A field name is used to identify the data stored in a field. In the “Save As” window. Now let us begin creating the table structure. Phone No. Data type: The data type defines the type of data the field will contain. and queries. Enter the Table Name as “Emp Info” and click “OK”. Text: It is the default data type and is used to store text entries. The “Emp Info” tab is displayed in the document window on the right. queries and reports. spaces. and that it is always unique.). You can now see the name of your table in the Navigation Pane on the left. Subject1. Following are some examples of valid field names: First name. numbers. and special characters.

Information about the data type is displayed in the left panel and on the right hand side is the help box displaying information about the current task. Summary of a book is an example. AutoNumber: It is a unique. A field property is a characteristic that helps define a field. 143 | P a g e . Description: The “Description” text box is used to describe the field. True or False. Click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar and switch to Datasheet View by clicking “View → Datasheet View” in the “Views” group. Calculations can be performed on the numbers stored in a Number field. the default field size of the “Text” data type is 255. Giving this description is optional. etc. Each data type has its own set of field properties.Memo: It is used to store text that is too long to be stored in a Text field. Number: It is used to store numbers only. Price. It can be used for fields like Fees Paid. Caption: Specifies a field caption or a prompt for the user to enter data. Fees. spreadsheet files. Currency: This is similar to the Number data type. and On or Off. etc. Pass. Date/Time: It is used for storage of date and time information. sequential number that is automatically incremented by one whenever a new record is added to the table. Yes/No: This data type accepts only two values – Yes or No. Format: Specifies how the data is displayed in the table and printed. Marks in an exam is an example. Attachment: This is used to store images. etc. For example. For example. Select the “Text” data type. When you select a data type. charts and other types of supported files to the records in your database. documents. graphs etc. Date of joining. its default properties are displayed under “Field Properties”. The description that you had entered is displayed in the “Status Bar”. Birth date. Hyperlink: This is used to store web addresses. but is formatted to display decimal places and the currency symbol. As you can see. Some of the more common properties are as follows: Field Size: It decides the maximum number of characters that can be entered in the field. Switch back to Design View by clicking “View → Design View” in the “Views” group. Input mask: Simplifies data entry and controls what data is required and how it is to be displayed. documents. OLE Object: This data type is used to store images. Type the description wherever applicable.

Click on the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. Click with the mouse in the “Field Name” column to enter the next field name. Click on “View → Datasheet View” in the “Views” group. sorting. Type ‘First Name’ and select “Text” as the “Data Type” from the drop down menu. So select the “Data Type” as “Attachment”. Required: Specifies whether or not a value must be entered in a field before the record is stored. But you cannot do so until you change the view. This field property specifies whether an index is to be created on that field. You can see that the name given to the field with the data type Attachment has been replaced by a paperclip icon. You must save your table structure before you can start entering data into the table. 144 | P a g e . Validation Text: It is displayed when the validation rule is violated. Follow the same procedure for the next field – Date_Of_Joining. The structure of your table is now ready.Default Value: It specifies a default value for a field to be automatically filled in at the time of data entry. Select the “Data Type” of this field as “Date/Time” from the drop down menu. Entering and Editing Data You can now start entering data in the table. Allow Zero Length: Specifies whether or not an entry containing no value is valid. The “Photo” field is of a different type – you want to store the photo of the employee. Double-click on 255 to select it and type ‘4’ to change the field size. Now. If you set it to “Yes”. enter the information shown in the table until you come to the “Birth Date” field. In the same manner. Click the “Field Size” property text box. Select “General Date”. Click in the “Field Size” property box and change the field size to ’15’. Click in the “Format” property box and open the drop down list. This value can be changed. it can be used to indicate that you know no value exists for a field. and grouping operations run against large amounts of data. let us change some of the defaults. Do not make any other changes. We used the Design View to define the structure. Indexed: An index is used to speed up queries. You may change the primary key simply by clicking on another field name and then clicking on the “Primary Key” icon in the “Tools” group. Let us change the primary key back to “Employee ID” as before. Validation Rule: Restricts the data entry to meet certain conditions or requirements. We now need to switch to Datasheet View.

Remember not to use any spaces before or after the data. navigate to the location of the picture file. You will be asked to confirm the deletion. double-click in the attachment field. Preview and Print a Table The table is now ready and you want to print it. Type the employee’s ID number. Complete the information for the first record except for the “Photo” field. Click “Yes” to delete the record. Click “OK”. Before printing it is advisable to preview it. If you make a mistake while typing. For this. that an employee has resigned and is no longer an employee of the School. right-click a columns name and select “Column Width”. you may enter the date directly or use the Date Picker displayed at the right of the field. position the mouse on the right border of a column header. Then drag in the desired direction. On the “Home tab”. Inserting a picture: The photo can be inserted as an attachment. Now click “Add”. Double-click in the attachment field to open the “Attachments” window. click “Delete”. in the “Records” group.The insertion point can be seen in the first column of the first row. To see that the picture has really been inserted. If you want to 145 | P a g e . left or right until you get the desired width. You may adjust the column width. You may drag with the mouse to select multiple records. You have been informed by the HR department. It displays the table in a reduced size so that you can see the layout. This displays the “Column Width” window where you can type the desired value. This is the small box to the left of the record. Click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. in the “Employee ID” column. that is. Check that you type data exactly as it appears in the accompanying table. The document will be printed using the default settings. Then you must delete that employee’s record. See that there is consistency in the data that you enter. Then click “OK”. Use the right arrow key or press “Enter” to move to the next field. you may adjust the column width to a specific number of characters. Alternatively. You can see the name of the picture in the “Attachments” window. Previewing the table gives you an idea how the table will look after it is printed. Deleting a record: Select the record to be deleted by clicking the “Record Selector”. Now double-click on the name of the picture in the “Attachments” window. For this. For the date fields. use the “Backspace” key to delete characters to the left of the insertion point or the “Delete” key to delete characters to the right of the insertion point. Click on the picture and then click “Open”. Changing Column Width The data you have entered may not be completely visible in the Table’s column. In the “Choose File” window.

If you want to change the page orientation. The “Print Preview” tab appears when you view the table in the Print Preview mode. Closing a table: Multiple table tabs may be open at one time. You may also print the table by clicking the Office Button and selecting “Print → Print” from the menu or use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+P”. enter the page range. in the “Pages From:” field. Click on the Office Button and select “Close Database”. To print selected records. select “Selected Record(s)”. click “OK”. click “OK”. To print selected records. Close and Open a Table and Database You have finished working with the employee database for now and you want to stop working but continue later on. You have to close the table and database that you have created and have been working on until now. To print pages that are continuous. For example. The page is displayed with a heading and date in the “Header” and the page number in the “Footer”. Closing the database: Next. Since you have just one table open presently. The “Print” window is displayed. For example. enter the page range. Clicking on “Cancel” will not close the window and you will be able to continue working. The table tab will close. click on the “Landscape” icon in the “Page Layout” group. you have to close the database. To print pages that are continuous. After you have entered your print specifications. type ‘1’ and in the “To” field enter ‘5’. You are now back to the “Getting 146 | P a g e . select “Selected Record(s)”. to print pages 1 to 5. Access will prompt you to save them before closing. If you have made any changes that have not been saved. To close a table. in the “Pages From:” field. simply click on the “X” shaped icon at the right end in line with the table name. Select “All” to print all records. two or multiple pages if there is more data than can fit on one or two pages. Check once again whether everything is as you want it and click on the “Print” icon. To close the preview. Select “Pages From” to specify the number of the pages you want to print. If you click “No” to discard changes. The “Print Range” section of the window lets you specify how much of the document you want to print.change some settings you may do so. Select “Pages From” to specify the number of the pages you want to print. Click “Yes” to save changes. the table will close without saving the changes. to print pages 1 to 5. The “Print Range” section of the window lets you specify how much of the document you want to print. type ‘1’ and in the “To” field enter ‘5’. click the “Close Print Preview” icon. You can see the preview consisting of one. After you have entered your print specifications. you may first click on the related tab to make it active. Select “All” to print all records.

Enter the words “(with data)” at the end of the name and click “OK”. including its structure and data. In the “Save As” window. In the “Paste Table As” window. This would save time in creating a new table which required similar fields but had different data to be entered. To open the “Emp Info” table. navigate to the location of your database and click “Open”. In such a case.Started with Microsoft Office Access” page. Enter the words “(structure only)” at the end of the name and click “OK”. you may click the Office Button and then click the “Exit Access” button at the bottom right. in the “Getting Started with Microsoft Office Access” page. Making Copies of Database Objects Copying a database object: You can make a copy of an object in the database such as a table. click “More…” at the top of the list. Let us create another copy of the “Emp Info” table. This time. we shall copy the structure only. For this. Sometimes. This is an alternative method to using the “Save As” option of the Office Button. Right click on the name of the “Emp Info” table in the Navigation Pane and select “Copy”. Now click the Office Button and select “Save As”. You may use the Copy-Paste method to copy both the data and structure of a table by selecting “Structure and Data” under the “Paste Options” in the “Paste Table As” window. The table will open in Datasheet View. Opening the database: When you need to work once again with the “Employee” database. Your Database window is displayed. click the Office Button and select “Save As → Access 2007 Database”. Let us make a copy of the table “Emp Info”. In the “Open” window. Double click on the new table name in the Navigation Pane. In the document pane. you may accept the default name displayed or enter a new name. you may not see the name of your database in this list. Click the table name in the Navigation Pane. You can see the new table displayed in the Navigation Pane and the data displayed in the document window on the right. you may need to copy only the structure of a table. Let us modify the default name. You may create a new database or open an existing one. If any database 147 | P a g e . Making a Copy of the Database You can make a copy of the complete database. Now right click once again in the Navigation Pane and select “Paste”. double-click the table name in the navigation pane. This copy would be identical to the existing one complete with its objects and data. click on the database name in the list displayed under “Open Recent Database” on the right. you can see that only the structure of the table has been copied and there is no data contained in it. Sometimes. select “Structure Only” under “Paste Options”. To exit Access.

You can see that all data in the “State” field is displayed in uppercase. To do so. Make the “State” field the current one by clicking on it. you must insert those fields which you have missed while designing the database the first time. you have forgotten to add two fields! The PIN code number needs to be added to make the address complete and the gender of the employee also needs to go on record. you see a window asking whether the objects can be closed. Change to Datasheet View Click on “Yes” to save changes. You want all the records to display the name of the state in uppercase. BS83DT will be displayed with a space between BS8 and 3DT. Click “Yes”. The field’s “Format” property can be defined to tell Access the way you want the data to be displayed. Make “Phone” the current field.accdb” and click “Save”. For this. The new database is created identical to the original database. you need to first change to Design View. Modifying a Table Customizing and Inserting Fields If you look through the records. type ‘@@@ @@@’ with a space after the first three characters. switch to Design View. In the “Size” field property.objects are open. You can easily make all these changes and put restrictions on the way data is entered or displayed. enter the location and the name for the new database. To define the format. Type ‘Pin Code’ and make its data type as “Text”. you can use the four symbols used in the table shown. The “Pin Code” field should be after the “State” field and the “Gender” field should be after the “Phone” field. type ‘7’ and in the “Format” field property text box. In the “Save As” window. This will display the PIN codes of all records in the same format. Select “Insert Rows” in the “Tools” group on the “Design” tab. A row is inserted between the “State” and “Phone” fields. you have to enter the appropriate symbol in the “Field Properties” window. 148 | P a g e . One is the “Pin Code” and the other is the “Gender” of the employee. Move to the “Format” field property text box and type ‘>’. To set the display format. For example. to change the “State” field’s format to display it in uppercase. say “Backup_Employee. click on the upper part of the “View” icon in the “Views” group on the “Design” tab. you realize that there is no uniformity in the data entered in the “State” field. So. You can even add and delete fields. Also. Now.

This is because of the “Default Value” property that you have set for these two fields. Type ‘M’ in it. Setting the “Validity Check” option makes sure that the values entered by the user are valid for the field type. An expression is a formula consisting of a combination of symbols that evaluates to a single value. While looking through the records. Click on the “Default Value” property text box and type “Bristol” in it. Enter its “Data Type” as “Text”.Repeat the procedure for inserting a row and adding the “Gender” field after the “Phone” field. Save the design changes related to default values. you observe that most of the employees are from “Bristol” State and that there are more males than females as employees. Similarly. Switch to “Datasheet” view. You can also add validation text. The table is displayed with two new columns which have no data in them. Fill in these empty fields in all the records. Access displays a default message but it does not clearly explain the reason for the error. This value can either be accepted or another value can be entered by the user while adding a new record. Save the new table structure by clicking on the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. A default value is used to specify a value that is automatically entered in a field when a new record is added. If you do not give a message. by setting the default value of the “Sate” field to “Bristol” and that of “Gender” to “F”. which is an explanatory message that appears if the user enters invalid information in a field for which a validation rule has been set. So. Now switch to Datasheet View. you can make data entry a bit quicker. The table above shows some examples of validity rule settings and corresponding messages. A validation rule is an expression that defines acceptable values. Observe that the new blank record has the “State” and “Gender” fields already filled with values. You want the “Gender” field to accept only two values – “M” for male and “F” for female. make the “Gender” field the current one and click on the “Default Value” property text box. 149 | P a g e . Switch to Design View and make the “State” field the current one by clicking on it. “Field Size” as ‘1’ and “Format” as ‘>’.

You will be asked to save the changes. Now. Click “OK” to continue.Adding a Validity Rule: Switch to Design View and click on the “Gender” field. The “State” and “Gender” fields are already filled with default values. Type ‘k’ or any other letter in either upper or lower case. Press “Backspace” and enter valid text. type ‘Please enter either “M” or “F” only. Now try entering an invalid value in the “Gender” field. Click “Yes”. When you make changes to the structure of a table. Access asks you if you want to check the existing data with the new validity rule. switch to Datasheet View. A warning message box is displayed saying that the data integrity rules have been changed. You may change them if required. Type the data shown in the table in the new record. click “No”. type ‘ “M” Or “F” ’ and in the “Validation Text” property box. In the “Validation Rule” property box. For now. except ‘F’ or ‘M’. The warning message is immediately displayed. you often make changes that could result in the loss of data or existing data may become invalid. 150 | P a g e .

Clicking on the “Cancel” button. The “Find” command locates all specified values in a field and the “Replace” command finds a value and automatically replaces it.Finding and Replacing Data Finding and Replacing data: If you want to search for some information in the table and also replace it. While in the “Datasheet” view. Select “Whole Field” in the “Match” box and “All” in the “Search” box. The “Look In” box displays the “Last Name” field because the field was the current one when the command was given. The “Find and Replace” window is displayed with the “Find” tab selected. so. Check whether it the record you are looking for. Click on the “Replace” tab and type “Bristol” in the “Find What” box. Once you move to another record or move to another window. Your original data appears. One is that the “State” names should all be shortened to 2 lettered names. Use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Z” or click on the “Undo” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. type “Smith”. using the “Undo” command will cancel the last action as long as you have not made any further changes to the table. Click “Find Next”. you have been told to make two changes. The “State” field will already be selected in the “Look In” box. select “All”. That means you have to replace “Bristol” with “BS”. In the “Search” box. select “Whole field”. If the text is found and it is the one you want to replace. If it is. In the “Replace With” box. one of the employees. you may use the “Find” and “Replace” icons in the “Find” group on the “Home” tab. You want Access to find a perfect match to what you have typed in the “Find What” box. close the “Find and Replace” window and make the necessary changes in the “Last Name” and the address fields. In the “Find What” box. So click in the “State” field and select “Replace”. 151 | P a g e . not part of it. the last name of the employee. “Jenny Smith” is married and needs to change her “Last Name” and “Address”. “NORTHSIDE” with “NS” and so on. So. you have to make changes in the “State” field. Click in the “Search Fields As Formatted” check box which finds data based on its display format. You want to match the whole field. You need not do this manually. You may use the “Find and Replace” feature. click in the “Match Case” check box and click “Find Next”. click in the “Last Name” field of the first record and select “Find”. Now. type ‘BS’. Click on the “Cancel” button if you do not want to perform any action. then click on the “Replace” button. cancels the command. “EASTSIDE” with “ES”. If you make changes to a single record. the “Undo” command has no effect. in the “Match” box. Finding and replacing data is fast and accurate but you have to be careful not to replace unintended values. The other is that. The first occurrence of the search criteria specified is highlighted. Now.

Since you want to replace all the fields containing “BRISTOL” with “BS”. Save the changes made to the table. “Start of Field” finds data only at the beginning of the field. “Any Part of Field” finds data anywhere in the field. You are asked whether you want to continue. If you want to search the entire table. warning you that the replace operation cannot be undone.. The “Search” box allows you to specify the direction to follow while searching. If you remember. click on “Replace All”. You also saw that the records in a table are arranged according to the primary key. Sorting: Sorting the data often helps in finding some particular information quickly. you had set the default value for the “State” field as “Bristol”. Access sorts records starting from the leftmost 152 | P a g e . The options are Up. Switch to Design View and click in the “State” field. the search returns only those instances of the text that have the same case (i. In this case. type “BS” and switch to Datasheet View. Down. For example. In Access. When you select multiple columns to sort. and All (which is the default).The “State” field in the next record is highlighted. In the “Match” list options. Instantly. Sorting Records In the first lab. If you check the box against “Match Case”. uppercase or lowercase) as the specified text. the “Last Name” will be the field which you will use to sort records. the “Look In” list contains the name of the field in which your cursor is currently positioned. you can sort them on a single field – the field on the basis of which you want to arrange them. A warning message is displayed by Access. So you need to make a change in the default value too since you now need “BS”. a search for “Smith” with the initial alphabet “S” in uppercase and “m-i-t-h” in lowercase will not display “SMITH” with all uppercase letters or “smith” with all lowercase letters. How are you going to give it to them? To arrange the records in the table in alphabetical order. But the Accounts department has requested for the employee list in alphabetical order. click on “Yes” because that’s what you want. By default.e. you can sort data in ascending or descending order. In the “Default Value” property box. “Whole Field” finds only data that is exactly the same. You can sort on one field or more than one adjacent field. the data in all the fields containing “BRISTOL” is replaced with “BS”. You will see that the new record at the end has the default value changed to “BS”. Let us have another look at the various options available in the “Find and Replace” window. you had seen what a primary key is and what its importance is. you may select the name of the table from the list.

“Last Name” must be to the left of “First Name”. They are arranged alphabetically first by “Last Name” and then by “First Name”. sorting is done from the leftmost field. Tom’s record appears before Ted’s which is not in ascending alphabetical order. The new sort order is saved with the table data and automatically applied every time you open the table. Observe the order of records after sorting on the “Last Name” field. To select the two columns. observe the order of the records before sorting. the temporary sort must be removed. You see that Ted and Tom are sorted by Last Name but not by “First Name”. select “Clear All Sorts” in the “Sort & Filter” group. Select the “Ascending” icon in the “Sort & Filter” group on the “Home” tab again. click in the “Last Name” field of any record. The “Last Name” field moves up one row so that it is the second field in the field name list. This is the small box to the left of the field name. Both the columns will be highlighted. Creating Forms Using the Form Wizard 153 | P a g e . To return to the primary key sort order. you need to select the two fields. Observe the records of Tom and Ted now. position the mouse pointer in the column heading of “Last Name”. To sort on multiple fields. Click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar. To sort first by “Last Name” and then by “First name”. so Ted’s record comes first and then comes Tom’s record. you need to sort on multiple fields. The records are displayed according to the changed order of fields. So. switch to Design View. Drag to the right to select the next column – “First Name”. Click in the “Field Selector” of the “First Name” field.column and moves to the right across the columns. in Datasheet View. Now drag the mouse down until you see a black line under the “Last Name” field. In the “Datasheet” view. To remove the temporary sorting order. The cursor will change to a solid black arrow pointing downwards. The records will again be displayed in the order of the “Employee ID” field. They are sorted on the “Employee ID” field which is the primary key. Select the “Ascending” icon in the “Sort & Filter” group on the “Home” tab to display the records sorted by Last Name. To change the order of fields. Now. Switch to Datasheet View to see the order of the fields. To sort on multiple fields. Then release the mouse.

Leave it as it is and click on “Next”. you are asked to select the style of the form. boxes and pictures. Using the Form Wizard: Click on the “Create” tab. the layout of the form is displayed. At the bottom of the form window is the record number indicator. The “First record“ button takes you to the first record and the “Last record” button takes you to the last one. The field name is displayed in the “Selected Fields” list now. Click on “Employee ID” and click on the button with “>” symbol on it. Information regarding what you are supposed to do in each step is mentioned on the top in the “Form Wizard” window. lines. The next step is the last step. The field names are on the left with the corresponding data in boxes in front of them. type it and click “Finish”. In the “Forms” group. You can move one record up or down by clicking on the “Next record” or “Previous record” buttons respectively. Seeing the records at all times in the form of rows and columns can be tiring to the eyes. A form is a database object that is mainly used to enter and display records and make changes to existing records onscreen. Access provides a feature to create onscreen forms. where you are asked to give the form a name and save it. The other two buttons below this. If not. It guides you through the steps required to create a form. In the next step. “Columnar” is selected by default. The fields from the current table are displayed in the “Available Fields” list. Click on the “New (blank) record” button to add new records. The “Form Wizard” feature of Access makes it very easy to design forms.To close the form. The form is displayed with the first record’s contents in it. It is desirable for the onscreen form to be similar to the paper form filled in by each new employee when hired. The “Form Wizard” window is displayed.Being the one to be in charge of the employee records database. In the “Tables/Queries” list. click “More Forms → Form Wizard”. Read it so that you know what you are supposed to do in that step. one of your main objectives is to make the database easy to use. In the next step. “Emp Info” will be displayed by default. Select the fields from the list one by one. the name of the current table “Emp Info” is displayed. labels. Select all the fields in the same manner as the first field and click on “Next”. To make it easy to view and use. as you may have realized can be used to move fields back into the “Available Fields” list. Select a suitable one and click “Next”. Forms are based on a table and contain design control elements like descriptive text. click the close 154 | P a g e . The button below this can be used to move all fields into the “Selected Fields” list. titles. The information on this form will be used as an input source for the new record that will be added for the new employee.

click on the table name in the navigation pane and scroll if required. you can enter and view as many records as you want. to get information stored in the tables. But if you ask. Click on the “New (blank) record” button at the bottom of the window. Open the form once again by double clicking the form name in the Navigation Pane. In the navigation pane. In Access. Queries and Reports Using Queries To get any information. it is necessary to frame a question. Click on it and enter “Photograph”. “When is the train to Central Park?” you may get the most appropriate answer “It leaves on Tuesday morning at 6:30 am”. So framing a question correctly is important. 155 | P a g e . You can see that both the form and the table are open on two separate tabs. Adding Records in a Form A new employee has recently joined the School and you need to input all related information into the database. After you are done. Now. you first need to open the form. You will add this information using the form you created. You see a box with a dotted outline enclosing the picture and the field label “Photo”. if you ask at the railway enquiry counter – “Is there a train to Central Park?” you will most probably not get the expected answer. The form with all blank boxes is displayed. At the top left corner you see a four-headed arrow. Of course. double-click on the form name “Emp Info”. In this way. click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar. Click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar to save your changes and close the form. You may click on the tab names to switch between them. to see all the records that you have entered. You can see your form name displayed in the navigation pane on the left.button on the form. The form will be displayed. Framing it correctly will give you the most accurate information. Now switch to Design View by selecting “View” in the “Views” group on the “Home” tab. Let us learn to modify the design of the form we created. Click on the field displaying the photo of the employee. the “State” and the “Gender” fields have their default values. Click on it and drag the picture to position it a little lower down in the form. For example. Now let us change the label “Photo”. You can start typing the data of the new employee as shown in the accompanying figure. you have to put questions in the form of queries. To add records.

like any other database object. click on the “Home” tab. select it. you see all the fields in the “Emp Info” table. which you have already done. you have a request from the Administrative department. To select the required fields. click “Query Wizard”. How are you going to specify this condition? You need to make some modifications in this query you have just created. Queries are used to view data in different ways. they want a list of all employees. It was very simple. Queries can be used as a source for forms and reports because they are based on tables. Using the Query Wizard: Click on the “Create” tab. Modifying a Query: There was nothing very different in this query. for a “5 Years Service Award” they want to give. The query is displayed with all the records in the table. In the lower part. “Last Name”. to know about the employees who have been in service for 5 years or more. select them one by one and click on the “>” button. the fields selected in the query are displayed. Click “OK” to display the “Simple Query Wizard” window. In the document window. But now. you can see all the fields of the table used for the query in a small window. Once you’ve saved a query. “Address”. In the “Other” group. While the query is open. Now. Click “Next”. the “Emp Info” table is already selected.Query: A query is a request for specific data in a database. In the “Available Fields” list. Creating a query in Access is very much similar to creating a table or form. “City”. at the top. “First Name”. Action query and SQL query. Here. Crosstab query. The “New Query” window is displayed with “Simple Query Wizard” selected. you can run it any time you want to take a look at the actual data that meets your specifications. Select the following fields – “Employee ID”. There are five types of queries in Access: Select query. You will find this wizard similar to the one you used to create a form. If not. analyze and even change existing data. A “Select” query retrieves the requested data from one or more tables and displays it in a query datasheet in the order you specify. Parameter query. you need to check their dates of joining the 156 | P a g e . Switch to Design View by clicking on the upper part of the “View” icon in the “Views” group. In the “Tables/Queries” list. who have been in service for at least five years. and “Phone”. accept the default name for the query or type a new one and click “Finish”. This is very interesting. The most common is the “Select” query. which you are going to use. but with selected fields. Access saves each query in your database.

“First Name”. You will be creating this address report based on the “Emp Info” table.organization. Each query that you create has an underlying SQL statement. click “Report Wizard”. In the “Reports” group. which you are not going to need. If you do not see the “Date_of_Joining field in the window at the top. In the next “Report Wizard” window. click the Office Button and select “Save As”. It might be a simple listing of all fields or of selected fields based on a query. Saving the query: You now need to save this modified query. Click “Next”. Now close the query tab. double-click on this field. click on the “Run” icon in the “Results” group on the “Design” tab. Using the Report Wizard: Click on the “Create” tab. “Pin code”. In the Tables/Queries list. In the criteria row. type the condition as ‘>= 1/1/2001 AND < 1/1/2002’ and press “Enter”. Now close the query tab. Type the name ‘5 Year Service’ in the “Save As” window. SQL (Structured Query Language) is a powerful database language used in queries. 157 | P a g e . You must now specify a criterion for this field. Confirm that the “As” box has “Query” displayed in it. A report is a printed output generated from tables and queries. For this. Specifying criteria: You need the list of employees who have been in service for at least five years. there is an option for grouping fields. Access adds the “#” signs before and after the dates to identify the values in the expression as dates. select “Table: Emp Info”. You will do this with the help of the “Report Wizard” that is provided by Access. “Address”. you need to modify the query by adding the “Date_of_Joining” field and specifying criteria. It is displayed in the first blank box after the “Phone” field. as you did while selecting fields for the query. As soon as you press “Enter”. The “Report Wizard” window is displayed. “State”. Creating Reports There is another request from the Administrative department – they need an address report of all employees sorted by name. and “Phone” one by one by clicking on the “>” button. “City”. For this. Running a query: To see the result of this query. Select fields “Last Name”. Then. so click “Next”. which you can view or edit by selecting “View → SQL View” in the “Views” group on the “Home” tab. Click “OK”. scroll down a bit. The records matching your criteria are displayed.

drag the right edge of the box to a suitable size. In the next window. The next window lets you select the style of the report. A box appears around it.The next “Report Wizard” window asks for the sort order of the records to be printed in the report. click on “Preview the report” and click “Finish”. Similarly. the headings and contents of some fields are not displayed completely. If you see that a heading is not displayed completely. The next window is the last step of the wizard. tabular or justified and the page can be oriented either as a portrait or a landscape. You may find that the “State” field is too big for its two character contents. You need to make some changes. When the mouse pointer appears as a two-headed arrow. the first thing you need to do is to exchange the order of the fields “First Name” and “Last Name”. When the mouse pointer appears as a four-headed arrow. close the report tab by clicking on the “X” shaped icon at the right end. select “Last Name” as the first field and “First Name” as the second field and click “Next”. You can have the fields laid out as either columnar. Then drag the right edge or lower edge of the box that appears to a suitable position. Now. You can see that the complete column is shifted to the right. 158 | P a g e . click on it. where the data is not displayed completely. You can reduce its size and make space for the other fields. You can sort the records by up to four fields in either ascending or descending order. Click on the heading “Last Name”. Modifying Report Layout Modifying report layout: Double-click on the report name in the Navigation Pane. “Adjust the field width so all fields fit on a page” and click “Next”. click on it. Switch to Layout View by selecting “View → Layout View” in the “Views” group. you are asked about the layout of the fields and the page. But if you see the report properly. you need to modify the report layout. Here enter the report title as “Employee Address List”. The preview of the report is displayed with the title and footer and all the records arranged in the specified sort order. So. You need the address list of employees in ascending order of “Last Name” and within that in ascending order of the “First Name”. For now. Select a suitable one from the list and click on “Next”. Click in the check box that says. To make these changes. drag to the right to position it after the “First Name” column.

Click “Close Print Preview” to close the preview.To see the preview. Click on the “Create” tab. you are asked about the layout of the fields and the page. select View → Print Preview” in the “Views” group. select “Last Name” as the first field and “First Name” as the second field and click “Next”. all the records of employees who have worked for five years. The “Report Wizard” window is displayed. The “Print” window is displayed. you have to follow all the same steps you performed to create a report from the table. Select the query “5 years service” from the Table/Query list. Save the report either by using the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+S” or by clicking “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar. tabular or justified and the page can be oriented either as a portrait or a landscape. The next window lets you select the style of the report. To create a report from a query. In the next window. To create this report. The difference is that. Click the Office Button and select “Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. in ascending order of the “First Name”. Add all fields in the “Available Fields” list by clicking on the “>>” button and click “Next”. In the “Reports” group. 159 | P a g e . Click “OK”. “Adjust the field width so all fields fit on a page” and click “Next”. instead of the table. you may move and resize the fields again as required. Check if all the data contents are visible on the page. Creating a Report from a Query There is a requirement to print a report of all those employees who were listed for the five years service award. Here give a report title as “5 Year Service Awards”. You need the report in ascending order of the “Last Name” and within that. click “Report Wizard”. Then close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. Printing a Report Printing a report: The report is now ready to be printed. You can have the fields laid out as either columnar. in the “Report Wizard”. Select the “Print Range” by clicking on “Pages From” and typing ‘1’ to ‘1’. you will select the query. Select a suitable one from the list and click “Next”. Click “Next” once again. Click in the check box that says. Select the printer from the “Name” list. The next window is the last step of the wizard. click on “Preview the report” and click “Finish”. Close the preview. you can make use of the query you created to list those employees. So. If they are still not properly visible. The next “Report Wizard” window asks for the sort order of the records to be printed in the report. You can see in the preview.

Close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. It is very important that you remember your password. Using a password: Open the password protected database as you open any other database. Your database is now open. In the “Unset Database Password” window. open the database in “Exclusive” mode. type your password in the “Password” box. 160 | P a g e . type your password and click “OK”. Close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. Store the password in a secure place from where you can recover it in case you forget it. The steps to create and apply a password to your database are as follows. First. Click the database file and then click the arrow next to the “Open” button and select “Open Exclusive”. The “Password Required” window appears. and then re-type it in the “Verify” box. In the “Database Tools” group. Click the “Database Tools” tab. For this. Now click “OK”. If you forget your password. Close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. PERSONAL INFORMATION MANAGER Getting started with Outlook Introduction to Microsoft Outlook Your cherished dream has come true. So you do not have to worry anymore about sharing your Personal Computer. schedules etc. click “Decrypt Database”.Protecting the Database Using Passwords Assigning a password: Microsoft Office Access 2007 provides a number of features that can help make your data more secure. One of the first things you can do in this direction is to use a password for accessing your database. navigate to the location of your database. In the “Database Tools” group. Click the “Database Tools” tab. You want to use tools to organize your contacts. click on the Office Button and select “Open”. Enter your password and click “OK”. Enter your password in the “Password Required” window and click “OK”. it cannot be retrieved. In the “Set Database Password” window. but away from access by unauthorized people. click “Encrypt with Password”. Removing a password: Open the database in Exclusive mode. your company has decided to give laptops to each of its key employees. Your database can now be accessed without a password the next time it is opened. You may exit Access by clicking on the Office Button and then clicking the “Exit Access” button. In the “Open” window. You have decided to use this opportunity to its maximum potential and are eager to personalize your work environment.

Calendar. The “Day” view. events and meetings. Select the month from the calendar by using the arrows. tasks and important mail enabling you to prioritize your work. The calendar for the current month is displayed in the category specific tools window. The upper portion of the navigation pane contains “Category specific tools” for working with different types of information. upcoming appointments. click the arrow at the top. It can be used to organize and track all types of information. The bottom portion contains Category buttons for different tasks. If the To-Do Bar is not visible at any time. This enables you to see a minimized view of the To-Do Bar at all times. to provide you with a larger work area. Select the day. The “Untitled Appointment” window is displayed. The Navigation Pane can be minimized into a vertical button bar. and storing addresses. By default an appointment is allotted half an hour. To begin with. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Outlook 2007”. we shall take a look at the calendar. Using Calendar When you open Microsoft Outlook 2007. and Contacts etc. Let us create an Appointment. Creating an Appointment Your immediate concern is to record all your important appointments in the calendar. Select the time slot of 6 pm for the appointment in the information viewer of the Outlook window.With Microsoft Office Outlook 2007. To minimize the expanded Navigation Pane. you have an integrated solution for managing your time and information. Let us create another appointment and enter more details. you will see a navigation pane on the left which contains categories such as Mail. The To-Do Bar on the right gives you a consolidated view of your calendar. In the time slot type ‘Meeting with the client’. To expand the minimized Navigation Pane. Some of the important tasks that can be performed using Microsoft Outlook are maintaining a personal calendar of appointments. 161 | P a g e . Press “Enter”. having today’s date and time divisions. Click the “New” button on the Standard toolbar. Starting Microsoft Outlook: To start the Microsoft Outlook application. Click the button corresponding to “Calendar” in the navigation pane. is displayed in the information viewer on the right. Your appointment has now been recorded. click “View → To-Do Bar → Minimized”. click the arrow in the upper corner.

You can specify details of the appointment in the “Appointment Recurrence” window. such an entry is called an Event. In the “Untitled . The current setting is “Weekly”. Under “Appointment time” you may set the start and end time of the appointment. weekly. Click “OK”. The current setting is “No end date”. Select “Actions → New Recurring Appointment”. Let us keep this setting unchanged. You can see that one hour has been allotted for this appointment. Now click the Monday of the next week and the following week on the calendar.Appointment” window type ‘Weekly meeting . In the “Show As” field. Under “Recurrence pattern” you may specify the days in the week when the appointment is going to occur and also if it is going to occur daily. type your notes. Creating an event There is a two day exhibition for Product Promotions to be held in two weeks. In the text box below. On the “Appointment” tab. in the “Actions” group. You may click the To-Do Bar to expand it and view details.Type ‘Meeting with maintenance people’ as the “Subject”. You may keep this setting. you may select the way in which you want your appointment to appear in the Calendar.Accounts Manager’ as the “Subject” and ‘Accounts office’ as the “Location”. Click the 9 am time slot. Creating a recurring appointment There are some meetings which take place on a regular basis. Select the end time “10:30 AM” from the drop-down list. Click on Monday in the next week in the left panel. in the “Options” group. such as meetings with your Accounts Manager. Under “Range of recurrence” you may specify the time frame for your recurring appointment. Since it will last for at least 24 hours. say ‘Take along the maintenance log file & purchase bills’. Select “Out of Office”. Click on the “Today” tab in the Standard toolbar. Select 7 pm as the “End time” from the drop-down list. The “Out of Office” indicator is displayed at the left corner. You can also see the appointment on the To-Do Bar at the right. select the amount of time in the “Reminder” list before the appointment when you want the reminder to appear. To turn a reminder off. You may wish to be reminded about your appointment by a bell. monthly or yearly. select “None”. You can see that the recurring appointment has been recorded. “Recur every 1 week on Monday”. Click it once again to return to the minimized form. Press the tab key and type ‘Factory Premises’ as the “Location”. 162 | P a g e . Click on “Save & Close” on the “Recurring Appointment” tab. Now click on the “Save & Close” button in the “Actions” group.

Creating a task list 163 | P a g e . Set the “Reminder” to 2 days in the “Options” group” of the “Event” tab. This means that you may click on the related button to see the appointments on your calendar as you wish.Click on the Monday of two weeks later. Changing the calendar view By default. Rightclick in any of the time slots and select “New All Day Event”. in the date navigator window. select “Out of Office” from the “Show As” list. Click on the “Save & Close” button in the “Actions” group. Select “View → Current view”. you can view your calendar on Day/Week/Month basis. To mark the calendar to show that you will be out of office during these days. In addition. you can view your calendar based on different criteria. Type ‘Product Promotion Exhibition’ as the “Subject”. Select the next day from the “End time” drop-down menu. Type ‘International Trade Center’ as the “Location”.

Now enter the category name as “Time & Expenses” and click “OK”. they are displayed. Click in the “Click here to add a new Task” text box. select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. Press “Enter”. choose the option “In Progress”. Outlook has certain predefined categories. Outlook 2007 offers you Color categories that allow you to group information in a way that allows you to find and track all information most effectively. The “Task” window is displayed. Meeting with the Accounts Department. Type ‘Create presentation displays for Product Promotion’. Creating a new category: Click “New” in the “Color Categories” window. To set up your categories. due date. 164 | P a g e . Enter today’s date as the “Start date”. select “Actions → Categorize → All Categories”. Setting up Categories A category is a descriptive keyword or phrase to which you can assign related items. Set the “% Complete” to 25%. Select the Yellow Category and click “Rename”. You may make changes as per your requirements. For your weekly meetings with your assistants. Click “OK” Renaming a category: You may rename an existing color category to make it more meaningful. It includes different columns for priority. Create the following tasks in a similar way: 1. Updating the status of a task: Double-click on a task’s “Subject”. Meeting at the Yoga Club. Click in the “Due Date” text box and select a date from the calendar. Meeting with the maintenance staff. Click on “Save & Close”. status. if necessary. 2. Click on the “Tasks” button in the Navigation Pane. To change the view to a detailed list. To change the view to a simple list. From the “Status” drop-down menu. 3. This view shows detailed information about each task. select “View → Current View → Simple List”. A task can occur only once or happen on a recurring basis. Let us enter the category name as “Personal”. Your task has now been recorded. If there are any tasks that have been entered previously. such as a weekly report. subject. you have several tasks that need to be completed.A task is a personal work related action item. percentage complete and categories. From the “Priority” drop-down menu choose the option “High”.

each task will be represented by a task symbol. The next time you click. click on the column heading “Categories”. they are sorted in descending order. From the available categories list. For example. select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. To change the view to “Task Timeline”. You can now see that this task appears crossed out with “% Complete” as 100%. right-click in the “Categories” column. Clicking in a column heading other than “Task Subject” sorts the list according to that column. Now the task has been assigned to the “Personal” category. 165 | P a g e . The subject of the task is also displayed. You may click on the “Delete” icon on the Standard toolbar to delete a completed task from the list.Categorizing tasks: Select the task “Meeting at the Yoga Club” from the list. From the drop-down list. You may sort your tasks according to Subject by selecting “View → Arrange By → Subject”. Now to return to the “Detailed list” view. To switch to the “Detailed List” view. you might want to sort your tasks by Status or Due Date. you can see this column in the “Detailed List” view. Meeting with the maintenance staff – Orange Category You can use the same categorization techniques for other Outlook item like appointments and mails. You may also sort tasks by using the “Arrange By” option from the View menu. In this view. select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. Similarly. Select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. For example. Meeting with the Accounts Department – Blue Category 2. In the “Detailed list” view. select “View → Current View → Task Timeline”. To update the status of the task. Updating the task status You can update the status of the task at any time and specify the status and percentage completed. Using a task timeline In the Tasks Timeline view. Sorting tasks Sorting tasks is the process of rearranging items in ascending or descending order. You see that the tasks are sorted in ascending order by Categories. Click in the “Status” column next to a task. the “Status” column must be visible. select “Personal”. Scroll the time line window to view all the tasks. the tasks are arranged according to their due dates. To assign a category to this task. assign the following categories to the tasks as follows: 1. select “Completed” and press “Enter”.

the Print style. The “Print style” section specifies the format in which you want to print your task list. Confirm that the “Notes” view is set to “Icons”. Select “View → Current View → Active Appointments”. Click “OK”. Using the Address Book What is an Address Book in Outlook The Address Book is an electronic book. select the appropriate printer for your system from the “Name” drop-down list. Similarly. Let us make some changes. Type the required message and then close the window. which includes detailed information of all the people with whom you communicate. Creating Notes The “Notes” tool is used to create a reminder for yourself. To display the preview in actual size. click on the “Print” button in the preview window. The “Copies” section allows you to enter the number of pages and copies. to print the appointments. Now. Click on the “Page Setup” button. Click on the “Preview” button. Click on the “New” icon on the Standard toolbar. If necessary. click on the “Actual Size” icon in the toolbar. Select “File → Print”. Before printing it is always a good idea to take a preview of the document you want to print. Print range and Copies. A blank yellow colored note window is displayed. Notes are an electronic version of paper notes that you use to jot down quick reminders. The “Print” window is displayed. Let us assume that you need to create a note to remind you to send an email message for an event. “Table” or “Memo”. The “Print range” section allows you to specify the rows in the table that are to be printed. You can reopen the note and make changes to it by double-clicking on it. You can choose to enter 166 | P a g e . Select and delete the user name from the left footer box. If everything is OK. Type your name in the left header text box. select “Calendar” in the Navigation pane. select “File → Print”. Here two styles are available. Click on the “Header/Footer” tab. Click the button corresponding to “Notes” in the navigation pane. Here you need to specify details about the Printer. Click “OK” in the “Print” window.Printing tasks and calendar items Many times you may need to print out your task list and appointment calendar so that it is available during a meeting.

Choose “Personal Folder File (. Click on the “Browse” button. Type ‘Contacts’ in the “File name” text box. “Phone List”. Choose “Export to a file”. you can enter the basic contact information such as “Full Name”. birth-dates and anniversaries. The names are automatically listed in ascending alphabetical order. “By Category”. you can see the “General” button of the “Show” group highlighted. “Contacts” has several views like “Business Cards”. This wizard guides you through the complete procedure. “Addresses”.different types of information such as business and home address. Click “OK”. “Company”. You may also delete a contact by selecting “Edit → Delete” or pressing the “Delete” key after selecting the contact. By doubleclicking on the contact you may edit the information. The “Import and Export Wizard” window is displayed. Like other outlook tools. nick names. Click “Next”. Exporting contacts: Select “File → Import and Export”. Here. Click “Next”. The “Untitled . You can view the entire contact list in the “Business Cards” format.pst)” from the “Create a file of type” list box. If you want to delete a particular contact from the contacts list. Several of the fields include drop-down lists that allow you to further customize the information for each contact.Contact” window is displayed. 167 | P a g e . click “Contacts” in the navigation pane. Specify the location where you wish to save the exported file in the “Open Personal Folders” window. Enter the required information in the appropriate fields. phone numbers. On the “Contact” tab. email addresses. “Address Cards”. “Phone numbers” etc. Click on the "Save & Close" button in the “Actions” group. “By Company” and others. This is called “Exporting”. right-click on the contact and select “Delete”. Click “Next”. This file can then be used to copy details of your contacts to another location or another computer. Adding and Removing Contacts To add a contact. Click the “New” button from the Standard toolbar. Importing & Exporting Contacts You may need to save your contacts to a file so that they are available for use in the future. This is called “Importing”. Select the “Contacts” folder from the “Select the folder to export from” list. By referring to your address book you can contact or communicate quickly with any individual from the contact list.

The new contacts will be incorporated into the existing list. select the 168 | P a g e . Choose “Personal Folder File (. Click on the “Browse” button. In the “Create Microsoft Personal Folders” window. On the “Distribution List” tab. Searching Address Books You can search for an address and the information associated with it in the address book. choose “Import from another program or file”. This list is saved with a name. Under “Address Book”.Now click “Finish”. and then select the appropriate name. select “File → New → Distribution List”. In the “Find a contact” box on the Standard toolbar. Now click “Finish”. in the “Members” group. select the address book that contains the e-mail addresses you want in your distribution list. In the “Name” field. Select the “Contacts” folder from the “Select the folder to import from” list. type the name of the contact you want to find and press “Enter”. Creating and editing mailing lists A mailing list is a collection of contacts. To quickly open a contact you have previously searched for. Select the file from the appropriate location and click “Open”. The contacts you entered are now saved in a file and will be available when you want to import them later. Select the appropriate option and click “Next”. Creating a mailing list: To create a mailing list. click “OK”.pst)” from the “Select file type to import from” list. You may add contacts from different address books into your list. You can enter a partial name (such as “Hyosuke”). you may select from three possibilities with regards to duplicates. e-mail address and company name. It provides an easy way to send messages to a group of people. Importing contacts: Select “File → Import and Export”. In the list below. first or last name. Outlook will search all the available address books. Click “Next”. Since there is a possibility that your imported file may contain contacts which you already have. click the arrow in the “Find a contact” drop-down list. click “Select Members”. type a name for the mailing list. In the “Import and Export Wizard” window. You can also enter new contacts. Click “Next”.

You may create your mails offline and connect to the Internet only when you are ready to send them. all incoming mail can be stored on your hard disk. click “Mail” in the navigation pane.name. Additionally. Select “Tools → Account Settings”. Using Outlook for E-Mailing Setting up a Mail Account A very important feature of Outlook is sending and receiving e-mail. For this. For this. Click the “New” button on the Standard toolbar. Now click “OK”. You can now make the changes you require. You can see the name of the mailing list in the message window. You may disconnect from the Net and read your mails at leisure. Click on “To” to display the “Select Names” window. ensure that “Internet E-Mail” is selected and then click “Next”. Adding other members: You may also add members that do not exist in your address books to your mailing list. The mailing list is saved in your “Contacts” folder by the name you give it. Let us delete a member from this list. Under “Server Information”. On the “E-mail” tab. You are holidaying in Malaysia and you want to send an e-mail to your friends back home. under “User Information”. This mail can then be sent to all members of the list after completing other details. You first need to set up your mail account. POP3 is generally used. and then click “OK”. Enter details in the “Add New Member” window and click “OK”. Do this for each person you want to add to the distribution list. Now click “Save & Close” in the “Actions” group. In the “Internet E-mail Settings” screen. select Account type. Click “Mail” in the navigation pane. Then click on the name of the mailing list and after that click “To”. On the “Auto Account Setup” screen. double-click on the list name in the “Contacts” folder. enter your name and email address. either POP3 or IMAP depending on the type of mailbox you use. Editing a Mailing List: To make changes to your mailing list. click “Add New” in the “Members” group in the “Distribution List” window. Creating Mails: To create a mail to send to all members of a mailing list. The “Untitled Message” window is displayed. simply click “Remove” in the “Members” group. check the box beside “Manually configure server settings or additional server types” and click “Next”. and then click “Members”. Under “Choose E-mail Service”. The “Distribution List” window is displayed. Now click “Save & Close”. 169 | P a g e . click “New”.

Attachments do not form part of your e-mail message but they can be opened and viewed or edited by the e-mail recipient. If you add a recipients name using “Bcc”. Now click “Close”. You can attach all sorts of files to an e-mail. word processor documents. Ensure that the “Remember password” box is checked. click on the Paperclip Icon in the “Include” group. “Cc” stands for carbon copy and “Bcc” stands for blind carbon copy. the name is not visible to other recipients of the message. You may add multiple names to any of the fields. In the “Untitled Message” window. enter your email address in the “User Name” field and the password for that account. The list of files attached is 170 | P a g e . check the box “My outgoing server (SMTP) requires authentication” and click “OK”. even sound recordings and graphic images. Under “Logon Information”. Now. They can be compared to a covering letter sent with a parcel or a birthday card sent along with a present. Creating an E-mail Message Creating a Mail message: This is also known as “Composing” a mail. Use the “Cc ->” and “Bcc ->” buttons in the same way for entering the addresses to which you wish to send copies to. Using Attachments Attachments are separate files that are sent along with your e-mail message. Select the appropriate “Address Book”. While composing the message. including spreadsheets.Enter the respective server names provided by your Internet Service Provider (ISP) in the “Incoming mail server” and “Outgoing mail server (SMTP)” fields. Attaching a file: You now want to send some digital pictures of Malaysia along with your message. the subject and the content of the mail. click “Insert”. To send an e-mail. you must enter details such as the e-mail address of the recipient. You may select multiple files by holding down the “Ctrl” key while you click each file. database files. type your message. You may also directly type in e-mail addresses not included in your address book. Then click on a name from the list to whom you wish to send the mail and click the “To ->” button. This brings up the “Select Names” window. Now enter the subject and in the large white box below the subject field. On the “Outgoing Server” tab. Click the arrow next to the "New" button on the Standard toolbar and select "Mail Message". Click “Next”. Click the “More Settings” button. Click “OK”. All files in a folder can also be selected by clicking “Organize” on the toolbar and then clicking “Select All”. click on the "To:" button. Specify the location and name of the picture files on your computer that you would like to attach. and then click “Finish” on the “Congratulations!” screen.

click the “Message” button. When you receive an attachment in a message. Sending Mail After you have finished entering all information. Click on it to see a list of all mails received in the center panel. If you are not connected to the Internet. She has also written about submission dates for your projects. right click on the attachment name and select “Open”. Drafts: You may create a draft of a mail and send it at a later stage. You may edit your message at any time by clicking on the “Drafts” folder in the left panel and then double-clicking on the related message in the right panel. click the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. For this. then you must have the related software installed in order to see it. mails from the Outbox are sent to the intended recipients. For example. Here you can see details such as the sender’s name and the subject of the mail. click on the mail whose content you wish to see. if you have received a picture as an e-mail attachment. click the “Send” button. One of your friends has written to you that she has paid your college fees since you are out of town. simply click the attachment In the Reading Pane. your mail is stored in the “Outbox”. all mails that you have received are deposited in your “Inbox”. She has attached a picture of her visit to Malaysia last year. You can now read the message displayed in the right panel which is the Reading Pane. For this. Receiving Mail Receiving Mail: By default. You may also click the “Send/Receive” button when connected to send mails which are in the Outbox. You can see this folder in the left panel. It is very important to know how to view them. when you start Microsoft Outlook. create a mail as described earlier. Your mail is now stored in the “Drafts” folder. You may remove incorrect file attachments by clicking them and pressing the “Delete” key. You may also use the “Send/Receive” button to send and receive mail. To return to the message body.displayed just below the Subject Field. Instead of clicking the “Send” button. you can preview it. In order to view an attached file. A copy of all sent messages will be kept in your “Sent Items” folder. the recipient needs to have a copy of the software application that was used to create the attachment initially. Reading Mail: In the center panel. To open an attachment of a mail in your Inbox. When you connect. 171 | P a g e . and want to quickly see what the attachment contains without opening it. Viewing and Saving an Attachment Viewing an attachment: You may also receive attachments from your friend like the ones you sent.

the original mail that you had received is appended at the end. Saving Messages: To save a mail that you have received to another place on your hard disk. Forwarding a mail: You might want to convey the information related to the project submission dates to another friend. Now. Replying to and Forwarding a Mail Replying to a mail: You now want to thank your friend for paying your fees. A new mail message window is displayed with the original mail content and the subject. Now send it like any other mail. This may be changed if required. enter the e-mail address of the person you wish to send it to in the “To:” field. A new mail message window is displayed. In the “Save As” window. You may make any changes you require. You can also see the original sender’s name and e-mail address as well as the date and time it was originally received. Now click the “Reply” button. Enter your mail content and send it like any other mail. Printing Messages: To print a mail. subject. The “Subject” field displays the words “FW:” followed by the original subject. The message will be deleted and moved to your “Deleted Items” folder. Specify the location to save the file and then click “Save”. sender’s name etc. 172 | P a g e . Handling mails in the Inbox Sorting Mails: You may sort the mails in your Inbox by selecting a suitable option by clicking on the “Arranged By:” button in the center panel. For this. Also. click on the Inbox folder and then click on the mail in the center panel. You may want to empty the Deleted Items folder to make free space for additional storage. click on it and select “File → Save As” from the menu bar. click on the mail from the Inbox and then click the “Forward” button. You may click on the box to the right of the “Arranged By:” field to reverse the sort order. You can see that the recipients e-mail address and subject with the words “RE:” before it are already filled in. You may also make any other changes to the message that you wish. click on it and then click on the “Print” button on the Standard toolbar. Let us edit the content to remove the statement regarding the payment of fees. To reply to her mail. click on it and then click on the “Delete” button on the Standard toolbar. Deleting Messages: To delete a mail. You may sort your mails by date received. right click on the attachment name and select “Save As”. For this. right-click on the folder name and select “Empty Deleted Items Folder” and then click “Yes” in the window that comes up. You may forward the mail that you have received. enter details regarding the location where you wish to save the mail and click “Save”.Saving an attachment: To save an attachment of a mail in your Inbox.

On CD-RW disks. Windows Vista comes with software that will burn your CDs for you. in your Inbox. You can use the same search techniques to find any Outlook item.also known as CD-RW On CD-R disks. It is replaced by a tick and is removed from the To-Do Bar. You can make your search more focused by clicking the “Expand the Query Builder” arrow. Click on the flag symbol next to an important mail. although you may add files over multiple sessions until the total space has been used. Let us use it to find a message in your Inbox. and even in the Calendar. You can use a flag to quickly create a follow-up item that can be tracked in the To-Do Bar. the space can only be used once.Using Instant Search The “Instant Search” feature helps you to quickly find items in Microsoft Office Outlook 2007. Let us flag a mail in the Inbox. you can click the flag once again.also known as CD-R 2) Rewriteable CDs . All flagged mail items get added to the to-do bar making it easy for you to keep track of the tasks and mail that you need to reply to or act upon. There are two types of CDs: 1) Recordable CDs . Simply type a word in the search box. such as Mail. The reasons for burning a CD might be to create a backup of your files or simply to backup frequently used CDs. the related mail is displayed. To display more search fields in the Query Builder. Type your search text in the From. Calendar and Contacts. You can see that it gets added in the To-Do Bar. 173 | P a g e . click “Add Criteria”. A burned CD is a CD that has been written by using a process that involves using a device called a “CD Writer” or “CD Burner” to burn indentations into the CD. To burn a CD you need both a CD burner and CD burning software. The Instant Search pane is always available in all of your Outlook views. Body. or To fields. When you have taken the necessary action. Subject. and then select the search fields you want from the list. Using Flags Flags are very useful throughout Outlook. MAKING IT WORK CD Writing What is CD Writing? FOR YOU CD Writing is also known as “Burning of a CD”. The moment a match is found.

perform the following steps: Insert a writeable CD into your computers CD Writer. This is a convenient format if you need to copy a few files at a time. Open the folder that contains the files you want to write to the CD in another window. Re-size and arrange the windows in such a way that both the “Source Drive” and the “Destination Drive” are visible on the screen. enter a name for this disc and then click “Show formatting options”. they are copied automatically to the disc. You may delete individual files or reformat the disc to create additional disc space when you use a rewriteable disc. and click “Next”. and then drag the files into the empty disc folder. The files are copied to a temporary folder on your hard drive. This is the “Source Drive”. You may change the files in this folder if you wish. Let us delete one of the files. In the “Burn a disc” window. However. 174 | P a g e . an empty disc folder opens. Using the Mastered format: To write a CD using the Mastered format. enter a name for this disc. click “Burn files to disc”. CD-RW disks can only be used on CD-RW drives and not on ordinary CD-ROM read-only drives. Click “Mastered” and then click “Next”. perform the following steps: Insert a writeable CD into your computers CD Writer. In the window that appears. As you drag files into the disc folder. Live File System discs enable you to copy individual files immediately to a disc. click “Burn files to disc”. Windows burns discs in the Live File System format. This format is advisable if you need to burn a large collection of files. In the window that appears. Mastered discs enable you to burn multiple files to a disc at one time. Now drag the files to be copied into the empty disc folder. Before you can copy files to a CD. When the formatting is complete. You may format a CD using either the “Live File System” or “Mastered” format. In the “Burn a disc” window. Open the folder that contains the files you want to burn. Burning a CD using Windows Vista Using the Live File System format: To write a CD using the Live File System format. such as a music CD. Creating such a disk requires as much free space on your hard disk as the capacity of the disc you are burning. CD-RW disks are also more expensive. It takes several minutes for the disc to be formatted in the Live File System format.the space can be erased and re-used many times. An empty disc folder opens. This is the “Destination Drive”. By default. the disc must first be prepared using a process called formatting.

A computer virus behaves in a way similar to a biological virus. A virus can infect different parts of the computer’s operating and file system. whereas viruses infect or corrupt files on a targeted computer. a worm is self-contained and does not need to be part of another program to spread itself. Worms harm the network and add to network traffic. another executable program.After you are sure about the files to be written to the CD. as their malicious activities are mostly confined within the target computer itself. In the window that is displayed. press the “Delete” key. To select more than one file. To delete a specific file on a disk. Now. A virus attaches itself to. Virus Protection What is a Computer Virus? A computer virus is a self-replicating computer program that spreads by inserting copies of itself into other executable code or documents. for example. The selected files are copied to the disc. You may write the same files to another CD by checking the box against “Yes. click “Burn to disc”. “Spyware” is software designed to take control of another computer system without the consent of the owner. Trojan horses and other such software. To erase all files on a disc. and the infected file. click “Next”. When the disc burning is complete. While viruses can be intentionally destructive. Viruses are one of the several types of malicious software. you can delete one or more files to make more room on the disc. The term “virus” is often extended to refer to worms. many other viruses are fairly benign or merely annoying. Now. A “Trojan Horse” is a malicious program that is disguised as or embedded within legitimate software. on the toolbar. Click “Finish” when the process is complete. click “Erase this disc”. COM or EXE file. using someone else’s credit card. If you use the Live File System format. the disc burner tray will open and you can remove the disc. “Adware” is a software package that 175 | P a g e . burn these files to another disc”. However. An example of an executable file is a program. The insertion of a virus into the program is termed as an "infection". on the toolbar. An “Identity Theft” is a harmful act by deliberately impersonating a person. hold down the “Ctrl” key while you click the files you want. which spreads by inserting itself into living cells. is called a "host". or executable code that is not part of a file. click on the file name. click “Next” Erasing a CD A rewriteable CD may be erased and written many times. for example. Viruses generally do not affect network performance. by destroying data. and becomes part of.

Once installed. Antivirus software consists of computer programs that attempt to identify and eliminate computer viruses and other malicious software. The second is identifying suspicious behavior from any computer program which might indicate infection. Some of the popular antivirus packages are Norton Antivirus. You are alerted when any possible threat is detected. This software typically uses two different techniques to accomplish this. It controls how frequently your computer is scanned for viruses. the files on them may already be infected. Onscreen instructions guide you through the installation process. moved into a protected area where it won’t cause any more harm). 176 | P a g e . network-borne worms are more common than viruses. identity theft and adware. originally designed to protect computers from viruses. It is important to regularly scan your computer using a good anti-virus program. with an emphasis on the virus dictionary approach. Anti-virus software. AVG Antivirus and Quick Heal. Always scan floppies and CDs for viruses. MacAfee. This can be installed either by downloading from the Internet or from a disc provided by the vendor. the software is automatically activated each time you start your computer. The first step towards making your computer safe while you are on the Internet is to install an Internet security suite. Internet security suites are available to protect you against all these hazards. “VirusScan” is one of the programs included in an Internet security suite. has in turn expanded to cover worms and other threats such as spyware. It continually works to ensure your security and privacy. port monitoring and other methods. The first is scanning all files to look for known viruses matching definitions in a virus dictionary. or downloads advertising material to a computer. An infected file is either deleted or quarantined (i. You must keep your antivirus program updated by downloading the latest releases by your antivirus program vendor. When a file is checked. Today. Such analysis may include data captures. Virus Protection Are you worried that the precious data computer on your computer could be destroyed due to a virus attack? Did you know that your private e-mail could also be intercepted by unauthorized persons? It is even possible for others to gain control over your computer system. before copying data to your hard disk.automatically plays. due to the popularity of the Internet. it is compared to the profile of known viruses. displays. Most commercial antivirus software uses both of these approaches. Even if CDs are read only. Fortunately.e.

there is no download wait when streaming. you can log onto one of the music sites and download it within seconds. you can choose to purchase individual songs. prevent sensitive information from being sent over the Internet and block unwanted advertisements. after the music has finished playing. Streaming has two advantages over downloading. 177 | P a g e . Getting More from Your Computer Listening to Music You can use your computer for lots more than just computational activities. Because these music files are compressed. only to find it’s the only good song in the album.A “Personal Firewall” is a program that controls network traffic to and from a computer system. if so desired. You may also listen to music online. First. There’s nothing worse than buying a CD after you have heard a good song. To listen to music. “Privacy Service” is another program included in an Internet security suite that helps protect your privacy online. you can always copy music to a CD to free up space. you may use your Windows Media Player or download other players such as Winamp and Real Player from the Internet. A sound card and speakers (or earphones) are also required to hear audio. Second. no files are left on your computer to take up space. You may run Windows Update by connecting to the Internet and selecting “All Programs → Windows Update” from the Start menu. All done Downloading Music Rather than traveling to a store to buy a music CD. By downloading from the Internet. You can hear the music as soon as your player starts receiving the stream. buying online is fast and convenient. a large hard drive is not required to store them. However. Using Windows Update: “Windows Update” is software designed to keep your computer current and more secure by automatically downloading and installing the latest security and feature updates from Microsoft. This means you can store thousands of songs without running out of hard drive space. If you hear a great song on the radio. It allows access only to authorized users and applications. Playing video or sound in real time as it is transferred to your computer over the World Wide Web is called “Streaming”. Streaming requires a powerful computer and a fast connection since the file is not stored on your computer. You can use it to block certain Web sites. Audio files in mp3 and Windows Media Audio (WMA) format are optimized for storing music in compressed format.

While downloading music.The best way to find the music you want on the internet is to use a search engine. demodulator. Then select the channel. click the “Stop” button. specify the location on your computer in which you wish to save the video clip by clicking the “Properties” button. There are many popular sites for music lovers such as MusicSites. you will be prompted to type in a valid credit card number to pay for the music. double-click the file to play it. Most internal tuners do all the low level demodulation needed to convert a radio signal into an on-screen image using a hardware chip and do not need to use the CPU. The card contains a receiver. By downloading music. 178 | P a g e . Like TV sets. you must respect copyright laws. tuner. Size and move the television window and control box window. Once a TV tuner card has been installed. click the “TV” icon on the desktop. Many TV tuners can function as FM radios. and they could be exposing your computer to viruses. enabling the recording of television programs onto a hard disk. For this. you may view your favorite TV shows. This means that your computer can serve both as a computing device as well as a television. A Download Manager window shows the progress of the download. even while running other applications. Once downloaded. TV Tuner Card A “TV tuner card” is a computer component that allows television signals to be received by a computer. listen to a sample to make sure it’s the one you want before downloading it. If you are downloading pirated digital files. each version is designed for the radio frequencies and video formats used in each country.net and music. You may include video clips from television as part of a presentation. Most TV tuners also function as video capture cards. It can be copied on CDs or a digital MP3 player so that you can take it wherever you wish. Then click the “Record” button to start recording. You must specify the location on your computer to store the downloaded file.lycos. Some cheaper tuners cannot do much of the signal processing and rely on the systems CPU for that task. you may create a large music collection on your computer. Once a song is found.com. If it is not a free download. and an analog-to-digital converter for analog TV. you could be subject to steep fines or other penalties. Although many sites offer pirated music. spyware and other unwanted software. there are others from which you can download legal music. To stop recording. For this. You may capture a video playing in the TV window into a digital file. Broadcasts can also be digitally recorded by the computer for later replay. or distribution to other computer users.

information about flight delays.Once you have saved the video clip. There are others that provide this service free of cost as well. often for products of questionable quality. The Mozilla Thunderbird e-mail 179 | P a g e . You may add it to a Web page. These programs use a variety of approaches to identify and eliminate spam. You require Internet connectivity and an SMS service provider to be able to send an SMS from your PC to a mobile phone. messages are stored in the network and are delivered at the next available opportunity. What is Spam? E-mail. To play the video clip. some countries have anti-spam laws as part of their legal system. particularly among young people. Now in the “Media Clip” group. or from the Internet. or something similar. mail it as an attachment or include it in a presentation. Spam Blocking Software In an attempt to control spam. This unwelcome junk mail is called “spam”. you may use it in any way you like. paging. you may click on its image anytime during the presentation. SMS is used by organizations for marketing. SMS is a very popular service. Today. These are mostly related to commercial advertising. Navigate to your clip and press “OK”. A more effective approach has been the development and use of “Spam Blockers”. We often receive many unwanted e-mails. using an "SMS gateway" website. It is a globally accepted wireless service for sending messages of up to 160 alphanumeric characters between mobile subscribers and external systems such as email. Then size and move the image of the clip as required. If the phone is powered off or out of range. get-richquick schemes. This has limited impact because a lot of spam originates from other countries as well. as well as for providing value-added services such as reminders for payments. For this open the presentation file and click on the “Insert” tab. Let us insert the clip in a presentation. sports news and much more. current events. You have to register with a site in order to send SMS using the interface provided. There are numerous sites providing paid SMS services. Choose “When Clicked” in the window displayed. click the “Movie” icon. PC to Mobile: Sending SMS SMS is an abbreviation for “Short Message Service”. This service is available on digital Global System for Mobile (GSM) networks allowing text messages to be sent and received via the network operators’ message center to your mobile phone. and voice mail systems. like many other valuable technologies does have some drawbacks.

e. you need to train it to recognize unwanted messages. In the left panel. under “Local Folders”. For this select “Tools → Account Settings” from the menu. By default. you need to do three things: set up your microphone. and you can dictate text to the computer. You can verbally say commands that the computer will respond to. After reviewing your actions for several weeks. you have an alternative. Specifying Friends: You may create a “White List” i. In the left panel. under “Local Folders”. Then make a selection for the location of the Junk folder and click “OK”. Once spammers know that your e-mail address is valid. You can use your voice to control your computer. learn how to talk to your computer. Thunderbird blocks remote images in messages.program which is available for free download at “www. Creating a Junk Folder: You may choose to move new junk messages to a separate folder. Mozilla Thunderbird will become more efficient in recognizing spam and taking appropriate action. Similar messages will be marked as spam in future. click “Junk Settings”. When you have received a message in your Inbox which you consider to be spam. click “Junk Settings”. To set up your computer for Windows Speech Recognition. select “Tools → Account Settings” from the menu. If at any time you decide that the message is not spam. select it and then click the “Junk” icon on the toolbar. This ability to accept voice input is called “Speech Recognition”. An icon appears between the Sender and Date fields indicating that the message is spam. Blocking Images: Some e-mail messages contain images that let spammers know that you have received them. Thunderbird displays an alert stating that remote images have been blocked. simply select it and click the “Not Junk” icon. The spam indicator is then removed. What is Speech Recognition? Are you tired of typing lengthy documents using your keyboard? Now. a list of e-mail addresses that should never be blocked. To specify a white list. If you do want to view the remote images. Check the box against “Do not mark mail as junk if the sender is in:”. Check the box against “Move new junk messages to:”. all you need to do is click the "Show Images" or "Load Images" button that appears to the right of the alert message. Now click “OK”.com” comes with built-in spam blocking software. Training Spam Blocking Software: After you install Mozilla Thunderbird. they will continue to send mails. you need to have a microphone connected to your computer. When you receive a message with remote images. and the images in the message body are replaced with simple place-holders. Then make a selection from “Personal Address Book” or “Collected Addresses” which contains the addresses of all viewed mail messages. For this.mozilla. such as those of family and friends. 180 | P a g e .

and train your computer to understand your speech. Speech Recognition is available only in English and a few other languages. Setting up your microphone: Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Ease of Access”. Now select “Speech Recognition Options → Set up microphone” and follow the instructions in the wizard. Learning to talk to your computer: Windows comes with a speech training tutorial to teach you the commands used with Speech Recognition. To run the tutorial, click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Ease of Access”. Now select “Speech Recognition Options → Take Speech Tutorial” and follow the instructions in the tutorial. Training your computer to recognize your speech: Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Ease of Access”. Now select “Speech Recognition Options → Train your computer to better understand you” and follow the instructions in the wizard. Controlling your computer: Speech Recognition listens and responds to your spoken commands. You can use Speech Recognition to run programs and interact with Windows. There are various commands you can use with Speech Recognition such as selecting a menu option, clicking or doubleclicking an item, switching to an open program, scrolling up and down and many more. Dictating text: You can use your voice to dictate text to your computer. For example, you can dictate text to fill out online forms or dictate text to a word processing program to type a letter. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Accessories”. Now select “Ease of Access → Windows Speech Recognition”. A window appears at the top of the screen which shows you the working of the speech recognition software. To start dictating, open the program you want to use or select the text box you want to dictate text into and then begin speaking. What is Digital Video Editing? In the past, when you needed to compile movies or required professionalquality editing of home videos, you required the services of photo labs or studios. You can now manage this on your own using special software. “Digital Video Editing” is the process of editing videos on a computer using digital video editing software. The process of Digital Video Editing involves three steps. 1. Input: Captured video and audio files are sent to the system unit for processing. 2. Editing: The files are subdivided into a series of clips that can be merged to form a new file and special effects can be added.

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3. Output: The edited video is stored on hard disks or optical disks for later viewing or additional editing. Windows Movie Maker Windows Movie Maker is a feature of Windows Vista that enables you to create home movies and slide shows on your computer, complete with professional-looking titles, transitions, effects, music, and even narration. You can also use Windows Movie Maker to publish your movies and share them with your friends and family. Start the application by clicking the “Start” button and selecting “All Programs → Windows Movie Maker”. On the left is the “Tasks pane” which you can use to perform common tasks related to Digital Video Editing. Capturing Video: You may import a video from your digital video camera to your computer. First, connect your camera in playback mode to your computer. Then, from the “Import” group in the Tasks pane, click “From digital video camera” and follow the on-screen instructions. The video on the camera tape is encoded into a video file and saved to your computer’s hard disk. The “Contents pane” in the center shows clips, effects, or transitions youre working with while you create your movie. The area at the bottom where you create and edit your movie is displayed in two views, the “Storyboard” and the “Timeline”. To switch views, use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl + T”. The storyboard is the default view. You can use this to look at the sequence or ordering of the clips and easily rearrange them. This view also lets you see any video effects or video transitions that have been added. Audio clips are not displayed on the storyboard, but you can see them in the timeline view. Editing a Movie: Each movie is stored as a separate project. If you make changes to a clip, those changes are only reflected in the current project; they do not affect the source file. You can drag clips and pictures from the Contents pane to the storyboard and arrange them for your current project. To add a special effect, click on “Effects” in the Task pane and drag the effect you require to the storyboard. A transition controls how your movie plays from one video clip or picture to the next. To add a transition, click on “Transition” and drag the transition to the transition cell between two clips or pictures. The preview monitor on the right enables you to view individual clips or an entire project. By using the preview monitor, you can preview your project before publishing it as a movie. You can also drag clips to the preview monitor to play them. You can use the buttons underneath the preview monitor to play or pause a clip, or to move a clip frame-by-frame. The “Split”
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button allows you to split a clip into two parts at the point displayed in the preview monitor. Publishing a Movie: Once you movie is complete, you may create a DVD to share it with others. For this you would need a DVD writer and some special software such as Sonic MyDVD or Windows DVD Maker. Insert a recordable DVD into your DVD writer. Then, from the “Publish to” group in the Tasks pane, click “Recordable CD” and complete the steps to publish your movie. Understanding Terms and Technologies Netizens Today, the Internet is an integral part of our lives. As a powerful communications medium, the Internet offers great possibilities for social change. The term “Netizen” is now used regularly. This word has been created using the two words “Net” and “Citizen”. So a Netizen is a citizen of the world, thanks to the global connectivity that the Internet offers. A Netizen is also known as a “Cybercitizen”. Netizens physically live in one country but are in contact with much of the world via the global computer network. Virtually, they live next door to every other single netizen in the world. Geographical distances do not have much significance since everyone exists in the same virtual space - Cyberspace. The term “Netizen” indicates civic responsibility and participation. Netizens try to be conducive to the Internets use and growth. They use the Internet to engage in various intellectual and social activities such as giving and receiving viewpoints and furnishing information. Blogs The term "blog" is a contraction of "Web log." A weblog is a journal or newsletter that is frequently updated and intended for general public use. Blogs have reshaped the web and enabled millions of people to have a voice and connect with others. A typical blog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, web pages, and other related media. Most blogs are primarily textual although some focus on photographs (photoblog), videos (vlog), or audio (podcasting) and are part of a wider network of social media. A blog gives you your own voice on the web. Its a place to collect and share things that you find interesting — whether its your political views, a personal diary, or links to web sites you want to remember. Blogs often provide commentary or news on a particular subject, such as food, politics, or local news; some function as personal online diaries. Journalists often use blogs to publish breaking news, while others reveal inner thoughts through blogs. There are three main features of a blog. The first is reverse chronological order. This means that latest entries are displayed at the top. The second feature is unfiltered content. Opinions are given freely without any
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Infotainment “Infotainment” is a term applied to software that seeks to inform and entertain simultaneously. such as multimedia encyclopedias or reference disks. Infotainment or “soft news” refers to a part of the news trade that provides information in a way that is considered entertaining to its viewers. Examples include educational software for children that teach them to spell or count while playing games and CD-ROMs about machines that contain animations showing how the machines work. multimedia software. On the other hand. along with celebrity interviews and human drama stories. Many non-fiction CD-ROM titles are classified as infotainment. The third feature is comments. games which involve problem solving experiences with gentle intelligent creatures may be referred to as edutainment. Edutainment is normally used to provide education related to one or more specific subjects. legal or otherwise. Infotainment is a combination of information and entertainment. Fast moving shooting games are not edutainment. websites. It is a form of entertainment designed to educate as well as to amuse. They have videos and lessons that use edutainment as a basis for teaching in a more efficient and faster way. Other stories may deal with current trends such as a shift in political views or a change in the attitudes of teenagers. Edutainment “Edutainment” refers to educational entertainment or entertainmenteducation. Edutainment makes learning enjoyable. computer and video games. music. Comments can be made on any issue discussed on the blog or from outside. There are also blogs on edutainment that give the latest news and updates on available software. Edutainment is also used to refer to the use of elearning modules to put across concepts in an entertaining manner. It consists of an informal group of rules and ways of behaving on the Internet. It refers to a general type of broadcast program which consists of both "hard news" segments and interviews. films. travel or shopping that are not actually "news" at all. Netiquette “Netiquette” or Network etiquette is etiquette on the Internet.restrictions. Edutainment seeks to instruct by using some familiar form of entertainment such as television programs. The term “Edutainment” is used to distinguish regular computer games from more educational software. Cyberspace 184 | P a g e . etc. It attempts to minimize the dryness of regular news coverage by adding a certain amount of light-hearted or sensational style. Infotainment may include information related to topics such as health tips or gardening tips.

Respect the time and bandwidth of others: “Bandwidth” is the informationcarrying capacity of the channels that connect everyone in cyberspace. you would wasting both bandwidth and the time of the people who have to check all copies of the posting. when you accidentally post a note to a newsgroup five times.whether it involves a spelling error or asking a stupid question or giving an unnecessarily long answer. Some people in cyberspace such as system administrators have more power than others. but try not to hurt people’s feelings. Be tolerant: Everyone makes mistakes -. Technology Today Today. Follow the same standards of behavior online that you follow in real life. Reading is not what it used to be in the past. As a result. There are chances that theyre stored at the other end and may be used for purposes that you did not intend. They should not misuse this to read private email. under-the-hood diagnostics can be performed while a car is speeding along a track. always be cautious with your words. Give people the benefit of the doubt. Not knowing the rules for behaving properly online might result in unintentionally offending or misunderstanding someone. 185 | P a g e . there are loads of gadgets and new technologies that can equip you to deal with nearly every personal or business contingency. point it out politely and preferably by private email rather than in public. you may make use of a gadget to make your off-key singing sound really melodious! These are just a few of the huge advancements in technology. Be tolerant and if you do decide to inform someone of a mistake. You must remember that your communication via email or on discussion groups involves written words. Even if you are not a great singer. Let us have a look at some of the core rules of Netiquette. Respect the privacy of others: In the same way as you wouldn’t wish to snoop through your colleagues desk drawers. mechanics can know what parts needed to be replaced even before the car has come in for servicing. So. Think before writing: The most important rule relevant to e-mail marketing is not to send promotional messages to anyone who has not agreed to receive them. For example.has its own culture. naturally you wouldn’t read anyone’s email. and sound. Always try to be polite: You may stand up for yourself when you have been wronged. It now has an additional dimension. Digital versions of books are available complete with pictures. For example. There’s a limit to the amount of data that can be carried at a given moment. video clips.

as well as Web cameras for video conferencing. To create a sharing folder. VoIP allows users to not only talk but also broadcast video conferences via the Web. browse to the file you wish to share and press “Open”. click the “Show Menu” icon at the right end of the toolbar and select “File → Send a single file”. Browse for the file you would like to share and click “Open”. even if one of you is offline. Transferring files: In the “Internet” topic. click the “Add Files” button. Windows Live Messenger. Your contact is given an option to accept the file. When he does so. Sharing Files: You can share files with your contacts by using the “Sharing Folders” feature. Chatting and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). There are different instant messengers available such as Yahoo messenger. Using a Webcam: In addition to text communication. iPods. It is similar to e-mail. both you and your contact can access it. it is possibly the best-selling digital 186 | P a g e . When your contact agrees to share the file. ICQ. both you and your contact must agree to share files with each other by creating sharing folders.It is possible to easily contact and communicate with people you do not even know using technologies such as Instant Messaging (IM). both you and your contact need to have a microphone and speakers. Before you can share files with a contact. click the “Show Menu” icon at the right end of the toolbar in the Conversation window and select “Actions → Create a sharing folder”. Google talk etc. In the “Sharing Folders” window. click the “Show Menu” icon at the right end of the toolbar in the Conversation window and select “Actions → Video → Start a Video Call”. the file is transferred to him. To hold a video conference. Till date. You may also drag the files you wish to share with your contact into the “Sharing Folders” window. Instant Messaging enables you to have a conversation with another person or a group of people concurrently. the video conference begins. we learnt to send instant messages using Windows Live Messenger. For this. In the displayed window. You may also exchange files with your contacts in the course of your conversation. The difference is that you can send and receive messages as soon as they are typed. Messenger allows you to have a voice or video conversation with an online contact. Podcasting and RSS iPod: iPod is a brand of portable media players created by Apple and launched on October 23. This enables you to see and hear your contact. In the Conversation window. 2001. When he does so. You and your contact can access all the files in the shared folder at any time. Your contact is given an option to accept the video conference. If both parties are online at the same time. you can have a complete conversation.

Now select your playlist and click the “Play” button at the top to hear your music. Podcasting: “Podcasting” is a new type of online media delivery which consists of free audio and video broadcasts. iTunes stores a music library on the users computer and can play and write music from a CD. videos. click “Music” in the “Library” list and drag them to “iPod” in the left panel. Select your playlist and click the “Burn Disc” button at the bottom right. iPods.apple. They vary in size and features. Click the “Create a playlist” button at the bottom-left corner and enter a name for your playlist. or any portable music player . Creating a Custom CD: Using iTunes. Using iTunes: Let us learn how to use Apple’s iTunes software. games. other than the iPod touch. Now click on the “Burn Disc” button once more. “iPod classic” is a model which has a hard-drive. Apples “iTunes” software is used to transfer music to the devices. You can also purchase digital music files from within iTunes.audio player series in history. “iPod touch” is a model which has a touch screen. Put simply. Devices in the iPod family are designed according to the latest demands and technology. talk shows or anything else. iTunes starts automatically. can also serve as external data storage devices. First. An important feature about podcasting is that you can subscribe to a series so that it automatically downloads on to your computer and MP3 player. iPod is a music player and more. you need to connect to “www. Finding Music: Select “iTunes Store” in the left panel and follow the onscreen instructions to locate and purchase music files. it is not mandatory to possess an iPod. Click “Music” in the “Library” list in the left panel to view your songs. podcasting allows you to download files onto your computer and MP3 player which can contain music. and calendars to those iPod models that support them. Drag songs you would like to hear to your playlist. The smaller iPods like “nano” and “shuffle” use flash memory which is a non-volatile memory device. but to create a podcast or even to listen to one. You would need to have a CD Writer on your computer for this. To transfer individual music files. Connect your iPod to your computer. Uploading to a Digital Media Player: Another way to carry your favorite tunes is to upload them to your iPod using iTunes. It also transfers photos.com” and follow the on-screen instructions for downloading and installing the iTunes software. The term “Podcast” is derived from the words ‘iPod and ‘broadcast. They store music files internally. This is one of the ways in which you can take your favorite tunes with you. you may create a custom CD. 187 | P a g e . Digital media players are lightweight digital storage devices that do not require cassettes or disks. Insert a blank CD into your CD drive.

Using this technology. It creates a wireless personal area network (PAN) and provides a way to connect and exchange information between two devices over distances of about 30 feet. You can use podcasting software such as iTunes. with a short range.Podcasting enables you to compile all your favorite music. mobile phones. Today. and. It was originally developed for use by wireless devices and local networks but it is now used for Internet access as well. Wi-Fi: “Wi-Fi” is short for "Wireless Fidelity" and is a set of standards for wireless local area networks. RSS is a method of publishing content on frequently updated web sites. users of cellular phones can buy a multi-purpose phone that can serve as a portable phone and also be used to get information from a computer. for Commentaries. Bluetooth & Wi-Fi Technology “Bluetooth” is the name of a new technology that promises to change the way we use machines. Bluetooth vs. instructional and promotional material. Such software is available for free download from the Internet. homes and everywhere else. We often have a hard time trying to figure out which cable needs to go where. cheap radio chip to be plugged into computers. It is a radio standard and communications protocol primarily designed for low power consumption. Podcasts are downloaded via a feed such as RSS. using the Internet. Short for Really Simple Syndication (or Rich Site Summary). film reviews. Conceived initially by Ericsson. Juice. technologies like Podcasting empower you with a voice that can literally reach around the world. have all mobile and fixed computer devices in total co-ordination. This allows users to "subscribe" to a site so that they can quickly scan the updated headlines and then go to specific articles of interest. Bluetooth is a small. Bluetooth and Wi-Fi have slightly different applications. Sportscasts and lots more. which will then be automatically downloaded for you. printers. They may also be used in story telling for children or the visually-impaired. Podnova and Feedburner to subscribe to your favorite podcasts. Bluetooth is essentially a cable-replacement technology which tries to solve this problem. RSS Feeds: A “web feed” is a data format used for providing users with frequently updated content. etc. Some browsers also include the RSS reading functions. radio programs and news stories and you may listen to them whenever and wherever you wish. Odeo. Podcasts can be used for a number of different things such as creation of informational. We see a large number of cables in our offices. Users access headlines and see web site updates via an RSS reader which is an application that displays a short summary and provides links to the full article on the Web site. It aims to simplify data synchronization between Internet devices and other computers. 188 | P a g e . in general.

1) Install the Hardware: Install network adapters in the computers that need them by following the installation instruction manuals that come with the adapters. A home network is commonly used to share files. run the “Set up a Wireless Router or Access Point” wizard on the computer attached to the router. but with higher power resulting in a stronger connection. It covers greater distances. Popular Websites Wikipedia “Wikipedia” is one of the most popular reference sites on the Internet. It enables a faster connection. If you have more than one computer. and Internet connection that you have. 2) Set up an Internet connection: If you want to use your network to share an Internet connection. you need a cable or DSL modem and an account with an Internet service provider (ISP). multilingual encyclopedia written by contributors around the world. It consists of 195 independent language editions sponsored by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. computers are commonly found in homes. 3) Connect the computers: There are several ways to connect computers depending on the type of network adapters. It is a web-based free content. Home Networking Today. It also depends on whether or not you want to share an Internet connection among all the computers on the network. 4) Run the “Set Up a Wireless Router or Access Point” wizard: If your network is wireless. Home networks allow multiple users to access the Internet at the same time.Wi-Fi uses the same radio frequencies as Bluetooth. It offers quick understanding on various issues and current affairs. For this. Open the “Connect to the Internet” wizard and follow the instructions. you can use a home network to share files and printers and play multiplayer computer games. Installing the Network: The steps to install the network are as follows. Wikipedia has grown rapidly into one of the largest reference Web sites. you may use it to share different resources. you need to set up the connection first. Using the Network: Once your network has been installed. It is the result of the combined efforts of an online community of people interested in building a high-quality encyclopedia in a spirit of mutual respect. and offers better security than Bluetooth. printers and Internet access as well as to run multiplayer computer games. Since its creation in 2001. 189 | P a g e . but requires more expensive hardware and higher power consumption. modem.

YouTube’s phenomenal appeal lies in its simplicity and global reach. While much of the content consists of original amateur videos. YouTube YouTube is a website that specializes in publishing user-posted video clips. For example. singing. Let us click on “English”. Content is meticulously appraised and inappropriate changes are removed. This will take you directly to Wikipedias most relevant article on the entered keyword. Various people have used YouTube to achieve celebrity status by dancing. posting video resumes. If you wish to look up additional Wikipedia pages. called a “Wiki” where anybody can edit and add to an article. and press enter or click “Go”. So. Its slogan is “Broadcast Yourself” meaning that everyone is free to broadcast whatever they wish. the site was purchased one year later by Google. 190 | P a g e . click “Search” after you have entered your keyword.com. professional content is now being provided by some advertisers and media producers. It can be found at www. provided it is not potentially offensive. Anyone is welcome to add information as long as they do so within Wikipedias editing policies. There are a number of other video sharing sites but so far. Select the language of your choice to go to the Main Page. Browsing through the loads of available videos is simple and uploading your own video is almost as simple. Repeat offenders may be blocked from editing.This is a special type of website.com. Unregistered users can watch most videos on the site. you must include appropriate references. while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos. none of them have been able to match the cultural impact or enormous volumes of YouTube. Let us look for information related to the great scientist Albert Einstein. Simply click a link to view the related page. YouTube discourages users from downloading videos to their own computers. You see a page which displays links to other pages. Many people are constantly improving Wikipedia content. Started in 2005. using Wikipedia. Type “Einstein” into the box.wikipedia. This encyclopedia can be found at www. It is one of the top ten most popular websites on the Internet. On the lefthand side of the screen you can see a “search” box with two buttons under it labeled "Go" and "Search".youtube. and in other creative ways. if you add information to an article. you can research on any topic with great ease. preferring that they watch videos online. Here you will most likely find all the information you need. The visitors to this site are mostly teenagers and young adults.

Like most other social-networking sites. *****THE END**** 191 | P a g e . YouTube has been the focus of controversies related to some sensitive political and personal issues. the site has been banned in a few countries. Because of this.

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