40555881002101 ganesh1

ALL ABOUT COMPUTERS
Introduction to Computers The purpose of this course is to help you become competent with computer technology. Computer competency refers to acquiring computer-related skills. They include the effective use of popular application packages and the Internet. Today, computer competency is undoubtedly a prerequisite in all walks of life. To begin with, you must understand the impact of computers in the world today. Computers are affecting our lives is some way or the other. Airline and railway reservations, telephone and electricity bills, banking, medical diagnoses, weather forecasts… the list of services using computers is almost endless. A computer is a device that allows you to input data, process data quickly and efficiently, receive outputs and store data. Thus a computer consists of one or more input devices, output devices, storage devices and a processing unit.

1| Page

WINDOWS VISTA
WINDOWS BASICS What is an Operating System? Mac

Other Operating Systems Mac OS: “Mac OS” is the trademarked name for a series of graphical user interface-based operating systems developed by Apple Inc. for their Macintosh line of computer systems. The Macintosh user experience is credited with popularizing the graphical user interface. It is a powerful, easyto-use operating system that is popular with professional graphic designers, desktop publishers and many home users. One of the latest versions of the Macintosh operating system is “Mac OS X”, also known as “Tiger”. It provides powerful features such as “Spotlight” and “Dashboard Widgets”. Spotlight is an advanced search tool that can rapidly locate files, folders, e-mail messages, addresses and much more. Dashboard
2| Page

Widgets are specialized programs that constantly update and display information. The next version of Mac OS, “Leopard” includes “Boot Camp” which allows appropriately equipped Apple computers to use both Mac OS and Windows XP. UNIX and Linux: UNIX is a powerful multitasking operating system that was developed in 1969. It was originally designed to run on minicomputers in network environments. Now, it is also used by powerful microcomputers and Web servers. Linux is a popular version of UNIX. It was initially created as a hobby in 1991 by a graduate student, Linus Torvalds, at the University of Helsinki in Finland. He allowed free distribution of the operating system code and encouraged others to modify and further develop the code. Introduction to Windows Vista Windows Vista has a more elegant and sophisticated looked than all previous versions of Windows. The new Vista interface is great to look at, with a lot of added functionality making working in Vista a really pleasant experience -and a more secure one. Windows Aero: This is the graphical user interface for Windows Vista. Its name is a contraction of the words Authentic, Energetic, Reflective and Open. It includes new transparencies, live thumbnails, live icons and animations which are visually very appealing. Glass window borders and surfaces make the interface both professional and beautiful. Windows Sidebar: This is a long, vertical bar that is displayed on the side of your desktop. It contains mini-programs called gadgets, which offer information at a glance and provide easy access to frequently used tools. To add a gadget, right-click on the side bar and select “Add Gadget”. Now simply drag a gadget from the Gadget gallery onto the sidebar. To remove a gadget from the sidebar, move your mouse over it and click on the “X” sign next to it. Additional gadgets can also be downloaded from the Microsoft Gadgets website by clicking on “Get more gadgets online”. Search Boxes: Search boxes are prominently integrated into Windows Explorer, the Start menu, Control Panel, Windows Internet Explorer and Help. So no matter where you are, you can always search for related files, folders or information. Two types of searches are supported: Regular search, where a search is performed when you click the “Search” button, and Instant search, where the results are displayed immediately as you type.
3| Page

specify the file types that you wish to backup and click “Next”. Disk Cleanup is used to remove unnecessary files on your hard disk to free up disk space and help your computer run faster. It helps to protect you from the effects of a disk failure. You may backup your entire computer by clicking “Back up computer”. The “Backup Status and Configuration” window is displayed. Backup “Backup” is a utility program included with Windows Vista that makes a copy of all or selected files that have been saved onto a disk. To enter settings regarding where the backup is to be stored and which files are to be backed up. There are various utility programs such as: a) “Troubleshooting” or “diagnostic programs” that recognize and correct problems before they become serious. e) “File compression programs” that reduce the size of files for easy storage and transfer over the Internet. d) “Backup programs” that make copies of files to be used in the event of the originals being lost. Now click “Save settings and start backup” to begin the backup process. Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel”. Click “Continue” in the “User Account Control” window.Utilities: “Utilities” are specialized programs designed to make computing easier. To backup specific files. b) “Antivirus programs” that guard against programs that can damage your computer system. click “Back up your computer”. you may use the “Back up files” button. c) “Uninstall programs” that allow you to safely remove programs that you do not need from your hard disk. Click “Change backup settings”. Windows Vista has maintenance utilities such as “Disk Cleanup” and “Disk Defragmenter”. Under “System and Maintenance”. 4| Page . and Disk Defragmenter is used to rearrange your files so that they are not broken up. click “Change settings”. In the displayed window. Specify the location where you wish to store the backup and click “Next”. Specify how often and when you wish to take a backup.

Then select the drive you want to clean up and click “OK”. Click “Continue” in the “User Account Control” window. A track is a concentric ring. 5| Page . “Disk Cleanup” is a utility that eliminates such files and frees up valuable disk space and improves system performance. After a period of time. Verify the files and click “OK”. sectors that are adjacent to each other. The disk cleanup process begins and the selected files are removed. To specify which partitions of your hard disk you wish to defragment. click “Select volumes”.Disk Cleanup When you surf the Web.e. it is reconstructed from the fragments. It runs automatically at a scheduled time by default. The space that will be made free by the cleanup is calculated and the files suggested for cleanup are displayed. this is not always possible and the file has to be broken up or fragmented. Disk Defragmenter Files are stored and organized on a disk according to “tracks” and “sectors”. many nonessential files are saved on your hard disk. However. You may modify the scheduled time for defragmentation by clicking “Modify schedule”. In the displayed window specify whether all files or only your files are to be cleaned up. the hard disk becomes highly fragmented and results in slower operations. To start the defragmentation process. “Disk Defragmenter” is a utility program that eliminates unnecessary fragments and rearranges files and unused disk space to optimize operations. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Accessories → System Tools → Disk Defragmenter”. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Accessories → System Tools → Disk Cleanup”. In the displayed window. Each track is divided into wedge-shaped sections called sectors. into small parts that are stored wherever space is available. click “Delete Files”. Whenever a file is retrieved. click “Defragment now” and click “OK” in the displayed window. The operating system tries to save a file on a single track across contiguous sectors i.

They protect existing files from damage when new programs are installed.Utility Suites: A “Utility Program” performs a specific task. Existing viruses are removed and the virus list is automatically updated so that your system is checked for the newest viruses. “Norton Utilities” is a collection of separate troubleshooting utilities that can be used to prevent and fix problems and improve system performance. “One Button Checkup” integrates several of the separate utilities. It is a quick evaluation that looks for typical PC problems and alerts you accordingly. They also compress and make backups of programs. Norton SystemWorks The Norton SystemWorks utility suite includes the following: “Norton AntiVirus” is a collection of antivirus programs that can protect your system from different viruses. “Web CleanUp” is a collection of programs that remove unnecessary files from your computer such as temporary files. When several utility programs are combined into a single package. These protection programs are loaded into memory and run continually in the background and monitor all operations looking for actions associated with viruses. history files and cookies. as well as clean up your hard disk. When a new device such as a mouse or a printer is added 6| Page . Virus protection programs set up a barrier to viruses attempting to enter a computer system. “GoBack Personal Edition” can be used to restore system configurations. Norton SystemWorks and V Communications. Device Drivers: “Device drivers” are specialized programs designed to allow particular input or output devices to communicate with the rest of the computer system. locate lost files and repair damaged files. These suites also include programs that protect your system from dangerous programs called computer “viruses”. “Norton CleanSweep” is a collection of programs that help you to safely remove programs that you do not need. Three popular utility suites are McAfee Office. Viruses enter your computer in various ways such as opening e-mail attachments and downloading from the Internet. Buying the package is less expensive than buying the programs separately. it is known as a “Utility Suite”.

to a computer system, a new device driver must be installed before it can be used. Each time the computer system is started, the operating system loads all device drivers into memory. Windows supplies many device drivers which are automatically installed when a new device is connected. If a particular device driver is not included with the Windows systems software, it is supplied by the manufacturer of the product. When a device driver needs to be manually installed, wizards provided by Window assist you in the process. For example, the “Add Printer” wizard provides step-by-step guidance for installing a driver for a printer. Ex.: Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel”. Under “Hardware and Sound”, click “Printer”. Click the “Add a printer” button on the toolbar to display the “Add Printer” wizard. Follow the onscreen instructions to install the driver. Sometimes, when your computer behaves unpredictably, you could try reinstalling or updating your device drivers. Windows makes it easy to update your drivers using “Windows Update”. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Windows Update”. In the left pane, click “Check for updates”. To see if updated drivers are available, click “View available updates”. Windows Update will list any updated drivers that are available for devices installed in your computer. If updates are available, click the driver that you want to install, and then click “Install”. Some of the security and safety features of Windows Vista are as follows: Windows Defender: This is a software product which is a part of Windows Vista. It is designed to prevent and remove spyware. Spyware on your computer could result in information being transmitted from your computer without your knowledge. Windows Firewall: This helps in guarding your computer against many types of malicious software. User Account Control: This is an infrastructure that requires user consent before allowing any action that requires administrative privileges such as installing new software or changing system settings. Parental controls: An administrator can apply parental control restrictions to other users on the computer. Facilities include web content blocking,
7| Page

restrictions on what kind of games may be played and what programs may be executed. Exploring the Desktop Desktop When your computer is booted up and ready to use, the screen you see is called the “Desktop”. It is the background for all programs and contains the commands needed for accessing those programs. The background graphic is called “Wallpaper”. The desktop can be customized to suit individual needs.

Icon Another important graphic feature that you find on the desktop is an “Icon”. Icons are small pictures that are linked to programs. Most icons and toolbar buttons display a “Tool Tip” containing a brief description of the item when you rest the mouse pointer on it. Double-clicking on the icon runs the program or accesses the file and rightclicking accesses a menu offering options, actions and properties. Icons can be moved around on the desktop by clicking and dragging them. Vista’s live icons graphically depict the content of files stored on your computer.

Recycle Bin The "Recycle Bin" on the desktop serves as a trash can. When you delete a file or folder, it goes into the Recycle Bin where it stays until the bin is emptied. Double-clicking on the icon opens a window that shows you its contents. If you delete something you shouldn't have, you can find it in the Recycle Bin and restore it to its proper place. When the Recycle Bin is emptied, everything in it is permanently deleted.

Taskbar At the bottom of the screen, you see a long, thin bar which is called the “Taskbar”. The currently active tasks are displayed in the form of buttons on
8| Page

the taskbar. When you move your mouse over a button, a thumbnail image of the window is displayed. The taskbar has a circular button displaying the Windows logo at one end and a clock on the other. The button at the left end is the "Start" button which is used to start a program, open a document, get help, find information and change the system settings. If you click on the "Start" button, a box called a “Menu” appears. This menu contains several items. Some of them have sub-items which can be accessed by clicking on them. You may see icons on the taskbar, too. These are called "Quick Launch" icons that allow one-click access to frequently used programs. The right end of the taskbar is the “Notification” area. In the “Notification” area, to the left of the clock are several icons that indicate the tools that are automatically started when you turn on your computer and are running in the background, such as antivirus protection. This area also temporarily displays icons while a tool is in use, such as a printer when printing is in progress.

Personalize your Desktop You may set different display properties for your desktop. Right click on the desktop and select “Personalize”. Changing the Wallpaper: You can make your desktop as attractive and colorful as you wish by setting a wallpaper of your choice. For this, click on “Desktop Background”. In the “Picture Location” box, select the location of the picture. Now from the pictures displayed, make your choice by clicking on it. You may use the “Browse” button to search for a background picture from another location not in the list. Specify how you want the picture to be positioned and click on “Change background color” to select a color to fill the space not used by the picture. You may also save a picture from a Web site as your desktop background. Right-click the picture and then click “Set as Background”. Setting a Screen Saver: A screen saver is a program that displays an image, animation, or just a blank screen on a computer after no input has been received for a certain length of time. Screen savers were originally designed to prevent damages (called burn-in) to CRT screens. The screens manufactured nowadays are much more resistant to damages. To set a screen saver, click on “Screen Saver” in the “Personalization” window. Now
9| Page

items appear smaller. In the “Customize” box. In the “Custom Text” box enter some other text. Click “Preview” once again to see how the screen saver will look with the new settings. Changing the Display Settings: You may change various settings related to the display of your monitor. Changing the Display Settings: You may change various settings related to the display of your monitor. but they are larger and easier to see. you can see the recommended resolution based on the size of the monitor. say “Good Morning!”. you can see the recommended resolution based on the size of the monitor. At higher resolutions. Now select a different scheme from the “Scheme” list. simply move your mouse or press any key. You may even specify a different pointer for a specific action. fewer items fit on the screen. At higher resolutions. To change the setting options for your screen saver. Click on one and then click “Open”. In the displayed figure.select “3D Text” from the list. specify the number of minutes of idle time after which you want the screen saver to start. Changing the Mouse Pointer: You may choose a different mouse pointer and also change the way it appears during activities such as clicking and selecting. To clear the screen saver after it has started. fewer items fit on the screen. Under “Resolution”. You can see a variety of cursors displayed in the “Browse” window. you can see the way your mouse pointer will appear when different actions are performed. so more items fit on the screen. Under “Resolution”. Screen resolution refers to the clarity of the text and images on your screen. At lower resolutions. In the “Rotation Type” box. 10 | P a g e . Click on “Display Settings” in the “Personalization” window. Click on “Busy” in the “Customize” box and then click “Browse”. Click “Preview” to see how the selected screen saver will appear on your monitor. Click “OK” to save your settings. Click on “Display Settings” in the “Personalization” window. you may try using other screen savers and make changes to the related settings. In the “Wait” field. Now click “OK”. Screen resolution refers to the clarity of the text and images on your screen. Click “OK” to save your settings. select “See-saw”. items appear smaller. but they are larger and easier to see. Click on “Mouse Pointers” in the “Personalization” window. click “Settings”. In this way. so more items fit on the screen. At lower resolutions. In the displayed figure. move the slider to the resolution you want. move the slider to the resolution you want.

you may make a selection from the “Colors” box. Using Windows Vista The “Start” button is one of the most important features in Windows. you need to start application programs and access files you have created using these applications. Programs are added to the most frequently used programs list when you use them. You can add programs to the pinned items list. As you learn more about Windows Vista. Clicking an icon in the “Start” menu starts a program or accesses an item or feature immediately. Another consideration in getting the best possible display from your monitor is the screen refresh rate. or other files you want to access quickly. Windows colors and themes work best when you have your monitor set to 32-bit color. Click “Yes” in the displayed window and then click “OK”. graphics. click “OK” in the “Display Settings” window. a submenu with additional options is displayed. as it is the starting point for most features on your computer. The programs on the pinned items list remain there and are always available for you to click to start them. To save your settings. It is a convenient place to store documents. From within “Pictures”. the monitor can flicker. The first part is the “Pinned Items List”. you will find there are many ways to perform the same task. Click “Advanced Settings”. causing eye strain and headaches. Programs you have not recently used are removed from the list and replaced with the more recently used programs. To use your computer. The list of programs on the Start menu is divided into two parts. The next part is the “Most frequently used programs list”. Click the “Monitor” tab and make a selection from the “Screen refresh rate” box and click “Apply”.To get the best color display from your monitor. A refresh rate of at least 75 hertz generally produces less flicker. When you point to an item with an arrowhead symbol. You may explore the various other options in the “Personalize” window to further personalize your Windows experience. If the refresh rate is too low. Documents: “Documents” is your personal folder. Pictures: The “Pictures” folder in Windows Vista offers a variety of options for viewing and managing your digital pictures. you 11 | P a g e . Pointing to an item in the “Start” menu moves the selection cursor to the item and displays a pop-up description.

the “Control Panel” and other system applications. obtain troubleshooting information. view a slide show. and then click the arrows to increase or 12 | P a g e . month. Music: The “Music” folder is the place where Windows automatically saves all the audio clips you download from the Internet or save on your hard drive with Windows Media Player. printers. printers and modem. To change only the hour. To set the time. and year under “Date” to set the date. enter the correct time into the box under “Time”. To play a particular audio file that you have saved. Computer: This item in the “Start” menu is used to access drives. Now click the correct day. double-click the hour. receive support and more. Windows uses these settings to identify when files are created or modified. such as a printer or shared folder. printers and other hardware. you can access hardware settings for the keyboard. and other resources on the network. Control Panel: Using the Control panel. Language. Changing the date and time manually: To make changes to the system date and time. From the Control Panel. mouse. The shortcuts are created automatically whenever you open a shared network resource. click on “Change date and time”. All Programs: Clicking “All Programs” opens a list of programs currently installed on your computer. print photos or copy photos to a CD. you can access many support applications that enable you to customize the appearance and functionality of your computer system. On the “Date and Time” tab. click on the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Clock. rotate them. and Region → Date and Time”. simply double-click on it.can view photos at different sizes. as well as settings for the monitor display and sound. Network: “Network” displays shortcuts to shared computers. Help and Support: You can click “Help and Support” to learn how to use Windows Vista. Date and Time Settings The “System Date” and “System Time” are the date and time as maintained by the computer's internal clock.

Now click “OK”. Select “Control Panel → Clock. Minimize. Enter the formats you require on the “Time” and “Date” tabs of the “Customize Regional Options” window. seconds and the AM/PM indicator. enlarge it to fill the whole screen. Changing the date and time display: You may change the way in which your computer displays the date and time. usually referred to as the local time. To change your time zone. Updating the Date and Time: You may also synchronize your computer clock by an Internet time server. Scroll bar: This lets you scroll the contents of the window to see information that is currently out of view. On the “Internet Time” tab. On the “Formats” tab. Borders and corners: You can drag these with your mouse pointer to change the size of the window. If the box against “Synchronize with an Internet time server” is empty. and Region → Regional and Language Options”. Maximize. Changing the Time Zone: Time zones are areas of the Earth that have adopted the same standard time.decrease the value. Sizing and Moving Windows: To make the desktop more workable. Using the buttons in the Title Bar you can 13 | P a g e . click “Change Settings”. Language. make sure you are connected to the Internet. and close it. For this. Working with Windows A window is a rectangular section on the screen that is used to display information and other programs. and Close buttons: These buttons reduce the window to a button on the task bar. Select your current time zone from the list and click “OK”. Similarly you may change the value of the minutes. click “Change time zone” on the “Date and Time” tab. Most windows have the same basic parts:Title bar: This displays the name of the window which indicates which program is running. click on it. Each program that you open is opened in its own window. Select the appropriate server and then click “Update Now”. you can move and size windows. select your current format and then click “Customize this format”. respectively Menu bar: This contains several items that that you can click to make choices in a program.

minimize the window. Let us have a look at some of them. Command buttons may also appear as small icons without any text. Changing the Size of the Window: You can change the size of the window by pointing to the border of the window with your mouse and dragging to make it smaller or bigger. then choose one of the options “Cascade Windows”. Some menu controls are shown by an arrow next to a word or picture. To choose a command listed in a menu. or “Show Windows Side by Side”. scroll bars appear on the window. menus are hidden until you click their titles in the “menu bar”. list boxes. Scrolling a Window: When there is more information in a window than can be viewed on the screen. Windows Controls: Most windows have “controls” that allow you to select commands. There are two types of scroll bars Vertical and Horizontal. To scroll you can either click the arrow of the scroll bar or you can drag the scroll box to move the content within the window. maximize the window to its largest size. allows you to select options to perform a task. Dialog Boxes: A dialog box is a special type of window that asks you a question. click on it. Data may be entered using push buttons. point to the title bar and drag the window to the new location on the desktop. check boxes. Clicking the main part of the button performs a command. “Show Windows Stacked”. Dragging a corner changes the height and width simultaneously. Split buttons: These buttons change into two parts when you point to them. To choose an arrangement. Menus: To keep the screen free of unnecessary items. If a command is shown in gray. change settings. 14 | P a g e . Moving a Window: To move a window. or perform other actions related to the working of the window. restore the window to the original size or close a window. option buttons. it is unavailable and cannot be clicked. Command buttons: A command button performs an action when you click it. or provides you with information. combo boxes and other such controls. Arranging windows automatically: You can also have the windows on your desktop automatically arranged. whereas clicking the arrow opens a menu with more options. text boxes. right-click on an empty area of the taskbar.

Windows communities or from Microsoft Customer Support online. Maintenance and Troubleshooting by selecting appropriate options. Drop-down lists: These are similar to menus. In the “Search Help” text box. Using Help With Windows Vista Help features. information is displayed on multiple tabs. The other options are displayed when you click the control. You may perform tasks related to Security. Text boxes: A text box is used to type textual information. Unlike a drop-down list. Click the “Start” button and then click “Help and Support” to display the “Windows Help and Support” window. options are available for selection instead of commands to be executed. You may click on any topic under “Find an answer” to see help for that topic. Under “Ask someone” you may click on the various links for additional assistance and support from friends. Check boxes: Check boxes enable you to select one or more independent a single option only. They are also called “radio buttons”. some or all of the options are displayed without having to open the list. Click on the magnifying glass or press “Enter” to display a list of related topics. you can choose multiple options at the same time using check boxes. This is the most commonly used windows control. You can switch to a different tab by clicking on it. A drop-down list shows only the currently selected option when it is closed. you may enter the keywords you wish to search on. you may search across multiple remote and online providers to get the most information for the topic that you are investigating. List boxes: A list box displays a list of options that you can select from. Here. Tabs: In some dialog boxes. The currently selected tab appears at the front. 15 | P a g e .Option buttons: Option buttons enable you to make one choice among multiple options. Sliders: A slider enables you to adjust a setting along a range of values by dragging the slider toward the value that you want.

You can tell it is the active window because the taskbar button and title bar appear dark whereas those of the inactive windows are dimmed. it appears in the size in which it was last used and at any location on the desktop. the Microsoft Word document named “Document1”. Multiple windows can be open on the desktop at once. A new window opens on the desktop and the taskbar displays an additional button for this open window. On the Start menu click “Computer” and then “Help and Support”. Working with Multiple Windows The capability to run multiple programs at the same time is called “Multitasking”. You can see that each program is displayed in its own window. allowing you to switch easily between tasks without having to put one away before beginning the other. As more windows are opened. the window currently in use. Switching between windows: Using the taskbar: Each running program has a corresponding button on the taskbar. in this case. To switch to a specific program.Under “Information from Microsoft” you will find guidance on various tasks which will make your experience of working with Windows Vista smooth and convenient. If the taskbar becomes too crowded with buttons. then select an item to make it the active window. When a new window is opened. This is now the “active” window. The “Document1” window is the active window. Opening a New Window: Notice the “Document1” icon on the desktop. then the buttons for the same program become grouped into a single button. There are now three programs running at the same time. This indicates that clicking this link will open the associated item on your computer. Double-click on it. The window in which the program is running appears in front of the other windows. but only one window is active at a time. The newly opened window is automatically the active window and appears on top of other open windows on the desktop. just click its taskbar button. 16 | P a g e . that is. the taskbar buttons resize themselves automatically to fit in the taskbar. “Windows Help and Support”. “Computer” and “Document1”. This makes working with your computer more like you would actually work. Click the button to see a menu of the items in the group.

Using ALT+TAB: You can cycle through all open windows and the desktop by holding down the “Alt” key and repeatedly pressing the “Tab” key. Restart: This closes all open programs. Release the “Alt” key to show the selected window. You may also click on the “Switch between windows” icon on the taskbar to enable the “Windows Flip 3D” feature. When you click the arrow next to the “Lock” button. It saves all open documents and programs. To turn off your computer. select “Log Off”. This action puts your computer in “sleep” mode. Let us see what each of them does. Alternatively. This closes all your open programs but does not put the computer off. Release the Windows logo key to display the window at the front. Sleep: Sleep is a power-saving state. Do not turn off the computer by pressing the power button as you may lose valuable data. Shutting down Windows Vista It is very important to shut down Windows Vista correctly. click the “Start” button. press the “Tab” key repeatedly or rotate the mouse wheel to cycle through open windows. and then click the “Power” button in the lower right part of the Start menu. Using Windows Flip 3D: This feature allows you to flip through a cascading stack of your open windows. Organizing Your Work Files and Folders 17 | P a g e . Shut Down: To shut down your computer completely. you see various options. shuts down Windows and puts off your computer. shuts down Windows and restarts the computer once again. and allows you to resume working within seconds. It closes all open programs. Log Off: If you share the computer with someone else. click any part of a window in the stack to display that window. While holding down the Windows logo key. Switch User: This enables you to switch to another user without closing the programs of the current user. use this option. Lock: This is used to lock the computer when you do not want anyone else to access your files.

Click the resulting triangle to collapse the expanded list. folders created in the main folder appear indented below the main folder. and network drives. the folder contents in the right panel change to display the contents of the location you clicked. Arranging files into logical groups makes it easy to locate any particular file. You know that Windows has some common folders such as Documents. click on the “Start” button and select “Computer”. To close the Folders list. Click “Layout” to specify whether to display Menus. This displays the “Windows Explorer” which shows you the contents of your floppy disk. Using Computer To open the “Computer” window. spreadsheets. A folder within a folder is known as a “Subfolder”. Some common file icons are displayed. You can graphically view the content saved on your computer in ways that enable you to visualize what is inside a folder or file. hard disks. where you can click any folder to navigate directly to it. Examples of files are text documents. and even songs. Click the “Organize” button to organize the contents of a folder. In the Folder List. and gain access to options in the Control Panel to modify your computer settings. Subfolders appear indented below their parent folders. Windows Vista offers “Live Icon” views of files and folders. commonly used folders are displayed under the heading “Favorite Links”. By looking at a file icon. Your computer represents files with icons. So a “Folder System” is made up of folders and subfolders. When you click a location in the Navigation pane. CD-ROM drive. Click the triangle to expand the folder. a Preview 18 | P a g e . a Details Pane. you see a small triangle next to each folder which has subfolders. Music and others that you can use to organize your files. digital pictures. A Folder System is also called a “Directory System”. It is a named area on a disk that is used to store related subfolders and files. you can tell what kind of file it is. Pictures.In a computer. When you move the mouse pointer into the area of the Folders list. This displays the “Folders list”. The panel at the left is the Navigation pane. a “file” is an item that contains a collection of related information. click “Folders” again. You can view additional folders by clicking “Folders” at the bottom of the Navigation pane. At the top. A “folder” is a container in which you can store files. You can also search for and open files and folders.

The following characters cannot be used in a folder or file name: \ / : * ?><| If you think you will need to use a folder frequently. Medium Icons. A folder icon with “New Folder” written next to it is displayed. You can use the context menu that appears on right-clicking the mouse to perform various functions. You can now see a menu with the items File. Click the “Views” button to specify how you wish to view the contents of a folder. If you delete a folder containing subfolders and files. List. Details and Tiles. and search for files and folders. Small Icons. right-click and select “Rename”. These links let you open folders quickly. Sorting and Grouping Files and Folders: You may click on any column heading to sort the files by that column. rename. Large Icons. no matter which folder you are presently in. move. Alternately. You may type a new name for this folder. it must be assigned a name. For example. Press the “Delete” key or select “File → Delete” from the menu bar. Folder and File Names: When a file or folder is created. Let us select “Menu Bar”. and/or the Navigation Pane. click on the folder name and select “File → Rename” from the menu bar. Working with Files 19 | P a g e . Deleting Folders: When you no longer need a folder you can delete it. You can choose from the options: Extra Large Icons.Pane. you may select the folder. drag it to the Favorite Links area. select “File → New → Folder” from the menu bar. you may select the location where you wish to store your data files. View. and then drag the file to another folder or drive. all the subfolders and files contained within the folder are removed. Edit. Let us click on “Documents”. Confirm deletion by clicking “Yes” in the “Folder Delete” window. Tools and Help. Renaming Folders: To rename a folder. you can open a folder that contains a file you want to copy or move. To create a new folder. Working with Folders Creating Folders: Using the Folders list. Select the folder that you wish to delete. you can copy. Using Windows Explorer. Clicking again reverses the sort order from ascending to descending.

Finding Files: If you are looking for a specific file from a large number of files in a folder. Renaming and deleting a file: A file can be renamed or deleted in the same way as a folder by clicking on it and selecting “File → Rename” and “File → Delete” respectively. Type in the Search box. you can select these files to copy or move them at the same time. point the mouse to it and drag the pointer to the new location by keeping the mouse button pressed. Keep the “Ctrl” key pressed and then select multiple files. Click on the folder you wish to copy it to. Drag and Drop: All Windows applications have the ability to copy or move selections using the “Drag and Drop” feature. Copying a file: You may make a copy of a file. the File Name and the Extension. If you do not know which folder to search. click “Select All” on the “Edit” menu. To quickly select adjacent files you may similarly use the “Shift” key. and then click a result to open it. For this. Type anything you can remember about the file. To select all the files and folders in the window. The “Move Items” window is displayed. You may now drop the selection by releasing the mouse button. 20 | P a g e . Now click on the location you wish to move the file to and then click “Move”. Then. Different types of files are stored with different extensions. you can use the Search box at the top to search the current folder. A file can also be copied to a folder by selecting ““Edit → Copy To Folder” from the menu bar and clicking on the appropriate folder in the “Copy Items” window. click on the file name and select “Edit → Move To Folder” from the menu bar. For example. while a document created using Notepad is stored with the extension “.txt”. Now this file can be copied to one or more locations. Moving a file: You may move a file from one location to another. First.The name of a file consists of two parts. For this. a document created using Microsoft Word 2007 is stored with the extension “. select the item to be copied or moved. The file that was copied remains at the original location. The file is removed from the original location and placed at the new one. Now select “Edit → Paste” from the menu bar.docx”. Selecting Multiple Files: When you want to copy or move several files into the same folder. such as part of its name. A copy of it is created at the new location. you can use the Start menu to search instead. click on the file name and select “Edit → Copy” from the menu bar.

For this. In the “Save As” window. Saving Files: A permanent copy of the work you have created using an application program is stored as a file on the disk only when you save it. re-size the “Notepad” window to an appropriate size. locate the folder you have created to save your work. Using Notepad: “Notepad” is a basic text editing program and it is most commonly used to view or edit text files. Editing a Document: One of the advantages of using a computer is that you can edit the contents of your file.Using Shortcuts You may need to use a particular file or folder stored on your computer frequently. Point the mouse pointer to the folder name. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → Notepad”. you may specify the location 21 | P a g e . To start Notepad. a blank workspace is ready for you to begin typing to create a new document. You may use this shortcut to quickly access your data file location again. Select “File → Save As”. Press the “Up Arrow” key twice and then type the date. In the open Notepad. select “Format → Font” from the menu bar. Using Applications Using Notepad Some useful applications are available as a part of Windows Vista. type your Name and then press “Enter”. all the changes you have made will be lost. Type your Address and press “Enter” again. Press “OK” to apply your selection to the complete text in your document. In the “Font” window. Formatting a Document: You may wish to change the way your text appears. To create a shortcut to your folder. you can create a shortcut icon for the location and place it on the desktop. right-click and select “Send To → Desktop (create shortcut)”. To access the location of this file quickly. A shortcut icon with an arrow at the bottom left appears on the desktop. If necessary. When the application first opens. If you fail to save the file. The default name of the shortcut is the same as your folder name followed by the word “Shortcut”. select the font along with the style and size you require. Take the mouse cursor to the beginning of your name and press “Enter” twice.

status bar and the ruler. This method is called using a “Keyboard Shortcut”. A tab stop specifies the place that the cursor stops at when you press the “Tab” key. Make the appropriate selections from the “Print” window and click “Print”. save and print your documents using this menu. You can delete tab stops by dragging them off the ruler. you cannot accidentally save special formatting in documents that need to remain pure text. The “Ruler” is used to set tab stops by clicking on it where you want a tab stop to appear. Toolbars: The buttons on the main “Toolbar” are shortcuts for common file management tasks. such as creating or saving a file. you may want to print a copy of your document. Menus: Let us have a brief look at the different menus available on the menu bar. A new blank document is displayed. To start WordPad. The “Edit” menu is used to perform tasks related to the content of your document such as entering and modifying your data. Using WordPad Using WordPad: “WordPad” is an application used to create rich text documents. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → WordPad”. The buttons on the “Format Bar” are used to change the format of text. You may create. Another way is to do this is by directly pressing “Ctrl+P”. Because Notepad supports only very basic formatting. Your file is stored with the extension “. Each menu has different menu items. This is especially useful when creating HTML documents for a Web page because special characters or other formatting may not appear in your published Web page or may even cause errors.where you wish to save the file and the name of the file. format bar. The “Insert” 22 | P a g e . The “Status Bar” provides additional information about the buttons and commands in WordPad. open. A lightweight editor: Notepad is a basic text editor that you can use to create simple documents. The “View” menu is used to specify whether or not you want to display the toolbar. The “File” menu is used to perform tasks related to your document as a whole. Printing a Document: Now. Select “File → Print” from the menu bar.txt”. Click “Save”. WordPad includes many features and can be used to create and format large and complex text documents.

You can also select the text you want to delete and then press “Delete” to remove it. A quicker way to select a word is to double-click on it. you can click in the left margin of the line to select the entire line quickly. The insertion point is positioned at the top of the document. Press “Enter” twice and then use the “Up Arrow” key to move the insertion point up. The two most common means to remove text are to use the “Backspace” key to delete unwanted characters to the left of the insertion point. Since you want to select the entire title. “Font size” refers to the height and width of printed characters. you would like to increase the font size. you may need to make some modifications. You want to center it between the margins. The “Format” menu is used to enhance the appearance of your document content. Formatting Text: You decide you want to improve the appearance of the title by applying various formatting effects to the text. you first need to select the text you want to format. The title now appears in the selected color. To select text. Click at the beginning of your text.menu is used to insert the date and time and other objects in your document. This feature is called “Word Wrap”. Editing text: After you have entered your text. the text automatically moves to the next line when it reaches the right edge of the margin. Before you can apply the formatting effects. Click the “Font Size” drop-down list button on the Format Bar and select the font size you wish. To further enhance the appearance of the title. Font size is measured in points. make the characters larger and display the characters in a color. Finally. The “Help” menu contains items through which you can get assistance whenever you require. You may use the “Center” button on the Format Bar to center the title. The first change you want to make to this document is to add a title. which refers to the height of the character. or the “Delete” key to remove characters to the right. Most documents use a font size of 10 or 12 point. This is called “Editing” text. you may decide to remove a word. drag from one end of the area of text to the other. with a point equal to about 1/72 inch. After looking over the text. Entering text: As you type. 23 | P a g e . ready for you to begin entering text. Click the “Bold” button on the Format Bar to add a bold effect. Click the “Color” button and select a color of your choice. you will make the title text bold and apply a color to it. Now enter the title and press “Enter”.

you can save the file on the desktop using a new file name for easy access. You may click “Replace All” to replace all occurrences of the original text. Finding and Replacing Text: To find or replace specific characters. You may undo your actions by selecting “Edit → Undo” from the menu. Then click "Save" to save the file on the desktop. and then select “Edit → Copy” from the menu. select the text.rtf”. is started. The “Save As” window appears on the screen. To save the document. Let us now see some additional features of WordPad. Moving. To open this file. To copy text for writing to another location. This is because the file is actually stored in the desktop folder and the icon is not a shortcut to an object that is in another location. Click “Replace” to replace the original text with the new text. The document icon for the WordPad file appears on the desktop. WordPad in this case. Notice that this icon does not display the arrow symbol that appears in shortcut icons. select “Edit → Find” or “Edit → Replace” from the menu and specify your search criteria in the “Find what” field. If you want to replace that text with other text enter it in the “Replace with” field. The file name is displayed in the title bar before the program name and the Windows taskbar displays a button for the open application. Copying and Deleting Text: To cut text that you want to move to another location. The associated program. select “File → Save As…” from the menu. You may refine your search by checking the boxes against “Match whole word only” to find whole words matching your search criteria and “Match case” to make your search specific to capital and small alphabets. Creating a graphic using Paint 24 | P a g e . Type the desired file name and select “Desktop” as the location to save the file. To paste text you have cut or copied.Saving a file to the Desktop: If you like how the document looks then you may save the document. and then select “Edit → Cut” from the menu. and then select “Edit → Paste” from the menu. Your file is stored with the extension “. and the file is opened and displayed in the workspace. select the text. double-click on the file name on the desktop. If you plan to use this file again shortly. place the insertion point where you want to paste the text.

fill shapes with colors. Generally. By default the toolbox is displayed on the left edge of the window. you need to select this application by clicking on the icon on the desktop. that you can add to the document you previously created using WordPad. The “Save As” window is displayed. Specify the location as “Desktop” and then select the type of file you want to create from the “Save as type” list. To start Paint.bmp”. A circle or 25 | P a g e . The white area in the workspace is the drawing area where you may create the drawing. Paint has many of the same features.Another application that is included with Windows is “Paint”. Try to draw a picture of a palm tree. The Paint program also includes a toolbar. Let us create a logo for your organization. you are ready to open the file and create a graphic. including a title bar. move the pointer to where you want the circle to begin. Your file is stored with the extension “. To begin drawing. The mouse pointer appears as a pencil when this tool is selected and you are pointing to the drawing area. Displayed at the top of the window is the color box that is used to add color to the graphic. You can tell it is selected because it appears in a box. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → Paint”. it changes to a plus (+). The text under the icon displays the default icon name "New". which is the picture of a palm tree. Now. and then create and save the file. a drawing program that can be used to create and modify graphic images. In this case you will create a blank file called “New” on the desktop using the “24 bit Bitmap” image file type. The toolbox buttons are used to draw shapes. The tool you select is drawn when you drag or click in the drawing area. we open the application first. Select “File → Save”. The “Ellipse” tool creates an ellipse or circular shape. called a toolbox. when we create a file. The pre-selected icon is the “Pencil” button. edit the drawing and so on. You may wish to create a blank file on the desktop. Since the file is blank. The Paint program is loaded with the blank file open. the desktop icon displays a blank square. menu bar and status bar as you have seen in the other application programs. When you move the mouse pointer into the drawing area. First. similar to the one shown above. Since you want to use Paint to create the graphic. you need to draw the plot of grass below the tree.

The Brush tool creates broad lines of color as you drag. you want to create two tree trunks. The “Edit Colors” window contains a palette of basic colors. displayed at the bottom of the toolbox. Using different shapes can add interest to the drawing. Adding Color: You now want to fill the shape with a green color. You may do this by selecting colors from the color box. called “fill-style” buttons. The first button draws an ellipse with an outline border in the selected fill color without filling the object. You may change the foreground color to brown. you can use the Eraser tool to delete the parts of the trunk you may not like. you may create a custom color. Creating a Custom Color: Since the color selection of green colors on the palette is limited. the “select colors area” and the “color palette”. The second button draws an outline border and also fills the object with the selected fill color. drag with the right mouse button held down while spraying. The Airbrush sprays with the foreground color. The color box consists of two areas.ellipse is created by dragging the mouse until the shape is displayed as you want it to appear. To use the background color. You have created a simple oval shape with a black outside borderline and white interior. 26 | P a g e . This tool also provides several "spray" shapes. The brush applies the foreground color when you drag to create the shape. Notice the three additional buttons. The eraser uses the background colors. To set the background color. This is the default selection and the setting you have used. you want to create the palm fronds. For this you may need to erase sections of your drawings. To clean up the drawing. Double-click on a color in the color box. while the inside of the shape is filled with the background color. Using the “Airbrush” Tool: Finally. You need to use the Brush tool to create the shape and apply the color at the same time. The last fill style creates an object without a border using the selected fill color. You need to use the Airbrush tool for this purpose. You need to delete the oval and replace it with another that contains color. If you select colors before creating a shape. the outline of the shape is created using the foreground color. right-click in the color palette. Using the “Brush” Tool: Next. Using the “Eraser”: You may make mistakes or to not like the appearance of your drawing.

many of which are displayed in the color box. Drawing a Rectangle or Square: In the toolbox. You can also use the slider on the color gradient bar at the right to change the elements. To define a custom color. click the “Curve” icon. At the bottom of the toolbox. click the “Rectangle” icon to create a square-cornered shape. At the bottom of the toolbox click a line width. Draw a straight line by dragging the pointer. click the “Line” icon. To draw a square. Click “Add to Custom Colors” and then click “OK”. The “Save” command saves the document as it appears onscreen to the same file name. hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer diagonally in the direction you want. Click on the page where you want each new line segment to appear. Drawing a Polygon: In the toolbox. associated with the selected color. This is a color matrix. click a line width. The custom color automatically becomes the foreground color and replaces the originally selected green. and then hold down the left mouse button to drag the pointer to adjust the curve. You can only create two curves for each line. click the “Polygon” icon. To draw the polygon. press the “Shift” key while dragging the pointer. Now you may apply this color to the fronds. you may click anywhere on the matrix. The box below the matrix displays the selected color. You can see a small picture of the graphic you created. Click on the page where you want one arc of the curve to be. automatically replacing the original contents with the new contents. Now see the live icon representing your Paint document. Drag the mouse to draw the line. At the bottom of the toolbox. The green color you selected is the selected color in the “Basic colors” palette. 27 | P a g e . Drawing a Straight Line: In the toolbox. Let us now see some additional features of Paint. click a fill style. hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer to draw a straight line. click a fill style. Drawing a Curved Line: In the toolbox. Click “Define Custom Colors >>” to display the color area to the right. Press the “Shift” key while dragging to get a straight line. At the bottom of the toolbox. To draw a rectangle. Repeat these steps and double-click when done. or click the “Rounded Rectangle” to create a round-cornered shape. Release the mouse button and repeat this step for a second arc. such as hue and saturation. Your logo is now ready.

The graphic of the palm tree that was stored in the Clipboard is pasted into the document. The insertion point appears at the center of the blank line. You can adjust the size of any selected object by dragging the handles in the same manner as sizing windows. An object can be inserted into another document by pasting. 28 | P a g e .Typing and Formatting Text: In the toolbox. The “Paste” and “Paste Special” commands on the “Edit” menu are used to insert a copy from the Clipboard into a document. size and style you require. Enter the dimensions you require. Select “Edit → Paste”. Embedding an Object: You are now ready to insert the picture into the WordPad document. click the font. click the “Text” icon. It is surrounded by a box and eight solid squares called “handles”. Click inside the text frame to type text. A dotted line identifies the selected area. You may also resize your picture by dragging the image resize handles that are located at the bottom right corner and along the sides of your picture. hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer diagonally to the size you want. On the text toolbar. select “Image → Attributes” from the menu. linking or embedding it. Since the drawing occupies almost the entire space. You will embed the palm tree object in the document. Copying between Applications Now you can insert the logo of your organization (the palm tree) into your WordPad document. These indicate the object is selected and can be manipulated. Contents of the selected area are copied to the Clipboard. You can select an item from an open document and copy it to another location in the same or another document. you need to copy the graphic from Paint and insert it into the WordPad document. You can copy the entire picture or any part of the drawing by selecting an area. To do this. Now you are positioned in the document where you want the picture inserted. This is because the “Center” feature was in effect for the line the insertion point was on when the two new lines were created. To create a text frame. Changing the Picture Size: To change the size of your picture. you may select the entire drawing area. in this case the entire picture. You would like the palm tree picture that is stored in the Clipboard to be centered at the top of the document.

and the graphic appears in its own editing window. because it was the last-used application. You may want to increase the font size to 14 point. has not changed.Editing an Embedded Object: After looking at the inserted graphic. the text of your document is still displayed. Paint. you may decide you want to add some text inside the graphic. Previewing. you are not prompted to save the file before it is closed. If you do not like how your text box looks. Notice that there is still only one Paint application button in the taskbar. you want to give a copy of the document to a friend to get feedback regarding the content and layout. you make the text frame transparent so that the background is visible. you can also choose a color for the text. You may want to add the company name to the grass area of the graphic. This allows you to edit the embedded graphic from within WordPad. called a text frame and then type the text inside it. It shows the default type style and size that will be used when you type the text entry. Select “File → Print Preview” from the menu. The text frame displays an insertion point. To save time and unnecessary printing and paper waste. When adding text. This indicates that the Paint program has not been opened a second time in its own application window. and the “Fonts” window is displayed. the server application is opened within WordPad. The “Print Preview” feature displays each page of your document in a reduced size so you can check the layout. you can open the object server by double-clicking on it. Printing and Saving Although you still plan to make several formatting changes to the document. containing the palm tree. Since no changes were made to the file. you can always use “Edit → Undo” from the menu and try it again. 29 | P a g e . Before typing the text. To make the background the same as the grass. The color that is applied to the text is the foreground color. it is always a good idea to preview on screen how your document will appear when printed. WordPad is displayed again. The Text tool is used to add text to a Paint object. Also notice that the title bar still displays "WordPad" and if you scroll down. To edit an embedded object. you first create a box. You now have access to the Paint menu and toolbar so you can edit the object while you are still in the WordPad document. You may verify that the original file created using Paint.

After that. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → Calculator”. as well as functions found on a scientific calculator. To save the current document. Finally you will remove the shortcut icon. “*” to multiply. You can now see that the file icons are no longer on the desktop and are now located in the selected folder. The flyer looks good and does not appear to need any further modifications immediately. Open the folder where you save your files. You may want to clear these from the desktop and move them to the folder where you store your data. Cleaning up the desktop You have a few files stored on the desktop of your computer. Then. Finally.The Preview window displays a reduced view of how the current page will appear when printed. such as logarithms and factorials. The Preview window also includes its own toolbar. It performs basic arithmetic. multiplication or division. You can print the flyer directly from the Preview window using the “Print” button. perform the following steps: First. click “=” or press the “Enter” key to get your result. Using Calculator Using Calculator: “Calculator” is an application which performs functions parallel to a handheld calculator. Performing a simple calculation: To perform a simple calculation involving addition. The desktop should be cleared of all icons you created and should appear the same as when you started. click the “Save” icon on the Toolbar. such as addition and subtraction. To start Calculator. 30 | P a g e . or “/” to divide. “-” to subtract. The functions of the different buttons on the Calculator are as displayed. Right-drag the selected icons to the right pane of the window. Choose “Move Here” from the shortcut menu. Double-click the shortcut icon you created to your data location. Backspace --> Removes the last digit of the displayed number. subtraction. type the first number in the calculation. type the next number in the calculation. This view allows you to check your page layout before printing. Select “View → Refresh” from the menu to refresh the display of the window. click “+” to add. Type other operators and numbers in the same way.

Word Processor Applications help you to create different types of written documents such as personal letters. Microsoft Word and OpenOffice. retrieve and print part or all of a document. Creating and Editing a Document 31 | P a g e . modify. For this. In addition to handling simple calculations. editing. you can easily correct errors. an invoice form. MR --> Recalls a number from the memory. Through a word processor you can create. Octal and Binary. You have a choice of four numbering systems: Hexadecimal. % --> Calculates percentages. C --> Clears the entire calculation. M+ --> Adds the displayed number to the memory. faxes and even professional manuals.CE --> Clears the number displayed at that time. The activity of word processing includes typing text using the keyboard and using various facilities of formatting. MS --> Stores numbers in the memory.org Writer are a few of the popular Word Processors. Decimal. With a few keystrokes. 1/x --> Calculates the reciprocal of the displayed number. MC --> Clears the numbers in the memory. printing etc. Sqrt --> Calculates the square root of the number on the screen. the Scientific Calculator has complete trigonometrical calculations. Word Processing Overview of Word Processing What is Word Processing? Typing text using a computer is commonly known as Word Processing. brochures. programming calculations and statistical calculations for averages and standard deviation. form letters. Performing a scientific calculation: Your calculator can be made into a full-functioned scientific calculator. for example. store. move paragraphs and reprint your document. select “View → Scientific” from the menu. Documents that you use often can be saved as templates.

click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Word 2007”. This contains commands for opening. The text frames can be linked anywhere. tables. Microsoft Word offers a wide variety of options to design documents. The Microsoft Office user interface is uniform across most of its components. You can define the structure and appearance of the indexes and tables according to your needs. In Word. saving. The Quick Access toolbar: This appears to the right of the Office Button near the top of the screen. 32 | P a g e . You can also create your own templates. It consists of three main parts: 1) The Office Button 2) The Quick Access toolbar 3) The Ribbon The Office Button: This appears at the top-left corner of your screen. you can simply click on it when you need to create a new document. You can add an icon to the toolbar by just clicking on an icon name. and Redo. The User Interface The User Interface is the way in which you interact with your computer. To start the Microsoft Word application. a file is called a “document”. and closing a file. Additionally. graphics. you can create various indexes and tables in text documents. It is designed to put your most commonly used commands in a place where you can always find them.Introduction to Microsoft Word Microsoft Word is a complete Word Processor Application. Microsoft Word contains numerous functions to assist you in creating perfectly styled documents. To add an additional command to the Quick Access toolbar. Clicking the Office Button displays the “File” menu. integrated into it. displaying icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. from the menu that appears. etc. click the arrow on the right. Undo. such as “New”. printing. Once the “New” icon is added. even beyond page limits to create a newspaper format. Word comes with a variety of templates for almost every purpose. Text can be formatted multi-columnar and have text frames.

“Styles” and “Editing” groups. citations. and track changes. orientation. and text boxes. Click an icon and then click the “Add” button. The “Mailings” tab contains the items needed for a mail merge. clip art. right-click on it and select “Remove from Quick Access Toolbar”. thesaurus. c) Command buttons in each group that carry out a command or display a menu of commands. and index. the “Home” tab has the “Clipboard”. When you move your mouse over most command buttons. This provides a detailed description of what the button does. The “References” tab contains the most common items needed when generating a professional paper. “Font”. You can see that your chosen icons now appear on the Quick Access toolbar. b) Groups within each tab that break a task into subtasks. Under “Choose commands from:” you can see a list of commands that you may add to your Quick Access toolbar. The following Ribbon tabs are displayed in Word: The “Home” tab has common formatting commands. To remove an icon. The “Insert” tab contains all items that can be inserted into the file. The “Page Layout” tab contains margin. a “Super-tooltip” is displayed. pages. such as pictures. You will gradually learn to use the commands on all the tabs. “Paragraph”. click “More Commands”. styles. For example. The “View” tab contains the view options for the document and is the location of the Switch Windows command to move between files open in that application. table of contents. and spacing properties. “Copy” and “Format Painter” command buttons. including footnotes. “Cut”. and copy/paste. It consists of:a) Task-oriented tabs. The Ribbon: The Ribbon is a component of the Office Fluent user interface. The “Clipboard” group in turn has the “Paste”. The “Review” tab contains spell check. 33 | P a g e . Click “OK”. bullets.Now.

It is like a blank piece of paper that has certain default settings which are the most commonly used settings. You decide to create a document like the one displayed above. to create a new blank document. The tabs. You first need to press the “Alt” key. Clicking this brings up the Help window related to the Office application that you are using. At the right end of the Ribbon.Equivalent keyboard shortcuts are also displayed if applicable. Every single command on the Ribbon. We shall now learn step-bystep. you see a question mark symbol. which includes the most commonly-needed commands. When you first launch most of the Microsoft Office applications you’ll find yourself in the Ribbons Home tab. click the Office Button and select “New”. Creating New Documents Let us now learn to effectively use Microsoft Word using the following simple Case Study. showing the Key Tips for all the tabs. They relate directly to the tabs. You want your document to be attractive and at the same time informative. Now click “Create” in the “New Document” window. and the Quick Access Toolbar has an access key. When an existing word document is open. and other things that you see on the screen. how to include all such features into your document. When you first start Word. To restore the Ribbon. right-click any tab and choose the “Minimize the Ribbon” command again. and every access key is assigned a Key Tip. commands. 34 | P a g e . After you press a key to activate a particular tab. the badges showing the Key Tips for the commands on that tab appear. the Microsoft Office Button menu. For this. right-click anywhere on the Ribbon and choose “Minimize the Ribbon”. You can hide the Ribbon if you wish to have more space to write. groups. You are working for Global Tours and Travels. Access keys: Access keys are another type of keyboard shortcut used to access the Ribbon. or badges. You are required to create a document listing the special offers of your company. and command buttons change as you take on various activities. You may use them when you are more familiar with the commands. a new blank document is opened. You then see little labels.

For now. Underlining: To underline your text. Now type “Come to any of the offices”. You may create a new document using standard templates provided by Word by clicking on a template name in the “New Document” window. It provides easy access to the most-used formatting commands. on the “Home” tab. Press "Enter" once to come to the next line. To change the color of the text click on the arrow next to the “Font Color” icon and select a color. You may choose other underline styles and colors by clicking on the arrow to the right of the “Underline” icon. Making text Bold: To enter text with a bold display. in the “Font” group. select it and then click on the “Underline” icon in the “Font” group. select it and then click on the “Bold” icon. Similarly. click at the point you want to begin and drag your cursor to the right and release it when you have reached the end of the selection. from the drop-down menu. Click on the font you would like. Justifying Text: 35 | P a g e . Type "SPECIAL OFFERS". you may change the Font Size. Selecting Text: To select a section of text. To make existing text bold. Let us insert some more text. press “Enter” once again.A “Template” is a pre-designed document designed for common purposes such as a fax. click the “Italic” icon. It remains semi-transparent until you move your mouse pointer over it. invoice or business letter. To insert a blank line. without actually applying it. Entering and Formatting Text Let us now enter text into a new document. Changing the Font: Let us select the text “SPECIAL OFFERS” and change the font. Setting up the way a page of text will look by entering certain attributes is called “Formatting”. The "Live Preview" feature allows you to have a preview of how the selected font would affect the appearance of the text. let us use the command buttons on the Ribbon. click on the “Bold” icon in the “Font” group and begin text entry. To make the text appear in italics. When text is selected. On the “Home” tab. a "Mini Toolbar" is automatically displayed. You will be comfortable using it after you are more familiar with the Word application. move your mouse over the different fonts displayed. A “Font” is a design for a set of characters.

docx”. Click on Center. When you save a new file for the first time. navigate to the location of your document. select the file and click “Open”. you may click on the “X” shaped icon at the top right corner of the window or use the keyboard shortcut “Alt+F4” to exit the Word application. Changing Line Spacing: Select the text you would like to change the line spacing for. Click the “Line spacing” icon in the “Paragraph” group and make your selection. Alternatively. There are three ways to save a document. You may open a recently used document by clicking on the Office Button and then clicking a document name under the list of “Recent Documents” displayed on the right. tab stops and spaces. For this. the “Save As” window is displayed. 3. you may select Align Text Left. Opening Documents: There are many ways in which you can open a document. Center. Enter the name. Then.Select the text you would like to justify. Alternatively. Click the Office Button and select “Save”. 2. Click the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. click on this button once again. click the “Show/Hide” icon in the “Paragraph” group. Closing and Opening files Saving Documents: Your file is stored with the extension “. Align Text Right or Justify. You may use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+O”. Closing a File: To close a file. In the “Paragraph” group. line breaks. To remove the display. Moving through Text Moving through text using the Keyboard: You can use the arrow keys and other keys on the keyboard which are shown above to position the cursor at the location you want to type or modify text. click the Office Button and select “Close” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+W”. Using the shortcut keys “Ctrl+S”. Displaying formatting marks: You can display nonprinting characters in your text. you may click the Office Button and select “Open”. such as paragraph marks. folder and location for the file and then click “Save”. 1. Saving. 36 | P a g e .

Now click “Proofing” and then click the “AutoCorrect Options” button. it is shaped as an I-beam. Creating a Reusable Building Block: Select the text or graphic that you want to store as a reusable building block. Select “AutoText” from the “Gallery” drop-down list. you can see that it is corrected. In the Create New Building Block window. type enough so that the name is different from that of any other building block and then press “F3”. When you type the digit “1” followed by the alphabets “s” and “t”. Click on a building block name and then click “Insert”. Click “Gallery” to sort by gallery. Now try typing the text “HAppy” with two initial capitals. 37 | P a g e . Now enter numeric “1st” in the “Replace” box and alphabetic “First” in the “With” box. and then click “Word Options”. On the “AutoCorrect” tab. click “Quick Parts”. On the “Insert” tab. The building block is inserted. You can even replace some text with alternate text as it is typed using the “Replace text as you type” option. and then click “Save Selection to Quick Part Gallery”. in the “Text” group. Ensure that the box against the option is checked. Using Automatic Editing Features Using AutoCorrect: You may use the numerous features provided by Microsoft Word to automatically correct your document. they are replaced by the text “First”. On the “Insert” tab. Click the Office Button. Using a Building Block: Let us insert this building block into another document. Using AutoComplete: Another useful feature is “AutoComplete”. say “Global Tours Logo”. As it is typed. Building Blocks: Building Blocks in Word are designed specifically for the addition of frequently used content to your documents. Click where you want to insert a building block in the document. click “Quick Parts”. You can see that the “Correct TWo INitial CApitals” option is checked. in the “Text” group. Click at the point where you wish to position the cursor. These corrections are effected as you enter your text. Begin typing the unique name of the building block you created. Now click “OK”. When you can use the mouse to move the insertion point. you may check the boxes against the options you require. and then click “Building Blocks Organizer”.Moving through text using the Mouse: You can use the mouse to move the insertion point to a specific location in a document. enter a unique name for the building block in the “Name” field.

the wavy line is removed. endnote etc. Click the “Home” tab and select “Find” in the “Editing” group. Your cursor moves to the specified line. This results in a grammatically incorrect sentence. Simply click “OK”. Now enter the sentence “Discounts are available on international tickets” with the word “Discounts” incorrectly spelled. Let us move to a specific line number. Navigating a Document There are different ways you can move through your document. Automatic Spelling and Grammar checking: Click the Office Button. Word brings up a little box above the incomplete word. The green wavy line disappears since the sentence is grammatically correct once again. You may also use the “Page Up” and “Page Down” keys on your keyboard. and then click “Word Options”.When you begin typing in the name of a month. Right and Left Arrow keys on your keyboard. section. Click “Close” in the “Find and Replace” window. Use the Up. it is underlined with a red wavy line. Now click “Proofing” and then check the boxes against the spelling and grammar checks you require. click the “Page Layout” tab and select “Line Numbers → Continuous” in the “Page Setup” group. a green wavy underline appears. Down. 38 | P a g e . To display the line numbers in a document. You can see that as soon as this word is entered. This time. Alternatively you may use the scrollbars on the right and bottom of your screen. Some of them are as follows: 1. Re-enter “Discounts”. Word automatically finishes the name. such as “January”. Once you correct the spelling. If you then press “Enter”. You may navigate to a specific item in your document. You can also navigate to a specific page. click “Line” in the “Go to what” list. These checks are enforced as you enter your text. 4. Use the “Ctrl+Home” keys to go to the beginning of the document and the “Ctrl+End” keys to go to the end. Let us leave the default settings. On the “Go To” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. Now enter the line number to which you wish to go and click the “Go To” button. Now remove the word “Discounts” from the sentence. 3. using the “Go To” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. footnote. 2.

Working with graphics Inserting Graphics: You now wish to insert a picture of one of the buses of your company along with your company name. you may select “Undo” from the Quick Access toolbar or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Z”. Now to undo this action. To move your 39 | P a g e . You can reverse your last action by using the “Undo” command. You can also redo an action that has been undone. To delete an entire word. click on that line and press “Delete”. To change the size. Let us insert a picture from an existing file on the hard disk. Selecting and Deleting Text: In order to delete a section of text. you may select it and press “Delete”. Editing a Document After entering the text of a document. you may press "Delete" for characters to the right of the insertion point and "Backspace" for characters to the left. Point to a handle and drag with your mouse to the size you require. Let us first delete a line of text. Select the entire line and press “Delete”. location. It is surrounded by eight boxes called “sizing handles”. Sizing and Moving Graphics: You may change the graphic that you have inserted in respect of size. Click at the point where you wish to insert the picture. The line that was displayed is now deleted. you may also use "Ctrl+Delete" for words to the right of the insertion point or "Ctrl+Backspace" for words to the left. specify your picture and its location and click “Insert”. click on the picture.To remove the display of line numbers. you would like to proof read it for accuracy and completeness and modify or edit the document as needed. You may select from the various options available in the “Illustrations” group on the “Insert” tab. To delete a blank line. In the “Insert Picture” dialog box. select “Redo” from the Quick Access Toolbar or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Y”. Click the “Picture” icon. Undoing and Redoing Editing Changes: After making some changes. To remove individual characters. The line is displayed once again. click the “Page Layout” tab and select “Line Numbers → None” in the “Page Setup” group. For this. The picture now appears in your document. you may decide they are not necessary after all. color etc.

click the “Zoom” icon and select “Many pages”. Printing a document: There are two ways to print a document: 1. 2. The Zoom level can be adjusted using the slider at the bottom right of the window. place the cursor on the picture and drag with your mouse to the new location. In the “Name” field. Previewing and Printing a Document Previewing a document: It is always a good practice to preview your document onscreen before you print it. click on the icon below the “Many pages” button and drag towards the right and down.picture. Zoom: The “Zoom” icon can also be used to specify the zoom percentage. The preview size will be adjusted accordingly. To display Multiple Pages. Drag the slider to the right or left as required. The Print Preview tab appears when you view the current document in the Print Preview mode. you may specify whether you wish to print the entire document or a specific part. One Page: Click this icon to display one page in the preview window. Two Pages: Click this icon to display two pages in the preview window. you may select the name of the printer on which you wish to print the document. Click the Office Button and select “Print” from the menu. To view a document in the Print Preview mode. you may specify how many copies of the document you wish to print. Shrink One Page: Click this icon to prevent the document from being printed on an additional page. To specify the number of pages to view. Default settings are displayed which are normally acceptable. This is particularly useful for documents which have only a small amount of text on the last page. In the “Number of copies” box. 40 | P a g e . Let us have a look at few of the basic options you might need to change. Use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+P”. click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. Under “Print Range”. The “Print” window is displayed.

select “Spelling & Grammar”. 2. in the “Pages per sheet” box.Under “Zoom”. you may specify how many pages of your document you want printed on a sheet of paper. such as proper nouns which are not really errors may be shown as spelling mistakes. You may add these words to the dictionary by clicking the “Add to Dictionary” button. There are two ways to start the thesaurus. On the “Review” tab. click “OK” to print the document. Some words. After you have entered your options. in the “Proofing” group. 2. Use the keyboard shortcut “F7”. They are no longer displayed as spelling mistakes. 1. in the “Proofing” group. You may also select “Print→ Quick Print” from the Office Button menu. 41 | P a g e . you are informed accordingly. It lets you print a document with one click but does not offer the flexibility to specify whether to print all or just part of your document. REVISING AND REFINING A DOCUMENT Revising a Document Spelling and Grammar checking: There are two ways you can do this: 1. The “Spelling and Grammar” window appears only when a mistake is found. number of copies and other such things. Click on the correct spelling and then click “Change”. When the spelling checker encounters a word it doesn’t recognize. Thesaurus: The “Thesaurus” is a dictionary of synonyms which you can use to find words that are synonymous with a term. On the “Review” tab. with the most likely match highlighted. When the checking is completed. Press “Shift+F7”. it determines which words in its dictionary are similarly spelled and displays a list of those words in the “Suggestions” box. select “Thesaurus”. You can see that the incorrect spelling has been corrected. You may click “Options” in the “Spelling and Grammar” window to specify the spelling and grammar checks that you require.

On the other hand. When you select “Insert”. select “Paste”. Any selected text or objects are replaced by the pasted contents. You may use any of the following methods for cutting: 1. Select “Copy” to copy the word which can be pasted to another location. Moving and Copying Selections Using Copy: Let us select some text for copying to the clipboard. On the “Home” tab. Click on the arrow to the right of the search box. enter your expression. 2. On the “Home” tab. say “Contact”. Copy and Look Up. Then press “Ctrl+V” to paste.)” from the dropdown list below. A list of synonymous terms is displayed. 2.S. Select “Thesaurus: English (U. in the “Clipboard” group. Press “Ctrl+C”. You may use any of the following methods for pasting: 1. 2. the word is inserted at the current cursor position. Now move lower down in the document and click where you want to place your selection. You may point to a synonym of your choice and specify the action you wish to perform by viewing the drop-down list. Select “Look Up” to look up further variations of the selected word. the “Copy-Paste” commands create a copy at the new location. In the “Search for:” text box. Paste: This command is used to insert the contents of the clipboard into the document. The document itself does not change. select “Cut”. On the “Home” tab. select “Copy”. in the “Clipboard” group. The contents are inserted at the position of the cursor. You may use any of the following methods: 1. The “Cut-Paste” commands involve deleting the section from the document. in the “Clipboard” group. 42 | P a g e . Press “Ctrl+X”. You may choose from the options Insert. leaving the original location unchanged. but any existing clipboard contents are overwritten. Using Cut and Paste: You may decide to move a section lower down in your document.You now see a panel on the right. For this select it and use “Cut” to move the selected section. Press “Ctrl+V”. moving it to the clipboard and then pasting it to a location of your choice.

select the item to be copied or moved. This becomes the “active” program. Let us leave our graphic on the first page and display the other text on the next page. Click “Find Next” once again. Click “Select All” from the menu displayed. Make it active by clicking on the taskbar. Inserting Page Breaks To control document paging so that important titles and headlines appear on the top of the pages. The previous document is the “dormant” program now. Copying between Documents: The dormant program appears dimmed on the taskbar. Move to the new document by clicking on the taskbar. Working with Multiple Documents Opening a Second Document: Save the current document by clicking the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar.Drag and Drop: All Windows applications have the ability to copy or move selections using the “Drag and Drop” feature. you may use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Enter”. Now open a second Word document by clicking “New” in the Office Button menu. 43 | P a g e . The next occurrence of the specified term after the current cursor position is selected. Paste the contents by clicking on “Paste” in the “Clipboard” group of the “Home” tab. To insert a Page Break. Enter some text. Click “Create” in the “New Document” window. Let us now move the text back to its original location. you may need to insert Page Breaks just before them so that they start on a new page. Click “Select” in the “Editing group on the “Home” tab. Alternatively. Then. say “office” and click “Find Next”. Select “Find” from the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab or press “Ctrl+F” to display the “Find” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. Finding and Replacing text Finding Text: You may search for a word or phrase in a document. point the mouse to it and drag the pointer to the new location by keeping the mouse button pressed. A fixed page break is inserted and the cursor is now at the beginning of the new page. You may now drop the selection by releasing the mouse button. Copy the contents by clicking “Copy” in the “Clipboard” group. place the cursor at the point where you want a new page to begin and click “Page Break” in the “Pages” group of the “Insert” tab. A blank document is displayed in a new window. First.

On the “Margins” tab.Finding and Replacing: You may search for a word or phrase in a document and replace it by some other text. Select “Replace” from the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab or press “Ctrl+H” to display the “Replace” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. Let us change the left and right margins to 4 inches each. Inserting the Current Date Let us now insert the current date into this document. Changing the Orientation: You may orient your document vertically or horizontally by clicking on “Orientation” from the “Page Setup” group of the “Page Layout” tab. A window appears showing the number of replacements made. Position the cursor above your text and select “Date & Time” from the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. select “Margins” from the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. Enter the text you wish to find in the “Find what” field and the text with which you wish to replace it. This updating is seen when you next open your document. say “new office” in the “Replace with” field. Entering the Page Size: To set the Page Size. Replace: You may click this button to replace the next occurrence of the search text by the specified new text. you may enter your requirements in one or more of the fields. check the “Update automatically” box. Select from the “Portrait” or “Landscape” options. You may click on any of the 44 | P a g e . You can see that your document is displayed with wider side margins. You may click on any of the available options or click “Custom Margins” to enter your own specifications. Click “OK”. This function provides many advanced options to help make your search as specific as necessary to find what you are looking for. Modifying Page Layout Changing Margin Settings: To set margins. Click “Undo” on the Quick Access toolbar to revert to the original margins. Select the format you require. Replace All: You may click this button to replace all occurrences of the search text by the specified new text. If you want the date to be automatically updated when the current date changes. select “Size” from the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. More: You may click this button to specify additional search options.

although this method is not as precise. Then click on the “Page Layout” tab. In the “Default tab stops” box. Paragraph Formatting in detail Indents: Indentation determines the distance of the paragraph from either the left or the right margin. you may specify your indent requirements in the “Indent Left” and “Indent Right” boxes. click on the arrow at the bottom right. In the “Paragraph” group. you may use the “Decrease Indent” and “Increase Indent” icons in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab for indenting your text. Let us learn to set the position of a tab stop in a blank document. On the “Paper” tab. You may also manually set the dimensions you require in the “Width” and “Height” fields. the distance between the words is as per the new tab stops specified. Alternatively. Press “Undo” twice on the Quick Access toolbar to remove these indents. Spacing: You may specify the spacing between paragraphs by adding space above or below selected paragraphs. Now enter the same text pressing the “Tab” key after each word. A5. from the drop-down list. You can see on the ruler that each word appears at a distance of 2 cm from the other. On the “Indents & Spacing” tab. You can quickly set tabs by clicking the ruler at the location you want your tab stop. Now enter the text as shown. click “Tabs” to display the “Tabs” window. it is advisable to use tabs rather than spaces to avoid problems with text alignment. click the “View Ruler” button at the right corner. you may select the paper size from preset formats like A4.available options or click “More Paper Sizes” to enter your own specifications. pressing the “Tab” key after each word. In the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. enter “2 cm” and click “OK”. Character Formatting in detail 45 | P a g e . etc. When more than a single space is required to be inserted between words. This brings up the “Paragraph” window. Click “OK” to save your settings. You can also use your mouse to set the tab stops in the “Ruler”. For this use the “Spacing Before” and “Spacing After” boxes in the “Paragraph” group on the “Page Layout” tab. If you do not see the horizontal ruler displayed just below the Ribbon. You can see that this time. Select a paragraph of text. Setting Tab Stops: A “Tab Stop” is the amount of spacing that is applied each time you press the “Tab” key.

A hyperlink is a connection to a location in the current 46 | P a g e . Joining and Separating Numbering: You have the option to restart numbering. Highlighting: Select some text to highlight. First. Click on the arrow next to the “Text Highlight Color” icon in the “Font” group and select a color. click on the “Change Case” icon from the “Font” group. “Continue Numbering” or “Set Numbering Value”. Numbered lists are normally used to convey a sequence of events. This brings up the “Font” window. In that case. So you may use a “Hyperlink”. let us change the font color of a section of text. Let us select “UPPERCASE”. Simply right-click on the number and select from the options “Restart at”. You can see that your text is displayed with all capital letters. continue numbering or even skip some numbers from the previous list used. Also. Giving all this information in a single document will crowd the document. click on the arrow next to the “Numbering” icon in the “Paragraph” group of the “Home” tab and select a numbering style. in the “Font” group. drag it over the text to which you wish to apply the same format. You may specify effects for your text by checking the boxes against the effects you require on the “Font” tab. Using Hyperlinks Inserting Hyperlinks: You now want to give information related to the different routes and their timings. click on the arrow at the bottom right. Your text now appears as a bulleted list. You may use a bulleted list or a numbered list. You can see that your mouse pointer changes to a paint brush. Select the text “Time Table”. This means you may specify which parts you want in capital letters and small letters. Now. Effects: On the “Home tab. Now to copy the formatting of this text. Numbered List: Alternatively. Format Painter: You can copy the formatting applied to a section of text to another section. Bulleted List: Select your text and then click on the arrow next to the “Bullets” icon in the “Paragraph” group of the “Home” tab and select a bullet style. select it and click on the “Format Painter” icon on the “Home” tab in the “Clipboard” group. the document will lose its clarity regarding the main information that it is meant to convey. Now. Bulleted lists are normally used to list logically related information.Changing the capitalization of text: You may change a portion of text in respect of case. you may decide to go in for a numbered list. Creating Lists You may want to display the information about the special offers that you have entered as an itemized list so that it stands out from the rest of the text. You may select an option from the menu displayed.

Click the “Hyperlink” icon in the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. another document or to a Web site. Under “Stars and Banners” select the “Double Wave” banner.document. Click “OK”. you can view the time table document. Click “Shapes” in the “Illustrations” group on the “Insert” tab to display the various shapes that you can use. The Print Preview tab appears when you view the current document in the Print Preview mode. make a selection from the “Shape Style” group. To view a document in the Print Preview mode. You now wish to insert a banner at the bottom of your document. Right click on the banner and select “Add Text”. Because you wish to create a link to another document. right-click on it and select “Remove Hyperlink”. click “Current Folder” and then click on “time_table. In this case. You may also drag to place the shape at another location. Drag your mouse to create your shape of the size you wish. Select this text. Use any of them to display the “Insert Hyperlink” window. Now enter your text. Let us insert a hyperlink to another document called “time_table. Place the cursor in your document at the point where you wish to insert the hyperlink. You now see that the hyperlink text is underlined. You may use the sizing handles to modify the size of the shape. This document exists in the same folder as your document. A hyperlink may be in the form of text or a graphic. There are two ways to insert a hyperlink: 1. To make this banner more attractive. Inserting Shapes Word offers many predefined shapes that you can insert into your document. click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. You may format the text by selecting it and using the mini toolbar displayed. Use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+K”. 2. Editing while previewing Now you will preview your document to see if any changes are required. Removing Hyperlinks: To remove the hyperlink while retaining the text. When you press the “Ctrl” key and click on this text. we shall use the text “Time Table” as a hyperlink. 47 | P a g e .docx” which contains the complete time table.docx”. Let us add some text to this banner.

video clips. This indicates that you can now make changes to the text. a spreadsheet or even another word document into your current document. You may create a new object to insert or insert an existing one from a file. Now click “Insert”. When you wish to edit the document. In the “Object” window. click on the “Create from File” tab. Check the box against “Link to file” if you want your document to be updated whenever the file containing the inserted object is edited. On the “Home” tab. Make your changes and then click “Close Print Preview” to close the preview window. Click “Browse” and navigate to the file you wish to insert. Saving to a New Folder 48 | P a g e . click the “Multilevel List” icon and select a list style. select “Object” from the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. You may now save your changes. Inserting Objects You may insert external objects such as pictures. You can edit the object later using the application which created the source file. It makes the hierarchy of items in a document very clear and easy to understand. Creating a multilevel list: Click where you want to begin your list. For this. Let us insert an existing spreadsheet created using Microsoft Excel. Different items are indented to represent their level in a document’s structure. in the “Paragraph” group. uncheck the box against the “Magnifier” button in the “Preview” group on the Print Preview tab. Click again to see it in a compressed size. Click on the page you wish to magnify to see it in normal size. Click “OK” in the “Object” window. You see that the object is now a part of your document Using Additional Word Features Creating Multilevel Lists A multilevel list shows the list items at different levels rather than at one level. The mouse pointer changes to an “I” beam. Use the “Tab” key to go to the next level and “Shift+Tab” to move up one level. Now enter your list. Check the box against “Display as icon” if you want to display your object as an icon. You can easily change the level of an item in the hierarchy by simply increasing or decreasing the indent by using the “Tab” or “Backspace” keys respectively.When the mouse pointer moves over the document it is shaped as a magnifying glass with a plus sign.

49 | P a g e . 2. the I-beam pointer displays an icon indicating the formatting that will be applied when you double-click at that location. You can create a new folder at the time you save a file. They are mostly for words that are not in the dictionary. Press “Save” to save your file with the same name in the new folder. you will save the multilevel list you have created in a folder on your disk. Click the Office button and select “Save As”. 3. Move the mouse pointer across the page and observe the change in it.Next. and then click “Word Options”. You may turn off the display of these errors if you do not wish to be distracted as you work. Click “New Folder”. Now click “Proofing”. Using Click and Type: On a new blank page. The chart displayed in the figure lists the different pointer shapes and formatting that is applied. Formatting Documents Automatically There are two ways in which you can format your document automatically. At the bottom of the window. The new folder is created as a subfolder in the active directory. Hiding Spelling and Grammar When you go through a document. You will use this folder to hold related files. Your document is now saved in the newly created folder. Click the Office Button. The red and green wavy lines are no longer displayed. The steps to save the file are: 1. If you wish to change your file name. You can still run spelling and grammar checks manually by using functions like “Spelling & Grammar” on the “Review” tab at any time you wish. check the boxes against “Hide spelling errors in this document only” and “Hide grammar errors in this document only” and click “OK”. Type the name of the new folder in the “Name” field in the “New Folder” window and press “Enter”. make appropriate changes in the “File name” field and then click “Save”. you sometimes notice that many spelling and grammar errors are indicated by red and green wavy lines. As you move the mouse pointer over different areas. switch to the Print Layout view by selecting “Print Layout” from the “Document Views” group on the “View” tab. Enter the appropriate location where you wish to place the file in the “Save in” field.

On the “References” tab.You can use this method to quickly insert text. On the “References” tab. the topics that are included in the document and makes it easier to locate information. select “Table of Contents”. Similarly. You would need to update your table of contents. You may choose to update page numbers only or the entire table. The “Update Table of Contents” window is displayed. This style is now applied to your selected text. In the document displayed. it is best to use the default settings. let us apply different styles to different heading levels. Doubleclick at the center of the document. To see the complete list of styles click on the arrow at the bottom of the “Styles” group. On the “Home” tab. The “Table of Contents” window appears. Applying Styles: This is the second way in which you can format your document automatically. You may now press the “Ctrl” key and click on any heading to move to the related content in your document. You may enter your specifications here. This makes your document attractive as well as clear. A particular style can be applied to a heading or any other text to improve its appearance or make it stand out clearly. Place the cursor at the beginning of the document. Click on a style to apply it to the selected text. in the “Table of Contents” group. You can now enter text which will be formatted as per the pointer shape. you may apply styles “Heading2” and “Heading3” to subsequent heading levels. in the “Table of Contents” group. avoiding the need to enter blank lines. graphics or other items in a blank area of a document. Simply click “OK”. Click on the “Table of Contents” tab. You can now see “Region 3” in the table of contents. For now. You can see in the displayed document that “Region 3” is not displayed in the table of contents. Click “Insert Table of Contents” at the bottom of the window that comes up. It shows you at a glance. Let us create a Table of Contents for the document you created in the previous assignment. Creating a Table of Contents A Table of Contents is a listing of the topics that appear in a document with their associated page references. select “Update Table”. Formatting a Document Section 50 | P a g e . Updating the Table of Contents Updating the Table of Contents: You may introduce new headings or move certain information to another page in your document at a later stage. Select the main heading. Select “Update entire table” and click “OK”. in the “Styles” group select the “Heading1” style. Your table of contents is ready.

Endnotes: You may insert endnotes in the same way using the “Insert Endnote” button in the “Footnotes” group on the “References” tab. Under “Preview”. You may make changes to your footnotes and endnotes in respect of numbering. Formatting a section: Let us now make some changes to the section that you have created. ensure that “This section” is selected in the “Apply to” field. Click “OK”. comment on. “Next Page” moves the section to the new page. position your cursor at the text you want the footnote to appear. Under “Section Breaks”. or provide references for text in a document. A footnote or an endnote consists of two linked parts — the note reference mark and the corresponding note text.You may need to apply specific formatting to only a part of your document. change the left margin to “5”. meanings of difficult words are given in the form of footnotes. Deleting a Footnote or Endnote: When you want to delete a note. In the “Page Setup” window. Position your cursor before the first point. “Continuous” creates the section at the cursor position. Footnotes appear at the end of each page and endnotes appear at the end of the document. right-click the footnote and select “Go to Footnote” to take you back to the insertion point in the main body so you can continue working on your document. you can create sections within the document and apply the formatting to the required section. Sometimes. A reference mark is inserted at the point you selected and you are taken to the bottom of the page. Using Footnotes and Endnotes Footnotes or Endnotes are used to explain. To do so. Adding Bookmarks 51 | P a g e . “Odd Page” or “Even Page” starts the section on the next odd or even numbered page. Let us select “Continuous”. select the type of section break you wish. To insert a section in your document. You can see that the text in the section after the cursor position gets indented as per the new left margin. select “Breaks” from the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. Inserting a Footnote: To insert a footnote. Select “Insert Footnote” from the “Footnotes” group on the “References” tab. Let us consider the document we had created earlier. Deleting the text in the note does not delete the note. Type your footnote. simply delete the note reference mark in the document window. Click on the arrow at the bottom right of the “Page Setup” group. When you are done. location and format by clicking on the arrow at the bottom right of the “Footnotes” group.

select “Position”. This caption will be used for reference. You first must define a reference target for the cross-reference. You can also set cross-references to the captions of charts and tables. Showing Bookmarks: Click the Office Button. the bookmark appears as an Ibeam. Moving to a specific bookmark: Select “Bookmark” from the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. Select “Insert Caption” from 52 | P a g e . Click before this text. you may need to change the position of a graphic. Click on the figure you want to refer to. Now click “Advanced”. click on it and then click on the “Format” tab under “Picture Tools”. Under “Picture Tools”. Under “Show document content”. in the “Arrange” group. Your text now appears by the side of the picture. on the “Format” tab. Formatting Picture Layout Sometimes. Then select “Bookmark” from the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. Click on the bookmark and then click “Delete”. Wrapping text around graphics: To change the way text wraps around the picture. select “Bookmark” from the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab.A Bookmark is used to mark a certain location in a document. It identifies a location in the document or a selection of text that you name for future reference. Changing the Object Position: Click on the picture. references allow you to move within a document. drawing or object in your document or type some text around it. You must now add a caption to this figure. Select “Text Wrapping” in the “Arrange” group and choose a suitable option from the ones displayed. Clicking on the reference takes you to the referred location in the document. Move your mouse over the various options under “With Text Wrapping” and click on your choice. Click “Close” in the “Bookmark” window. Deleting a Bookmark: To delete a bookmark. Your cursor now moves to the bookmark location. check the box against “Show bookmarks” and click “OK”. Click on the bookmark and then click “Go To”. If you have assigned a bookmark to a location. enter a name for your bookmark and click “Add”. the bookmark appears in brackets on the screen. If you have assigned a bookmark to an item. Referencing Figures Setting References: A cross-reference is a reference from one part of a document to related information in another part. In contrast to hyperlinks. and then click “Word Options”. In the “Bookmark” window. You can define the wrapping style around an object. Adding a Bookmark: You now wish to insert a bookmark before the text “Contact Us”. but not among multiple documents.

Entering data: Click on a cell and enter your data. In the “Rows & Columns” group. Select some cells which you would like to shift. Press “Tab” to move to the next cell.This handle appears whenever the mouse pointer rests over the table. In the “Caption” window. select “Insert Above” to insert a row above the current row. Enter your text. To insert multiple rows or columns. say “For your information. Your table is displayed on the screen. In the “Insert Table” window. You may now press the “Ctrl” key and click on the caption to see the captioned picture. enter the Table size in respect of number of rows and columns. click on the “Layout” tab. Under “Table Tools”. select the position of the caption and press “OK”. Click on the arrow at the bottom right of the “Rows & Columns” group. select the same number of rows or columns required to be inserted and then click on the appropriate icon. see “. Moving a table: To move your table. This displays the caption near your text. Creating a Simple Table A table is used to organize information into an easy-to-read format of horizontal rows and vertical columns. You see that the data has been moved to the right and a new blank column has been inserted. Similarly. Now click “Close”. Shifting Cells: You may shift a few cells or a complete row or column. Select “Cross-reference” from the “Captions” group on the “References” tab. We have created a table with 2 rows and 5 columns.the “Captions” group on the “References” tab. select “Shift Cells Right” and click “OK”. Now let us insert a cross-reference for this reference. select “Figure” as “Reference type” and “Entire Caption” as “Insert reference to” from the respective drop-down lists. Position your cursor at an appropriate location. Sizing a table: To quickly change the overall table size. drag the resize handle at the bottom right corner of the table to an appropriate location. Select “Insert Below” to insert a row below the current row. Inserting a Table: To insert a table. click in the table. enter your caption. In the “Insert Cells” window. Under “For which caption:” click on the appropriate caption and then click “Insert”. Click “OK”. You may drag with your mouse to specify the dimensions of the table or click “Insert Table”. Inserting additional rows and columns: To insert additional rows or columns at a later stage. In the “Cross-reference” window. “Insert Left” inserts a column to the left and “Insert Right” inserts a column to the right. place the cursor on the top left corner and drag with your mouse to the new location. 53 | P a g e . select “Table” in the “Tables” group on the “Insert tab.

The available auto formats consist of a combination of fonts. patterns. 54 | P a g e . let us leave the default options in the “Sort Text” window unchanged. In the “Table Styles” group. Let us sort data contained in the time table document displayed. Under “Table Tools”. Using table Styles: A quicker way of applying formats to a table automatically is to use the Table Styles offered by Word. Let us let the displayed field “Coach Number” remain as the field to sort by. Inserting a Header: Let us now add a header to the document you created previously. Now let us remove the borders of the table. Click in the table. You may select the cells. In the “Table” group. click the “Design” tab. Under “Table Tools”. Sorting a List: The “Sort” feature and various sorting options can also be used for non-tabled text. except that the formatting affects the selected cells only. In the “Sort” window. Simply click “OK” to see a sorted list. you may make your selection. Click it to select the table. Sorting Data Word can quickly sort text. click the “Design” tab. Click in the table. Click “OK”. You can see that the data in the table is now sorted by Coach Number. Select the first column and click the “Center” icon in the “Paragraph” group Borders: You may specify the border style for your table. click “Sort”. and then click “Select Table”. data or numbers according to specified criteria in ascending or descending order. on the “Layout” tab. For this click on the arrow next to the “Borders” icon and select “No Border”. click on your choice in the “Style” box. Inserting Headers and Footers Headers and footers provide information that typically appears at the top and bottom of each page in a document and helps the reader to locate information in a document. and use the different formatting options from the “Home” tab. Move the pointer over the table until you see a four headed arrow at the top left corner. under “Table Tools”. click “Select”. you may select the options that you want. Now. click the Layout tab. in the “Data” group. In the window that comes up. In the “Table Styles” group. The same header and footer can be used throughout the document or different ones can be used in different sections. colors. borders and alignment settings. select the text and then click the “Sort” icon in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. click the arrow next to the “Borders” icon and select “Borders and Shading”. Under “Table Tools”.Formatting a table: This is similar to formatting a document. Let us center the text in the first column of the table displayed. For this. For now.

Now click “Close Header and Footer” on the “Design” tab under “Header & Footer Tools”. special terms and abbreviations. Now. Now click “Close Header and Footer” on the “Design” tab and scroll down to see your footer. Click on the first one. click the Office Button. Under “Editing options”. Select “Footer” in the “Header & Footer” group on the “Insert” tab and select the style “Blank (Three Columns)”. The footer area becomes active. This is because all three words have been entered by applying a specific style. Now click “Advanced”. Press the “Tab” key twice and enter the name of your company in the header area. Inserting the Page Number: You may insert the page number and the total number of pages in your document on every page of your document at a position of your choice. select the word “North”. select “Page Number” in the “Header & Footer” group on the “Insert” tab. Respond appropriately to any other located errors. Similarly. The header area becomes active. Checking the document After your document is ready. check the boxes against “Keep track of formatting” and “Mark formatting inconsistencies” and then click “OK”. you may like to check it in respect of spelling and grammar as well as formatting consistency. Checking Formatting Inconsistencies: To turn on this feature. In the document displayed. If the Format Consistency Checker finds at least two instances of a scheme that are identical. Word indicates formatting inconsistencies with a blue wavy underline. Inserting a Footer: You may insert a “Footer” in the same way as the header. For this. It identifies different formatting schemes that are very similar to each other. Click in the first placeholder and enter the word “Comfort”. Now click on “Bottom of Page”. Choose “Ignore All” for all proper names. Click the “Spelling & Grammar” icon in the “Proofing” group on the “Review” tab. Enter the words “Style” and “Economy” in the second and third placeholders in the same way. and then click “Word Options”.Select “Header” in the “Header & Footer” group on the “Insert” tab. inserting the page number at the top of the page overwrites a previously inserted header. if any. Click “Close Header and Footer” on the “Design” tab. right-click on it and select “Styles → Select Text with Similar Formatting”. if any. Inserting the page number at the bottom of the page overwrites a previously inserted footer. From the list displayed. scroll down and click on “Bold Numbers 3”. it offers you the opportunity to make all similar formatting schemes identical to the format scheme that occurs most frequently. You may recall that you 55 | P a g e . A list of header styles is displayed. You now see the page number and number of pages displayed at the bottom right of the page. You can see the words “East” and “West” highlighted as well.

select “All” to print the entire document. You may click on the number of columns you require. use the format “3-6”. you can print a combination of page ranges and single pages. Select the text that you wish to display in columnar format. To print a range of pages. narrow columns help the reader read the articles more quickly. you need to click the Office Button and select “Print” from the menu. The default column style is one column across the full width of the page. You may apply these column settings to the whole or part of the document. You may select other settings for the size and display of the columns under “Width and spacing”. Then. You may choose to ignore or remove the inconsistency from the different options displayed. Under “Print Range”. Right click on this underline to display formatting suggestions. select “Columns” in the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. 8. Printing Selected Pages You know that to print a document. the word “South” has been entered using the size and font of an existing style without applying the style. Changing the Display of the Document Creating Newsletter Style Columns A newsletter is a common application for newspaper columns.learnt about applying styles in the assignment titled “Formatting Documents Automatically”. To print single pages. 12”. 10. Pages: You may use this option to print only the pages that you specify in the “Pages” field. 11”. Click “More Columns” to display the “Columns” window. Selection: You may use this option to print only the selected areas or objects in the current document. Your text is displayed in columnar format. you may use either the “Current page” or “Pages” option under “Print Range”. 9. The “Print” window is displayed. In the document displayed. Let us select “Two” as the number of columns under “Presets”. Click “OK” to print your document. use the format “7. by using the format “3-6. If you want. To print only selected pages in your document. In a newsletter. Using Word Art 56 | P a g e . Click “OK”.

3-D Effects: You may apply 3-D effects to your WordArt text. The symbol is inserted at the current cursor position. font size and font style if you wish. To select an effect.WordArt is used to enhance your documents by changing the shape of text and adding special effects such as 3-D and shadows. Click “Drop Cap Options” to display the “Drop Cap” window. To change the direction of the 3-D effect. The names and 57 | P a g e . On the “Symbols” tab. Spacing: To modify the spacing between the characters of the WordArt. typically a file of names and addresses with a document to create new documents. Then set the “Lines to drop” field as “2”. Leave them unchanged for now. Let us use WordArt to enhance the heading of the document created. Then click “Close”. Then select “Drop Cap” in the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. Let us use a drop cap in our document. select “Symbol” in the “Symbols” group on the “Insert” tab. Now select “Tight”. You may change the font. click on “Spacing” in the “Text” group. click “3-D Effects”. Select the text “Special Offers”. you may enhance your WordArt text. You can see that your text has been adjusted accordingly. Select the first letter “C” from the list of offers. click “3-D Effects” once again and click the appropriate “Tilt” button on the right side of the displayed box. Adding a Drop Cap Drop caps are the first character/s at the beginning of a paragraph that are enlarged. click on the left side of the displayed box. Then click “OK”. On the “Insert” tab. select “WordArt”. Click “OK” to display the drop cap in your document. click on a symbol of your choice and click “Insert”. You may also specify the font and the distance of the drop cap from your text. Click on the “Format” tab under “WordArt Tools” to modify the WordArt as per your requirements. The “WordArt Gallery” is displayed. On the “Format” tab. covering several lines. In this way. Click on “Dropped” under “Position”. Click on a style. in the “Text” group. The “Edit WordArt Text” window is displayed. Inserting Symbols To insert Symbols or Special Characters in your document. Click “More Symbols” to display the “Symbol” window. Using Mail Merge Using Mail Merge The Mail Merge feature combines a list of data.

Make sure to insert a space between each field. Enter the Title. Selecting the starting document: Now. You may make your selections from the windows that are displayed. Printing Mailing Labels Now that your letters are ready. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. Click "Next" to complete the merge. Let us add the text at the beginning of our document as shown. You wish to mail your document about special offers to a large number of people. Set the document type to "Letters" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. After you are done. Click "New Entry" to add subsequent entries. The result is a personalized letter. Enter a space. Click after the word "Dear". click "OK". say "List1" and click "Save". A wizard guides you and in a few steps. This is very simple using Word’s Mail Merge feature. Previewing Letters: You now see a preview of the letter to the first person on your list. Use the right and left arrows to preview letters to the others. select "Use the current document". The "Save Address List" window appears. We are now ready to insert the field names. you want to create labels for the envelopes. Click on Title. Enter your file name. The "New Address List" window is displayed. since you are ready with your letter. Now. your letters to everyone are ready. A personal touch can be added by addressing each person by his individual name at the top of the document. Starting the Wizard: Select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. Select "Type a new list" and then click "Create". 58 | P a g e . First Name and Last Name of the first person.addresses are entered (merged) into the document in the blank spaces provided. Inserting Fields: Now. Click "More items" to display the "Insert Merge Field" window. you may add the items that you wish to be incorporated in it. Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. You see that the field names are now inserted in your document. click "Next" Creating a List: Let us create a list of people we wish to send our document to. Similarly. Printing or Editing Letters: You may now click "Print" to print your letters or click "Edit individual letters" to make changes to any letter. Click "OK" in the "Mail Merge Recipients" window. Now click "Close". You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". enter the fields First Name and Last Name. then on "Insert". Click "Next".

You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. Click "Next" to complete the merge. Similarly. Enter the Address Line 1. Click "More items" to display the "Insert Merge Field" window. move the Address Line 2 and City fields to the following lines. After you are done. The "Label Options" window is displayed. Now click “OK” and then click "Next". click "OK". Last Name. Here. Similarly. select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. Address Line 1. Then click "Next". Click "Next". Click on the name of the list in the box at the bottom and then click "Edit". you may add the names and address details on the labels. Printing or Editing Labels: You may now click "Print" to print your labels or click "Edit individual labels" to make changes to any label. Use the right and left arrows to move between labels. navigate to the location of your list. Selecting Recipients: You have a list of people you wish to send your document to.Starting the Wizard: In a new blank Word document. You see that the field names are inserted in your document. enter the fields First Name. Select "Use an existing list" and then click "Browse". select “Formtec” in the “Label vendors” box and "Formtec AT-7210" under Product Number and click "OK". You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". Click “Yes” to confirm the address details in the window that comes up. Click on the Title field. Now click “Close”. Click on your list "List1" in the appropriate location and then click "Open". Replicating Labels: You may copy the layout of the first label to the other labels. For now. and the product number. The default location is the sub folder “My Data Sources” in the “Documents” folder. Inserting Fields: Now. Press “Enter” after the Last Name field to bring the Address Line 1 to the next line. Click "Update all labels". The "Mail Merge Recipients" window is displayed. Arranging Fields: Let us now arrange the fields. Then insert a space before each field in the first line. Address Line 2 and City fields for all the people in the list. the type of label product. Set the document type to "Labels" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. Now click "Label options". Address Line 2 and City. Preparing and Printing Envelopes 59 | P a g e . In the "Select Data Source" window. then on "Insert". Previewing Labels: You now see a preview of the labels. Let us now include address details. Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. you may select the type of printer.

you make changes as required. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". Now click "Next". Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. click "Next". Use the right and left arrows to preview other envelopes. Click “Next”. For this. Now click "Envelope options". You may use "More items" to insert any individual items you wish. as you did for labels. For now. such as Microsoft Outlook. Merging for sending E-mails using Outlook You may also want to e-mail your document so as to reach out to a larger number of people. The "Mail Merge Recipients" window is displayed. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list.Sometimes. browse to the location of your list. This directly inserts all address fields on your envelope. Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. 60 | P a g e . Previewing Envelopes: You now see a preview of the first envelope. On the "Envelope options" tab. Click "Next" to complete the merge. Select "Use an existing list" and then click "Browse". you may want to quickly address a single envelope instead of printing and pasting a label. In the "Select Data Source" window. The "Envelope Options" window is displayed. Un-check the boxes in front of the names for which you do not want envelopes and then click "OK". Selecting Recipients: You already have a list of people. Starting the Wizard: In a new blank Word document. select an appropriate Envelope size and click "OK". Click "Address block". Set the document type to " Envelopes" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. You can use the Mail Merge task pane to create a group email distribution. simply click “OK”. click on "List1" and then click "Open". In the “Insert Address Block” window. Set the document type to "E-mail messages" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. You may specify different settings related to the appearance and printing of the envelope on the "Envelope options" and "Printing options" tabs. Starting the Wizard: Select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. Let us make envelopes for some of them. Now. Printing or Editing Envelopes: You may now click "Print" to print your envelopes or click "Edit individual envelopes" to make changes to any envelope. your system must include a compatible e-mail program. Arranging your envelope: Let us use the "Address block" feature.

Using Standard Templates Using a Template from Word Every Microsoft Word document is based on a template. menus. Enter a space. In the "Select Data Source" window. Selecting the Template type: Click on the “Equity Letter” template and then press the “Create” button. Then click "OK". under “Templates”. You may make changes if required. A template determines the basic structure for a document and contains document settings such as fonts. Sending mails: You may now click "Electronic Mail" to send your e-mails. click on "List1" and then click "Open". Click after the word "Dear". Now click "Next". Click the Office Button and select “New” from the menu. click "Next". Let us use this list. In the "Mail Merge Recipients" window. In the "Subject line" field. Click "More items" to display the "Insert Merge Field" window. Then. Under "Send records”. browse to the location of your list. Let us create a new document based on an existing template. Inserting Fields: Now. key assignments. In the right left panel. Adding details: Just click on the parts marked in square brackets and enter your details. A new document is displayed with pre-defined settings. select the mail format you want to use. verify that "Email_Address" is displayed. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. then on "Insert". Select "Use an existing list" and then click "Browse". type the subject line you want to use for all the messages. In the "Mail format" field. Replace body text with your own text. Previewing your messages: You now see a preview of the first e-mail message. Now. The "Merge to E-mail" window is displayed. 61 | P a g e . since you are ready with your message. select "Use the current document". special formatting and styles. Selecting Recipients: You already have a list of people. click "OK". Use the right and left arrows to preview other messages. Click on First Name. select the records you want to merge. Now click "Close". You may use any of the standard templates provided by Microsoft Word for your document such as Resumes.Selecting the starting document: Now. click “Installed Templates” to see a list of templates. Click "Next" to complete the merge. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". In the "To" field. you may add the items that you wish to be incorporated in it. Just ensure that you have entered the e-mail addresses of the people on the list. Brochures and Reports. page layout. click "Next".

you must configure Windows Vista to be able to use fonts specific to those languages. In the “Add Input Language” window. Click on the “Arabic” language in the window that comes up. You can see that your text appears in the new language. click “Control Panel Home”. Click on the “EN” icon on the taskbar. Click “Add” to add a new language. Hence. Click on the “Start” button. Currently the school records are maintained on paper 62 | P a g e . Click on the plus sign in front of “Arabic (Saudi Arabia)”. click “OK” in the “Regional and Language Options” window. SPREADSHEET Overview of Excel Introduction You have recently accepted a new job as an Administrative Assistant with All Saints High School. Check the box next to the first keyboard type and click “OK”. Now click “Word Document”. Now. click the Office Button and then click the “Exit Word” button at the bottom right. Finally. you see a list of languages that Windows Vista has been configured to use. Now click “Change keyboards”. Now click on the plus sign in front of the word “Keyboard” displayed below it. Language. To exit the Word application. click “Change keyboards or other input methods” under “Clock. Language. and Region” option of the “Control Panel”. before you can start using some languages on your computer. In the “General” tab of the “Text Services and Input Languages” window. You can do this by configuring the language settings in the “Clock. Using a Configured Language in Word Start the Microsoft Word application. Click the Office Button and click on the arrow next to “Save As”.Saving the document: You may save this file just like a normal document. let us add the Arabic language as an example. Your document is created based on the template you selected. and Region” This displays the “Keyboards and Languages” tab of the “Regional and Language Options” window. click “Apply” and then “OK” in the “Text Services and Input Languages” window. Now start typing your text. the box at the top displays the default input language. If you see the “Classic View” displayed. Now. In the box at the bottom. Then click “Control Panel”. In the “Save As” window. Word Processing in Other Languages Language Settings in Windows Vista Setting a language for the Windows Vista operating system: By default Windows Vista does not support entry in certain languages. enter “Special Package” in the “File name” field and click “Save”.

All data is stored in the computer. update and delete data with a few keystrokes. A spreadsheet is like an accountant’s ledger. Although the information is well organized.forms and stored in file cabinets organized alphabetically. You will prepare the Exam Record of students in Microsoft Excel 2007. The school has purchased new computers and it plans to computerize all administrative operations. . new data can be added. This data can be edited. therefore there is no paper used. Features of Microsoft Excel 2007 Features of Microsoft Excel 2007: . You are responsible for maintaining the exam records of all students. The User Interface The User Interface is the way in which you interact with your computer. and unwanted data can be deleted.It is very easy to manage. whole or part of the spreadsheet can be printed. It consists of three main parts: 1) The Office Button 2) The Quick Access toolbar 3) The Ribbon 63 | P a g e . The Microsoft Office user interface is uniform across most of its components. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Excel 2007”. To start the Microsoft Excel application.You can create charts to represent data more effectively. An electronic spreadsheet or worksheet is made up of rows and columns. Whenever a hard copy is required. filled with numerical or textual data. It is mainly used for different type of calculations varying from very simple to complex. and is part of the Microsoft Office suite. . . . calculate and analyze data. change.It is a general purpose electronic spreadsheet used to organize. it still takes time to manually leaf through the folders to locate the information you need. consisting of rows and columns. since you can add.You can create well-designed spreadsheets that produce accurate and professional-looking results. Microsoft Excel is the world’s most widely-used spreadsheet program.

charts. paper orientation. Undo. It is designed to put your most commonly used commands in a place where you can always find them. c) Command buttons in each group that carry out a command or display a menu of commands. and other page settings. The “Data” tab lets you get information from an outside source for analysis. and grouping. please refer to the following: Topic: Word Processing Lab: Creating and Editing a Document 64 | P a g e . Clicking the Office Button displays the “File” menu. This contains commands for opening. formatting your data.The Office Button: This appears at the top-left corner of your screen. graphics. It also includes tools for dealing with large amounts of information. and closing a file. The “Review” tab contains proofing tools like spell check. saving. and hyperlinks. The Quick Access toolbar: This appears to the right of the Office Button near the top of the screen. b) Groups within each tab that break a task into subtasks. printing. displaying icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. The “Page Layout” tab helps you in getting your worksheet ready for the printer. For more details on the Microsoft Office User Interface. The “View” tab lets you select from a variety of viewing options. You can specify margins. and Redo. It also enables you to view several separate Excel spreadsheet files at the same time. It also has buttons that let you add comments to a worksheet and manage revisions. and searching for important pieces of information with search tools. The Ribbon: The Ribbon is a component of the Office Fluent user interface. The “Insert” tab lets you add special ingredients like tables. It consists of:a) Task-oriented tabs. like sorting. like those for cutting and pasting information. filtering. The “Formulas” tab helps you build useful formulas that can resolve a great deal of problems. The following Ribbon tabs are displayed in Excel: The “Home” tab has some of the most commonly used buttons. You will gradually learn to use the commands on all the tabs.

up or down. At the bottom of the workbook window are tabs that give you instant access to other worksheets in the workbook. There are some keyboard shortcuts to navigate within the worksheet.… XFD and the rows are numbered from one onwards. the Excel 2007 grid is 1.… AA. Navigating the Excel Worksheet There are several methods for navigating a worksheet. 65 | P a g e . Cell address: The address of a cell is made up of two parts – the column name and the row number. BA. B. The intersection of a row and a column is called a cell.576 rows by 16. you must first move to the cell. To view the part of the worksheet that is currently not visible. By default. Microsoft Office Excel 2007 supports up to 1 million rows and 16 thousand columns per worksheet. chart sheets containing graphic pictures of your worksheet data. Microsoft Excel automatically recalculates formulas when the cells that the formula depends on have changed.The number of the third row is obviously 3 and the name of the fifth column is E. You can use the arrow keys to move left. Specifically. Each worksheet can be used to organize different types of related information. The worksheet is divided into a grid of rows and columns. right. To enable you to explore massive amounts of data in worksheets. The simplest way is to click the cell that you want to activate with the mouse. To enter data in a cell.384 columns which works out to more than 17 billion cells. a single file or document is called a workbook. As you move from one cell to another. Excel also calculates workbooks each time they are opened. C. Each cell has its own address called the cell address. It contains a collection of one or more worksheets and. AB. Suppose you want to refer to a cell in the third row and fifth column. the reference or address of the active cell appears in the Name Box. BB.048. you need to click the worksheet tabs. optionally. To move among the worksheets in your workbook. the address of that cell will be E3. use the vertical scroll bar on the right edge of the window or horizontal scroll bar at the bottom of the window. The columns are named as A. …AZ. A special feature of Excel is “AutoCalculate”.Assignment: The User Interface Workbooks and Worksheets In Microsoft Excel 2007.

Expense Statement. drag your cursor and release it when you have reached the end of the selection. move to a cell where you want to enter data and type the entry using the keyboard. It includes predefined settings that can be used as a pattern to create many different types of workbooks. Template: You may also create a new workbook using a template. the same default settings are used. It is here that you will be entering the data.. 66 | P a g e .“Ctrl+End” to go to the cell in the last row and last column that contains data. CREATING AND EDITING Creating a New Workbook When you first start Excel. a new blank Excel workbook is opened. click in the cell you want to begin. activate cell B1 and repeat the same procedure as you did for column A. To enter data.Page Up and Page Down keys can be used to move up or down one screen . you can enter data in it. The cell pointer will move down one row. To activate a particular cell. use the F5 function key or press “Ctrl+G”.Use “Ctrl+Home” to go the cell A1 and . Whenever you create a new workbook using a template. Click the Office Button and select “New”. For example a Sales Report. You can also design and create your own workbook templates. A template is a file that is provided by the application in a “ready to use” form. etc. When you finish entering data in one column.xltx”. Type the address of the cell you want to make active and click “OK”. Balance Sheet. A template file has an extension “.Use the Home key to move to column A of the current row . Click in cell A1 to activate it and type ‘Roll_No’ and press “Enter” to complete the entry. There is another way to create a new blank worksheet. Continue typing the data in column A as shown in the accompanying figure. To select a group of cells. Now click “Create” in the “New Workbook” window. Entering and Editing Data After you are presented with a blank worksheet.

Correcting typing mistakes: While entering the data. To adjust the width of the name box move your mouse between the name box and the formula box until the pointer changes to a horizontal two-headed arrow and then drag with your mouse to where you want it. For this. To overwrite the contents of a cell simply make the cell active and type whatever you want to. you can adjust the size of the formula box in the formula bar. Now move the cursor to the point at which you want to edit the text. Changing Column Width Now you will adjust the width of the column B. You can also click and drag the mouse to adjust the width of the column. a checkmark and an "X" icon appear just to the left of the box. To adjust the height of the formula box. To accommodate long names. When you start typing in the formula box. Leave it as it is for now. instead of editing directly in your worksheet. Click the checkmark to confirm your entry. The shape of the cursor will change to a double sided arrow pointing to the right and left. that is. The “Delete” key on the keyboard can be used to clear the contents of a cell. When the cursor 67 | P a g e . press "Delete" for characters to the right of the insertion point and "Backspace" for characters to the left. Resizing the Formula or Name Box: To make it easier to view and edit a large amount of text in a cell. if you make a typing mistake. move your mouse over the bottom of the formula box until the pointer changes to a vertical twoheaded arrow and then drag with your mouse to where you want it. We will see later on. You can use the formula bar to enter and edit data. or "X" to roll it back. use the “Backspace” key on the keyboard to erase the wrong character typed and continue typing. you see the Name Box on the left and the Formula Bar on the right.While entering the data in the “Name” column. You may wish to change only a part of the text in a cell. double-click on the cell. Place the mouse on the boundary between the columns. Move the mouse to the boundary between column B and column C in the bar where column names are given on top. you can also resize the name box. Double click on the boundary while the cursor is a double sided arrow. Below the Ribbon. you will see that the data overflows into the next column. how to adjust the column width. Enter data in all five columns as shown. This is particularly useful when a cell contains a large amount of information. column C. To remove individual characters. You may make the changes you require. The width of the column will be automatically adjusted to the maximum length of characters in the column.

Select all the data you have entered.shape changes. to click the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. Release the mouse when you reach cell E11. As soon as you have opened a new file. you must save the file. The name of the workbook appears in the “Title Bar”. Release the mouse when you reach cell E11. by placing the mouse in cell A1. Select all the data you have entered. Then click and drag the mouse up to the last cell containing data to be moved. To open an existing workbook. to save it again. “Ctrl+S”. The background color of the cells changes as you drag the mouse. The background color of the cells changes as you drag the mouse. Keep saving it as you work. Another way to save is file is. click and drag the mouse to widen the column as much as needed. To close the file. Closing and Opening a Workbook Now that all the data has been entered. From the window that is displayed. Moving Cells You now have to add a heading to the worksheet. Select the data from the cells to be moved and then select “Cut” in the “Clipboard” 68 | P a g e . you must make place on the worksheet. You now have to add a heading to the worksheet. The height of a row can be changed in a similar manner. click the Office Button and select “Save” or use the keyboard shortcut. You can also specify the width of the column by clicking on a column and selecting “Format → Column Width” in the “Cells” group on the “Home” tab. click the Office Button and select “Open” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+O”. Once a file has been saved. Now click “Open”. To save a file. click the Office Button and select “Save As”. You may also use the “Cut” and “Paste” commands to move cells. Saving.xlsx”. Your file is stored with the extension “. browse to select the file you want to open. you must make place on the worksheet. by placing the mouse in cell A1. Now close the file. click the Office Button and select “Close”. Then click and drag the mouse up to the last cell containing data to be moved. It is a good practice to save a file often to prevent data loss due to unforeseen circumstances like power failure. save it. To do so. Enter the column width and press “OK”. Then type ‘Exam Record’ in the box in front of the label “File name” and then click on the “Save” button. To do so.

a formula always begins with an equal sign (=) and uses arithmetic operators like +. Do the same for the other headings – . division. When you begin typing a formula. To do this in Excel. In Excel. addition and subtraction. When you see the item you want. The total of the marks for the three subjects is displayed in cell F10 as 248. Type ‘Total’ in cell F8. You now have to calculate the total marks for each student. Exam Record and Class VIII – B. Using Formulas Formula: A formula is nothing but an expression that performs calculation on data contained in the worksheet. all the selected cells are merged and the heading is centered. press Tab to enter it into your formula. Select the cells C8 to E8 and right-click on the selection. Move the data for ‘Roll_No’ and ‘Name’ one row down. Move the cursor down and type ‘=C10+D10+E10’ and press “Enter”. In regular Mathematics. multiplication. Formula AutoComplete: The Formula AutoComplete feature makes entering formulas very simple. and ^ to perform addition. multiplication and division. including a description of each item. percent and exponentiation respectively. Select cells starting with A1 to E1 and click on the “Merge & Center” icon in the “Alignment” group on the “Home” tab. Let the text overflow into the neighboring cells. A formula is evaluated from left to right and in the following order: percent. You will soon see how to bring the heading to the center of the data. exponentiation. Select “Insert” from the pop-up window and select “Shift cells down” from the “Insert” window. subtraction. one heading at a time You have to now insert cells to make place so that we can give a combined heading for the three subjects. %. Total Marks secured = Marks of Subject 1 + Marks of Subject 2 + Marks of Subject 3.group on the “Home” tab. as shown in the figure. Merge and center ‘Marks’ above the three subject marks as shown in the accompanying figure. they are evaluated from left to right. /. 69 | P a g e . Click on the cell where you want to move your data and then click on the upper part of the “Paste” icon in the “Clipboard” group on the “Home” tab. Centering and Merging Cells To merge and centre headings:Type the headings in appropriate cells as shown in the accompanying figure. As soon as you click on the icon. type ‘Marks’. *. If a formula contains operators of the same precedence. A moving border appears around the selection. you have to make use of a formula. Excel displays a drop-down list of matching items. -. In the cell above Sub1.

A moving border appears around the selection. Percentage = Marks secured multiplied by 100 and divided by the Maximum Marks. another worksheet. 70 | P a g e . An adjacent range is a block of adjoining cells. This indicates that the contents have been copied. you may use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+C” or select “Copy” from the “Clipboard” group on the “Home” tab. Move the cursor down and type ‘=F10 * (100/300)’ which is the formula to calculate percentage and then press “Enter”. The formula for adding marks and calculating percent is copied from cells F10 and G10 respectively and pasted into all selected cells. Thus you can change the value in a cell and see the effect on other related cells. Range: A range is a selection of two or more cells. The row numbers have changed relative to the positions of the cells containing the formula. Right click in anywhere in the selection. another workbook or in a totally different application. In the Formula Bar. Select “Paste” from the pop-up window. a range. Let us change the marks of one student. It shows “=C11+D11+E11”. This is called “What-If Analysis”. that is. observe the formula you have pasted in cell F11. Duplicating Cell Contents You have to calculate the ‘Total’ and ‘Percent’ marks for all students in the same way. You can see that the value in the “Percent” field is changed automatically. press Esc key.66667. Select all cells from F11 to G19. This is called “Relative Cell Referencing”. Alternatively. You may also use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+V” or select “Paste” from the “Clipboard” group on the “Home” tab. all related formulas are recalculated automatically. The formula can be copied and pasted in the other cells. The formula in cell F12 is “=C12+D12+E12”. The cells in a range can be adjacent or non-adjacent. In regular Mathematics. Select cells F10 and G10. The Percent marks for the three subjects are displayed in cell G10 as 82. The contents of several continuous cells.to cancel the moving border. can also be copied and pasted in a similar manner on the same worksheet. What-If Analysis: If you change one or more numbers in your spreadsheet. But you don’t have to type the formula every time.You have now to calculate the percent marks for each student. A non-adjacent range is two or more cells or ranges that are not adjoining. Right-click anywhere in the selection Select “Copy” from the pop-up window. Type ‘Percent’ in cell G8.

The result of the function is displayed in cell H10. It is possible to nest multiple IF functions within one Excel formula. A non-adjacent range is specified by giving the cell addresses separated by a comma (. Click on the cell A11 and drag to the cell A18. IF(G10>=60. Type the heading ‘Grade’ in cell I8 and type the function as shown in cell I10. you will use the “IF” function."PASS". press the “Ctrl” key and then click on the next two cells. IF(G10>=75. "B". IF(G10>=50. Type the heading ‘Result’ in cell H8 and type the function as shown in cell H10. the student will be declared “PASSED”. "FAIL"))))) Press “Enter”. You now have to give Grades to the students according to their marks. C7. otherwise he would be declared “FAILED”. In Excel. Pass grade All others fail. Using Functions A “Function” is a prewritten formula that performs calculations automatically. Let us select the range A11:A18 using the mouse. "Fail"). Let us learn to use a nested IF this time. This means a new “IF” statement is started inside another “IF” statement. 71 | P a g e . A+ grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 75. A grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 60. C grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 35. You will again use the “IF” function to do so. “Copy” this function and “Paste” it in the cells from H11 to H19. B grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 50. This is called “nested IF”. "C". In regular English. The results for all students are displayed. =IF(G10>=80. E9. The result of the function is displayed in cell I10. "A+". Now select C14:F21. =IF(G10>=35. "A". The grades will be given as follows: Percent marks greater than or equal to 80. Click on the first cell. “Copy” this function and “Paste” it in the cells from I11 to I19.) like A4. The grades for all students are displayed. you would write this condition as follows: If percentage is greater than or equal to 35. The condition for a student to pass is that he must secure at least 35 percent marks. IF(G10>=35. You have to decide whether a student has passed or failed."Pass".In formulas. Press “Enter”. an adjacent range is specified by giving the starting and ending cell addresses separated by a colon (:).

select “Statistical” from the “Or select a category” list. select “MIN” from the alphabetical list of functions and click “OK”. you have to use the “AVERAGE” function. 72 | P a g e . Type ‘Maximum marks’.Now to find the maximum. Enter the numbers or the range from which you want to find the minimum number. minimum and average marks scored by the students. and type ‘=Average (F10:F19)’ in it. to find the minimum marks. The Function Arguments window is displayed. The minimum number in the range is displayed in cell C23. Select “Insert Function” in the “Function Library” group on the “Formulas” tab. activate it. Press “Enter” to complete the entry. It is written for you by Excel as =MAX (F10:F19) Now. Activate cell C24. Type the range as ‘F10:F19’ next to “Number1” and click “OK”. Select “Insert Function” in the “Function Library” group on the “Formulas” tab. The “Function Arguments” window is displayed. you have to use “MIN” function. Select the “Statistical” category. Type the range as ’F10:F19’ next to”Number1” and click “OK”. Observe the formula bar to see how the function is written. From the window that opens. It is written for you by Excel as =MIN (F10:F19) There is another way of using functions. select “MAX” from the alphabetical list of functions and click “OK”. If the category is something else. and B24 respectively. the “Statistical” category will already be selected. From the “Select a function” list. To insert a function in cell C22. The result is displayed in cell C24. Here you can enter the numbers or the range from which you want to find the maximum number. you can make use of some statistical functions. You can type all the functions in the same manner whenever you want to use them. click in the drop down box next to “Or select a category”. You can simply type the function you want to use in the cell. From the “Select a function” list. Since the “MAX” function has been most recently used. ‘Minimum marks’ and ‘Average marks’ in cells B22. The maximum number in the range is displayed in cell C22 as 262. Observe the formula bar to see how the function is written. B23. Activate cell C23. To find the average marks.

With the Ctrl key still held down. Select “Blue”. A window of colors is displayed. Select “Format” in the “Cells” group on the “Home tab. Let us see how we can enhance our worksheet which looks quite plain. click on the “Number” tab. then click on the “Bold” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. and effects. The font and the font size of the heading are changed. Changing the “Font” and “Font Size” of the headings: Select cell A1 and click on the “Font” list in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. A5. Select the range of Percent marks. If the headings are not selected. Alignment: To bring the headings to the center. You can choose from a variety of predefined styles by selecting “Cell Styles” in the “Styles” group on the “Home” tab. “Styles” are individual designs that can be applied to different parts of the document. you must first select all of them. 73 | P a g e . To select all headings. click on the “Center” icon in the “Alignment” group on the “Home” tab. Select “Bodoni MT Black”. you can make them bold. Now select “Thick Box Border” from the displayed list. A theme consists of a color palette. Adding a thick border: Select the range of cells from A8 to H19 and click on the arrow next to the “Borders” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. Now click on “Format Cells” and from the window that opens. A list of fonts is displayed. Decimal Places: The percent marks are displayed with many decimal places. click in cell A1.Formatting the Worksheet You can make your spreadsheet look more coordinated and professional by using Styles and Themes. “Themes” are universal designs that unify all of the styles. Click “OK”. While the headings are still selected. The font color of all headings is displayed with the color Blue. font set. A thick border is displayed around the entire range. Changing the font color of the headings: Select all headings and click on the arrow next to the “Font Color” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. You want the percent marks to be displayed with only two decimal places. You may use the “Align Text Left” or “Align Text Right” icons to move the headings to the left or right if you wish. select range A8:H8 and range C9:E9. You may access the theme gallery by selecting “Themes” in the “Themes” group on the “Page Layout” tab. Hold down the Ctrl key and click in cells A4. To bring the headings to the center. Select “Number” from the “Category” list and change “Decimal places” to 2. All the headings are centered. Then click on the “Font Size” list and select 14. The numbers in the “Percent” range are displayed with two decimal places. select them first. The accompanying figure shows an enhanced view of the worksheet.

Highlighting: To highlight the range of “Maximum, Minimum and Average Marks”, select the range B22:C24. Click on the “Fill Color” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. Select the color “Yellow”. The cell range is filled with the color Yellow. Indenting: To adjust the indenting of the contents of a cell, click on the cell. Then, in the “Alignment” group on the “Home” tab, click on the “Increase Indent” or “Decrease Indent” icon as required. Working with Graphics You now have to insert the logo of the School. To do so, activate cell G3 and select “Clip Art” in the “Illustrations” group on the “Insert” tab. In the “Clip Art” panel at the right, type ‘concepts’ in the “Search for:” box. Check in the boxes before “My Collections” and “Office Collections” in the drop down list of “Search in”. Click in the box before “Clip Art” in the drop down list of “Results should be” and click “Go”. Resizing the graphic image: Click on the “Bull’s Eye” image. It will be bigger in size. You have to resize it so that it occupies less space and looks proportionate to the rest of the data on the page. To resize it, click on the lower right corner handle of the image, and drag the mouse so that the image becomes smaller in size. Release the mouse when the image becomes the desired size. Entering the Date Inserting a row: Click on row number 7 on the left side. Right click and select “Insert”. One Row will be inserted. To insert multiple rows, select an equal number of rows. This means that when you select four rows, four more rows are inserted. Activate cell A7 and type ‘Date:’. Then place the cell pointer in cell B7 and select “Insert Function” in the “Function Library” group on the “Formulas” tab. Select “Date & Time” as category. Select “Date” as function and click “OK”. Type the “Year” as ‘2007’, “Month” as ‘02’ and “Day” as ‘21’ in the “Function Arguments” window. Click “OK”. The date is displayed as “2/21/2007” in cell B7. Formatting the date: To change the date format, right-click in cell B7 and select “Format cells”. The “Format Cells” window is displayed. Click on the “Number” tab. Select “Date” from the “Category” list and select the “Type” as “14-Mar-01”. The sample format is visible in the “Sample” box. Click “OK”. The date is displayed in the format 21-Feb-07. Previewing and Printing
74 | P a g e

The worksheet is now ready. You can print it. Before getting a hard copy, you can preview the worksheet. If you do not like the way it looks, you can make more changes. To preview your worksheet, click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. The “Print Preview” tab appears when you view the worksheet in the Print Preview mode. Click “Close Print Preview” in the “Preview” group to close the preview. Everything seems to be OK. But the logo of the school needs to be moved up, in line with the school’s name. Moving the graphic image: Click and drag the “Bull’s Eye” image so that it is in line with the school’s name. Release the mouse when done. The image can also be moved by using the arrow keys on the keyboard by selecting it first. Click on the image to select it. Use the right arrow key to move the graphic image to the right, left arrow key to move it to the left and so on. Printing the worksheet: Click the Office Button and select “Print → Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. Select the printer name from the list in front of “Name”. Under “Print Range” enter “Pages From” as ‘1’ To ‘1’. Select “Active Sheet” under “Print what” and click “OK”. Sorting Data Excel can quickly sort text, data or numbers according to specified criteria in ascending or descending order. In the worksheet displayed you can see a list of people along with their ages. Let us sort this list according to the names. Click in any of the cells containing names and then click “Sort & Filter” in the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab. To sort the list in ascending order of names, click “Sort A to Z”. To sort it in descending order, click “Sort & Filter” and select “Sort Z to A”. Now, to sort this list according to the ages of the people, click in a cell containing an age and follow the same procedure. When you click the “Sort & Filter” icon, you see the options “Sort Smallest to Largest” and “Sort Largest to Smallest”. This is because previously it was an alphabetic list and now it is a list containing numbers that is being sorted. To sort the list in ascending order of ages, select “Sort Smallest to Largest”. Now if you had to sort the data in the worksheet containing student marks that you previously created in descending order of roll numbers, you would need to follow a slightly different procedure. This is because this worksheet contains headings and information other than simply data. First select all columns which contain data and then select “Sort & Filter → Sort Largest to Smallest” in the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab. Using Charts
75 | P a g e

Learning about Charts

You have to present the exam results of the students of class VIII-B. The most easy and effective manner to do this would be to present it in the form of a chart. A chart is a visual representation of data and conveys the information in an easy to understand and attractive manner. There are different types of charts available in Microsoft Excel 2007 such as Column charts, Line charts, Bar charts, Area charts, Bubble charts and many more. You may select a suitable type depending on the data you want to chart and the emphasis you want the chart to impart. Here you will learn to make a single data series chart. Parts of a Chart: A chart has different parts as labeled in the accompanying image. Chart Title – The tile of the chart “Student Vs Marks”. Value Axis – The Y-axis on which the value is shown. Value Axis Title – The title “Marks”. Category Axis – The X-axis on which the category for which you have charted the values is shown. Category Axis Title – The title “Name” Chart Area – The entire area on which the chart is drawn. Legend – The legend, as in a map, shows which color is used to represent what: “Series 1” in this case. Creating a Chart To present the marks of all students as a chart, select the “Name” range (B11 to B20), hold down the “Ctrl” key and select the “Total” range (F11 to F20), without selecting the titles in cells B9 and F9. On the “Insert” tab, in the “Charts” group, select “Column”. Now select “Clustered Column”, the first image from the Chart sub-types displayed. You can now see the chart on your worksheet. You can make changes to your chart and enhance its appearance using various “Chart Tools”. If you do not see “Chart Tools” displayed on the Ribbon, click in the chart area to ensure that the chart is selected. Now, under “Chart Tools”, on the “Design” tab, select a suitable style from the “Chart Styles” group. Now let us add more details in our chart. For this we shall use the “Labels” group on the “Layout” tab under “Chart Tools”. Click “Chart Title” and select “Above Chart”. Now type the title ‘Student Vs Marks’. As you type, it appears

76 | P a g e

drag it to a position of your choice. Press “Enter”. You may explore the various other options on the “Format” tab to further enhance your chart. Select “Bar” in the left pane of the “Change Chart Type” window and then click “Clustered Bar” in the right pane. select “Axis Titles → Primary Horizontal Axis Title → Title Below Axis”. Sizing the chart: Click on the center of any side of the chart or at a corner. you can even change the Chart Type.in the Formula Bar at the top. Click on the “Format” tab under “Chart Tools”. Data Labels are used to label the elements of a chart with their actual data values. Select “Data Labels → Outside End”. select the cells that contain the data that you want to appear in the chart. select it by clicking in the chart area. To print only the chart. Your chart appears as a bar chart. This time. select “Change Chart Type” in the “Type” group. select “Axis Titles → Primary Vertical Axis Title → Rotated Title”. Now click “OK”. type “Names” and press “Enter”. select the data in the “Name” column and “Subject 1” column and click “OK” in the “Select Data Source” window. You can now see the actual marks of each student. on your worksheet. When the mouse pointer changes to a two-headed arrow. To enter the description for the Y-axis. On the “Design” tab under “Chart Tools”. click on the “Design” tab under “Chart Tools”. Now click “Select Data” in the “Data” group. Then select a WordArt Style from the “WordArt Styles” group. the spelling checker locates all misspelled words and proposes the correct spelling. type “Marks” and press “Enter”. 77 | P a g e . Similarly. Select a Shape Style from the “Shape Styles” group. Modifying a Chart You may decide that you want to plot only the marks of Subject 1 in the chart. Now click on the Office Button and then select “Print”. For this. Now. You may enhance the appearance of your chart. Managing a Workbook Correcting Errors While entering data. drag to a suitable size. if some spelling mistakes have been made. The chart title is displayed above your chart. After a chart has been created. Moving the chart: Click on the chart and when the mouse pointer changes to a four-headed arrow. The “Select Data Source” window is displayed. to enter the description for the X-axis. You can see that the chart displays the marks of Subject 1.

You may add these words to the dictionary by clicking the “Add to Dictionary” button. the spelling checker moves to the next word. options are displayed in the “Suggestions” box from the spelling checker’s dictionary. a message saying so is displayed. The Sheet2 will be displayed. The “Spelling” window is displayed and one by one every word in your worksheet is checked. If the spelling is correct but shown as incorrect for some reason. “Ignore” etc. Click a sheet you want move and drag it to the place you want to copy it and release the mouse 78 | P a g e . select the sheet. When you click on any button such as “Change”. If a spelling is found to be wrong. click on “Undo Last”. Simply copy them from one sheet to another. select the book you want to move the sheet to. click in the “Create a copy” check box. On the sheet tabs below. Select the “Move or Copy” option. Select the “Paste” option. Select all headings in the range A1 to H10. Select “Spelling” in the “Proofing” group on the “Review” tab or use the keyboard shortcut “F7”. In the “To book” list. From the “Before sheet” list. click on “Ignore All” or “Ignore Once” whichever is appropriate. You may copy a sheet to another workbook. You can also select the sheet before which you want to insert it. such as proper nouns which are not really errors may be shown as spelling mistakes. Moving or copying sheets: Right click on the Sheet1 tab. You can use the same format of the worksheet. click on Sheet2.. If there are more than one occurrences of the same word spelt wrongly. When the checking is completed for the entire worksheet. Some words. Right-click in cell A1 of Sheet2. You may also move or copy sheets with the mouse. Right-click on the selection and click on “Copy”. Working with Sheets You want to make the exam record for another class now. All you need to do is to add data. A whole new worksheet with the same layout but with different data is ready. You do not have to type all the headings once again. In that case. To copy the sheet. select the correct word from the suggestions list and click on the “Change” button. click on the “Change All” button. If you change a word which you did not want to. You may make changes in this sheet for another class. The “Move or Copy” window is displayed. The range copied from Sheet1 is pasted in cell A1 of Sheet2.Place the cell pointer at the beginning of your worksheet or from wherever you want to start checking for errors.

right click in any of the sheet tabs and select “Ungroup Sheets”. You may change the tab color of sheets to distinguish between the data stored on each sheet. Move the mouse to the corner of the selection. to give you an idea of what data is stored on the sheet. the “Insert” window is displayed. 3000. When you release the mouse. The number of the copy appears in brackets in the sheet tab Naming a sheet: When you have many sheets. delete. You can name the sheet accordingly. A ‘+’ sign appears on the page icon while copying the sheet. If you select “Delete”. hold down the “Ctrl” key while you drag a sheet. You will see a black plus sign. without opening the sheets. Through the options in this window. Double-click on the name of the sheet. To deselect the sheets. and change the tab color. For this. All the range you selected will be filled with names of months starting with January. right-click on a sheet tab and select “Tab Color”.button. another copy of the sheet is made. the current sheet will be deleted after confirmation. You can select all sheets by selecting the “Select all sheets” option. Simply type the new name. If you select “Insert”. When you copy. a solid black triangle appears along with a blank page icon. from which you can select whether you want to insert a worksheet. move or copy. 2000. select all sheets. To copy a sheet with the mouse. names of the months in short. Type the entry ‘January’ in a cell. Other such autofill entries are . The name of the sheet is changed. etc. Drag the mouse as far as you want the cells to fill and release the mouse. number series like 1000. the sheet will be moved to the new location.days of the week in short. Autofill recognizes and automatically extends data and alphanumeric headings as far as you specify. you can insert. Manage a sheet: When you right-click on the sheet tab. it becomes difficult to remember what data is stored on each sheet. rename. This is the fill handle. Using Autofill: Autofill is a feature of Microsoft Excel 2007 that makes entering a series of headings easier by logically repeating and extending the series. While you drag. The name will be highlighted. Absolute reference: An absolute reference is a cell or range reference used in a formula whose location does not change when a formula is copied. To stop 79 | P a g e . a number of options are displayed in the pop-up window. a chart or something else.

Let us now go to Sheet3. enter “=Sheet1!A1+Sheet2! A1” and press “Enter”. there can be data in a number of rows and columns all of which cannot be seen at the same time. Now. Although the formula has been copied. At such times. activate cell M6 and type ‘=L6 * $O$2’ in it. For the Final exam. type a $ (dollar) character before the column and row number. Sheet1 has the value 100 in cell A1 and Sheet2 has the value 200 in cell A1. more data will fit on the screen and vice versa. To split the window vertically. starting with cell ‘J1’. you can change the display percentage of the sheet. By adding ‘$’ before ‘O’ and ‘2’. Select “Zoom” in the “Zoom” group on the “View” tab. the reference of cell O2 has remained constant. This makes the cell reference absolute. This is called referencing multiple sheets. Select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the top row. Zooming the worksheet: In Microsoft Excel 2007. Managing Large Sheets You already know the massive size of the worksheet in Microsoft Excel 2007. Splitting Panes: You can split the window either horizontally. At such times. Copy this formula from cell M6 to the remaining students and check the formula for each student in the “Formula Bar”. Here. Now. in the cell A1. Thus “Sheet1!A1” refers to cell A1 on Sheet1. You may copy the Roll Nos and the Names. while rows or columns in the non-scrolled area remain visible. You can work in any part of the worksheet at any time. 20% of the Unit Test marks are to be calculated.the automatic relative cell references. But the problem comes when you need to refer to some other part while working in one part of the sheet. You can see that the sum of the figures on the other two sheets is displayed here. In the zoom window you may select a zoom percentage of your choice. you have made the column and the row references absolute. If you reduce the percentage. You can then scroll in one area of the worksheet. the cell reference does not change. When a formula containing an absolute cell reference is copied to another row or column in the worksheet. you can view two areas of a worksheet and lock rows or columns in one area by splitting or freezing panes. to calculate 20% marks. vertically or both horizontally and vertically. but data for marks will have to be typed. Now both panes have a common vertical scroll bar but 80 | P a g e . Prepare the data as shown in the accompanying figure in the neighboring space. Referencing multiple sheets: While working you may have to reference data from more than one sheet.

rows and columns. Freezing panes: With the “Freeze Panes” option. When a window is split both horizontally and vertically. To freeze the left pane of the window. the top left pane freezes. For this. Select “Freeze Panes → Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. You can freeze information in the top and left panes of the window only. To freeze the top pane of the window. Now both panes have a common horizontal scroll bar but individual vertical scroll bars to enable you to move separately in the two panes. regardless of where you are in the worksheet. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the leftmost column. selecting “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab results in a horizontal and vertical split. select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab once again. To remove a split. This means that. select “Freeze Panes → Unfreeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. Moving using the horizontal scrollbar keeps the column numbers in the frozen pane unchanged. Select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. As you scroll through your worksheet. click the cell below and to the right of the row and column you want to freeze.individual horizontal scroll bars to enable you to move separately in the two panes. To split the window horizontally. To split the window both horizontally as well as vertically. you can see the information in those rows and/or columns at all times. You can see that three panes have appropriate vertical and horizontal scroll bars. place the cell pointer in the appropriate cell where you want the split to appear. select the appropriate options from those displayed on selection of “Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. 81 | P a g e . Select “Freeze Panes → Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. Select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. Select “Freeze Panes → Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. you can see that the frozen panes are visible at all times. Also. To freeze the top row or first column. or both. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the top row. you can freeze either. Moving using the vertical scrollbar keeps the row numbers in the frozen pane unchanged. if you click on the top left cell. Let us assume that you wish to have the headings and roll numbers & names of the students visible always. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the leftmost column. To remove the freeze.

type ‘105’ (the passing total marks) in the “To value” box. but not the input value the formula needs to get that result. Click “OK”. Select “WhatIf Analysis → Goal Seek” in the “Data Tools” group on the “Data” tab. During analysis. Headers. If you have say 15 pages in your workbook. Header and Footer: Before you print your data. containing the “Total” marks of the student. Click “OK”. The text that appears in the bottom margin of the page is called the Footer. you can change the orientation of the page so that data can be fitted accordingly. You can see that he has scored very poor marks in one of the three subjects. you may change page orientation to “Landscape” by selecting “Orientation” in the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab.Forecasting Values Goal Seek: One of the features of Microsoft Excel is analyzing data. The default setting is “Portrait”. the cell with the marks below pass level. you often come across situations. if a student has failed. The marks in the failed subject are adjusted to 35. you may decide that the pages of your worksheet must have a header and footer. Student with Roll Number 6 has failed. If you know the result that you want from a formula. The “Goal Seek Status” window is displayed. you want to find out. you can change the page orientation to landscape. The page number is usually given as the footer. where you have to see the effects of changing selected factors in a worksheet. Footers and Print Settings Page orientation: Depending on the area of the worksheet you want to print. You now want to find out. If there is more data to be fitted on one page. For example. Click in the “By changing cell” field and then click C16. you can use the Goal Seek feature. you can use the “Header & Footer” option to add the same header and footer on each page. If the data is not properly visible on the page. The value in cell C16 is adjusted to get the target value. Activate cell F16. You can do this with Goal seek. The header is usually the title you would give to the page. In the “Goal Seek” window. how much he should have scored in the failed subject to score pass marks. how many marks he should have scored in that subject so that he would have secured a Pass grade. 82 | P a g e . Click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. The header and footer give additional information about the data on the page. It is a method which aids you in forecasting values. The text that appears in the top margin of the page is called the Header.

click on “Active sheet(s)” and then click “OK”. For this. click on “Current Date” in the “Header & Footer Elements” group. With a few keystrokes you can quickly change. text. We shall insert the page number in the box displayed. whether to the Board of Directors of a company or to your fellow colleagues. click on “Page Number” in the “Header & Footer Elements” group. select the name of the printer from the list in the “Name” field. charts and tables. Check the layout and close the preview by clicking “Close Print Preview” in the “Preview” group. On the “Design” tab under “Header & Footer Tools”. Click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”.Select “Header & Footer” in the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. Use the “Ctrl” key to select more than one sheet. Press “Enter” and type ‘Class VIII B’ on the second line. you can choose from a variety of computer tools called Graphics Presentation Programs. You can print selected sheets in the workbook. Press “Tab” and then press the “Esc” key to complete creation of the footer. Now click “Go to Footer” in the “Navigation” group. These programs are designed to help you to create an effective presentation. Select all the sheets you want to print by clicking on the sheet tabs. Presentation Graphics Overview of Presentation Graphics Introduction to Presentation Graphics If you have to make a presentation to an audience and you want it to be good. 83 | P a g e . An effective presentation puts your point across clearly and in an interesting manner. movies and sounds. correct and update the presentation. In the “Print What” section. Now press the “Tab” key. This will insert the date. Printing selected worksheets: You do not always need to print the entire workbook. Here. Click on the Office Button and select “Print”. This displays another box to the right. you may enter the text “First Term Exam Report”. A box is displayed at the center of the header area. Graphics Presentation Programs include features to handle pictures. In the “Print” window. a Graphics Presentation Program may also suggest layouts and color and animation schemes for different types of presentations and offer professionally designed templates to help you to create a presentation that is sure to hold the attention of your audience. In addition.

The “Design” tab contains tools to design your slides. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007”. Each slide shows a different screen to your audience. Undo. you may see the assignment titled “The User Interface” in the “Microsoft Word” topic. Groups and Command buttons. and Redo. You see the familiar Microsoft Office 2007 user interface which consists of: 1) The Office Button which displays a menu containing commands for opening. The following Ribbon tabs are displayed in PowerPoint: The “Home” tab contains the basic formatting tools. 3) The Ribbon which has Task-oriented Tabs. The “View” tab contains tools which help you view your presentation in the most suitable way. You will gradually learn to use the commands on all the tabs. The “Animations” tab contains tools to animate objects and create transitions between slides. and closing a file. saving. 2) The Quick Access toolbar which displays icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. Exploring Microsoft PowerPoint: To start the Microsoft PowerPoint application. The “Insert” tab contains the basic set of objects which you can insert into a slide. 84 | P a g e . The “Review” tab contains tools which help you proofread and correct a presentation. The “Slide Show” tab contains tools that control how the slide show is presented. Click on the Office Button and select “New”. printing. You may create a new presentation using a template provided by PowerPoint. For more details on the Microsoft Office User Interface. Creating a Presentation Using Installed Templates A “Template” is a pre-designed presentation designed for common purposes such as a photo album or a quiz show.Each presentation is divided into slides.

This makes it easy to navigate through your presentation and to see the effects of changes. under “Templates”. It has three working areas. In the Normal View. you can find various tools that control how the slide show is presented. You can see how your graphics.In the left panel. This is the main editing view. Microsoft PowerPoint has three main views: Normal View. To actually run a slide show. Click on a suitable one and then press the “Create” button. on the right you can see the “Slide Pane”. Now. add or delete slides. Slide Sorter View. Creating your First Slide 85 | P a g e . The “Slides” tab shows your slides as thumbnail-sized images while you edit. When you have finished creating and editing your presentation. Normal View: Select “Normal” in the “Presentation Views” group. On the bottom is the “Notes Pane” in which you can type notes that you want along with a slide. movies. On the left are the “Slides” and “Outline” tabs. The “Outline” tab shows your slide text in outline form. A new presentation is displayed with pre-defined settings. Slide Sorter View: Click the “View” tab. you see your presentation the way your audience will. Slide Show View: Select “Slide Show” in the “Presentation Views” group or press “F5” on your keyboard. which displays a large view of the current slide. Slide Sorter View gives you an overall picture of it. Select “Slide Sorter” in the “Presentation Views” group. or delete slides. you may select “Slide Show” in the “Presentation Views” group on the “View” tab or click the “Slide Show” button at the bottom right of the status bar. like an actual slide show presentation. click “Installed Templates” to see a list of templates. and Slide Show View. You can also rearrange. You can make changes as required. This is an exclusive view of your slides in thumbnail form. timings. making it easy to reorder. Click on the tab names to view the respective tabs. you may use the options available on the “Slide Show” tab. In this full-screen view. add. if you need to make changes to the way your slide show runs. PowerPoint Presentation Views Viewing a presentation: A “view” is a way of looking at a presentation. animated elements and transition effects will look in the actual show. Here. you may specify the timing between the display of each slide and which slides are to be hidden during the presentation. For example. This view takes up the full computer screen. You may also change the presentation views by clicking on the buttons displayed on the “Status Bar” at the bottom of the screen.

Now click on a theme of your choice. Sizing a placeholder: The “Sizing Handles” at the sides and corners of the selection rectangle can be used to adjust the size of the placeholder. When you move your mouse over a sizing handle the pointer becomes a twoheaded arrow. In the “Themes” group. you see two boxes. You can see a “Rotation Handle” which is a round arrow at the top of the placeholder. Sizing and Moving Placeholders You know that placeholders are boxes that are part of most slide layouts. you see a blank presentation in Normal View with the default name “Presentation1”. click on the arrow at the bottom right to see all available themes. These are simultaneously reflected in the Slide Pane. Saving and Opening a Presentation 86 | P a g e . These are called “Placeholders”. When you start PowerPoint. and pictures. you can drag to the location you wish. tables. When the pointer becomes a four-headed arrow. drag the rotation handle in the direction that you want to rotate it. you may make editing changes to your text on the Outline tab. Applying a Theme: You may enhance the appearance of this slide which looks quite plain. click in an area between the sizing handles on the side borders. The sizing handles at the sides are used to adjust only the height or the width. First. Click on the “Design” tab. In the second placeholder type a subtitle. In the Slide Pane on the right. An insertion point is displayed to show your location in the text. In the existing slide. click on the text in the title. Click in the first placeholder and type the name you want to give your presentation. You may need to change some of the text that you have entered on your slide. Editing in the Slide Pane: You may make changes directly in the slide pane.You are working for a company which offers various educational courses. The title is now a selected object and is surrounded by a selection rectangle. To rotate a placeholder. Dragging a corner sizing handle adjusts both the height and width at the same time. It can be used to rotate the placeholder to any angle. let us assume you need to make changes to the title. You may now edit the text as you wish. You wish to create a presentation which introduces your company and tells about its numerous activities. To move a placeholder. These boxes hold title and body text or objects such as charts. Using the Outline Tab: Alternately. Moving a placeholder: You may wish to change the position of your placeholder. Click on the title text.

click the picture icon. You may apply other effects to your picture by selecting from the various options available under “Picture Effects” in the “Picture Styles” group on the “Format” tab. Select a suitable one. click on the lower part of the “New Slide” icon. click on the “More” arrow to see all available picture styles. Now click on the “Format” tab under “Picture Tools”. You may also use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+S”. Enter the title and text as shown. Let us also insert the same picture on the first slide we created. In the “Slides” group. tables. You may use the default name for your presentation or enter a new one.pptx”. You may click on a style of your choice. Changing Fonts and Formatting 87 | P a g e . In the “Insert Picture” window. The available layouts are displayed. on a slide. You can see a new slide with the specified layout. create a slide using the “Picture with Caption” layout. You may change the size and position as required. In the “Picture Styles” group. Click on the “Home” tab. Similarly. Using a Slide Layout and Inserting Pictures A Slide Layout refers to the arrangement of elements. In the “Illustrations” group. The picture is displayed on your slide in a placeholder. Let us create a new slide by specifying a layout. Enhancing the Picture: You may make changes to the picture by using various Picture Tools. To open a file that you have previously saved. As you did earlier. Click on the picture name and then click “Insert”. In the “Open” window. Click the “Open” button to display the selected file on the screen. Now click the Office Button and select “Close” to close this file. you may click the Office Button and select “Save”. browse to the location of your picture file. Your file is stored with the extension “. In the “Save As” window specify the location at which you wish to save your presentation. charts and movies. Now click “Save”. To open a recently used presentation you may click the Office Button and then click on the presentation name in the list displayed under “Recent Documents”. click the Office Button and select “Open”.To save your presentation. Now click on the “Insert” tab. in the “Insert Picture” window. Click on the first slide on the Slides tab in the left pane. browse to the location of your picture file. Click on the picture. pictures. select “Picture”. browse to the location of your presentation and click on the file name from the displayed list. Click on the picture name and then click “Insert”. such as text. To display a picture of your company logo on your slide. Enter the title and text as shown.

You may select the desired Font and Font Size from the “Fonts” group. Changing Font Effects and Color: From the “Fonts” group. Make your selection from the various bullet styles displayed. 88 | P a g e . Similarly. click on the “Review” tab. Select the text to be formatted by highlighting the text on the slide. Click on the third slide on the Slides tab in the left pane. you may select other effects such as Bold. Select “Background Styles” in the “Background” group and make your selection. to create a numbered list. Italic. readable and user-friendly is called formatting. select the text and then click the arrow to the right of the “Bullets” icon in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. You will now observe that the text has changed to the new font of the size you selected. you may use the “Numbering” icon in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. Formatting: Enhancing the appearance of the slide to make it more attractive. You may also change the color of the font by clicking on the arrow to the right of the “Font Color” icon and making your selection. Click on the second slide on the Slides tab in the left pane. “Center” and “Align Text Right” icons in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. click on the “Design” tab. Now select “Spelling” in the “Proofing” group or use the keyboard shortcut “F7”. Changing the Background Style: To change the background of your slides. To correct the misspelled words. you may have unknowingly left several typing errors uncorrected. In this way you can check the spellings on all the slides of the presentation at one time. Now to create a bulleted list. In the window displayed you may specify the size and orientation of your slides and then click “OK”. Applying different formatting to characters and paragraphs can greatly enhance the appearance of the slide. Underline and Text Shadow by clicking on the respective icons.Changing Font and Font Size: Let us change the Font and Font Size of the text on the second slide. Let us create such a list on the third slide. Bullets and Numbering: You may enter text as a bulleted or numbered list. Changing Alignment: You may change the alignment of text by clicking on the “Align Text Left”. Changing Page Properties: Select “Page Setup” in the “Page Setup” group on the “Design” tab. Let us center the title of the slide. You may also increase or decrease the font size by clicking on the “Increase Font Size” and “Decrease Font Size” icons in the “Fonts” group. Checking Spellings As you may have entered the information on previous slides. Now click on the “Home” tab.

To insert a slide between two slides. you may find it more convenient to use the Slide Sorter View to view all your slides and change their positions. Now click on the slide you wish to move and drag it to a new location. You may now select “Delete” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab or press the “Delete” key on your keyboard. If you do not wish to change what you have typed. When your entire presentation has been scanned. Let us revert to Normal View by clicking the “Normal” icon on the Status Bar. You may choose “Ignore All” if the word appears many times throughout the presentation. To select multiple slides in a row. Change to Slide Sorter View by clicking on the “Slide Sorter” button on the Status Bar at the bottom of the screen. you can see how your presentation would look when viewed by an audience to 89 | P a g e .For each word that is misspelled. Moving and Deleting Slides Inserting a Slide: You know that you can insert a new slide by selecting “New Slide” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. you may highlight one of the suggestions displayed or manually correct it yourself by typing in the correct word in the “Change to” box. Moving a Slide: To move a slide in Normal View. Click “Change” to make the correction or “Change All” if there are multiple instances of the misspelled word in the presentation. Deleting a Slide: You may use either the Normal View or the Slide Sorter View to delete a slide. Now to delete the blank slide that was just inserted. and drag to a new location. a dialog box will appear and will prompt you to effect suitable corrections. Let us move all slides back to their original positions. select one or more slide icons on the “Slides” tab. click on the slide after which you want the new slide on the “Slides” tab and then click on the “New Slide” icon. To correct a word that is spelt incorrectly. click “Ignore”. Running a Slide Show Running a Slide Show: Once all the slides are in the order that you want. press “Shift” before clicking the slide icon and then drag. you will be informed accordingly. click the slide icon on the “Slides” tab. If you have a large number of slides in your presentation. Inserting.

You can see the “Web Page Preview” button on the Quick Access toolbar.run a presentation. select “Web Page Preview”. You may print all slides. click “From Beginning” or use the keyboard shortcut “F5” to view the complete presentation You may click or press the spacebar to move to the next slide. From the list displayed below. 90 | P a g e . the current slide only or any selection of slides. In the window displayed. Printing a Presentation: Click the Office Button and select “Print → Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. it is always a good idea to preview onscreen how your slides will appear when printed. The “Print” window is displayed. Click on the Office Button and then click “PowerPoint Options”. click “Customize” in the left pane. Print what: Here. notes pages or outline view. Web Page Preview: To preview your presentation as a web page. click on the “Slide Show” tab in the “Start Slide Show” group. handouts. Clicking it displays your presentation as it would look in a web browser. Now click “Add” and then click “OK”. Previewing and Printing a Presentation Previewing A Presentation: As you work with your slides. Viewing the slide show from the current slide: To do so. you may specify whether you wish to print the slides. you need to add the “Web Page Preview” command to the Quick Access toolbar. The “Print Preview” tab appears when you view the slide in the Print Preview mode. Under “Choose Commands from:” select “All Commands”. Click “Close Print Preview” in the “Preview” group to close the preview. Then click the “From Current Slide” icon in the “Start Slide Show” group on the “Slide Show” tab. To save time and unnecessary printing and waste of paper. you may wish give copies to your colleagues for their comments. click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. You may view all the slides by using the “Next Slide” and “Previous Slide” buttons at the bottom of the screen. To see a preview of your slide in a window on the screen. Print range: Under Print range you may specify which of the slides you want to print. on the “Slides” tab. Click the “Outline” button at the bottom left to hide the left pane. click the slide icon from which you wish to view your slides.

Click on the slide below the existing text and drag with the mouse to draw the textbox. Match case: You may check this box for a case sensitive search. another document or to a Web site.Color/grayscale: Here. The next occurrence of the specified term after the current cursor position is selected. Finding and Replacing: Alternatively. Find whole words only: You may check this box to search for whole words matching the search criteria. Creating a Text Box and Inserting a Hyperlink You may insert hyperlinks in your slides. Modifying and Refining a Presentation Finding and Replacing Text Finding Text: You may search for a word or phrase in your presentation. In the "Replace" window. click “Find” or press “Ctrl+F” to display the “Find” window. you may enter the new text in the "Replace with" field. 91 | P a g e . A window appears showing the number of replacements made. In the “Text” group. you may choose the color quality of the prints. First let us create a small text box below the text on the slide. In the “Editing” group. Enter your options and click “OK”. To create a new text box click on the “Insert” tab. Inserting a text box: A text box is a container for text or graphics. Replacing Text: Click "Replace". Click “Replace All” to replace all occurrences of the search text by the specified new text. Click “Replace” to replace the current word with the new word. A hyperlink is a connection to a location in the current document. click “Text Box". Choosing the “Grayscale” or “Pure Black and White” option allows you to print without color. to replace text you may select “Replace” from the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab or press “Ctrl+H” to display the “Replace” window. Click on the “Home” tab. Let us insert a hyperlink from the third slide to the first slide. Enter some text and click “Find Next”. Click on the third slide icon on the “Slides” tab.

A “Design” tab is displayed under “Table Tools”. You may choose from various categories such as Process. Under “Select a place in this document”. Enter the text “Go to Slide 1”. click “Hyperlink”. To insert a table. Create and Enhance a Table You may wish to display some data in tabular form in your presentation. click on the “Insert” tab. Select the text and then click “Quick Styles” in the “WordArt Styles” group on the “Design” tab under “Table Tools”. you can effectively communicate your message in a quick and simple way. clicking on this link takes you to the first slide. Let us change the style of the heading text. Now you are ready to enter the table content. You may specify the dimensions of your table by dragging with the mouse or by clicking “Insert Table”. Now click “OK”. enter the number of rows and columns and click “OK”. Using SmartArt graphics. You may enhance the appearance of the text in your table.Adding text to a text box: You will notice that the text box displays an insertion point. In the “Insert Table” window. Hierarchy. You may also change the size and position of the text box by using the sizing handles. In the “Insert Hyperlink” window. Each category contains several different layouts. Click the arrow at the bottom right to view all the available styles. click “Table”. Inserting a Hyperlink: Select the text entered in the text box. under “Link to:” click on “Place in This Document”. You may size or move your table as required. Now click on the “Insert” tab. You may select a table style from the gallery displayed. Cycle. As you type the text in the text box. In the “Links” group. it is automatically resized as needed to display the entire entry. Create a new slide using the “Blank” layout by selecting “New Slide” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. You may select a style from the gallery displayed. 92 | P a g e . indicating that you can enter text in it. You can see that the hyperlink text is underlined. click on “First Slide”. Select a suitable one. Relationship and others. Enter the headings and details in the other rows as shown. In the “Tables” group. Using SmartArt A “SmartArt” graphic is a visual representation of your information and ideas. When you run the slide show.

select a category. First create a new slide using the “Blank” layout. enter a word or phrase that describes the clip or the file name of the clip. Let us first insert a small clip. You may select a suitable background style for your text box from the gallery displayed. A “Clip” may be a single media file. Since yours is a company having operations related to computers.Let us create a SmartArt graphic to describe the course structure of one of the courses offered. animation or movies. In the “Choose a SmartArt Graphic” window. click “Change Colors”. click the arrow at the bottom right to view all the available styles and select a suitable one. Now click on the “Insert” tab. Inserting Clips and Clip Art You may insert “Clips” and “Clip Art” in your slides. including art. in the “Search for” box. In the “SmartArt Styles” group. let us look for a clip using the word “Computer”. For this. Let us search for clips of the type “Movies”. Now make your selection from the gallery displayed. ensure that “All collections” are searched by checking the box against “Everywhere”. under “SmartArt Tools. Applying a SmartArt Style: A SmartArt Style is a combination of various effects that you can apply to the shapes in your SmartArt graphic to create a professionally designed look. In the “Search in” list box. In the panel displayed on the right. This displays the text pane where you can enter your text. in the “Create Graphic” group on the “Design” tab. click “Clip Art”. Close the text pane by clicking the “X” icon at the top right corner. “Clip Art” refers to a ready-to-use picture. sound. you may click “Text Pane”. In the graphic displayed on your slide. Now select a suitable graphic and click “OK”. Alternatively. We shall insert a clip as well as Clip Art on one of our slides. In the “Illustrations” group. A clip is a file that can contain sounds and animations. Create a text box above the SmartArt graphic and enter the text as shown. in the “Results should be” list 93 | P a g e . click “SmartArt”. Changing Colors: You may apply color variations to the shapes in your SmartArt graphic. In the “SmartArt Styles” group on the “Design” tab under “SmartArt Tools”. Click on the slide containing the SmartArt graphic on the Slides tab. Now click “Quick Styles” in the “Drawing” group on the “Home” tab. you may enter text directly by clicking the text boxes. Click on the “Insert” tab. In the “Illustrations” group.

Simply click on the one you wish to insert and drag it to a suitable place on your slide. Create and Enhance Shapes PowerPoint offers many predefined shapes that you can insert into your document. simply start typing as shown in the figure. Drag your mouse to create a shape of the size you wish. On the “Slides” tab. You may change the size of the clip as required. In the “Themes” group. check the box against “Movies”. You may size and position the shape as required. 94 | P a g e . click on “Hexagon”. click on the arrow at the bottom right to see all available themes. click “Shapes” to display the various shapes that you can use. you may create a text box as shown in the slide in the figure. To insert Clip Art. drag a suitable one onto your slide. Click on the “Design” tab. “Clip Art” refers to a ready-to-use picture. click the “View” tab and select “Slide Show” in the “Presentation Views” group. For this. A number of related clips are displayed. Changing the Presentation Design and Color Scheme Changing the Presentation Design: After you have created many slides.box. Now click “Go”. To enter a title above the shape. In the “Drawing” group. From the pictures displayed. Click “Quick Styles” in the “Drawing” group and select a style from the gallery displayed. To see the clip that you inserted actually playing. you need to run the slide show. Ensure other boxes are unchecked. you may decide to give a totally new look to your presentation. Let us now insert some Clip Art. Under “Basic Shapes”. Now click on a theme of your choice. The entered text appears at the centre of your shape. Coloring the Shape: You may apply color to the shape by choosing from a variety of background styles. Create a new slide using the “Blank” layout by clicking “New Slide” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. Now click “Go”. you can see that the new theme has been applied to all the slides. check the box against “Clip Art” under “Results should be” and ensure other boxes are unchecked. Adding Text: To add text within the shape.

Changing the Color Scheme: To change the color scheme. To see the Slide Master. In the “Animations” group. Now click on the “Animations” tab. Click on a suitable one. click “Custom Animation” in the “Animations” group. This ensures consistency and saves time. whether on the click of the mouse or after a stipulated time by entering related details under “Advance Slide”. Now. click on the “View” tab. click on the graphic. On the “Animations” tab. In PowerPoint build effects are animations to slide contents. click in the “Animate” list box and select “Fly In”. in the “Transition to This Slide” group. click on the “More” arrow to see all the available transition styles. Now click “Play” to view your animation. Click the “Apply to All” button if you want the same transition effects for all slides. 95 | P a g e . select one from the “Transition Sound” list box. click the arrow in the list box below the “Speed” list box and select “Start After Previous”. screen tips explain they are masters for different layouts. Applying transition effects: A transition specifies how the display changes when you move from one slide to another. You may select a color scheme by clicking on it. You can see the various available layouts when you click on the lower part of the “New Slide” icon in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. This results in the animation starting after the previous slide. In the "Presentation Views" group. Adding Animation and Other Effects “Animation” refers to the addition of special visual or sound effects to your slides. If you move your mouse over them. You can see a number of slide icons in the left pane. You can view the animation effect right away on your slide. click “Slide Master”. click on “Colors” in the “Themes” group on the “Design” tab. In the panel at the right. It is applied to all slides. First. Applying animation to an object: Let us add some animation effects to the graphic in the slide shown. To associate a sound with your transition. You can see it is surrounded by a box. You may click the “Preview” icon in the “Preview” group to view the transition effects for the current slide. Changing the Slide Master You know that slides can be created using different layouts. The “Slide Master” is used to make global changes to the slides in your presentation. You may specify how you wish to move to the next slide.

To view your notes page. Click “Background Styles” in the “Background” group on the “Slide Master” tab and select a suitable one. four. two. use the “Notes Pane” at the bottom of the slide to write notes about your slide. or nine miniature slides on a page. Any change made to this slide will be reflected on all slides created using the “Blank” layout. Print range: Under Print range you may specify which of the slides you want to print. the current slide only or any selection of slides. Order: Select the order of printing the slides. you can see that all the slides with the “Blank” layout have the new background style applied. On the “Slides” tab. Printing Handouts: Click the Office Button and select “Print → Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. Scale to fit paper: Check this box to print the slides of a size suitable to fit on the sheet of paper.Click on the slide icon related to the “Blank Layout”. You may also use this view to enter or edit notes by clicking in the lower placeholder. Print what: Select “Handouts”. six. whether horizontal or vertical. 96 | P a g e . In Normal View. Slides per page: Select the number of slides you wish to print on one page. Let us change the background style. Let us select “Vertical”. Now close the Master View by clicking on “Close Master View” in the “Close” group. three. You may print all slides. Let us select 4. These can be used by your audience to follow along as you give your presentation or for future reference. click the “View” tab. Click “Notes Page” in the “Presentation Views” group. or for your audience. Creating Notes Pages You can create “Notes Pages” that include extra notes for yourself while you give your presentation. You see the master slide in the right pane. The “Print” window is displayed. Printing Handouts You can print your presentation in the form of handouts with one.

right-click the slide on the “Slides” tab and select “Hide Slide”. and then type the text that you want to appear at the bottom of the slide in the center. In the “Text” group. Using Headers and Footers Headers and Footers are used to add information such as slide numbers. Hiding the Footer: To hide the footer on a specific slide. click the slide icon on the “Slides” tab. To hide a slide. Adding a Footer to a Slide: Click the “Insert” tab. or to bottom of a slide. To display the same footer information on all slides. On the “Slide” tab of the “Header and Footer” window. Click the “Insert” tab and in the “Text” group. it can be quite easily achieved. the time and date. if you need to duplicate a slide. To hide the footer on the title slide. clear the “Footer” check box and click “Apply”. To insert the date. on the “Notes and Handouts” tab. Hiding a Slide: If there is a slide that you do not want to display to a particular audience. Click “Preview” to view your handouts onscreen and “Print” to print them. time and slide number on the slide. Duplicating a slide creates a copy of the selected slide and places it directly after the selected slide. On the “Slides” tab. click “Apply to All”. On the “Slide” tab in the “Header and Footer” window. select “Header & Footer”. Click the “Home” tab. click the slide you wish to copy. Select any other options that you want and then click “Apply”. Click “Apply” or “Apply to all”.Frame slides: Check this box to print the slides with an outer frame. you may hide the slide. 97 | P a g e . In the “Slides” group. check the box against “Footer”. handout or notes page. select “Header & Footer”. check the appropriate boxes. check the box against “Don’t show on title slide”. a company logo or the presentation title to the top of a handout or notes page in your presentation. Adding a Header or Footer to a Handout or Notes Page: In the “Header and Footer” window. select the “Header” or “Footer” check box. Duplicating and Hiding Slides Duplicating a Slide: In a presentation. click “New Slide” and click “Duplicate Selected Slides” below the layouts displayed. and then type the text that you want to appear at the top or bottom of each notes page or handout.

click the arrow next to “Document Properties” to select the set of properties that you want to change. “Previous”. Let us select “Ballpoint Pen”. Then on the Ribbon. and keywords that identify topics or other important information in the file. “Last Viewed” and “Go to Slide” options to move between slides. underline an important point or draw checkmarks next to items that you have covered. Right-click on a slide during the slide show. A menu is displayed as shown. Now click “OK” and close the Document Information Panel. Click the Office Button and select “Prepare → Properties” from the menu. “Advanced Properties”. When you run your presentation. Learning to Control and Annotate a Slide Show Navigating the Slide Show: Running the slide show and practicing how to control the slide show helps you have a smooth presentation. you may decide the color of this pen by using the “Ink Color” option. Click the “Hide Slide” icon on the Ribbon once again to show the hidden slide. you may wish to include some related documentation with the file. you may want to point to an important word. 98 | P a g e . The hidden slide icon with the slide number inside appears next to the slide that you have hidden. The hidden slide icon is then removed. right-click the slide that you want to show. the author name. you can go backwards and redisplay it. the subject. For example. For this. this slide will not be displayed. Annotate a slide show: During your presentation. for example. and then click “Hide Slide”. These may be a descriptive title. if someone has a question about a previous slide. click the “Slide Show” tab and select “Hide Slide” in the “Set Up” group. click on the “Summary” tab. To show a slide that you have previously hidden. Enter your details on this tab.The hidden slide icon with the slide number inside appears next to the slide that you have hidden. In the “Document Information Panel”. You can then move your mouse and use it as a pen on your slide. Before saving the completed presentation. In the window displayed. Use the “Next”. Documenting a File Documenting a file: Document properties are details about a file that help identify it. right-click on the slide and select “Pointer Options” from the menu displayed. There is another way in which you can hide a slide. Click on the slide that you wish to hide on the “Slides” tab in the left pane. Also. You may move to any slide in your presentation.

In the “New Presentation” window. In the “Illustrations” group. Now create a new presentation by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “New”. Let us use the “Mouse Click” tab. The “Action Settings” window is displayed. Select “Chime” from the list of sounds. click “Shapes”. 99 | P a g e .Using Advanced Presentation Features Creating a New Presentation from Existing Slides To make the task of creating a new presentation easier. you may use the slides from one of your existing presentations. Copying a slide: You may want to copy the slide which describes a course structure from your presentation to a new presentation. Now you may make changes to the new presentation as required. Now drag with the mouse to create the button of the size you require. select “Blank Presentation” and press the “Create” button. This has two tabs. Under “Action Buttons”. simply save the presentation with a new name. right-click the slide to be copied and select “Copy”. Specify the location and the new file name in the “Save As” window and click “Save”. Let us use an action button to play a sound in the slide shown in the figure. the actions specified are performed when the mouse is clicked on the button and moved over the button respectively. themes etc that you require. As the names suggest. Click the “Insert” tab. Saving the new presentation: Before you make any additional changes. you may save the file as a new presentation. Your original presentation does not get affected. To do this. Save the file by clicking the Office button and selecting “Save”. Check the box against “Play sound”. Right-click the first slide in the new presentation and select “Paste”. moving to another slide or running another program when you click on them. Adding Action Buttons You may add action buttons on your slides to perform functions such as playing sounds. Click the Office Button and select “Save As” and enter the new file name and location. The copied slide will be inserted in the presentation after the current slide. on the “Slides” tab. “Mouse Click” and “Mouse Over”. Click “Save”. click on the “Sound” icon. You may make any changes with respect to colors. If you want to use all slides from a presentation in a new presentation.

To exit the PowerPoint application. when you click on this button you can hear the sound of a chime. You may perform various actions using action buttons such as moving to another slide or running another program. click the Office Button and then click the “Exit PowerPoint” button at the bottom right. select “Rehearse Timings”. the slides advance automatically as per these settings. PowerPoint includes a timing feature that records the length of time spent on each slide and the total presentation time while you are rehearsing. Click “Next” to move to the next slide. In the “Set Up” group. You may use the recorded times to advance the slides automatically when you actually give your presentation. and you can see the timing in the “Slide Time box” at the right. clear the “Use Rehearsed Timings” check box. in the “Set Up” group. a message box displays the total time for the presentation and asks you to confirm that you wish to keep the recorded slide timings.During the slide show. they form a network. The “Rehearsal” toolbar appears. your presentation can be delivered and you are ready to impress your audience. If you do not want the slides in your presentation to advance automatically as per the slide timings recorded. Now when you run your slide show. 100 | P a g e . Now. Internet Internet Basics What is a Network? When computers are connected to each other. so that you are sure that it fits within a certain time frame. A network may consist of just two computers next to each other or can even extend to a large number of computers located in different parts of the world. it is important to rehearse the timing. Click “Yes”. Click the “Slide Show” tab. “Slide Sorter” view appears and displays the time of each slide in your presentation. on the “Slide Show” tab. Delivering Presentations Rehearsing timing: Before delivering a presentation. After you set the time for the last slide.

Computers in a network can be set up in different ways to suit the needs of users. Server: This is a node that shares resources with other nodes. a client is a user’s microcomputer. Distributed Processing: This is a system where computing power is located and shared at different locations. They are sometimes referred to as “LAN adapters”. Host Computer: This is a large centralized computer. you need to get familiar with certain terms which are as follows: Node: This is a device that is connected to a network. Network interface cards (NIC): These are expansion cards located within the system unit that connect the computer to a network. Network Administrator: This is a person who is a computer specialist responsible for efficient operation of the network and implementation of new networks. 101 | P a g e . let us have a look at the types of networks. It may be a server or simply a connection point for cables from other nodes. and are quite powerful. Dedicated servers are typically used for websites that have high traffic. Network operating systems (NOS): They control and coordinate activities such as electronic communication and resource sharing between the computers and devices on a network. To understand computer networks. computer systems at different locations are networked to a main or centralized computer. A non-dedicated server can function as both a client and a server. It could be any device such as a data storage device. Typically. Client: This is a node that uses a resource from another node.A “computer network” is a communication system that connects two or more computers so that they can exchange information and share resources. In decentralized organizations. A dedicated server is a computer that specializes in performing specific tasks. Hub: This is the central node for other nodes. usually a minicomputer or a mainframe. a printer or a computer. Now that you are familiar with the terminology related to computer networks.

the network is known as a Local Area Network or LAN for short. a number of small computers or peripheral devices are linked to a central unit which is the “network hub”. Usually when computers in one office are connected to one another. All communications pass through the central unit and control is maintained by “polling”. The nodes of a LAN are in close physical proximity. The hub may be a host computer or file server. within the same building. MANs span distances up to 100 miles. They provide access to regional service (MAN) providers and span distances greater than 100 miles. They are frequently used as links between office buildings that are located throughout a city. Configurations describe the physical arrangement of the network while strategies define how information and resources are shared. Configurations: A network can be configured or arranged in several ways. the network is known as WAN which stands for Wide Area Network. These LANs are called “Home Networks” and allow different computers to share resources. The four principal network topologies are star. metropolitan area and wide area networks. a MAN is jointly owned by a group of organizations or by a network service provider who charges a fee to provide network services. ring and hierarchical. They use microwave relays and satellites to reach users over long distances. they are now being commonly used by individuals in their homes. They are used to link microcomputers and share printers and other resources. This is called the network’s topology. Telephone lines for example may connect communications equipment within a home or building. Network architecture encompasses network configurations and strategies. The widest of all WANs is of course.Network Types: Different types of channels allow different kinds of networks to be formed. bus. Typically. Wide Area Networks (WANs) are countrywide and worldwide networks. LANs span distances less than a mile and are owned by individual organizations. A “Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)” is the next step up from the LAN. Unlike a LAN. Each connecting device is asked or 102 | P a g e . When this is done over longer distances. the Internet which spans the entire globe. In a “star network”. Networks may also be citywide and even international. The network types based on the geographical area they serve are local area. While LANs have been widely used within organizations for years. Network Architecture: This describes how a network is arranged and how resources are coordinated and shared. including a common internet connection.

This arrangement is commonly used for sharing data stored on different microcomputers. “Client/server networks” are based on specialization and use one computer to coordinate and supply services to other nodes on the network.“polled” whether it has a message to send and is allowed to send its message in turn. An advantage of the star topology is that it can be used to support a “timesharing system”. usually a mainframe. The star topology is commonly used to link microcomputers to a mainframe containing an organization’s database. microcomputers in a department are connected to individual departmental minicomputers. microcomputers may obtain files from other microcomputers as well as provide files to them. The nodes are either terminals with little or no processing capabilities or microcomputers running special software that allows them to act as terminals. Processing tasks can be performed at different locations and programs. Strategies: Every network has a strategy of coordinating the sharing of information and resources. nodes have equal authority and can act as both clients and servers. However. The “hierarchical network” consists of several computers linked to a central host computer. just like a star network. data and resources can be shared. The minicomputers are in turn connected to the corporation’s mainframe which contains data accessible to all. Server nodes coordinate and supply specialized services and access to resources. client/server and peer-to-peer. Many airline reservation systems are terminal networks. This means that multiple users can share resources (or time) on a central computer. There is no central computer and messages are passed around the ring till they reach the correct destination. In a “bus network”. processing power is centralized in one large computer. In a “peer-to-peer network”. each device is connected to two other devices. In a “terminal network”. All communications travel along a common connecting cable called a “bus” or “backbone”. there is no host computer and each device handles its own communications. For example. For example. forming a ring. The most common network strategies are terminal. A hierarchical network is useful in centralized organizations. 103 | P a g e . Each device examines information as it passes along the bus to see whether it is the intended recipient. Client/server networks are widely used on the Internet. Distributed data processing is possible using a ring network. these computers are also hosts to smaller computers or peripheral devices. Client nodes request the services. In a “ring network”.

Communication within and between organizations is supported using intranets and extranets. They provide e-mail and other services accessible only to those within the organization. 104 | P a g e . It then decides whether it is safe to allow a message or file to pass into or out of the organization’s network. It acts as a gatekeeper. What is Internet? The word “Internet” is derived from the word inter-networking which means connecting different networks together. mediating traffic between a protected network and the Internet. newsletters. prices. Most organizational firewalls include a special computer called a “proxy server”. Firewalls: A “firewall” is a system that secures a network. shielding it from access by unauthorized users. In addition to preventing unrestricted access into a network. Specific information such as product ranges. online order forms etc. operating systems and strategies. which can be accessed by certain external users via the Internet. All communications between the internal network and the outside world must pass through it. Internet technologies are applied to integrate all these networks. Thus the Internet can be termed as a Network of Networks. a firewall can also restrict data from flowing out of a network. History of Internet: In the second half of the decade from 1960 to 1970. Such networks are known as “Intranets” and may or may not be connected to the Internet. An Intranet is accessible only from within the organization. The purpose is to increase efficiency and reduce costs. may be made available to suppliers or potential customers using an extranet. The main points of difference between an intranet and extranet are as follows: 1) An intranet is a private network within an organization while an extranet is a private network that connects more than one organization. Entry into extranets is controlled by usernames and passwords which establish the identity of the user and grant access to the areas of the extranet that he is entitled to view. Extranets: An “Extranet” is an intranet. intranets use browsers. pricing structures etc. Intranets: Many organizations have internal networks similar to the Internet which have web pages that contain company information. web sites and web pages. and from where standard forms can be downloaded.Organizational Internets: Most large organizations have a wide range of network configurations. or part of an intranet. hardware or a combination of both. 2) Like the public Internet. Extranets are used by some organizations to allow suppliers and others limited access to their networks. the United States Department of Defense began a project on computer networks. Firewalls can be implemented in software.

The roots of the giant network called Internet can be traced back to this project. To send data along telephone lines. researchers developed a new set of rules called Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol or TCP/IP. Universities. 105 | P a g e . after 1970. Instead of having a central system of limited machines. This led to the birth of the modern Internet.This project was named ARPANET. wireless telephones and even satellites. Gradually. Government Departments and Research Centers also began using this network. new independent centers were created in different places. By 1993 the concept of Internet had changed completely.

book clubs and more. you can search for bargains and make purchases or simply window shop or look for the latest fashions. It has become a popular medium for business. You can have access to entertainment. advertisement and news. “Education” or “e-learning” which supports flexible learning anywhere. music and games is available using the Internet. Using the Internet. companionship and many other opportunities on the Internet.Today the Internet has become a popular medium for information. “Shopping” is one of the fastest-growing Internet applications. playing. shopping. “Searching” for all types of information has become very convenient using the Internet. You can take classes on various subjects. 106 | P a g e . national and international news using the Internet. anytime for anyone is possible due to the Internet. You can find the latest local. movie previews. information. Some courses are free while others have to be paid for. You can access some of the world’s largest libraries directly from your home computer. You have additional options such as live concerts. “Entertainment” in different forms such as movies. education.

From the seller’s perspective.e. Also.Transactions of large industries are also effected over the Internet. 107 | P a g e . This is known as e-commerce. The Internet offers a chance to reach out to a larger number of customers. It does away with the need to physically travel to the seller’s location. These include the inability to provide immediate delivery of goods. Electronic Commerce i. The Internet offers a chance to survey a wide variety of products. the costs associated with operating a retail store can be eliminated. the inability to “try on” prospective purchases and questions relating to the security of online payments. With the help of Internet. monetary transactions are also being carried out. a seller is not required to maintain a physical inventory of goods and products are shipped directly from warehouses. e-commerce is the buying and selling of goods over the Internet. there are some disadvantages too. For a buyer. it offers the convenience of purchasing at any hour of the day or night. While there are numerous advantages of e-commerce.

There are three basic types of e-commerce: 1) “Business-to-consumer (B2C)” involves the sale of a product or service to the general public or end users.private. paying bills and applying for loans without having to visit the bank. You may consider payment options from sites such as “www.com/privatepayments”.buy. transferring funds. The three most widely used B2C applications are as follows: “Online banking” enables customers to perform various banking operations such as accessing account information. There are two basic types of Web auction sites: 108 | P a g e .epinions. This is done in the form of classified ads or an auction. 1) Consult product review sites: These sites offer evaluations or opinions on products. “www. you have to place the order and make the payment. In “Web auctions”. buy and sell stocks and bonds over the Internet. Existing retail stores use B2C e-commerce to reach out to customers through the Web.com” are examples of review sites on the Web. “Online shopping” as you know includes buying and selling consumer goods over the Internet.com”.americanexpress. 4) Select a payment option: Once you have selected the product and the vendor. “Online stock trading” allows investors to research.Tips on how to shop online: When you shop online. Security of your credit card number is important.com” and “www. 2) Use a shopping bot: A shopping bot is an automated shopping assistant that searches the Internet for the best price of a product. This arrangement often eliminates the wholesaler by allowing manufacturers to sell directly to customers. it would be useful to keep the following suggestions in mind.com”.com” and “www. You can enlist it to compare prices. 2) The second type of e-commerce “Consumer-to-consumer (C2C)” involves individuals selling to individuals. you need to check his reputation before placing an order.com” and “www.consumersearch. sellers post descriptions of products at a web site and buyers submit bids electronically.mysimon. 3) Consult vendor review sites: Even if a vendor offers attractive prices. Two well-known shopping bots are located at “www.gomez.com” and “www.shopping.bizrate. You may visit vendor review sites such as “www.yahoo.

paint and varnish which he would purchase from the related suppliers. Buyers purchase digital cash from a bank that specializes in electronic currency and use it to purchase goods. The three basic payment options are as follows: 1) “Cheques” are the most traditional and cheque purchases take the longest time to complete. They facilitate the bidding process but are not involved in completing transactions and verifying the authenticity of the goods sold. For a list of digital cash providers. Sellers convert it to regular currency through the bank. Buyers and sellers need to be cautious while interacting with these sites. secure and reliable payment methods for purchased goods. But credit card fraud over the Internet by criminals known as “Carders” is a major concern for both buyers and sellers. see the displayed figure. The buyer mails a cheque to the seller. 109 | P a g e . If it is a valid cheque. For example.a) “Auction house sites” sell directly to bidders. b) “Person-to-person auction sites” provide a forum for buyers and sellers. Security: The single greatest challenge for e-commerce is the development of fast. The merchandise presented is typically from a company’s surplus stock. 2) “Credit card” purchases are faster and more convenient. It is a system that allows a person to pay for goods or services by transmitting a number from one computer to another. You can often get bargain prices and these sites are generally considered safe places to shop. the purchased item is dispatched by the seller. 3) “Digital cash” is electronic currency that only exists online. This is typically a manufacturer-supplier relationship. This method is more secure than credit cards. a furniture manufacturer would require raw material such as wood. 3) The third type of e-commerce “Business-to-business (B2B)” involves the sale of a product or service from one business to another.

Web Utilities: Utilities are programs that make computing easier. The ASP downloads a copy of the requested application to your computer’s hard disk drive from where you can run it. you must connect to the ASP’s web site. Web-based applications: Normally application programs are owned by individuals and organizations and stored on the computer’s hard disk. Excel and PowerPoint. Most application service providers (ASPs) charge a fee to access and use their applications. “Downloading” is the process of copying a file from a computer on the 110 | P a g e . The aim of “web-based services” such as ThinkFree is to free users from owning and storing applications. This free service provides access to programs similar to Microsoft’s Word. To use a web-based application. it is automatically deleted from your hard disk. “Web Utilities” are specialized utility programs that make using the Internet and Web easier and safer. A “web-based application” is a software package that can be accessed through a web browser. Some utilities facilitate sharing resources over the Internet while others enhance the capabilities of your browser. File transfer protocol (FTP): FTP is an Internet standard for transferring files. When you exit the program.

Filters allow parents of young children as well as organizations to block access to certain sites and set time limits. these programs can 111 | P a g e . To learn more about plug-ins and how to download them. Windows Media Player from Microsoft. Additionally. These are used for a variety of purposes ranging from viewing and printing documents to playing audio and video files. Some plug-ins are included in browsers and operating systems.Internet and saving it on your computer. you may visit some of the sites listed in the displayed figure. You can also use FTP to copy files from your computer to another computer on the Internet. Many web sites require you to have some plug-ins in order to view their content fully. RealPlayer from RealNetworks and Shockwave from Adobe. QuickTime from Apple. Others need to be installed before they can be used by your browser. Some widely used plug-ins include Acrobat Reader from Adobe. Filters: “Filters” are programs that block access to selected sites. The Internet has a lot of content which is not suitable for unrestricted viewing. Plug-ins: “Plug-ins” are programs that are automatically started and operate as part of your browser. This is called “uploading”.

For a list of some of the best known filters. provide filters and much more. protect against computer viruses. Chatting with your friends in virtual chat rooms is another facility that is available. using voice chat. data files. Using Internet you can communicate with or find out about what is happening in any part of the world. Anyone with access to the Internet can exchange text. Two of the best known Internet security suites are from McAfee and Norton. Internet Security Suites: An “Internet security suite” is a collection of utility programs designed to maintain your security and privacy while you are on the Web. It is popularly known as the "Information Highway" which is used as a versatile means for information sharing.generate reports regarding time spent on the Internet as well as at individual web sites. You may chat using the keyboard. These programs control spam. and programs with any other user. you can also chat 112 | P a g e . Today. chat groups and newsgroups. have a look at the displayed figure.

but they are not the same thing. The Internet is the actual physical network made up of wires. “live” electronic communication between two or more individuals. World Wide Web (WWW or Web) and Instant Messaging. It contains hypertext links represented by underlined text and images that lead to related information. view images. When you connect to this network you are described as being “online”. This means that web pages consist of multiple media such as text. There are a large number of applications that can be used on the Internet for various purposes. cables and satellites. It is easy to get the Internet and the Web confused. Newsgroups. Examples are Electronic Mail (e-mail). 113 | P a g e . Instant Messaging: This supports direct. the European Laboratory for Particle Physics. The World Wide Web was originally developed in 1990 at CERN.w3. You can access the World Wide Web on the Internet by using any browser application such as Mozilla. The Web is a multimedia interface to the resources available on the Internet. programs and information between two or more computers. Electronic Commerce: This means buying and selling goods electronically. exchange voice data and view programs that run on practically any software in the world. animation and sound. The name of its website is http://www. You can retrieve documents. The World Wide Web Consortium now manages it. You can also play different games on the Internet. Communications: Computer communications is the process of sharing data. Netscape. Some of the applications that depend on communication systems are as follows. Internet Telephone: This provides a low cost alternative to long distance telephone calls using electronic voice delivery.with the other person as if you were talking on the telephone.org. etc. listen to sound files. It connects millions of computers and resources throughout the world. File Transfer Protocol (FTP). graphics. Internet Explorer. animations and videos. What is WWW? The World Wide Web (WWW) is information organized in the form of Web pages containing text and graphic images. A web page is simply a document formatted in a standard language known as Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). video. E-mail: This provides a fast and efficient alternative to traditional mail by sending and receiving electronic documents. Chat groups. Telnet to connect to another computer. Mailing lists.

Java applets are used for presenting animation. or just having fun. Statistical Information and Personal Information. A network also has components called “Routers” that help choose the best path for an individual packet to travel and reach its destination. either from a search or through a series of linked pages. Information Flow Over the Internet Sending and receiving devices follow a set of communication rules for the exchange of information. Protocols are used to create an Internet connection for your computer and they handle the data transfer over network lines. The information on WWW can be classified in different categories based on the type of their content such as Business and Commercial. Each packet contains the address of its destination computer as well as the computer of its origin. News. in the course of learning something. TCP/IP: The essential features of this protocol involve: 1) Identifying sending and receiving devices AND 2) Reformatting information for transmission across the Internet. The Internet uses some rules or standard set of protocols for communication between computers. displaying graphics. The packets are reassembled at the destination to get the original information.Web pages also can contain special programs called “applets” that are generally written in a programming language such as Java. the information to be transmitted is broken down in the form of small packets. TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the name of the core protocol used on the Internet. "Web Surfing" means moving through different web pages. Identification: Every computer on the Internet has a unique numeric address called an “IP address (internet protocol address)”. Using this protocol. This ensures uniformity among users using various types of computer systems. providing interactive games and more. This may be done by following hyperlinks. Advocacy (to influence readers to support a cause or idea). Educational. These rules for exchanging data between computers are known as “protocols”. The other protocols are Point to Point Protocol (PPP) and Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP). You may even move between pages at random. These addresses are used to deliver e-mail and to locate web sites. Because these numeric addresses 114 | P a g e .

They convert messages into packets that can travel across the communication channel. when you send an e-mail. 2) Communication channel: This is the actual medium that carries the message.132. This system uses a “domain name server (DNS)” that converts text-based addresses to IP addresses. a DNS might translate it to an IP address say. Communication Systems “Communication Systems” are electronic systems that transmit data from one location to another.com”. At the receiving end. For example. if you enter a URL. 4) Data transmission specifications: These are procedures that coordinate the sending and receiving devices by defining the way in which the messages will be sent across the communication channel. your computer would be the “sending device”. “198.are difficult to remember. say “www. 3) Connection devices: These act as the interface between the sending and receiving devices and the communication channel.4” before a connection can be made. It may be a physical cable or it can be wireless. Your modem would be the “connection device” which would modify the message so that it could travel efficiently across the “communication channel” which is the telephone line. Every communication system has four basic elements which are as follows: 1) Sending and receiving devices: These may be computers or specialized communication devices. For example.example. a system was developed to automatically convert text-based addresses to numeric IP addresses.103. another modem modifies it once again so that it can be displayed on the “receiving device” which would be another computer. 115 | P a g e . How the message is modified and sent would be described in the “data transmission specifications”.

coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable. Fiber-optic cable transmits data as pulses of light through tiny tubes of glass. There are two categories of communication channels. The other category is wireless. 116 | P a g e . Telephone lines consist of twisted-pair cable which is made up of hundreds of copper wires. “Physical Connections” use a solid medium to connect sending and receiving devices. fiber-optic cable is lighter and more reliable at transmitting data as compared to coaxial cable. A single twisted pair culminates in a wall jack into which you can plug your phone and computer. Coaxial cable is used to deliver television signals as well as to connect computers in a network. Coaxial cable is a high-frequency transmission cable and consists of a single solid-copper core. One category connects sending and receiving devices by providing a physical connection such as a wire or cable. They include telephone lines.Communication Channels: You know that communication channels are an essential element of every communication system. Compared to coaxial cable.

Primary technologies used for wireless connections are infrared. “Microwave” communication uses high-frequency radio waves. wireless fidelity)”. Since the light waves travel in a straight line. They do not use any solid substances like wires and cables. GPS devices use that information to determine the geographical location of the device. “Infrared” uses infrared light waves to communicate over short distances. For longer distances. It creates a wireless personal area network (PAN) and provides a way to connect and exchange information between two devices over distances of about 30 feet. Some users connect their notebook or handheld computers to a cellular telephone to access the Web. They are sometimes mounted with a monitor to display maps and with speakers to provide spoken directions to the driver. Satellites can amplify and relay microwave signals from one transmitter on the ground to another. the waves are relayed by microwave stations with microwave dishes or antennas. GPS devices provide navigational support in some automobiles. The “Global Positioning System (GPS)” is a network of 24 satellites developed by the United States Department of Defense which continually sends location information to the earth. One of the most common applications is to transfer data from a portable device such as a notebook computer or PDA to a desktop computer. “Bluetooth” is a short-range wireless standard that uses microwaves. “Satellite” communication uses satellites orbiting above the earth as microwave relay stations. sending and receiving devices must be in clear view of one another. “Broadcast radio” uses radio signals to communicate with wireless devices.e. cheap radio chip to be plugged into computers. We see a large number of cables in our offices. printers. Bluetooth is a small. microwave and satellite. homes and everywhere else. Microwave is a good medium for sending data between buildings in a city or a large college campus. 117 | P a g e . It aims to simplify data synchronization between Internet devices and other computers. We often have a hard time trying to figure out which cable needs to go where. Most Web-enabled devices follow a standard known as “Wi-Fi (i. etc. mobile phones. Conceived initially by Ericsson. Cellular telephones and many Web-enabled devices use broadcast radio to place telephone calls and to connect to the Internet. Microwaves travel in a straight line and therefore can be transmitted across relatively short distances. They can be used to send and receive large volumes of data. broadcast radio. Bluetooth is essentially a cable-replacement technology which tries to solve this problem.Wireless Connections: Wireless connections use air to connect sending and receiving devices. “Bluetooth” is the name of a new technology that promises to change the way we use machines.

Let us look at a summary of communication channels. Modems: The word “modem” stands for modulator-demodulator. Telephones send and receive analog signals which are continuous electronic waves. on the other hand. Connection devices: We have seen that connection devices act as the interface between the sending and receiving devices and the communication channel. The modem thus enables digital microcomputers to communicate across analog telephone lines. A great deal of computer communication takes place over telephone lines. send and receive digital signals which are binary signals. The various units to measure transfer speed are shown in the displayed chart. “Demodulation” is the process of converting analog signals to digital form. This is typically measured in “bits per second (bps)”. 118 | P a g e . The speed at which modems transfer data is called “transfer rate”. Computers. “Modulation” is the process of converting digital signals to analog form.

it does not use cables. PC Card and wireless. A telephone cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. The “external modem” stands outside the computer and is connected by a cable to the computer’s serial port. The “PC Card modem” is a credit card-sized expansion board that is inserted into portable computers. Connection Service: Standard telephone lines and conventional modems provide a “dial-up service” which is quite slow. It sends and receives signals through the air. A “wireless modem” may be internal. internal.There are four basic types of modems: external. The “internal modem” consists of a plug-in circuit board inside the system unit. external or a PC Card. Unlike other modems. Large corporations lease special high-speed lines from telephone companies which provide very high 119 | P a g e . Another cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. A telephone cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack.

ADSL (asymmetric digital subscriber line) is one of the most widely used types of DSL. T2. 120 | P a g e . there are other affordable connections which provide significantly higher capacity than a dial-up service. While special high-speed lines are very expensive. “Digital subscriber line (DSL)” uses existing telephone lines to provide highspeed connections.capacity. These lines are known as T1. Let us compare typical user connection costs and speeds. Satellite/air connection services use satellites and the air to send data to users at faster rates than dial-up connections. These devices use “3G cellular networks” to download data from the Internet. T3 and T4 lines and do not require conventional modems. “Cellular services” are used by mobile devices and laptops. “Cable modems” use existing telephone cables to provide high-speed connections. cable modems. satellite and cellular services. These include DSL.

Specialized high-speed devices and microcomputers with DSL. “Medium band” is the bandwidth used in special leased lines to connect minicomputers and mainframes as well as to transmit data over long distances. “Broadband” is the bandwidth used for high capacity transmissions. It indicates the volume of information that can move across the communication channel in a given time. “Voiceband” is used for standard telephone communication. 121 | P a g e . There are three categories of bandwidth. Microcomputers with standard modems and dial-up service use this bandwidth. This is also known as low bandwidth. Bandwidth: This is a measurement of the width or capacity of the communication channel.Data Transmission: Several factors such as bandwidth and protocols affect how data is transmitted. cable and satellite connections use this bandwidth. Audio and video files require a wider bandwidth than text documents to be transmitted.

Browsers A Web Browser is a software tool used to browse the Internet. username. It is a special application program that brings information from any part of the world 122 | P a g e . They provide access through standard telephone lines or cable connections. With this connection. You can connect your microcomputer by telephone or other telecommunications links to other computers and information sources almost anywhere. Today. Set Top Boxes and other propriety solutions. Besides these. An “Internet Service Provider” is a company that provides access to the Internet for a monthly fee. you need a device called the “Modem”. You can also connect to the Internet using a leased line. This is just the beginning of the “Wireless Revolution” which will change the way we communicate and use computer technology in a big way. The providers are already connected to the Internet and provide a path or connection for individuals to access the Internet. Using a telephone. “Wireless service providers” do not use telephone or cable lines. there has been a dramatic change in connectivity. Colleges and universities mostly provide free access to students. the data transmission rate is much higher. To do so. the PC connects to the server of an Internet Service Provider (ISP). password and access phone number. wired devices were required to be able to connect to the Internet. Using the modem and dialer software. you can access the Internet through the LAN. In the past. Some companies also offer free Internet access. “National Internet Service Providers” are providers who operate primarily on a National level. In this method. The service provider gives you a software package. If a computer is part of a local area network (LAN) that has connectivity to the Internet. there is widespread use of mobile and wireless communication devices for gaining access to the Internet. Examples are DSL. you are linked to the world of larger computers and the Internet. there are also other options for connecting to the Internet.How Do We Connect? “Connectivity” is a concept related to using computer networks to link people and resources. In the last five years. This is how the PC establishes a connection to the Internet through an ISP. Cable Modem. They provide Internet connections with wireless modems and other wireless devices. you can connect your Personal Computer (PC) to the Internet. They are basically large telecom companies that have nationwide coverage and operations.

for example. The last part of the domain name following the dot is called the “top-level domain (TLD)”. Protocols are rules for exchanging data between computers. Each web site has a distinct.through the Internet to your computer screen. The URL of the web page is displayed in the address bar. http://www. Type “digital camera” and press “Enter”. images. It allows navigation from one page to another. Say you are looking for “digital cameras”. Navigating the Web Using Internet Explorer 7 Internet Explorer is a world-class browser that is designed to support various internet standards across a variety of platforms. You can connect directly to a web site by typing the URL of that site in the address bar or location bar of the web browser. Using a browser. it is closely integrated with the Windows operating system. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Internet Explorer”. At the top. When you want to visit a website. Another way to navigate the web is to go the address bar and type what you are looking for. and animations. type the website address or URL in the address bar. The first part of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) presents the “protocol” used to connect to the resource. Most browsers have a Graphical User Interface (GUI). The protocol “http://” is the most widely used Web protocol. It identifies the type of organization or what country the website is from. This allows easy viewing of text.microsoft. Since it is created by Microsoft. Internet Explorer. separate and unique address. This address is known as the Uniform Resource Locator or URL in short. you can find and view information about anything on the Web To start Internet Explorer. Internet Explorer automatically sends your query to a search service and displays the results. Netscape Navigator and Mozilla are some examples of the browser applications that are commonly used. For example “. With an Internet connection and Internet Explorer. you can communicate with any computer over the Internet.com/ and press “Enter”. you see a long rectangular box called the “Address Bar”. A browser does the work of connecting to the Internet and locating and displaying web pages.in” indicates India. playing audio and video files and running programs. If you do not see this icon. The second part presents the “domain name”.com” indicates a commercial site and “. click on the “Launch Internet Explorer Browser” icon on your desktop. 123 | P a g e . It is the name of the server where the resource is located.

you may use the “Forward” button. and passwords. click the “Quick Tabs” button to the left of the first tab. In the “Tabbed Browsing Settings” window. click on the “X” to the right side of it. On the “Content” tab. under “AutoComplete”. Below the address bar. buttons or pictures. The “Stop” button to its right is used to stop a page from loading. click the “New Tab” button or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+T”. Quick Tabs: To see a thumbnail view of all the websites you have open in your tabs. If you clicked the Back button and you want to move forward to the page you were on just before you clicked it. Right-click on a blank space on the toolbar and select “Menu Bar”. Use the “Back” button to the left of the address bar to go to the previous page you were on. In the “AutoComplete Settings” window. Select “Tools → Internet Options”. To close a tab. You can quickly switch between open websites by simply clicking on the tabs. the pointer changes to a hand and the URL is shown in the status bar. which is intended chiefly to greet visitors and provide information about the site or its owner. Click on a thumbnail to view a particular website. Under “Tabs”. To access the Internet Explorer AutoComplete options. Links may be in the form of underlined text. AutoComplete: Internet Explorer automatically records Web addresses.To the right of the address bar. You now see a menu displayed above the toolbar. On the “General” tab. forms data. To create a new tab. you can see a toolbar. click “Settings”. You can scroll through a web page using the horizontal and vertical scrollbars. you may enter the settings you require. Selecting links: When you point to a link on a web page. you may enter your preferences under “Home page”. the web page related to the link is opened. click “Settings”. select “Tools → Internet Options”. To quickly go back to a website you visited earlier. Tabbed Browsing: Tabs enable you to have multiple websites open in one Internet Explorer window at one time. When you click on the link. you may enter the settings you require. Home Page: The default page displayed when you start Internet Explorer is called the “Home Page”. you may click the down arrow just to the right of the Forward button and select the webpage from the dropdown list. 124 | P a g e . You may use this to reload a web page. The Home Page of a website is the opening or main page of the website. you can see the “Refresh” button. To access the Internet Explorer Tabbed Browsing options. You may change the Internet Explorer Home Page to a site of your preference. select “Tools → Internet Options”.

To view these pages in your preferred language. simply click on the “X” shaped. 125 | P a g e . If you speak several languages. Using the Favorites Center Internet Explorer Favorites are used to save links to sites that you want to visit again. from the “Create in” drop-down list. click “Add”. To unpin it. On the “General” tab.. select the desired folder and click “Add”. The “Add a Favorite” window is displayed. You may adjust the size of the frames by dragging the border between the frames. you may pin it to the window by clicking on the “Pin the Favorites Center” button. You may type a new name for the page in the “Name” text box. the related page is displayed in another frame. you may create a new folder for a favorite. Viewing thumbnails: Thumbnail images are small images shown on a web page because of space limitations and the time required for downloading. You may organize your favorite pages in folders and save items under different folders. If a Web site offers multiple languages. This list appears under “Favorites” when you click the “Favorites Center” button on the toolbar. Adding items to the Favorites list: Go to the page that you want to add to your list. Creating a list of favorites allows you to visit those sites with a single click. you can arrange them in order of priority. content will appear in the language that has the highest priority. Alternatively. “Close the Favorites Center” icon. In the “Language Preference” window. select the language you want to add and click “OK”. Click on thumbnails to view related documents. In the “Add Language” window. rather than having to type the sites URL each time you want to visit it. For this. Displaying web pages in other languages: Some Web sites offer their content in several languages. click “New Folder”. The “Favorites” list contains all the favorites you have created. you can add languages to your list of languages in Internet Explorer. To place this favorite in an existing folder.Using frames: The browser area can be divided into different scrollable areas called frames.”. Now click “Add” in the “Add a Favorite” window. Click “OK” in the other windows as well. If you would like to display the Favorites Center at the left of your screen at all times. When you click on a link on one page included in a frame. Select “Tools → Internet Options”. click “Languages”. Click the “Add to Favorites” button on the toolbar and select “Add to Favorites. Enter a name for the new folder in the “Create a Folder” window and click “Create”.

A form may have text boxes. click the “History” button in the Favorites Center. Online Application Forms: Online Application Forms are forms that are given to the user to fill when connected to the Internet. Click the “Add to Favorites” button. Printing and Saving Web Pages Printing and saving web pages: To print the current page. pop-up menus or drop-down lists. click on one of the calendar icons. Click on one of the yellow icons to see what pages you visited at a particular site. You may then click on a website link to open the related page. For this.” and “Favorites → Organize Favorites” from the Menu Bar. Using the History list: Internet Explorer keeps track of the web pages you have previously visited in the form of history. Some mandatory fields must be entered before the data is accepted. History items are displayed sorted by website. and so on. Now. right-click on it and select “Delete”. selected text. Click “Yes” in the displayed window. The “Print” window is displayed. you can login to your account and use all facilities available. check boxes. 126 | P a g e . you may use the different buttons in the lower part to create. the current page.. phone number. buttons. Preliminary validations are performed on some fields. You may re-sort your History items by clicking on the arrow next to the "History" button and making your selection. address. For example. The form shown is used to register for a Yahoo mail account. In the “Organize Favorites” window. You may print all pages. You can also move items from one folder to another by using the “Move” button or dragging the item to the appropriate folder You may also use the Menu Bar to add items to your Favorites list and to organize your Favorites. Once you have completed your registration. You can fill information in it and submit the form contents by clicking on buttons provided. and then click “Organize Favorites”. rename or delete a folder. a specific page or range of pages by making the appropriate selection under “Print Range”. select “File → Print” from the menu. such as your name. To delete an item from the History List. These must be filled in carefully before they are submitted. Using Forms Forms are part of the web page that can help you to enter data. To view the History list. you may have to enter your personal details while booking an airline ticket online. select “Favorites → Add to Favorites.Organizing your Favorites: You may wish to organize your favorite pages by topic.

The “Save As” window is displayed. For this. web directories and search engines. The “Save Picture” window is displayed. Click “Close” when the download is completed. Search services help you to quickly locate information about a specific topic from multiple websites. Saving a page without displaying it: Position the mouse pointer over the link to the web page you wish to save. Specify the location at which you wish to download the web page. Search services can be categorized into two types. but typically offer no categories or differentiation between different types of material. A number of search tools have been developed and are available on different web sites. web directories and search engines. you enter a keyword or phrase reflecting the information you want. but typically offer no categories or differentiation between different types of material. Choose “Save Target As”. You may save the web page with a new name by making changes in the “File name” field. Right-click to display a pop-up menu. The “Save Webpage” window is displayed. For this. Type a file name and then click “Save”. In a keyword search. Web directories are databases of Internet sites that are organized by topics or subjects. select “File → Print Preview” from the menu. Finding Information on the Web Using Search Services As you know. if you entered the keyword “travel” you get 127 | P a g e . Saving an entire web page: Select “File → Save As” from the menu. Search engines are also huge databases of web sites. The search engine compares your entry against its database and displays a list of “hits” in the form of hyperlinks to related web pages. Right-click to display the pop-up menu. Now click “Save”. Search services can be categorized into two types. there is a vast ocean of information available on the World Wide Web. Choose a folder in which to save this image. a descriptive world or phrase or by browsing a topic list. Choose “Save Picture As”. Specify the location at which you wish to save your file. Search engines are also huge databases of web sites. Web directories are databases of Internet sites that are organized by topics or subjects. Saving an image from a page: You may wish to save only an image from a web page. Search engines provide two different search approaches: Keyword search and Directory search. For example. You may choose a format for the page from the dropdown list in the “Save as type” field. you can use the Preview option.Previewing a web page: To have a look at how a page will look before it is printed. position the mouse pointer over the image. Type a file name for the image and then click “Save”. A search can be done by entering a keyword.

thousands of hits. These are ordered according to those sites most likely to contain the information requested and are usually in groups of 10. You may find relevant information on the web using “Subject Directories”. Subject directories are collections of Internet resources organized into subject categories. They are useful for looking for information on a specific subject or to gain familiarity with a topic. Advantages of subject directories are that they generally contain good quality sites and they save time since subject wise information is available. Let us have a look at the Google subject directory. Enter the URL “http://directory.google.com” in the address bar and press “Enter”. You can see the Google directory on your screen showing links to various subjects. Clicking on a subject will show you more detailed lists from which you may make your selections. Using the Search Box: One of the new features of Internet Explorer 7 is the “Search Box” located at the top right. You can search the internet using most search engines from the search box instead of going to other search engine sites. If you want to find something on a page you are currently on, click on the down arrow to the right of the magnifying glass and select “Find on this Page”. Enter your search criteria and click “Next”. Using the Search Box: One of the new features of Internet Explorer 7 is the “Search Box” located at the top right. You can search the internet using most search engines from the search box instead of going to other search engine sites. If you want to find something on a page you are currently on, click on the down arrow to the right of the magnifying glass and select “Find on this Page”. Enter your search criteria and click “Next”. You may change the default search engine if you wish. For this, click on the down arrow to the right of the magnifying glass and select “Change Search Defaults”. Click “Set Default” and then “OK” to make the search provider you just added as the default one. Metasearch Engines: When you research a topic, you may need to visit different web sites in order to use different search engines. This would be time-consuming and duplicate responses would be inevitable. “Metasearch Engines” offer an alternative. They are programs that automatically submit your search request to several search engines simultaneously. The metasearch engine receives the results, eliminates duplicates, orders the hits and provides the edited list to you. You can see a list of some metasearch engines available on the Web in the displayed table.

128 | P a g e

Specialized Search Engines: These search engines focus on subject-specific web sites. They save your time by narrowing your search. For a list of a few specialized search engines, have a look at the displayed table.

129 | P a g e

Content Evaluation: You must keep in mind that not all information available on the Web is accurate. In fact, anyone can publish content on the Web. Many sites such as Wikipedia.com, allow anyone to post new material, sometimes anonymously and without critical evaluation. To evaluate the accuracy of information found on the Web, you need to consider the following points. Authority: Is the author an expert on the subject? Is the web site an individual’s personal one or an official one? Accuracy: Has the information been critically reviewed for correctness? Does the web site provide a method of reporting inaccurate information? Objectivity: Is the information reported biased or based on actual facts? Does the author gain personally by convincing the reader or changing his opinion? Currency: Is the information up to date. Is the date when the site was updated specified? Google

130 | P a g e

You may click on the link of your choice. Click “even more” to see some more useful links. but if you do. This takes you straight to the most relevant website that Google finds for your query. Press “Enter” to display the Google home page. The search results displayed have links to the pages containing matches to your desired keyword. set the interface language and search for pages written in specific languages. you can save this as your default search behavior on the “Preferences” page. Click “Advanced Search” to enter your options. Communication Using E-Mail Using Web E-Mail Services You know that communication is the most popular Internet activity. Type the keyword on which you wish to search in the search text box. use more descriptive words as opposed to general ones. Click “Preferences” to enter your requirements. Advanced Search: Once you know the basics of Google search. Searching by Keyword: Some simple tips for entering keywords are be specific.google. The result displayed is page wise if the resulted list is big. You can filter inappropriate material. At a business level.com in the address box. Preferences: You may configure your search exactly as you want it. employees and customers. you might want to try Advanced Search. I am Feeling Lucky: You may try using the "I am Feeling Lucky" button when you have entered your search terms. Click the links to visit the related web pages. which offers numerous options for making your searches more precise and getting more useful results. If you typically search only pages in a specific language. 131 | P a g e . the "Iam Feeling Lucky" site would be listed on top. use multiple words and leave out non-essential words. You will not see the search results page at all. Then press the “Google Search” button”. friends and family can stay in touch even when separated by thousands of miles. Start the Internet Explorer browser and type www. Searching by Topic: The Google web site interface consists of many links to various topics and a search text box. At a personal level. Language Tools: Click “Language Tools” to specify your language preferences for a particular search. Click “more” to view additional links. electronic communication has become a standard and preferred way to stay in touch with suppliers.“Google” is one of the most popular search engines.

When the recipient switches on his computer and connects to the mail service. E-mail has become very popular because of its speed. you have to create a password.com” in the address bar and press “Enter”. Rediffmail. Indiatimes.com” is the name of the domain or server. Some of the examples are mail.Yahoo. or electronic mail.com. Select a security question and enter a suitable answer. try a variation of the name. has increased rapidly in recent years. To go to the Yahoo home page. low cost and absence of time restrictions. Hotmail. The web site has a registration page that will ask you to enter some information and also make you accept a user agreement. There are basically two types of e-mail services you can use. Let us create a free e-mail ID on Yahoo. To use the e-mail facility the user has to register with the web site providing the facility. especially in urban areas. similarly every e-mail account has a unique address. A complete e-mail address is normally in the form of “ahmed@yahoo. enter an ID which will act as both your login name and your email address. The most popular is the free web mail service that many web sites provide. When the mail server identifies the recipient. all the mail that has been received is downloaded to his computer. You see a form displayed on your screen. Just as every web page has a unique address. If the ID you select has already been taken by someone else. type “www. The mail sent by you is sent to the mail server. In this. Now. “yahoo. Creating an e-mail account is fairly simple.com. You will be asked to answer this question in case you forget your password. click “Free Mail: Sign Up”. Next. This is a very powerful tool for communication and a prime reason for the popularity of Internet. 132 | P a g e . The website provides you with a unique user name and you can also specify a password.yahoo.E-mail. it is not necessary for the person to whom the e-mail has been sent to be available. You have already seen how to fill in an online form. Then you may enter an alternate e-mail address if you have one. The use of e-mail in our country. the identity of the recipient is verified and then the mail is forwarded. After you have chosen a name. You need an e-mail program and a connection to the Internet.com”. When an e-mail is sent.com. it sends the message to his address. “ahmed” is the name of the person. or for his computer to be on.com. The first step is to fill out your personal information. enables communication by sending and receiving written messages via a computer over the Internet. etc. The other is based on Post Office Protocol (POP3) using which you may download mails onto your computer or send mails stored on your hard disk. At the other end.com.

The website authenticates your user login information and then provides access to your mailbox. The header appears first and includes the following information: Addresses: Addresses of the person sending. A more effective approach has been 133 | P a g e . If a message has an attachment. Read the "Terms of Service" agreement and “Privacy Policy” by clicking on the related links and check the box after “Do you agree?” to confirm that you agree to them. This unwelcome junk mail is called “spam”. this information includes the sender’s name. Inbox. The first part is the user’s name and the second part is the domain name which includes the top-level domain. message and signature.You may check the “Marketing Preferences” box if you wish to receive promotional offers from Yahoo by e-mail. Some of the common features are a Login Page. A typical e-mail message has three basic elements: header. address and telephone number. Finally. Now click the “Create My Account” button. receiving and optionally persons receiving copies are generally included in an e-mail message. the signature line provides additional information about the sender. type the code shown in the box exactly as you see it. E-mail. you must first login. Besides these. Subject: This is a one-line description used to present the topic of the message. For this. some countries have anti-spam laws as part of their legal system. In an attempt to control spam. This has limited impact because a lot of spam originates from other countries as well. You know that an e-mail address has two parts. Your e-mail account is then created and you may use it to send and receive messages. in case of official mails. get-richquick schemes. The different websites have different features for the e-mail facility they provide. often for products of questionable quality. many more personalization features are also provided. To verify your registration. or something similar. the file name is displayed in the header area on the attachment line. Auto Reply and Customized Signature. These are mostly related to commercial advertising. Attachments: You can attach files such as documents and pictures to a mail message. We often receive many unwanted e-mails. Typically. you have to enter the user name you selected during the registration process and also your password. like many other valuable technologies does have some drawbacks. After the header area. Login Page: To access your mail account. Address Book. comes the actual message text.

Here you are required to enter the Internet News Server Name. These programs use a variety of approaches to identify and eliminate spam. perform the following steps. the recipient’s address is to be removed from future mailing lists. Microsoft Outlook automatically sets up the Windows Mail Newsreader. In the “Internet Accounts” window. Click “Next”. This newsreader is a Network News Transport Protocol (NNTP) newsreader. Adding a News Account: Let us add a new account.the development and use of “Spam Blockers”. and then click "Customize". The Mozilla Thunderbird e-mail program which is available for free download at “www. In the "Commands" list. This indicates that you may subscribe to a newsgroup of your choice on the Microsoft news server. Enter the server name and then click “Next”. click "Go". Click on the "Commands" tab. Now. On the Standard toolbar click the "Toolbar Options" arrow. Point to "Add or Remove Buttons". click "News". enter your e-mail address. You may then close the “Customize” window. click “Add”. In the United States of America. you can see that there is a default news account named “Microsoft Communities”. to download and read news messages. a folder with this name is created in the list of folders in the left panel. Newsgroups are also called discussion groups. When “Congratulations” is displayed. You can see this account under the “News” heading in the “Internet Accounts” window.mozilla. In Windows Mail. Using Newsgroups A newsgroup is a forum on the Internet for discussions on a specified range of subjects. which you can use to download newsgroup content and then work with it when you are not connected to the Internet. Newsreaders are used to gain access to various types of newsgroups.com” comes with built-in spam blocking software. When the option is selected. 134 | P a g e . and to post replies to them. Enter your name as you want it displayed and click “Next”. click on “Newsgroup Account” and then click “Next”. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Outlook 2007”. the CAN-SPAM Act has been enacted which requires that every marketing-related e-mail provides an opt-out option. In the "Categories" list. and drag it and place it in the "Go" menu. To start the Microsoft Outlook application. If you have not previously set up a newsreader. click “Finish”. In the window displayed. If you do not find the “News” item in the “Go” menu of Microsoft Outlook. Select “Tools → Accounts” from the menu. Also. Select “Go → News” from the menu.

Then click “Subscribe”. you can see which of your contacts are online and offline at any given time. Click “Add Contact” after you are done. Since this list needs to be downloaded from the news server. enter your message in the “Personal invitation” box and check the box against “Also send an e-mail invitation to this contact”. you may add additional information in the “Contact”. Click on a newsgroup name in the folder list to see a list of messages. The difference is that you can send and receive messages as soon as they are typed. it must first be downloaded from the Internet and installed on your computer. Select “File → New → News Message” to create a new message to send to the complete group. Select “Start → All Programs”. ensure that you are connected to the Internet and click “Yes”. click “Windows Live Messenger” to start the Windows Live Messenger. Using Messengers for Instant Messaging Instant Messaging enables you to have a conversation with another person or a group of people concurrently. In the “Windows Live” folder. It is similar to e-mail. If you wish. The list is downloaded and the “Newsgroup Subscriptions” window is displayed. Click the “Add a contact” button. You may read any message you wish by double-clicking on it. download the Windows Live Messenger and install it. Enter your e-mail address and password and then click “Sign In”. you may click on the group you wish to subscribe to. There are different instant messengers available such as Yahoo messenger. If both parties are online at the same time. you need to add his name to your list of contacts. If your contact does not have Windows Live Messenger. Click “Reply Group” to send a reply to all members of a group and “Reply” to reply to the individual sender of the message. Now click “OK”. You 135 | P a g e . To use a messenger. The names of the newsgroups appear in the folder list. Google talk etc. ICQ.Click “Close”. “Work” and “Notes” sections. Now. In the “Instant Messaging Address” box enter your contact’s e-mail address. Use “Ctrl+Click” to select multiple groups. “Personal”. Windows Live Messenger. In the contacts list. On the “All” tab. Click “OK” to confirm. you can have a complete conversation. select “File → Print” from the menu bar. Adding a Contact: Before you can chat with someone. right-click on its name and select “Unsubscribe”. You see a window asking whether you would like to view a list of available newsgroups. You can see that the contact is displayed in your list. To print this message. To unsubscribe from a group. You may choose to reply to a message.

When you click on the name of a contact who is offline. double-click the name of an online contact. In the main Messenger screen. After you have completed your chat. You can see the complete conversation in the upper section of the “Conversation” window. You can also send messages to contacts who are offline. The new picture is then displayed. In the box at the bottom of the conversation window that comes up. When a contact comes online. Click “Options”. click on your name at the top of the screen and then click on the status you wish. Now select “File → Save”. deleting the contact etc. Type your message and then select an emoticon from the list. For this. In the same way. Saving your conversation: You may save your complete conversation. “Emoticons”. you may click on the different categories in the left pane to specify related settings. Click “OK” in the window that comes up. In the “Save As” window. Changing your Status: You may wish to display a specific status against your name such as “Busy”. enter the file name in which you want to save it and press “Save”. also called “Smileys”. you are informed about his status. type your message and click “Send” or simply press “Enter”. Choose a picture and then click “OK” in the “Display Pictures” window. Click “Change display picture”. Changing the Display Picture: You may change the picture that is displayed against your name. Changing the Color Scheme: You may change the color scheme of the Messenger application by clicking on the Paint Brush icon at the top of the main Messenger window and selecting a color of your choice. click on the “Show Menu” icon to the right of the Paint Brush icon in the conversation window. you may close the conversation window by clicking “Show Menu” and selecting “File → Close”. click on your name at the top of the screen. For this. “Out to lunch” etc.can chat with any contact who is online. Social Networking 136 | P a g e . you are ready to begin your chat. Click on your name at the top of the screen. Chatting with your contact: Now. Offline contacts will receive the messages once they come online. Specifying Other Settings: You may specify other settings such as the way your name is displayed in a conversation. the emoticon is sent along with the text. messages from your contact are displayed on your screen. Right-click on a contact’s name in the main window to perform various activities such as sending an e-mail. You may send an emoticon along with your message. For this. editing contact details. are symbols that help to convey emotion or additional meaning in a written statement. In the window displayed. you are notified about it. When you click “Send”. This message is displayed immediately on your contact’s screen.

Many sites even notify you when someone joins with parts of his profile matching yours. see the displayed table. connecting individuals to one another. friend-of-a-friend and common interest. This information is added to the site’s database. gender.One of the fastest growing uses of the Internet is “social networking” i.e. You must consider carefully what you are disclosing before providing information to any site or individual. school name etc. If you wanted to locate or create a special interest group. 137 | P a g e . You could then visit his site to connect to his friends and join his list of friends as well. There are three basic categories of social networking sites: reuniting. you provide profile information such as your age. “Common interest” sites bring together individuals that share common interests or hobbies. you might join LinkedIn. if you are looking for business contacts. For example. For a summary of social networking sites. For example. “Friend-of-a-friend” sites are designed to bring together two people who do not know each other but share a common friend. a network could be started by an acquaintance who provides his profile information and list of friends. “Reuniting” sites are designed to connect people who have known one another but have lost touch. Two popular reuniting sites are Facebook and Classmates Online. Two well-known friend-of-a-friend sites are Friendster and MySpace. Members can search the database to locate individuals. you might join Meetup. When you join a social network by connecting to a reuniting site.

You are responsible for maintaining the employment records for all employees of the School. You need to manually leaf through the pages to locate the required information. Currently. retrieving any kind of information is time consuming. 138 | P a g e . Although the information is well maintained.DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Overview Introduction to Databases You have recently accepted a new job as an Employment Administrator with All Saints High School. Also making reports quickly is a difficult task. the employment records are maintained on paper forms and stored in file cabinets organized alphabetically.

Queries. The tables are related or linked to one another by a common field. 139 | P a g e . print and preview data and much more. Each column is a field which is the smallest unit of information about a record. In Access. A relational database is the most widely used database structure. edit data. every database is stored in a single file which has the extension “. organize.accdb”. The software tool that you will use to accomplish the task you have been assigned will be Microsoft Access 2007. It is an electronic database management system which can store. Creating a Database Introduction to Access To start the Microsoft Access application. using Access 2007. thing or place. before any other objects are created. You can create as many tables as you need to store different types of information. access. enter data. the information in a database is stored in a table. Here. Forms and Reports. What is a database? : A database is an organized collection of related information. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Access 2007”. Queries let you quickly perform an action on a table. The four main objects in an Access database are Tables. manipulate. The table object is the basic object and has to be created first. Tables store information. Access 2007 is a relational database management application that is used to create and analyze a database. you will learn how to create a database. data is organized in linked tables. The first screen that appears is the “Getting Started with Microsoft Office Access” page.The school has recently purchased new computers and the management now wants to update the employee record system to an electronic database management system. Tables are made up of vertical columns (called fields) and horizontal rows (called records). That file contains database objects. However. and present information in many different ways. Forms are windows that you create and arrange in order to easily view or change the information in a table. this action involves retrieving a piece of information. which are simply the components of a database. you can also use queries to make changes to your database. In the following labs. Usually. Typically. Each row is a record which contains all the information about a person.

queries. Planning is the first step in the development of a database. creating. and how its formatted. manage contacts. you decide to create several separate tables of data in the database. After studying the existing record keeping procedures and the reports that are created. delete and modify records from a table. The main table will include the employees’ basic information. -Your tables. For example.Reports help you print some or all of the information in a table. You can choose where the information appears on the printed page. there are templates that can be used to track issues. you can quickly search the table to locate a specific record based on the data in a field. -It is easy to add. -Its capability to sort records in a table according to different fields can provide more meaningful information. forms and reports are displayed as tabbed objects in the Access window. you can easily switch between various objects. Template databases can be used as they are. -You can analyze the data in a table and perform calculations on different fields of data. or you can customize them to suit your needs. what data each of them will contain and how will they be related. how its grouped and sorted. entering and editing data and then previewing and printing. Access provides you with a wide variety of templates that are ready-to-use databases that contain all that is needed for performing a specific task. or keep a record of expenses. You must understand the purpose of the database. and more become available if you click one of the categories under “Template Categories” at the left of the Access window. -You can quickly produce reports using some Access features. Creating a New Database Creating a database entails several basic steps: planning. By clicking the object tabs. You must plan the design of your database in respect of how many tables will be required. For this you must study the existing employee records. Another will contain information of all the departments in the School and a third one will contain the payroll of the employees. Several templates are displayed under “Featured Online Templates”. You must know how the structure or layout of each table in the database must be. The features of Access 2007 are as follows: -Once the data is entered in the database. 140 | P a g e .

with no defined fields. When you open a database or create a new one.For now. 2) The Quick Access toolbar which displays icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. you may see the assignment titled “The User Interface” in the “Microsoft Word” topic. Undo. You may specify the location where you wish to store your database. and configure the fields. the default database name is displayed in the “File Name” box. The two most commonly used views are “Datasheet View” and “Design View”. Now click “Create”. To apply a command to a database object. At the left. forms and reports appear in the Navigation Pane. or other database objects. saving. right-click the object and select an item from the context menu that appears. Change it to “Employee. printing. and closing a file. click the arrow in the upper corner. form. At the bottom of the screen you see the words “Datasheet View” on the “Status Bar”. It also allows you to enter and edit the data. But you cannot change the data in design view. To minimize the expanded Navigation Pane. Groups and Command buttons.accdb”. The Navigation Pane can be minimized into a vertical bar. In the panel at the right. Design view allows you to create or change a table. 3) The Ribbon which has Task-oriented Tabs. In the “File New Database” window. You see the familiar Microsoft Office 2007 user interface which consists of: 1) The Office Button which displays a menu containing commands for opening. to provide you with a larger work area. click on “Desktop” in the left panel and then click “OK”. Datasheet view shows the data in the database. This indicates that you are 141 | P a g e . the names of your database objects such as tables. click the arrow at the top. To expand the minimized Navigation Pane. it is time to create it so that the data can be stored in it. The “View” icon in the “Views” group is used switch back and forth between the Datasheet view and the Design View. You can also set keys and restrict the values entered here. a table named Table1 which is completely blank. Click on the “Browse” icon to the right of the file name. you see the “Navigation Pane”. you will create only the table containing the employee information. Access creates your first database object. Click “Blank Database” under “New Blank Database”. Creating a database: Now that you have designed the database. For more details on the Microsoft Office User Interface. To open a database object. Creating a Table Access provides different window formats called “Views” to display and work with the objects in a database. and Redo. double-click the object in the Navigation Pane.

The name can consist of letters. Type “Employee ID” as the field name and press “Enter”. combinations of words and numbers. and queries. When you create a new table. You may also create a table using this view.now in datasheet view. Examples are names and phone numbers. queries and reports. which makes queries and other operations fast. and search for data. forms. Let us first understand what is meant by a “Primary Key”. you must create the structure of the table. Click on “View → Design View” in the “Views” group. Phone No. add and delete data. You must specify a primary key for all tables. like words. you need to enter a name for the table. Data type: The data type defines the type of data the field will contain. forms. The “Emp Info” tab is displayed in the document window on the right. Before you can enter data into a table. This view can be used to create and view the design of all types of database objects such as tables. Access automatically creates a primary key and assigns a field name of "ID" and the AutoNumber data type to it. meaning the fields that will hold the data. Now let us begin creating the table structure. numbers. You will learn about the different data types shortly. Access provides a number of data types to choose from. You cannot start the name of a field with a space. and special characters. It is important to choose the right kind of data type before you start entering data in the table. In the “Save As” window. In Datasheet view. You can see a small key to the left of the field name indicating that this field is the primary key of the table. and that it is always unique. Click on the drop down menu button to select the “Data Type”. You can enter up to 255 characters in a text field. you can edit fields. Subject1. Access also ensures that every record has a non-blank primary key field.). and numbers that are not used in calculations. spaces. 142 | P a g e . Field name: A field name is used to identify the data stored in a field. and brackets([]). This view provides a row and column view of the data in tables. Text: It is the default data type and is used to store text entries. except a period (. Access automatically creates an index for the primary key. Following are the data types you can use. You can now see the name of your table in the Navigation Pane on the left. Following are some examples of valid field names: First name. A primary key is a field or set of fields in your table that provide Access with a unique identifier for every record. We shall use the “Design View” to create a table. the default name “Table1” is displayed. an exclamation (!). etc. Before defining the fields in a table. Enter the Table Name as “Emp Info” and click “OK”.

the default field size of the “Text” data type is 255. graphs etc. Attachment: This is used to store images. Calculations can be performed on the numbers stored in a Number field. Fees. but is formatted to display decimal places and the currency symbol. As you can see. OLE Object: This data type is used to store images. charts and other types of supported files to the records in your database. its default properties are displayed under “Field Properties”. etc. Switch back to Design View by clicking “View → Design View” in the “Views” group. Marks in an exam is an example. When you select a data type. Format: Specifies how the data is displayed in the table and printed. etc. For example. etc. AutoNumber: It is a unique. Each data type has its own set of field properties. Date of joining. 143 | P a g e . spreadsheet files. Hyperlink: This is used to store web addresses. Click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar and switch to Datasheet View by clicking “View → Datasheet View” in the “Views” group. Price. and On or Off. Number: It is used to store numbers only. It can be used for fields like Fees Paid. Date/Time: It is used for storage of date and time information. Yes/No: This data type accepts only two values – Yes or No. The description that you had entered is displayed in the “Status Bar”. Information about the data type is displayed in the left panel and on the right hand side is the help box displaying information about the current task. Some of the more common properties are as follows: Field Size: It decides the maximum number of characters that can be entered in the field. Description: The “Description” text box is used to describe the field. Input mask: Simplifies data entry and controls what data is required and how it is to be displayed. Currency: This is similar to the Number data type. Select the “Text” data type. Summary of a book is an example. For example. A field property is a characteristic that helps define a field. True or False. Birth date. Caption: Specifies a field caption or a prompt for the user to enter data. documents.Memo: It is used to store text that is too long to be stored in a Text field. Pass. sequential number that is automatically incremented by one whenever a new record is added to the table. Giving this description is optional. documents. Type the description wherever applicable.

But you cannot do so until you change the view. Validation Rule: Restricts the data entry to meet certain conditions or requirements. You may change the primary key simply by clicking on another field name and then clicking on the “Primary Key” icon in the “Tools” group. This field property specifies whether an index is to be created on that field. Required: Specifies whether or not a value must be entered in a field before the record is stored. Click in the “Field Size” property box and change the field size to ’15’. If you set it to “Yes”. 144 | P a g e . The structure of your table is now ready. You can see that the name given to the field with the data type Attachment has been replaced by a paperclip icon. Type ‘First Name’ and select “Text” as the “Data Type” from the drop down menu. Double-click on 255 to select it and type ‘4’ to change the field size. In the same manner. Now. We used the Design View to define the structure. Let us change the primary key back to “Employee ID” as before. You must save your table structure before you can start entering data into the table. So select the “Data Type” as “Attachment”. Click on the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. Indexed: An index is used to speed up queries. enter the information shown in the table until you come to the “Birth Date” field. This value can be changed.Default Value: It specifies a default value for a field to be automatically filled in at the time of data entry. sorting. The “Photo” field is of a different type – you want to store the photo of the employee. Click the “Field Size” property text box. it can be used to indicate that you know no value exists for a field. Allow Zero Length: Specifies whether or not an entry containing no value is valid. Select “General Date”. Click on “View → Datasheet View” in the “Views” group. Click with the mouse in the “Field Name” column to enter the next field name. let us change some of the defaults. and grouping operations run against large amounts of data. Click in the “Format” property box and open the drop down list. Do not make any other changes. Select the “Data Type” of this field as “Date/Time” from the drop down menu. Validation Text: It is displayed when the validation rule is violated. We now need to switch to Datasheet View. Entering and Editing Data You can now start entering data in the table. Follow the same procedure for the next field – Date_Of_Joining.

Check that you type data exactly as it appears in the accompanying table. For this. Then you must delete that employee’s record. Alternatively. navigate to the location of the picture file. If you want to 145 | P a g e . Before printing it is advisable to preview it. Then click “OK”. you may enter the date directly or use the Date Picker displayed at the right of the field. For this. Complete the information for the first record except for the “Photo” field. Click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. that an employee has resigned and is no longer an employee of the School. Deleting a record: Select the record to be deleted by clicking the “Record Selector”. It displays the table in a reduced size so that you can see the layout. Changing Column Width The data you have entered may not be completely visible in the Table’s column. This displays the “Column Width” window where you can type the desired value. double-click in the attachment field. Click on the picture and then click “Open”. If you make a mistake while typing. right-click a columns name and select “Column Width”. Previewing the table gives you an idea how the table will look after it is printed. in the “Employee ID” column. The document will be printed using the default settings. Remember not to use any spaces before or after the data. click “Delete”. In the “Choose File” window. You can see the name of the picture in the “Attachments” window. Then drag in the desired direction. To see that the picture has really been inserted. Now click “Add”. position the mouse on the right border of a column header. Click “Yes” to delete the record. See that there is consistency in the data that you enter. Preview and Print a Table The table is now ready and you want to print it. You may adjust the column width. On the “Home tab”. You have been informed by the HR department. Click “OK”. Type the employee’s ID number. that is. you may adjust the column width to a specific number of characters. Double-click in the attachment field to open the “Attachments” window. use the “Backspace” key to delete characters to the left of the insertion point or the “Delete” key to delete characters to the right of the insertion point. left or right until you get the desired width. For the date fields. Use the right arrow key or press “Enter” to move to the next field.The insertion point can be seen in the first column of the first row. Now double-click on the name of the picture in the “Attachments” window. This is the small box to the left of the record. You will be asked to confirm the deletion. You may drag with the mouse to select multiple records. in the “Records” group. Inserting a picture: The photo can be inserted as an attachment.

Click “Yes” to save changes. To close a table. two or multiple pages if there is more data than can fit on one or two pages. Click on the Office Button and select “Close Database”. To close the preview. The “Print Preview” tab appears when you view the table in the Print Preview mode. To print selected records. you have to close the database. type ‘1’ and in the “To” field enter ‘5’. The “Print Range” section of the window lets you specify how much of the document you want to print.change some settings you may do so. Select “All” to print all records. You have to close the table and database that you have created and have been working on until now. The table tab will close. If you click “No” to discard changes. to print pages 1 to 5. select “Selected Record(s)”. Clicking on “Cancel” will not close the window and you will be able to continue working. You can see the preview consisting of one. To print selected records. select “Selected Record(s)”. After you have entered your print specifications. The “Print” window is displayed. click on the “Landscape” icon in the “Page Layout” group. enter the page range. you may first click on the related tab to make it active. If you have made any changes that have not been saved. Since you have just one table open presently. click “OK”. Access will prompt you to save them before closing. enter the page range. Select “Pages From” to specify the number of the pages you want to print. click “OK”. Select “All” to print all records. Close and Open a Table and Database You have finished working with the employee database for now and you want to stop working but continue later on. After you have entered your print specifications. type ‘1’ and in the “To” field enter ‘5’. You may also print the table by clicking the Office Button and selecting “Print → Print” from the menu or use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+P”. in the “Pages From:” field. Select “Pages From” to specify the number of the pages you want to print. The page is displayed with a heading and date in the “Header” and the page number in the “Footer”. simply click on the “X” shaped icon at the right end in line with the table name. If you want to change the page orientation. To print pages that are continuous. You are now back to the “Getting 146 | P a g e . click the “Close Print Preview” icon. For example. to print pages 1 to 5. The “Print Range” section of the window lets you specify how much of the document you want to print. Closing the database: Next. For example. in the “Pages From:” field. the table will close without saving the changes. Check once again whether everything is as you want it and click on the “Print” icon. To print pages that are continuous. Closing a table: Multiple table tabs may be open at one time.

Let us modify the default name. including its structure and data. you may click the Office Button and then click the “Exit Access” button at the bottom right. In such a case. in the “Getting Started with Microsoft Office Access” page. you may not see the name of your database in this list. For this. Now click the Office Button and select “Save As”. select “Structure Only” under “Paste Options”. The table will open in Datasheet View. In the “Save As” window. Making Copies of Database Objects Copying a database object: You can make a copy of an object in the database such as a table. You can see the new table displayed in the Navigation Pane and the data displayed in the document window on the right. Your Database window is displayed. Sometimes. Enter the words “(with data)” at the end of the name and click “OK”. Let us make a copy of the table “Emp Info”. This would save time in creating a new table which required similar fields but had different data to be entered. we shall copy the structure only. This time. you may accept the default name displayed or enter a new name. Right click on the name of the “Emp Info” table in the Navigation Pane and select “Copy”. Making a Copy of the Database You can make a copy of the complete database.Started with Microsoft Office Access” page. click on the database name in the list displayed under “Open Recent Database” on the right. In the “Open” window. To exit Access. you may need to copy only the structure of a table. This is an alternative method to using the “Save As” option of the Office Button. Click the table name in the Navigation Pane. In the document pane. Enter the words “(structure only)” at the end of the name and click “OK”. navigate to the location of your database and click “Open”. In the “Paste Table As” window. double-click the table name in the navigation pane. Double click on the new table name in the Navigation Pane. Let us create another copy of the “Emp Info” table. Opening the database: When you need to work once again with the “Employee” database. You may create a new database or open an existing one. You may use the Copy-Paste method to copy both the data and structure of a table by selecting “Structure and Data” under the “Paste Options” in the “Paste Table As” window. Now right click once again in the Navigation Pane and select “Paste”. This copy would be identical to the existing one complete with its objects and data. To open the “Emp Info” table. click the Office Button and select “Save As → Access 2007 Database”. click “More…” at the top of the list. Sometimes. If any database 147 | P a g e . you can see that only the structure of the table has been copied and there is no data contained in it.

accdb” and click “Save”. To define the format. you need to first change to Design View. In the “Save As” window. In the “Size” field property. you have forgotten to add two fields! The PIN code number needs to be added to make the address complete and the gender of the employee also needs to go on record. Make the “State” field the current one by clicking on it. Move to the “Format” field property text box and type ‘>’. Click “Yes”. The field’s “Format” property can be defined to tell Access the way you want the data to be displayed. The new database is created identical to the original database. Type ‘Pin Code’ and make its data type as “Text”. You can see that all data in the “State” field is displayed in uppercase. you must insert those fields which you have missed while designing the database the first time. You can easily make all these changes and put restrictions on the way data is entered or displayed. type ‘7’ and in the “Format” field property text box. enter the location and the name for the new database. Now. 148 | P a g e . A row is inserted between the “State” and “Phone” fields. This will display the PIN codes of all records in the same format. Change to Datasheet View Click on “Yes” to save changes. you see a window asking whether the objects can be closed. So. One is the “Pin Code” and the other is the “Gender” of the employee. For this. switch to Design View. The “Pin Code” field should be after the “State” field and the “Gender” field should be after the “Phone” field. to change the “State” field’s format to display it in uppercase. To do so. say “Backup_Employee. For example. you realize that there is no uniformity in the data entered in the “State” field. you have to enter the appropriate symbol in the “Field Properties” window. Select “Insert Rows” in the “Tools” group on the “Design” tab. click on the upper part of the “View” icon in the “Views” group on the “Design” tab. type ‘@@@ @@@’ with a space after the first three characters. Modifying a Table Customizing and Inserting Fields If you look through the records.objects are open. Also. You want all the records to display the name of the state in uppercase. Make “Phone” the current field. To set the display format. you can use the four symbols used in the table shown. You can even add and delete fields. BS83DT will be displayed with a space between BS8 and 3DT.

you observe that most of the employees are from “Bristol” State and that there are more males than females as employees. which is an explanatory message that appears if the user enters invalid information in a field for which a validation rule has been set. Type ‘M’ in it. You can also add validation text. So. Now switch to Datasheet View. Access displays a default message but it does not clearly explain the reason for the error. The table is displayed with two new columns which have no data in them. Click on the “Default Value” property text box and type “Bristol” in it. Fill in these empty fields in all the records. 149 | P a g e . Setting the “Validity Check” option makes sure that the values entered by the user are valid for the field type. Enter its “Data Type” as “Text”. Observe that the new blank record has the “State” and “Gender” fields already filled with values. Switch to “Datasheet” view. you can make data entry a bit quicker. make the “Gender” field the current one and click on the “Default Value” property text box. Save the design changes related to default values. Switch to Design View and make the “State” field the current one by clicking on it.Repeat the procedure for inserting a row and adding the “Gender” field after the “Phone” field. This value can either be accepted or another value can be entered by the user while adding a new record. This is because of the “Default Value” property that you have set for these two fields. You want the “Gender” field to accept only two values – “M” for male and “F” for female. “Field Size” as ‘1’ and “Format” as ‘>’. Save the new table structure by clicking on the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. Similarly. If you do not give a message. by setting the default value of the “Sate” field to “Bristol” and that of “Gender” to “F”. A validation rule is an expression that defines acceptable values. The table above shows some examples of validity rule settings and corresponding messages. An expression is a formula consisting of a combination of symbols that evaluates to a single value. A default value is used to specify a value that is automatically entered in a field when a new record is added. While looking through the records.

switch to Datasheet View. You may change them if required. Type the data shown in the table in the new record. Access asks you if you want to check the existing data with the new validity rule.Adding a Validity Rule: Switch to Design View and click on the “Gender” field. type ‘Please enter either “M” or “F” only. When you make changes to the structure of a table. In the “Validation Rule” property box. Click “Yes”. you often make changes that could result in the loss of data or existing data may become invalid. Click “OK” to continue. For now. 150 | P a g e . The warning message is immediately displayed. click “No”. Now. You will be asked to save the changes. Type ‘k’ or any other letter in either upper or lower case. except ‘F’ or ‘M’. The “State” and “Gender” fields are already filled with default values. Press “Backspace” and enter valid text. A warning message box is displayed saying that the data integrity rules have been changed. Now try entering an invalid value in the “Gender” field. type ‘ “M” Or “F” ’ and in the “Validation Text” property box.

you may use the “Find” and “Replace” icons in the “Find” group on the “Home” tab. One is that the “State” names should all be shortened to 2 lettered names. “NORTHSIDE” with “NS” and so on. not part of it. The “Find” command locates all specified values in a field and the “Replace” command finds a value and automatically replaces it. using the “Undo” command will cancel the last action as long as you have not made any further changes to the table. “EASTSIDE” with “ES”. Now. In the “Find What” box. the last name of the employee. cancels the command. Click in the “Search Fields As Formatted” check box which finds data based on its display format. While in the “Datasheet” view. You need not do this manually. select “Whole field”. Click on the “Replace” tab and type “Bristol” in the “Find What” box. So click in the “State” field and select “Replace”. Use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Z” or click on the “Undo” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. select “All”. Finding and replacing data is fast and accurate but you have to be careful not to replace unintended values. So. type ‘BS’. In the “Replace With” box. You want Access to find a perfect match to what you have typed in the “Find What” box. then click on the “Replace” button.Finding and Replacing Data Finding and Replacing data: If you want to search for some information in the table and also replace it. That means you have to replace “Bristol” with “BS”. Click on the “Cancel” button if you do not want to perform any action. The other is that. click in the “Match Case” check box and click “Find Next”. “Jenny Smith” is married and needs to change her “Last Name” and “Address”. Your original data appears. Now. 151 | P a g e . you have been told to make two changes. one of the employees. If you make changes to a single record. You want to match the whole field. click in the “Last Name” field of the first record and select “Find”. close the “Find and Replace” window and make the necessary changes in the “Last Name” and the address fields. type “Smith”. The first occurrence of the search criteria specified is highlighted. The “State” field will already be selected in the “Look In” box. so. Check whether it the record you are looking for. In the “Search” box. If it is. in the “Match” box. Click “Find Next”. Clicking on the “Cancel” button. Select “Whole Field” in the “Match” box and “All” in the “Search” box. the “Undo” command has no effect. Once you move to another record or move to another window. You may use the “Find and Replace” feature. you have to make changes in the “State” field. The “Look In” box displays the “Last Name” field because the field was the current one when the command was given. The “Find and Replace” window is displayed with the “Find” tab selected. If the text is found and it is the one you want to replace.

you can sort them on a single field – the field on the basis of which you want to arrange them. warning you that the replace operation cannot be undone. If you remember. You can sort on one field or more than one adjacent field. Switch to Design View and click in the “State” field. In Access. “Start of Field” finds data only at the beginning of the field. You will see that the new record at the end has the default value changed to “BS”. you had seen what a primary key is and what its importance is. Instantly. So you need to make a change in the default value too since you now need “BS”. How are you going to give it to them? To arrange the records in the table in alphabetical order. click on “Yes” because that’s what you want. In this case. the “Look In” list contains the name of the field in which your cursor is currently positioned. uppercase or lowercase) as the specified text.The “State” field in the next record is highlighted. type “BS” and switch to Datasheet View. If you want to search the entire table. click on “Replace All”. the “Last Name” will be the field which you will use to sort records. If you check the box against “Match Case”. you may select the name of the table from the list. Since you want to replace all the fields containing “BRISTOL” with “BS”. But the Accounts department has requested for the employee list in alphabetical order. you had set the default value for the “State” field as “Bristol”. For example. You also saw that the records in a table are arranged according to the primary key. a search for “Smith” with the initial alphabet “S” in uppercase and “m-i-t-h” in lowercase will not display “SMITH” with all uppercase letters or “smith” with all lowercase letters. The “Search” box allows you to specify the direction to follow while searching.. A warning message is displayed by Access. Let us have another look at the various options available in the “Find and Replace” window. You are asked whether you want to continue.e. Sorting: Sorting the data often helps in finding some particular information quickly. Down. you can sort data in ascending or descending order. The options are Up. the search returns only those instances of the text that have the same case (i. Save the changes made to the table. By default. In the “Default Value” property box. and All (which is the default). Access sorts records starting from the leftmost 152 | P a g e . When you select multiple columns to sort. Sorting Records In the first lab. In the “Match” list options. “Whole Field” finds only data that is exactly the same. the data in all the fields containing “BRISTOL” is replaced with “BS”. “Any Part of Field” finds data anywhere in the field.

Tom’s record appears before Ted’s which is not in ascending alphabetical order. So. The records are displayed according to the changed order of fields. Select the “Ascending” icon in the “Sort & Filter” group on the “Home” tab again. Click in the “Field Selector” of the “First Name” field. In the “Datasheet” view. so Ted’s record comes first and then comes Tom’s record. Click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar. To select the two columns. The new sort order is saved with the table data and automatically applied every time you open the table. To remove the temporary sorting order. switch to Design View. “Last Name” must be to the left of “First Name”. Switch to Datasheet View to see the order of the fields. They are arranged alphabetically first by “Last Name” and then by “First Name”. To change the order of fields. sorting is done from the leftmost field. observe the order of the records before sorting. select “Clear All Sorts” in the “Sort & Filter” group. To sort on multiple fields. Creating Forms Using the Form Wizard 153 | P a g e . They are sorted on the “Employee ID” field which is the primary key. Then release the mouse. The records will again be displayed in the order of the “Employee ID” field. Now. Drag to the right to select the next column – “First Name”. The “Last Name” field moves up one row so that it is the second field in the field name list. To sort first by “Last Name” and then by “First name”. Both the columns will be highlighted. in Datasheet View. you need to sort on multiple fields. The cursor will change to a solid black arrow pointing downwards. position the mouse pointer in the column heading of “Last Name”. click in the “Last Name” field of any record. Now drag the mouse down until you see a black line under the “Last Name” field. Observe the records of Tom and Ted now. the temporary sort must be removed. Select the “Ascending” icon in the “Sort & Filter” group on the “Home” tab to display the records sorted by Last Name. You see that Ted and Tom are sorted by Last Name but not by “First Name”. you need to select the two fields. To return to the primary key sort order. To sort on multiple fields. This is the small box to the left of the field name. Observe the order of records after sorting on the “Last Name” field.column and moves to the right across the columns.

lines. The button below this can be used to move all fields into the “Selected Fields” list.Being the one to be in charge of the employee records database. In the “Forms” group. The other two buttons below this. titles. click “More Forms → Form Wizard”. The fields from the current table are displayed in the “Available Fields” list. In the next step. The field name is displayed in the “Selected Fields” list now. boxes and pictures. Access provides a feature to create onscreen forms. A form is a database object that is mainly used to enter and display records and make changes to existing records onscreen.To close the form. It is desirable for the onscreen form to be similar to the paper form filled in by each new employee when hired. “Emp Info” will be displayed by default. If not. In the next step. you are asked to select the style of the form. the layout of the form is displayed. as you may have realized can be used to move fields back into the “Available Fields” list. You can move one record up or down by clicking on the “Next record” or “Previous record” buttons respectively. The information on this form will be used as an input source for the new record that will be added for the new employee. Using the Form Wizard: Click on the “Create” tab. Click on “Employee ID” and click on the button with “>” symbol on it. The next step is the last step. Select the fields from the list one by one. The “Form Wizard” window is displayed. To make it easy to view and use. At the bottom of the form window is the record number indicator. Forms are based on a table and contain design control elements like descriptive text. Select a suitable one and click “Next”. “Columnar” is selected by default. Click on the “New (blank) record” button to add new records. click the close 154 | P a g e . one of your main objectives is to make the database easy to use. Information regarding what you are supposed to do in each step is mentioned on the top in the “Form Wizard” window. In the “Tables/Queries” list. It guides you through the steps required to create a form. type it and click “Finish”. the name of the current table “Emp Info” is displayed. The form is displayed with the first record’s contents in it. The “First record“ button takes you to the first record and the “Last record” button takes you to the last one. Leave it as it is and click on “Next”. where you are asked to give the form a name and save it. Select all the fields in the same manner as the first field and click on “Next”. labels. Read it so that you know what you are supposed to do in that step. The field names are on the left with the corresponding data in boxes in front of them. The “Form Wizard” feature of Access makes it very easy to design forms. Seeing the records at all times in the form of rows and columns can be tiring to the eyes.

Click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar to save your changes and close the form. the “State” and the “Gender” fields have their default values. it is necessary to frame a question. You will add this information using the form you created. Click on the “New (blank) record” button at the bottom of the window.button on the form. Adding Records in a Form A new employee has recently joined the School and you need to input all related information into the database. You see a box with a dotted outline enclosing the picture and the field label “Photo”. You can see that both the form and the table are open on two separate tabs. For example. Let us learn to modify the design of the form we created. You can start typing the data of the new employee as shown in the accompanying figure. you first need to open the form. In Access. Click on it and enter “Photograph”. Queries and Reports Using Queries To get any information. 155 | P a g e . Of course. Now. “When is the train to Central Park?” you may get the most appropriate answer “It leaves on Tuesday morning at 6:30 am”. After you are done. In this way. you have to put questions in the form of queries. Framing it correctly will give you the most accurate information. to get information stored in the tables. if you ask at the railway enquiry counter – “Is there a train to Central Park?” you will most probably not get the expected answer. But if you ask. At the top left corner you see a four-headed arrow. double-click on the form name “Emp Info”. In the navigation pane. You may click on the tab names to switch between them. you can enter and view as many records as you want. Click on it and drag the picture to position it a little lower down in the form. The form with all blank boxes is displayed. click on the table name in the navigation pane and scroll if required. to see all the records that you have entered. Now let us change the label “Photo”. click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar. The form will be displayed. Click on the field displaying the photo of the employee. Now switch to Design View by selecting “View” in the “Views” group on the “Home” tab. So framing a question correctly is important. Open the form once again by double clicking the form name in the Navigation Pane. To add records. You can see your form name displayed in the navigation pane on the left.

A “Select” query retrieves the requested data from one or more tables and displays it in a query datasheet in the order you specify. It was very simple. The query is displayed with all the records in the table. Now. at the top. Queries are used to view data in different ways. they want a list of all employees. Click “OK” to display the “Simple Query Wizard” window. “Last Name”. like any other database object. analyze and even change existing data. you can run it any time you want to take a look at the actual data that meets your specifications. While the query is open. Once you’ve saved a query. to know about the employees who have been in service for 5 years or more. Switch to Design View by clicking on the upper part of the “View” icon in the “Views” group. Select the following fields – “Employee ID”. Access saves each query in your database. click on the “Home” tab. “First Name”. you see all the fields in the “Emp Info” table. click “Query Wizard”. you need to check their dates of joining the 156 | P a g e . Crosstab query.Query: A query is a request for specific data in a database. Action query and SQL query. select it. In the “Tables/Queries” list. but with selected fields. How are you going to specify this condition? You need to make some modifications in this query you have just created. accept the default name for the query or type a new one and click “Finish”. you can see all the fields of the table used for the query in a small window. In the “Available Fields” list. the “Emp Info” table is already selected. which you have already done. Using the Query Wizard: Click on the “Create” tab. select them one by one and click on the “>” button. To select the required fields. you have a request from the Administrative department. Parameter query. Here. The “New Query” window is displayed with “Simple Query Wizard” selected. In the lower part. which you are going to use. Queries can be used as a source for forms and reports because they are based on tables. Modifying a Query: There was nothing very different in this query. There are five types of queries in Access: Select query. “City”. If not. In the document window. But now. This is very interesting. “Address”. for a “5 Years Service Award” they want to give. In the “Other” group. who have been in service for at least five years. Click “Next”. Creating a query in Access is very much similar to creating a table or form. the fields selected in the query are displayed. and “Phone”. The most common is the “Select” query. You will find this wizard similar to the one you used to create a form.

“First Name”. Click “OK”. you need to modify the query by adding the “Date_of_Joining” field and specifying criteria. scroll down a bit. In the Tables/Queries list. as you did while selecting fields for the query. Confirm that the “As” box has “Query” displayed in it. You will do this with the help of the “Report Wizard” that is provided by Access. For this. SQL (Structured Query Language) is a powerful database language used in queries. double-click on this field. which you are not going to need. The records matching your criteria are displayed. In the criteria row. For this. Each query that you create has an underlying SQL statement. Now close the query tab. Creating Reports There is another request from the Administrative department – they need an address report of all employees sorted by name. Specifying criteria: You need the list of employees who have been in service for at least five years. In the next “Report Wizard” window. Now close the query tab. click the Office Button and select “Save As”. Access adds the “#” signs before and after the dates to identify the values in the expression as dates. so click “Next”. Type the name ‘5 Year Service’ in the “Save As” window. Click “Next”. It might be a simple listing of all fields or of selected fields based on a query. “State”. select “Table: Emp Info”. there is an option for grouping fields. It is displayed in the first blank box after the “Phone” field. You must now specify a criterion for this field. “Address”. click on the “Run” icon in the “Results” group on the “Design” tab. As soon as you press “Enter”. Using the Report Wizard: Click on the “Create” tab. In the “Reports” group. “Pin code”. 157 | P a g e . click “Report Wizard”. which you can view or edit by selecting “View → SQL View” in the “Views” group on the “Home” tab. Running a query: To see the result of this query. and “Phone” one by one by clicking on the “>” button.organization. A report is a printed output generated from tables and queries. Saving the query: You now need to save this modified query. Then. “City”. If you do not see the “Date_of_Joining field in the window at the top. You will be creating this address report based on the “Emp Info” table. Select fields “Last Name”. The “Report Wizard” window is displayed. type the condition as ‘>= 1/1/2001 AND < 1/1/2002’ and press “Enter”.

Similarly. Modifying Report Layout Modifying report layout: Double-click on the report name in the Navigation Pane. 158 | P a g e . The preview of the report is displayed with the title and footer and all the records arranged in the specified sort order. You can sort the records by up to four fields in either ascending or descending order. You need the address list of employees in ascending order of “Last Name” and within that in ascending order of the “First Name”. So. the headings and contents of some fields are not displayed completely. “Adjust the field width so all fields fit on a page” and click “Next”. If you see that a heading is not displayed completely. You can have the fields laid out as either columnar. You can see that the complete column is shifted to the right. Here enter the report title as “Employee Address List”. you are asked about the layout of the fields and the page. The next window is the last step of the wizard. You need to make some changes. When the mouse pointer appears as a four-headed arrow. tabular or justified and the page can be oriented either as a portrait or a landscape. To make these changes. For now. Now. select “Last Name” as the first field and “First Name” as the second field and click “Next”. The next window lets you select the style of the report. drag the right edge of the box to a suitable size. drag to the right to position it after the “First Name” column. Switch to Layout View by selecting “View → Layout View” in the “Views” group. When the mouse pointer appears as a two-headed arrow. Select a suitable one from the list and click on “Next”. click on “Preview the report” and click “Finish”. Click on the heading “Last Name”. You can reduce its size and make space for the other fields. where the data is not displayed completely. click on it. Then drag the right edge or lower edge of the box that appears to a suitable position. Click in the check box that says.The next “Report Wizard” window asks for the sort order of the records to be printed in the report. But if you see the report properly. you need to modify the report layout. the first thing you need to do is to exchange the order of the fields “First Name” and “Last Name”. close the report tab by clicking on the “X” shaped icon at the right end. In the next window. click on it. You may find that the “State” field is too big for its two character contents. A box appears around it.

select View → Print Preview” in the “Views” group. Select the query “5 years service” from the Table/Query list. You can have the fields laid out as either columnar. in the “Report Wizard”. Save the report either by using the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+S” or by clicking “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar. To create a report from a query. The “Report Wizard” window is displayed. Click the Office Button and select “Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. In the next window. The “Print” window is displayed. Select the printer from the “Name” list. Add all fields in the “Available Fields” list by clicking on the “>>” button and click “Next”. The next window is the last step of the wizard. you have to follow all the same steps you performed to create a report from the table. in ascending order of the “First Name”. all the records of employees who have worked for five years. To create this report. Click “Next” once again. Select the “Print Range” by clicking on “Pages From” and typing ‘1’ to ‘1’. Printing a Report Printing a report: The report is now ready to be printed. The next window lets you select the style of the report. select “Last Name” as the first field and “First Name” as the second field and click “Next”. You can see in the preview. Here give a report title as “5 Year Service Awards”. “Adjust the field width so all fields fit on a page” and click “Next”. you may move and resize the fields again as required. Click in the check box that says. You need the report in ascending order of the “Last Name” and within that. Select a suitable one from the list and click “Next”. Close the preview. tabular or justified and the page can be oriented either as a portrait or a landscape. If they are still not properly visible. Creating a Report from a Query There is a requirement to print a report of all those employees who were listed for the five years service award. you will select the query. instead of the table. Click “OK”. Then close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. 159 | P a g e . The next “Report Wizard” window asks for the sort order of the records to be printed in the report. Check if all the data contents are visible on the page. click on “Preview the report” and click “Finish”. In the “Reports” group. Click on the “Create” tab. Click “Close Print Preview” to close the preview.To see the preview. So. click “Report Wizard”. you can make use of the query you created to list those employees. you are asked about the layout of the fields and the page. The difference is that.

it cannot be retrieved. navigate to the location of your database. Enter your password and click “OK”. but away from access by unauthorized people. Now click “OK”. click on the Office Button and select “Open”.Protecting the Database Using Passwords Assigning a password: Microsoft Office Access 2007 provides a number of features that can help make your data more secure. click “Encrypt with Password”. Removing a password: Open the database in Exclusive mode. Enter your password in the “Password Required” window and click “OK”. First. Click the database file and then click the arrow next to the “Open” button and select “Open Exclusive”. For this. One of the first things you can do in this direction is to use a password for accessing your database. You want to use tools to organize your contacts. In the “Database Tools” group. schedules etc. In the “Set Database Password” window. Close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. Using a password: Open the password protected database as you open any other database. click “Decrypt Database”. You may exit Access by clicking on the Office Button and then clicking the “Exit Access” button. Click the “Database Tools” tab. In the “Database Tools” group. If you forget your password. Close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. type your password in the “Password” box. PERSONAL INFORMATION MANAGER Getting started with Outlook Introduction to Microsoft Outlook Your cherished dream has come true. In the “Open” window. It is very important that you remember your password. Click the “Database Tools” tab. The “Password Required” window appears. and then re-type it in the “Verify” box. In the “Unset Database Password” window. Store the password in a secure place from where you can recover it in case you forget it. So you do not have to worry anymore about sharing your Personal Computer. 160 | P a g e . type your password and click “OK”. The steps to create and apply a password to your database are as follows. open the database in “Exclusive” mode. Close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. Your database can now be accessed without a password the next time it is opened. Your database is now open. You have decided to use this opportunity to its maximum potential and are eager to personalize your work environment. your company has decided to give laptops to each of its key employees.

Select the month from the calendar by using the arrows. The To-Do Bar on the right gives you a consolidated view of your calendar. having today’s date and time divisions. Creating an Appointment Your immediate concern is to record all your important appointments in the calendar. tasks and important mail enabling you to prioritize your work. Select the time slot of 6 pm for the appointment in the information viewer of the Outlook window. Starting Microsoft Outlook: To start the Microsoft Outlook application. Your appointment has now been recorded. This enables you to see a minimized view of the To-Do Bar at all times. If the To-Do Bar is not visible at any time. To minimize the expanded Navigation Pane. The Navigation Pane can be minimized into a vertical button bar. In the time slot type ‘Meeting with the client’. upcoming appointments. Click the “New” button on the Standard toolbar. Let us create another appointment and enter more details. 161 | P a g e . It can be used to organize and track all types of information. we shall take a look at the calendar.With Microsoft Office Outlook 2007. Using Calendar When you open Microsoft Outlook 2007. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Outlook 2007”. The “Untitled Appointment” window is displayed. and Contacts etc. Click the button corresponding to “Calendar” in the navigation pane. Select the day. you will see a navigation pane on the left which contains categories such as Mail. The “Day” view. Let us create an Appointment. Some of the important tasks that can be performed using Microsoft Outlook are maintaining a personal calendar of appointments. Press “Enter”. The bottom portion contains Category buttons for different tasks. To expand the minimized Navigation Pane. is displayed in the information viewer on the right. click the arrow at the top. to provide you with a larger work area. To begin with. The upper portion of the navigation pane contains “Category specific tools” for working with different types of information. click the arrow in the upper corner. you have an integrated solution for managing your time and information. click “View → To-Do Bar → Minimized”. The calendar for the current month is displayed in the category specific tools window. events and meetings. Calendar. and storing addresses. By default an appointment is allotted half an hour.

Click it once again to return to the minimized form. Creating a recurring appointment There are some meetings which take place on a regular basis. weekly. Under “Recurrence pattern” you may specify the days in the week when the appointment is going to occur and also if it is going to occur daily. You may wish to be reminded about your appointment by a bell. 162 | P a g e . The “Out of Office” indicator is displayed at the left corner. Click on Monday in the next week in the left panel. You can see that one hour has been allotted for this appointment. Click the 9 am time slot. In the “Untitled . Select “Out of Office”. select “None”. Select “Actions → New Recurring Appointment”. The current setting is “No end date”. such as meetings with your Accounts Manager. select the amount of time in the “Reminder” list before the appointment when you want the reminder to appear. In the “Show As” field. You can see that the recurring appointment has been recorded. You can specify details of the appointment in the “Appointment Recurrence” window. To turn a reminder off.Type ‘Meeting with maintenance people’ as the “Subject”. Click on “Save & Close” on the “Recurring Appointment” tab. Under “Appointment time” you may set the start and end time of the appointment. type your notes. Click on the “Today” tab in the Standard toolbar. in the “Options” group.Appointment” window type ‘Weekly meeting . Now click on the “Save & Close” button in the “Actions” group. You can also see the appointment on the To-Do Bar at the right. You may click the To-Do Bar to expand it and view details. Select the end time “10:30 AM” from the drop-down list. In the text box below. Now click the Monday of the next week and the following week on the calendar. Let us keep this setting unchanged. Since it will last for at least 24 hours.Accounts Manager’ as the “Subject” and ‘Accounts office’ as the “Location”. monthly or yearly. “Recur every 1 week on Monday”. such an entry is called an Event. Creating an event There is a two day exhibition for Product Promotions to be held in two weeks. you may select the way in which you want your appointment to appear in the Calendar. The current setting is “Weekly”. say ‘Take along the maintenance log file & purchase bills’. Click “OK”. Press the tab key and type ‘Factory Premises’ as the “Location”. Under “Range of recurrence” you may specify the time frame for your recurring appointment. You may keep this setting. On the “Appointment” tab. in the “Actions” group. Select 7 pm as the “End time” from the drop-down list.

in the date navigator window. This means that you may click on the related button to see the appointments on your calendar as you wish. you can view your calendar based on different criteria. Rightclick in any of the time slots and select “New All Day Event”. Type ‘Product Promotion Exhibition’ as the “Subject”. Changing the calendar view By default.Click on the Monday of two weeks later. you can view your calendar on Day/Week/Month basis. To mark the calendar to show that you will be out of office during these days. Click on the “Save & Close” button in the “Actions” group. Select the next day from the “End time” drop-down menu. Select “View → Current view”. Type ‘International Trade Center’ as the “Location”. Set the “Reminder” to 2 days in the “Options” group” of the “Event” tab. Creating a task list 163 | P a g e . select “Out of Office” from the “Show As” list. In addition.

Click in the “Click here to add a new Task” text box. Create the following tasks in a similar way: 1. For your weekly meetings with your assistants. Enter today’s date as the “Start date”. Let us enter the category name as “Personal”. such as a weekly report. This view shows detailed information about each task. Your task has now been recorded. Click on “Save & Close”. Updating the status of a task: Double-click on a task’s “Subject”.A task is a personal work related action item. Click on the “Tasks” button in the Navigation Pane. Meeting with the Accounts Department. Press “Enter”. Set the “% Complete” to 25%. subject. choose the option “In Progress”. you have several tasks that need to be completed. Select the Yellow Category and click “Rename”. From the “Status” drop-down menu. To change the view to a simple list. Now enter the category name as “Time & Expenses” and click “OK”. percentage complete and categories. select “View → Current View → Simple List”. Setting up Categories A category is a descriptive keyword or phrase to which you can assign related items. Meeting with the maintenance staff. status. Click “OK” Renaming a category: You may rename an existing color category to make it more meaningful. A task can occur only once or happen on a recurring basis. Type ‘Create presentation displays for Product Promotion’. select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. due date. 3. if necessary. You may make changes as per your requirements. If there are any tasks that have been entered previously. Meeting at the Yoga Club. Outlook 2007 offers you Color categories that allow you to group information in a way that allows you to find and track all information most effectively. Creating a new category: Click “New” in the “Color Categories” window. 2. Click in the “Due Date” text box and select a date from the calendar. 164 | P a g e . It includes different columns for priority. From the “Priority” drop-down menu choose the option “High”. The “Task” window is displayed. they are displayed. To change the view to a detailed list. Outlook has certain predefined categories. select “Actions → Categorize → All Categories”. To set up your categories.

Similarly. Updating the task status You can update the status of the task at any time and specify the status and percentage completed. right-click in the “Categories” column. select “Personal”. The subject of the task is also displayed. Now the task has been assigned to the “Personal” category. For example. To change the view to “Task Timeline”. Now to return to the “Detailed list” view. To switch to the “Detailed List” view. select “View → Current View → Task Timeline”. The next time you click. click on the column heading “Categories”. Sorting tasks Sorting tasks is the process of rearranging items in ascending or descending order. To assign a category to this task. For example. Clicking in a column heading other than “Task Subject” sorts the list according to that column. You see that the tasks are sorted in ascending order by Categories. 165 | P a g e . From the available categories list. Meeting with the maintenance staff – Orange Category You can use the same categorization techniques for other Outlook item like appointments and mails. you can see this column in the “Detailed List” view. Click in the “Status” column next to a task. In this view. You may click on the “Delete” icon on the Standard toolbar to delete a completed task from the list. Select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. Meeting with the Accounts Department – Blue Category 2. you might want to sort your tasks by Status or Due Date. the tasks are arranged according to their due dates. You can now see that this task appears crossed out with “% Complete” as 100%. they are sorted in descending order.Categorizing tasks: Select the task “Meeting at the Yoga Club” from the list. You may sort your tasks according to Subject by selecting “View → Arrange By → Subject”. the “Status” column must be visible. assign the following categories to the tasks as follows: 1. select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. select “Completed” and press “Enter”. Using a task timeline In the Tasks Timeline view. In the “Detailed list” view. To update the status of the task. select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. Scroll the time line window to view all the tasks. each task will be represented by a task symbol. From the drop-down list. You may also sort tasks by using the “Arrange By” option from the View menu.

click on the “Actual Size” icon in the toolbar. If necessary. “Table” or “Memo”. The “Copies” section allows you to enter the number of pages and copies. Click “OK” in the “Print” window. select the appropriate printer for your system from the “Name” drop-down list. Click on the “Header/Footer” tab.Printing tasks and calendar items Many times you may need to print out your task list and appointment calendar so that it is available during a meeting. To display the preview in actual size. The “Print” window is displayed. which includes detailed information of all the people with whom you communicate. Click on the “Page Setup” button. click on the “Print” button in the preview window. Confirm that the “Notes” view is set to “Icons”. Similarly. You can choose to enter 166 | P a g e . Type the required message and then close the window. Click the button corresponding to “Notes” in the navigation pane. A blank yellow colored note window is displayed. select “Calendar” in the Navigation pane. If everything is OK. Select “View → Current View → Active Appointments”. Select “File → Print”. the Print style. Select and delete the user name from the left footer box. Click on the “New” icon on the Standard toolbar. Print range and Copies. Let us make some changes. Click on the “Preview” button. Now. Let us assume that you need to create a note to remind you to send an email message for an event. to print the appointments. Creating Notes The “Notes” tool is used to create a reminder for yourself. Before printing it is always a good idea to take a preview of the document you want to print. Notes are an electronic version of paper notes that you use to jot down quick reminders. Using the Address Book What is an Address Book in Outlook The Address Book is an electronic book. Click “OK”. Type your name in the left header text box. The “Print style” section specifies the format in which you want to print your task list. select “File → Print”. You can reopen the note and make changes to it by double-clicking on it. Here two styles are available. Here you need to specify details about the Printer. The “Print range” section allows you to specify the rows in the table that are to be printed.

birth-dates and anniversaries. Here. “Addresses”. Click on the "Save & Close" button in the “Actions” group. On the “Contact” tab. “Company”. This wizard guides you through the complete procedure. This file can then be used to copy details of your contacts to another location or another computer. 167 | P a g e . Exporting contacts: Select “File → Import and Export”. Importing & Exporting Contacts You may need to save your contacts to a file so that they are available for use in the future. “By Category”. “Contacts” has several views like “Business Cards”. Click “Next”. Click “OK”. Adding and Removing Contacts To add a contact. “By Company” and others.pst)” from the “Create a file of type” list box. Click on the “Browse” button. By referring to your address book you can contact or communicate quickly with any individual from the contact list. The names are automatically listed in ascending alphabetical order. Click “Next”. “Address Cards”. Select the “Contacts” folder from the “Select the folder to export from” list. you can enter the basic contact information such as “Full Name”. This is called “Importing”. “Phone numbers” etc. email addresses. Choose “Export to a file”. right-click on the contact and select “Delete”.different types of information such as business and home address. This is called “Exporting”. Like other outlook tools. Type ‘Contacts’ in the “File name” text box. The “Untitled . Specify the location where you wish to save the exported file in the “Open Personal Folders” window. click “Contacts” in the navigation pane. “Phone List”. Click the “New” button from the Standard toolbar. Several of the fields include drop-down lists that allow you to further customize the information for each contact. you can see the “General” button of the “Show” group highlighted. You can view the entire contact list in the “Business Cards” format. If you want to delete a particular contact from the contacts list. Enter the required information in the appropriate fields.Contact” window is displayed. You may also delete a contact by selecting “Edit → Delete” or pressing the “Delete” key after selecting the contact. The “Import and Export Wizard” window is displayed. Click “Next”. nick names. Choose “Personal Folder File (. By doubleclicking on the contact you may edit the information. phone numbers.

Now click “Finish”. To quickly open a contact you have previously searched for. choose “Import from another program or file”. The contacts you entered are now saved in a file and will be available when you want to import them later. Under “Address Book”. Choose “Personal Folder File (. select the 168 | P a g e . In the “Find a contact” box on the Standard toolbar. You can also enter new contacts. click “Select Members”. in the “Members” group. In the “Name” field. click “OK”. type a name for the mailing list. You can enter a partial name (such as “Hyosuke”). Importing contacts: Select “File → Import and Export”.Now click “Finish”. On the “Distribution List” tab. Outlook will search all the available address books. Click on the “Browse” button. select “File → New → Distribution List”. Since there is a possibility that your imported file may contain contacts which you already have. You may add contacts from different address books into your list. Click “Next”. type the name of the contact you want to find and press “Enter”. Select the file from the appropriate location and click “Open”.pst)” from the “Select file type to import from” list. In the list below. you may select from three possibilities with regards to duplicates. Creating and editing mailing lists A mailing list is a collection of contacts. In the “Import and Export Wizard” window. Creating a mailing list: To create a mailing list. This list is saved with a name. click the arrow in the “Find a contact” drop-down list. Searching Address Books You can search for an address and the information associated with it in the address book. It provides an easy way to send messages to a group of people. select the address book that contains the e-mail addresses you want in your distribution list. Select the appropriate option and click “Next”. The new contacts will be incorporated into the existing list. e-mail address and company name. and then select the appropriate name. In the “Create Microsoft Personal Folders” window. Select the “Contacts” folder from the “Select the folder to import from” list. Click “Next”. first or last name.

Additionally. In the “Internet E-mail Settings” screen. either POP3 or IMAP depending on the type of mailbox you use. enter your name and email address. Then click on the name of the mailing list and after that click “To”. You first need to set up your mail account. Let us delete a member from this list. click “Mail” in the navigation pane. You may disconnect from the Net and read your mails at leisure. Enter details in the “Add New Member” window and click “OK”. and then click “OK”. The mailing list is saved in your “Contacts” folder by the name you give it. Adding other members: You may also add members that do not exist in your address books to your mailing list. For this. For this. Creating Mails: To create a mail to send to all members of a mailing list. check the box beside “Manually configure server settings or additional server types” and click “Next”. click “New”. click “Add New” in the “Members” group in the “Distribution List” window. Under “Server Information”. ensure that “Internet E-Mail” is selected and then click “Next”. double-click on the list name in the “Contacts” folder. This mail can then be sent to all members of the list after completing other details. You can now make the changes you require. On the “Auto Account Setup” screen. Click the “New” button on the Standard toolbar. You may create your mails offline and connect to the Internet only when you are ready to send them. simply click “Remove” in the “Members” group. Click on “To” to display the “Select Names” window. Now click “Save & Close” in the “Actions” group. under “User Information”. Select “Tools → Account Settings”. The “Untitled Message” window is displayed. Now click “Save & Close”. select Account type. Using Outlook for E-Mailing Setting up a Mail Account A very important feature of Outlook is sending and receiving e-mail. all incoming mail can be stored on your hard disk. On the “E-mail” tab. You can see the name of the mailing list in the message window. 169 | P a g e . Now click “OK”. Do this for each person you want to add to the distribution list. Editing a Mailing List: To make changes to your mailing list. Under “Choose E-mail Service”. Click “Mail” in the navigation pane. You are holidaying in Malaysia and you want to send an e-mail to your friends back home. POP3 is generally used.name. and then click “Members”. The “Distribution List” window is displayed.

check the box “My outgoing server (SMTP) requires authentication” and click “OK”. While composing the message. Specify the location and name of the picture files on your computer that you would like to attach. Creating an E-mail Message Creating a Mail message: This is also known as “Composing” a mail. click on the "To:" button. click “Insert”. Now enter the subject and in the large white box below the subject field. click on the Paperclip Icon in the “Include” group. Attachments do not form part of your e-mail message but they can be opened and viewed or edited by the e-mail recipient. You may select multiple files by holding down the “Ctrl” key while you click each file. If you add a recipients name using “Bcc”. You can attach all sorts of files to an e-mail. word processor documents. Now. “Cc” stands for carbon copy and “Bcc” stands for blind carbon copy. you must enter details such as the e-mail address of the recipient. Attaching a file: You now want to send some digital pictures of Malaysia along with your message. type your message. All files in a folder can also be selected by clicking “Organize” on the toolbar and then clicking “Select All”. Using Attachments Attachments are separate files that are sent along with your e-mail message. the name is not visible to other recipients of the message. Click “OK”.Enter the respective server names provided by your Internet Service Provider (ISP) in the “Incoming mail server” and “Outgoing mail server (SMTP)” fields. the subject and the content of the mail. Select the appropriate “Address Book”. even sound recordings and graphic images. Click the arrow next to the "New" button on the Standard toolbar and select "Mail Message". enter your email address in the “User Name” field and the password for that account. You may add multiple names to any of the fields. Click the “More Settings” button. They can be compared to a covering letter sent with a parcel or a birthday card sent along with a present. Click “Next”. Ensure that the “Remember password” box is checked. Then click on a name from the list to whom you wish to send the mail and click the “To ->” button. On the “Outgoing Server” tab. You may also directly type in e-mail addresses not included in your address book. Use the “Cc ->” and “Bcc ->” buttons in the same way for entering the addresses to which you wish to send copies to. and then click “Finish” on the “Congratulations!” screen. database files. including spreadsheets. The list of files attached is 170 | P a g e . In the “Untitled Message” window. Under “Logon Information”. This brings up the “Select Names” window. To send an e-mail. Now click “Close”.

right click on the attachment name and select “Open”. mails from the Outbox are sent to the intended recipients. You may remove incorrect file attachments by clicking them and pressing the “Delete” key. the recipient needs to have a copy of the software application that was used to create the attachment initially. click the “Message” button. To return to the message body. You can now read the message displayed in the right panel which is the Reading Pane. you can preview it. You may also click the “Send/Receive” button when connected to send mails which are in the Outbox. If you are not connected to the Internet. You may edit your message at any time by clicking on the “Drafts” folder in the left panel and then double-clicking on the related message in the right panel. click the “Send” button. Sending Mail After you have finished entering all information. Instead of clicking the “Send” button. One of your friends has written to you that she has paid your college fees since you are out of town. For this. In order to view an attached file. A copy of all sent messages will be kept in your “Sent Items” folder. Your mail is now stored in the “Drafts” folder. simply click the attachment In the Reading Pane. She has also written about submission dates for your projects. click on the mail whose content you wish to see. Receiving Mail Receiving Mail: By default. then you must have the related software installed in order to see it. For example. It is very important to know how to view them. when you start Microsoft Outlook. and want to quickly see what the attachment contains without opening it. You can see this folder in the left panel. Viewing and Saving an Attachment Viewing an attachment: You may also receive attachments from your friend like the ones you sent. all mails that you have received are deposited in your “Inbox”. if you have received a picture as an e-mail attachment. Drafts: You may create a draft of a mail and send it at a later stage. When you receive an attachment in a message. For this. Reading Mail: In the center panel. Click on it to see a list of all mails received in the center panel. Here you can see details such as the sender’s name and the subject of the mail. create a mail as described earlier.displayed just below the Subject Field. When you connect. click the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. To open an attachment of a mail in your Inbox. your mail is stored in the “Outbox”. You may also use the “Send/Receive” button to send and receive mail. She has attached a picture of her visit to Malaysia last year. 171 | P a g e .

Deleting Messages: To delete a mail. You may make any changes you require. Enter your mail content and send it like any other mail. Forwarding a mail: You might want to convey the information related to the project submission dates to another friend. click on it and then click on the “Print” button on the Standard toolbar. Handling mails in the Inbox Sorting Mails: You may sort the mails in your Inbox by selecting a suitable option by clicking on the “Arranged By:” button in the center panel. Now click the “Reply” button. For this. The “Subject” field displays the words “FW:” followed by the original subject. right-click on the folder name and select “Empty Deleted Items Folder” and then click “Yes” in the window that comes up. enter details regarding the location where you wish to save the mail and click “Save”. You may want to empty the Deleted Items folder to make free space for additional storage. To reply to her mail. A new mail message window is displayed. Let us edit the content to remove the statement regarding the payment of fees. A new mail message window is displayed with the original mail content and the subject. enter the e-mail address of the person you wish to send it to in the “To:” field. Saving Messages: To save a mail that you have received to another place on your hard disk. Specify the location to save the file and then click “Save”. For this. You may sort your mails by date received. subject. sender’s name etc. The message will be deleted and moved to your “Deleted Items” folder. You may click on the box to the right of the “Arranged By:” field to reverse the sort order. Printing Messages: To print a mail. Also. click on it and then click on the “Delete” button on the Standard toolbar. click on the Inbox folder and then click on the mail in the center panel. Now. Replying to and Forwarding a Mail Replying to a mail: You now want to thank your friend for paying your fees. 172 | P a g e . You may forward the mail that you have received. You can also see the original sender’s name and e-mail address as well as the date and time it was originally received.Saving an attachment: To save an attachment of a mail in your Inbox. You can see that the recipients e-mail address and subject with the words “RE:” before it are already filled in. In the “Save As” window. the original mail that you had received is appended at the end. This may be changed if required. You may also make any other changes to the message that you wish. Now send it like any other mail. click on it and select “File → Save As” from the menu bar. click on the mail from the Inbox and then click the “Forward” button. right click on the attachment name and select “Save As”.

the related mail is displayed. and then select the search fields you want from the list. in your Inbox. or To fields. All flagged mail items get added to the to-do bar making it easy for you to keep track of the tasks and mail that you need to reply to or act upon. You can see that it gets added in the To-Do Bar. Type your search text in the From. Using Flags Flags are very useful throughout Outlook. click “Add Criteria”. Let us flag a mail in the Inbox. Calendar and Contacts. and even in the Calendar. The reasons for burning a CD might be to create a backup of your files or simply to backup frequently used CDs. A burned CD is a CD that has been written by using a process that involves using a device called a “CD Writer” or “CD Burner” to burn indentations into the CD. Click on the flag symbol next to an important mail. 173 | P a g e . Let us use it to find a message in your Inbox. There are two types of CDs: 1) Recordable CDs . the space can only be used once. It is replaced by a tick and is removed from the To-Do Bar. Subject.Using Instant Search The “Instant Search” feature helps you to quickly find items in Microsoft Office Outlook 2007. The Instant Search pane is always available in all of your Outlook views. On CD-RW disks. although you may add files over multiple sessions until the total space has been used. To burn a CD you need both a CD burner and CD burning software. Simply type a word in the search box.also known as CD-R 2) Rewriteable CDs . you can click the flag once again. MAKING IT WORK CD Writing What is CD Writing? FOR YOU CD Writing is also known as “Burning of a CD”. You can make your search more focused by clicking the “Expand the Query Builder” arrow. Body. You can use a flag to quickly create a follow-up item that can be tracked in the To-Do Bar. You can use the same search techniques to find any Outlook item. such as Mail. Windows Vista comes with software that will burn your CDs for you. When you have taken the necessary action. The moment a match is found.also known as CD-RW On CD-R disks. To display more search fields in the Query Builder.

You may format a CD using either the “Live File System” or “Mastered” format. An empty disc folder opens. Creating such a disk requires as much free space on your hard disk as the capacity of the disc you are burning. Burning a CD using Windows Vista Using the Live File System format: To write a CD using the Live File System format. click “Burn files to disc”. This is the “Destination Drive”. In the window that appears. click “Burn files to disc”. CD-RW disks can only be used on CD-RW drives and not on ordinary CD-ROM read-only drives. In the window that appears. Using the Mastered format: To write a CD using the Mastered format. By default. However. You may delete individual files or reformat the disc to create additional disc space when you use a rewriteable disc. Before you can copy files to a CD. Re-size and arrange the windows in such a way that both the “Source Drive” and the “Destination Drive” are visible on the screen. an empty disc folder opens. CD-RW disks are also more expensive. perform the following steps: Insert a writeable CD into your computers CD Writer. The files are copied to a temporary folder on your hard drive. Now drag the files to be copied into the empty disc folder. In the “Burn a disc” window. they are copied automatically to the disc. the disc must first be prepared using a process called formatting. Open the folder that contains the files you want to write to the CD in another window. 174 | P a g e . Live File System discs enable you to copy individual files immediately to a disc. and then drag the files into the empty disc folder. perform the following steps: Insert a writeable CD into your computers CD Writer. Let us delete one of the files. In the “Burn a disc” window. It takes several minutes for the disc to be formatted in the Live File System format. As you drag files into the disc folder. Windows burns discs in the Live File System format. Click “Mastered” and then click “Next”. enter a name for this disc and then click “Show formatting options”. such as a music CD. This format is advisable if you need to burn a large collection of files.the space can be erased and re-used many times. This is the “Source Drive”. Open the folder that contains the files you want to burn. You may change the files in this folder if you wish. Mastered discs enable you to burn multiple files to a disc at one time. and click “Next”. When the formatting is complete. This is a convenient format if you need to copy a few files at a time. enter a name for this disc.

on the toolbar. which spreads by inserting itself into living cells. by destroying data. To delete a specific file on a disk. the disc burner tray will open and you can remove the disc. The selected files are copied to the disc. click “Next” Erasing a CD A rewriteable CD may be erased and written many times. using someone else’s credit card. Trojan horses and other such software. click “Erase this disc”. In the window that is displayed. A “Trojan Horse” is a malicious program that is disguised as or embedded within legitimate software. click “Next”. When the disc burning is complete. The term “virus” is often extended to refer to worms. A virus can infect different parts of the computer’s operating and file system. click on the file name. burn these files to another disc”. To erase all files on a disc. Now. and becomes part of.After you are sure about the files to be written to the CD. An example of an executable file is a program. Click “Finish” when the process is complete. for example. Now. COM or EXE file. To select more than one file. hold down the “Ctrl” key while you click the files you want. An “Identity Theft” is a harmful act by deliberately impersonating a person. and the infected file. for example. A computer virus behaves in a way similar to a biological virus. However. a worm is self-contained and does not need to be part of another program to spread itself. Virus Protection What is a Computer Virus? A computer virus is a self-replicating computer program that spreads by inserting copies of itself into other executable code or documents. whereas viruses infect or corrupt files on a targeted computer. Worms harm the network and add to network traffic. on the toolbar. If you use the Live File System format. Viruses generally do not affect network performance. A virus attaches itself to. or executable code that is not part of a file. “Adware” is a software package that 175 | P a g e . You may write the same files to another CD by checking the box against “Yes. many other viruses are fairly benign or merely annoying. “Spyware” is software designed to take control of another computer system without the consent of the owner. you can delete one or more files to make more room on the disc. click “Burn to disc”. Viruses are one of the several types of malicious software. While viruses can be intentionally destructive. The insertion of a virus into the program is termed as an "infection". is called a "host". another executable program. press the “Delete” key. as their malicious activities are mostly confined within the target computer itself.

You are alerted when any possible threat is detected. Once installed. identity theft and adware. has in turn expanded to cover worms and other threats such as spyware. Such analysis may include data captures. it is compared to the profile of known viruses. displays. before copying data to your hard disk. It is important to regularly scan your computer using a good anti-virus program. Most commercial antivirus software uses both of these approaches. Antivirus software consists of computer programs that attempt to identify and eliminate computer viruses and other malicious software. MacAfee. The first step towards making your computer safe while you are on the Internet is to install an Internet security suite. Internet security suites are available to protect you against all these hazards. due to the popularity of the Internet. The second is identifying suspicious behavior from any computer program which might indicate infection. the files on them may already be infected. originally designed to protect computers from viruses. Anti-virus software. Fortunately. Always scan floppies and CDs for viruses. Onscreen instructions guide you through the installation process. Some of the popular antivirus packages are Norton Antivirus. the software is automatically activated each time you start your computer. This can be installed either by downloading from the Internet or from a disc provided by the vendor. or downloads advertising material to a computer. with an emphasis on the virus dictionary approach. The first is scanning all files to look for known viruses matching definitions in a virus dictionary. Today. network-borne worms are more common than viruses.e. An infected file is either deleted or quarantined (i. This software typically uses two different techniques to accomplish this. It controls how frequently your computer is scanned for viruses. Even if CDs are read only. You must keep your antivirus program updated by downloading the latest releases by your antivirus program vendor. moved into a protected area where it won’t cause any more harm). 176 | P a g e . AVG Antivirus and Quick Heal. It continually works to ensure your security and privacy. “VirusScan” is one of the programs included in an Internet security suite.automatically plays. port monitoring and other methods. When a file is checked. Virus Protection Are you worried that the precious data computer on your computer could be destroyed due to a virus attack? Did you know that your private e-mail could also be intercepted by unauthorized persons? It is even possible for others to gain control over your computer system.

Using Windows Update: “Windows Update” is software designed to keep your computer current and more secure by automatically downloading and installing the latest security and feature updates from Microsoft. after the music has finished playing. no files are left on your computer to take up space. It allows access only to authorized users and applications. Because these music files are compressed. You may run Windows Update by connecting to the Internet and selecting “All Programs → Windows Update” from the Start menu.A “Personal Firewall” is a program that controls network traffic to and from a computer system. 177 | P a g e . Getting More from Your Computer Listening to Music You can use your computer for lots more than just computational activities. You can hear the music as soon as your player starts receiving the stream. All done Downloading Music Rather than traveling to a store to buy a music CD. A sound card and speakers (or earphones) are also required to hear audio. Streaming requires a powerful computer and a fast connection since the file is not stored on your computer. you can log onto one of the music sites and download it within seconds. There’s nothing worse than buying a CD after you have heard a good song. a large hard drive is not required to store them. You may also listen to music online. You can use it to block certain Web sites. buying online is fast and convenient. Second. Audio files in mp3 and Windows Media Audio (WMA) format are optimized for storing music in compressed format. However. “Privacy Service” is another program included in an Internet security suite that helps protect your privacy online. you may use your Windows Media Player or download other players such as Winamp and Real Player from the Internet. if so desired. By downloading from the Internet. If you hear a great song on the radio. you can choose to purchase individual songs. prevent sensitive information from being sent over the Internet and block unwanted advertisements. only to find it’s the only good song in the album. This means you can store thousands of songs without running out of hard drive space. there is no download wait when streaming. you can always copy music to a CD to free up space. First. To listen to music. Playing video or sound in real time as it is transferred to your computer over the World Wide Web is called “Streaming”. Streaming has two advantages over downloading.

It can be copied on CDs or a digital MP3 player so that you can take it wherever you wish.lycos. you will be prompted to type in a valid credit card number to pay for the music. Once a TV tuner card has been installed. For this. you may create a large music collection on your computer. you may view your favorite TV shows. Then select the channel. You may capture a video playing in the TV window into a digital file. each version is designed for the radio frequencies and video formats used in each country.net and music. You must specify the location on your computer to store the downloaded file. and an analog-to-digital converter for analog TV. listen to a sample to make sure it’s the one you want before downloading it. there are others from which you can download legal music. The card contains a receiver. Size and move the television window and control box window. Although many sites offer pirated music. A Download Manager window shows the progress of the download. TV Tuner Card A “TV tuner card” is a computer component that allows television signals to be received by a computer. There are many popular sites for music lovers such as MusicSites. If you are downloading pirated digital files. you could be subject to steep fines or other penalties. tuner. For this. Then click the “Record” button to start recording. You may include video clips from television as part of a presentation. Some cheaper tuners cannot do much of the signal processing and rely on the systems CPU for that task. Broadcasts can also be digitally recorded by the computer for later replay.com. This means that your computer can serve both as a computing device as well as a television. Most internal tuners do all the low level demodulation needed to convert a radio signal into an on-screen image using a hardware chip and do not need to use the CPU. double-click the file to play it. Many TV tuners can function as FM radios. 178 | P a g e . enabling the recording of television programs onto a hard disk. If it is not a free download.The best way to find the music you want on the internet is to use a search engine. Most TV tuners also function as video capture cards. demodulator. and they could be exposing your computer to viruses. Once a song is found. Once downloaded. you must respect copyright laws. While downloading music. Like TV sets. or distribution to other computer users. even while running other applications. click the “TV” icon on the desktop. By downloading music. click the “Stop” button. To stop recording. spyware and other unwanted software. specify the location on your computer in which you wish to save the video clip by clicking the “Properties” button.

What is Spam? E-mail. like many other valuable technologies does have some drawbacks. information about flight delays. There are numerous sites providing paid SMS services. You may add it to a Web page. sports news and much more. Choose “When Clicked” in the window displayed. Today. you may click on its image anytime during the presentation. often for products of questionable quality. This service is available on digital Global System for Mobile (GSM) networks allowing text messages to be sent and received via the network operators’ message center to your mobile phone. These are mostly related to commercial advertising. The Mozilla Thunderbird e-mail 179 | P a g e . You have to register with a site in order to send SMS using the interface provided. There are others that provide this service free of cost as well. For this open the presentation file and click on the “Insert” tab. Then size and move the image of the clip as required. click the “Movie” icon. Spam Blocking Software In an attempt to control spam. current events. SMS is a very popular service. mail it as an attachment or include it in a presentation. If the phone is powered off or out of range. or from the Internet. or something similar. get-richquick schemes. We often receive many unwanted e-mails. This unwelcome junk mail is called “spam”. paging. particularly among young people. and voice mail systems. You require Internet connectivity and an SMS service provider to be able to send an SMS from your PC to a mobile phone. Let us insert the clip in a presentation. A more effective approach has been the development and use of “Spam Blockers”. SMS is used by organizations for marketing. you may use it in any way you like. some countries have anti-spam laws as part of their legal system. PC to Mobile: Sending SMS SMS is an abbreviation for “Short Message Service”. using an "SMS gateway" website. This has limited impact because a lot of spam originates from other countries as well. To play the video clip. These programs use a variety of approaches to identify and eliminate spam. as well as for providing value-added services such as reminders for payments. Navigate to your clip and press “OK”.Once you have saved the video clip. It is a globally accepted wireless service for sending messages of up to 160 alphanumeric characters between mobile subscribers and external systems such as email. Now in the “Media Clip” group. messages are stored in the network and are delivered at the next available opportunity.

Check the box against “Do not mark mail as junk if the sender is in:”. Similar messages will be marked as spam in future. and you can dictate text to the computer. To specify a white list. under “Local Folders”.program which is available for free download at “www. After reviewing your actions for several weeks. learn how to talk to your computer. For this. This ability to accept voice input is called “Speech Recognition”. you need to have a microphone connected to your computer. An icon appears between the Sender and Date fields indicating that the message is spam. You can use your voice to control your computer. select “Tools → Account Settings” from the menu. Mozilla Thunderbird will become more efficient in recognizing spam and taking appropriate action. Then make a selection for the location of the Junk folder and click “OK”.e. The spam indicator is then removed. you need to do three things: set up your microphone. Creating a Junk Folder: You may choose to move new junk messages to a separate folder. Once spammers know that your e-mail address is valid. you have an alternative.mozilla. If at any time you decide that the message is not spam. If you do want to view the remote images. Training Spam Blocking Software: After you install Mozilla Thunderbird. When you receive a message with remote images. Blocking Images: Some e-mail messages contain images that let spammers know that you have received them. 180 | P a g e . click “Junk Settings”. simply select it and click the “Not Junk” icon. In the left panel. Then make a selection from “Personal Address Book” or “Collected Addresses” which contains the addresses of all viewed mail messages. In the left panel. you need to train it to recognize unwanted messages. Check the box against “Move new junk messages to:”. By default. such as those of family and friends. Now click “OK”. Thunderbird blocks remote images in messages. When you have received a message in your Inbox which you consider to be spam. a list of e-mail addresses that should never be blocked. Specifying Friends: You may create a “White List” i. click “Junk Settings”.com” comes with built-in spam blocking software. and the images in the message body are replaced with simple place-holders. Thunderbird displays an alert stating that remote images have been blocked. You can verbally say commands that the computer will respond to. select it and then click the “Junk” icon on the toolbar. To set up your computer for Windows Speech Recognition. under “Local Folders”. For this select “Tools → Account Settings” from the menu. they will continue to send mails. all you need to do is click the "Show Images" or "Load Images" button that appears to the right of the alert message. What is Speech Recognition? Are you tired of typing lengthy documents using your keyboard? Now.

and train your computer to understand your speech. Speech Recognition is available only in English and a few other languages. Setting up your microphone: Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Ease of Access”. Now select “Speech Recognition Options → Set up microphone” and follow the instructions in the wizard. Learning to talk to your computer: Windows comes with a speech training tutorial to teach you the commands used with Speech Recognition. To run the tutorial, click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Ease of Access”. Now select “Speech Recognition Options → Take Speech Tutorial” and follow the instructions in the tutorial. Training your computer to recognize your speech: Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Ease of Access”. Now select “Speech Recognition Options → Train your computer to better understand you” and follow the instructions in the wizard. Controlling your computer: Speech Recognition listens and responds to your spoken commands. You can use Speech Recognition to run programs and interact with Windows. There are various commands you can use with Speech Recognition such as selecting a menu option, clicking or doubleclicking an item, switching to an open program, scrolling up and down and many more. Dictating text: You can use your voice to dictate text to your computer. For example, you can dictate text to fill out online forms or dictate text to a word processing program to type a letter. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Accessories”. Now select “Ease of Access → Windows Speech Recognition”. A window appears at the top of the screen which shows you the working of the speech recognition software. To start dictating, open the program you want to use or select the text box you want to dictate text into and then begin speaking. What is Digital Video Editing? In the past, when you needed to compile movies or required professionalquality editing of home videos, you required the services of photo labs or studios. You can now manage this on your own using special software. “Digital Video Editing” is the process of editing videos on a computer using digital video editing software. The process of Digital Video Editing involves three steps. 1. Input: Captured video and audio files are sent to the system unit for processing. 2. Editing: The files are subdivided into a series of clips that can be merged to form a new file and special effects can be added.

181 | P a g e

3. Output: The edited video is stored on hard disks or optical disks for later viewing or additional editing. Windows Movie Maker Windows Movie Maker is a feature of Windows Vista that enables you to create home movies and slide shows on your computer, complete with professional-looking titles, transitions, effects, music, and even narration. You can also use Windows Movie Maker to publish your movies and share them with your friends and family. Start the application by clicking the “Start” button and selecting “All Programs → Windows Movie Maker”. On the left is the “Tasks pane” which you can use to perform common tasks related to Digital Video Editing. Capturing Video: You may import a video from your digital video camera to your computer. First, connect your camera in playback mode to your computer. Then, from the “Import” group in the Tasks pane, click “From digital video camera” and follow the on-screen instructions. The video on the camera tape is encoded into a video file and saved to your computer’s hard disk. The “Contents pane” in the center shows clips, effects, or transitions youre working with while you create your movie. The area at the bottom where you create and edit your movie is displayed in two views, the “Storyboard” and the “Timeline”. To switch views, use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl + T”. The storyboard is the default view. You can use this to look at the sequence or ordering of the clips and easily rearrange them. This view also lets you see any video effects or video transitions that have been added. Audio clips are not displayed on the storyboard, but you can see them in the timeline view. Editing a Movie: Each movie is stored as a separate project. If you make changes to a clip, those changes are only reflected in the current project; they do not affect the source file. You can drag clips and pictures from the Contents pane to the storyboard and arrange them for your current project. To add a special effect, click on “Effects” in the Task pane and drag the effect you require to the storyboard. A transition controls how your movie plays from one video clip or picture to the next. To add a transition, click on “Transition” and drag the transition to the transition cell between two clips or pictures. The preview monitor on the right enables you to view individual clips or an entire project. By using the preview monitor, you can preview your project before publishing it as a movie. You can also drag clips to the preview monitor to play them. You can use the buttons underneath the preview monitor to play or pause a clip, or to move a clip frame-by-frame. The “Split”
182 | P a g e

button allows you to split a clip into two parts at the point displayed in the preview monitor. Publishing a Movie: Once you movie is complete, you may create a DVD to share it with others. For this you would need a DVD writer and some special software such as Sonic MyDVD or Windows DVD Maker. Insert a recordable DVD into your DVD writer. Then, from the “Publish to” group in the Tasks pane, click “Recordable CD” and complete the steps to publish your movie. Understanding Terms and Technologies Netizens Today, the Internet is an integral part of our lives. As a powerful communications medium, the Internet offers great possibilities for social change. The term “Netizen” is now used regularly. This word has been created using the two words “Net” and “Citizen”. So a Netizen is a citizen of the world, thanks to the global connectivity that the Internet offers. A Netizen is also known as a “Cybercitizen”. Netizens physically live in one country but are in contact with much of the world via the global computer network. Virtually, they live next door to every other single netizen in the world. Geographical distances do not have much significance since everyone exists in the same virtual space - Cyberspace. The term “Netizen” indicates civic responsibility and participation. Netizens try to be conducive to the Internets use and growth. They use the Internet to engage in various intellectual and social activities such as giving and receiving viewpoints and furnishing information. Blogs The term "blog" is a contraction of "Web log." A weblog is a journal or newsletter that is frequently updated and intended for general public use. Blogs have reshaped the web and enabled millions of people to have a voice and connect with others. A typical blog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, web pages, and other related media. Most blogs are primarily textual although some focus on photographs (photoblog), videos (vlog), or audio (podcasting) and are part of a wider network of social media. A blog gives you your own voice on the web. Its a place to collect and share things that you find interesting — whether its your political views, a personal diary, or links to web sites you want to remember. Blogs often provide commentary or news on a particular subject, such as food, politics, or local news; some function as personal online diaries. Journalists often use blogs to publish breaking news, while others reveal inner thoughts through blogs. There are three main features of a blog. The first is reverse chronological order. This means that latest entries are displayed at the top. The second feature is unfiltered content. Opinions are given freely without any
183 | P a g e

travel or shopping that are not actually "news" at all. Infotainment or “soft news” refers to a part of the news trade that provides information in a way that is considered entertaining to its viewers. Infotainment “Infotainment” is a term applied to software that seeks to inform and entertain simultaneously. Edutainment makes learning enjoyable. Edutainment is normally used to provide education related to one or more specific subjects. It attempts to minimize the dryness of regular news coverage by adding a certain amount of light-hearted or sensational style. websites. Fast moving shooting games are not edutainment. Edutainment seeks to instruct by using some familiar form of entertainment such as television programs. legal or otherwise. films. There are also blogs on edutainment that give the latest news and updates on available software. along with celebrity interviews and human drama stories. It refers to a general type of broadcast program which consists of both "hard news" segments and interviews. Infotainment is a combination of information and entertainment. Cyberspace 184 | P a g e . games which involve problem solving experiences with gentle intelligent creatures may be referred to as edutainment. Other stories may deal with current trends such as a shift in political views or a change in the attitudes of teenagers. Comments can be made on any issue discussed on the blog or from outside. computer and video games. Edutainment is also used to refer to the use of elearning modules to put across concepts in an entertaining manner. etc. On the other hand. It is a form of entertainment designed to educate as well as to amuse. The term “Edutainment” is used to distinguish regular computer games from more educational software. Infotainment may include information related to topics such as health tips or gardening tips. Edutainment “Edutainment” refers to educational entertainment or entertainmenteducation. Examples include educational software for children that teach them to spell or count while playing games and CD-ROMs about machines that contain animations showing how the machines work. Many non-fiction CD-ROM titles are classified as infotainment. Netiquette “Netiquette” or Network etiquette is etiquette on the Internet. They have videos and lessons that use edutainment as a basis for teaching in a more efficient and faster way. music. such as multimedia encyclopedias or reference disks. The third feature is comments. It consists of an informal group of rules and ways of behaving on the Internet. multimedia software.restrictions.

when you accidentally post a note to a newsgroup five times. They should not misuse this to read private email. point it out politely and preferably by private email rather than in public. and sound. Be tolerant and if you do decide to inform someone of a mistake. Respect the time and bandwidth of others: “Bandwidth” is the informationcarrying capacity of the channels that connect everyone in cyberspace. Even if you are not a great singer. Digital versions of books are available complete with pictures. Technology Today Today. Always try to be polite: You may stand up for yourself when you have been wronged. For example. Think before writing: The most important rule relevant to e-mail marketing is not to send promotional messages to anyone who has not agreed to receive them. It now has an additional dimension. For example. 185 | P a g e . So. Not knowing the rules for behaving properly online might result in unintentionally offending or misunderstanding someone. under-the-hood diagnostics can be performed while a car is speeding along a track. you may make use of a gadget to make your off-key singing sound really melodious! These are just a few of the huge advancements in technology. naturally you wouldn’t read anyone’s email. As a result. Follow the same standards of behavior online that you follow in real life. always be cautious with your words. Be tolerant: Everyone makes mistakes -. You must remember that your communication via email or on discussion groups involves written words. There’s a limit to the amount of data that can be carried at a given moment. Let us have a look at some of the core rules of Netiquette. Reading is not what it used to be in the past. video clips. mechanics can know what parts needed to be replaced even before the car has come in for servicing.has its own culture. Give people the benefit of the doubt. but try not to hurt people’s feelings. There are chances that theyre stored at the other end and may be used for purposes that you did not intend. there are loads of gadgets and new technologies that can equip you to deal with nearly every personal or business contingency. Some people in cyberspace such as system administrators have more power than others.whether it involves a spelling error or asking a stupid question or giving an unnecessarily long answer. Respect the privacy of others: In the same way as you wouldn’t wish to snoop through your colleagues desk drawers. you would wasting both bandwidth and the time of the people who have to check all copies of the posting.

Windows Live Messenger. Podcasting and RSS iPod: iPod is a brand of portable media players created by Apple and launched on October 23. click the “Show Menu” icon at the right end of the toolbar and select “File → Send a single file”. click the “Show Menu” icon at the right end of the toolbar in the Conversation window and select “Actions → Create a sharing folder”. ICQ. In the Conversation window. Before you can share files with a contact. To hold a video conference. even if one of you is offline. You may also drag the files you wish to share with your contact into the “Sharing Folders” window. You and your contact can access all the files in the shared folder at any time. you can have a complete conversation. Chatting and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). we learnt to send instant messages using Windows Live Messenger. Your contact is given an option to accept the file. The difference is that you can send and receive messages as soon as they are typed. Using a Webcam: In addition to text communication. it is possibly the best-selling digital 186 | P a g e . Google talk etc.It is possible to easily contact and communicate with people you do not even know using technologies such as Instant Messaging (IM). When he does so. Instant Messaging enables you to have a conversation with another person or a group of people concurrently. This enables you to see and hear your contact. 2001. both you and your contact must agree to share files with each other by creating sharing folders. There are different instant messengers available such as Yahoo messenger. Transferring files: In the “Internet” topic. Till date. To create a sharing folder. click the “Show Menu” icon at the right end of the toolbar in the Conversation window and select “Actions → Video → Start a Video Call”. In the “Sharing Folders” window. You may also exchange files with your contacts in the course of your conversation. click the “Add Files” button. the video conference begins. VoIP allows users to not only talk but also broadcast video conferences via the Web. Browse for the file you would like to share and click “Open”. both you and your contact can access it. In the displayed window. Sharing Files: You can share files with your contacts by using the “Sharing Folders” feature. Messenger allows you to have a voice or video conversation with an online contact. browse to the file you wish to share and press “Open”. both you and your contact need to have a microphone and speakers. the file is transferred to him. When your contact agrees to share the file. It is similar to e-mail. For this. When he does so. Your contact is given an option to accept the video conference. as well as Web cameras for video conferencing. If both parties are online at the same time. iPods.

This is one of the ways in which you can take your favorite tunes with you. can also serve as external data storage devices. You would need to have a CD Writer on your computer for this. and calendars to those iPod models that support them.audio player series in history.apple. Now select your playlist and click the “Play” button at the top to hear your music. games. iPod is a music player and more. Click “Music” in the “Library” list in the left panel to view your songs. Creating a Custom CD: Using iTunes. They vary in size and features. Put simply. videos. or any portable music player . Connect your iPod to your computer. The smaller iPods like “nano” and “shuffle” use flash memory which is a non-volatile memory device. but to create a podcast or even to listen to one. click “Music” in the “Library” list and drag them to “iPod” in the left panel. Podcasting: “Podcasting” is a new type of online media delivery which consists of free audio and video broadcasts. it is not mandatory to possess an iPod. Digital media players are lightweight digital storage devices that do not require cassettes or disks. Finding Music: Select “iTunes Store” in the left panel and follow the onscreen instructions to locate and purchase music files. First. you may create a custom CD. “iPod classic” is a model which has a hard-drive. 187 | P a g e . talk shows or anything else. Insert a blank CD into your CD drive. Select your playlist and click the “Burn Disc” button at the bottom right. Using iTunes: Let us learn how to use Apple’s iTunes software. They store music files internally. Devices in the iPod family are designed according to the latest demands and technology.com” and follow the on-screen instructions for downloading and installing the iTunes software. you need to connect to “www. You can also purchase digital music files from within iTunes. iTunes stores a music library on the users computer and can play and write music from a CD. Click the “Create a playlist” button at the bottom-left corner and enter a name for your playlist. The term “Podcast” is derived from the words ‘iPod and ‘broadcast. It also transfers photos. Apples “iTunes” software is used to transfer music to the devices. podcasting allows you to download files onto your computer and MP3 player which can contain music. iPods. Now click on the “Burn Disc” button once more. Uploading to a Digital Media Player: Another way to carry your favorite tunes is to upload them to your iPod using iTunes. To transfer individual music files. An important feature about podcasting is that you can subscribe to a series so that it automatically downloads on to your computer and MP3 player. iTunes starts automatically. “iPod touch” is a model which has a touch screen. other than the iPod touch. Drag songs you would like to hear to your playlist.

Wi-Fi: “Wi-Fi” is short for "Wireless Fidelity" and is a set of standards for wireless local area networks.Podcasting enables you to compile all your favorite music. Today. cheap radio chip to be plugged into computers. It is a radio standard and communications protocol primarily designed for low power consumption. Bluetooth is essentially a cable-replacement technology which tries to solve this problem. Odeo. using the Internet. 188 | P a g e . film reviews. Sportscasts and lots more. Podnova and Feedburner to subscribe to your favorite podcasts. have all mobile and fixed computer devices in total co-ordination. Conceived initially by Ericsson. They may also be used in story telling for children or the visually-impaired. radio programs and news stories and you may listen to them whenever and wherever you wish. Podcasts can be used for a number of different things such as creation of informational. users of cellular phones can buy a multi-purpose phone that can serve as a portable phone and also be used to get information from a computer. which will then be automatically downloaded for you. We often have a hard time trying to figure out which cable needs to go where. We see a large number of cables in our offices. printers. Bluetooth and Wi-Fi have slightly different applications. and. You can use podcasting software such as iTunes. etc. RSS is a method of publishing content on frequently updated web sites. Podcasts are downloaded via a feed such as RSS. This allows users to "subscribe" to a site so that they can quickly scan the updated headlines and then go to specific articles of interest. in general. Some browsers also include the RSS reading functions. Short for Really Simple Syndication (or Rich Site Summary). It was originally developed for use by wireless devices and local networks but it is now used for Internet access as well. Such software is available for free download from the Internet. Juice. It creates a wireless personal area network (PAN) and provides a way to connect and exchange information between two devices over distances of about 30 feet. Users access headlines and see web site updates via an RSS reader which is an application that displays a short summary and provides links to the full article on the Web site. Bluetooth is a small. Using this technology. with a short range. Bluetooth & Wi-Fi Technology “Bluetooth” is the name of a new technology that promises to change the way we use machines. mobile phones. It aims to simplify data synchronization between Internet devices and other computers. homes and everywhere else. for Commentaries. technologies like Podcasting empower you with a voice that can literally reach around the world. RSS Feeds: A “web feed” is a data format used for providing users with frequently updated content. instructional and promotional material. Bluetooth vs.

It also depends on whether or not you want to share an Internet connection among all the computers on the network. Wikipedia has grown rapidly into one of the largest reference Web sites. but with higher power resulting in a stronger connection. For this. printers and Internet access as well as to run multiplayer computer games. you may use it to share different resources. It is a web-based free content. run the “Set up a Wireless Router or Access Point” wizard on the computer attached to the router. but requires more expensive hardware and higher power consumption. A home network is commonly used to share files. Installing the Network: The steps to install the network are as follows. Using the Network: Once your network has been installed. 1) Install the Hardware: Install network adapters in the computers that need them by following the installation instruction manuals that come with the adapters. Home networks allow multiple users to access the Internet at the same time. It offers quick understanding on various issues and current affairs. computers are commonly found in homes. Open the “Connect to the Internet” wizard and follow the instructions. It enables a faster connection. and Internet connection that you have. and offers better security than Bluetooth. Since its creation in 2001. 189 | P a g e . 4) Run the “Set Up a Wireless Router or Access Point” wizard: If your network is wireless. It is the result of the combined efforts of an online community of people interested in building a high-quality encyclopedia in a spirit of mutual respect.Wi-Fi uses the same radio frequencies as Bluetooth. 3) Connect the computers: There are several ways to connect computers depending on the type of network adapters. you need a cable or DSL modem and an account with an Internet service provider (ISP). you need to set up the connection first. you can use a home network to share files and printers and play multiplayer computer games. 2) Set up an Internet connection: If you want to use your network to share an Internet connection. If you have more than one computer. modem. It covers greater distances. Popular Websites Wikipedia “Wikipedia” is one of the most popular reference sites on the Internet. multilingual encyclopedia written by contributors around the world. Home Networking Today. It consists of 195 independent language editions sponsored by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation.

190 | P a g e . Many people are constantly improving Wikipedia content.wikipedia.This is a special type of website. none of them have been able to match the cultural impact or enormous volumes of YouTube. Let us click on “English”. Type “Einstein” into the box. provided it is not potentially offensive. click “Search” after you have entered your keyword. and in other creative ways. The visitors to this site are mostly teenagers and young adults. the site was purchased one year later by Google. There are a number of other video sharing sites but so far. Its slogan is “Broadcast Yourself” meaning that everyone is free to broadcast whatever they wish. you must include appropriate references. YouTube YouTube is a website that specializes in publishing user-posted video clips. Various people have used YouTube to achieve celebrity status by dancing. Repeat offenders may be blocked from editing. While much of the content consists of original amateur videos. This will take you directly to Wikipedias most relevant article on the entered keyword. you can research on any topic with great ease. For example. Here you will most likely find all the information you need. On the lefthand side of the screen you can see a “search” box with two buttons under it labeled "Go" and "Search". using Wikipedia. Unregistered users can watch most videos on the site. Select the language of your choice to go to the Main Page. YouTube discourages users from downloading videos to their own computers. If you wish to look up additional Wikipedia pages. if you add information to an article.youtube. It can be found at www. Content is meticulously appraised and inappropriate changes are removed. You see a page which displays links to other pages. Let us look for information related to the great scientist Albert Einstein.com. This encyclopedia can be found at www. Anyone is welcome to add information as long as they do so within Wikipedias editing policies. singing. preferring that they watch videos online. posting video resumes. So. called a “Wiki” where anybody can edit and add to an article. YouTube’s phenomenal appeal lies in its simplicity and global reach. Simply click a link to view the related page. It is one of the top ten most popular websites on the Internet.com. and press enter or click “Go”. while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos. professional content is now being provided by some advertisers and media producers. Browsing through the loads of available videos is simple and uploading your own video is almost as simple. Started in 2005.

YouTube has been the focus of controversies related to some sensitive political and personal issues. the site has been banned in a few countries.Like most other social-networking sites. Because of this. *****THE END**** 191 | P a g e .