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1) Ashok and Samuel / Regression Method for Identifying Spindle Radial Errors of a … / pp. 26-33

**Regression Method for Identifying Spindle Radial Errors of a Miniaturized Machine Tool
**

S. Denis Ashok, G. L. Samuel* Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India

Tel: +91-44-22574699 *e-mail: samuelgl@iitm.ac.in Submitted: 10/01/2010 Accepted: 03/02/2010 Appeared: 16/02/2010 ©HyperSciences.Publisher

**Abstract— Miniaturized machine tools have become a promising technique for mechanical micro machining of
**

micro / meso scale features. High speed spindle is one of the important elements of a miniaturized machine tool for providing high rotational speed to micro cutting tools. Geometric error sources in the miniaturized machine tool causes synchronous and asynchronous error motions during spindle rotation which inturn significantly affects the machining accuracy of components. In this work, radial error of a high speed spindle is measured using a capacitance sensor and master cylinder for various spindle speeds. This paper presents a regression method for accurate identification of synchronous and asynchronous components of spindle error data. A sum of sinusoidal function is used for approximating synchronous components of spindle error data. Asynchronous components are considered as residuals of the regression model and it is assumed to follow Gaussian probability distribution with zero mean and constant variance. An iterative least square method is formulated for estimating the parameters of the regression model. Proposed regression method accurately identifies synchronous and asynchronous components of spindle error data and they are compared with Fourier transform filtering method. Experimental results indicate a good correlation between the proposed regression model and the spindle error data. The lower and upper bound values are determined for predicting the spindle error data at the given discrete time. Performance of proposed method is evaluated for different number of harmonics and spindle revolutions and the results are presented in this paper.

Keywords: Miniaturized Machine Tool, Spindle Error, Modeling, Analysis, Regression Method

NOMENCLATURE Symbol A h, B h C Dj Ej fj fr fs fmin,fmax f0 h H mi' m'si m'pi ti Xj Meaning Amplitudes of cosine and sine functions Mean value of the spindle error data Basis matrix of the model Sum of squares of residual error Discrete frequency values Spindle rotational frequency Sampling frequency Limits for discrete frequency values Fundamental frequency of spindle data Harmonic number Harmonic cutoff value Samples of spindle error data Synchronous components of spindle data Prediction bound for spindle error data Sampling time Set of linear parameters of the model Residual values of spindle error data Standard deviation of residual values Interval for discrete frequency values

1. INTRODUCTION Miniaturized machine tools require high speed spindles with precise rotation for realizing submicron level accuracy of components. High speed spindle is supported by ceramic ball bearings in the miniaturized machine tool. Error sources such as out of roundness of bearing surface, defects in the balls, etc causes synchronous and asynchronous error motions during spindle rotation. Spindle error motions affect the accurate positioning of the micro tool and it leads to inaccuracies in feature location, form and surface finish. Consequently, measurement and analysis of spindle error motion is useful in characterizing the machining performance of the miniaturized machine tool. Measurement methods and procedures were outlined for testing the spindle accuracy of machine tools using spherical master, displacement pickups and oscilloscope (Bryan et al, 1967). Digital measuring method was presented for analysing axis of rotation errors of machine tools. (Vanherck and Peters, 1973). Terminologies and methods related to spindle error measurements were unified for describing the truth of axes of rotation in machine tools (Bryan and Vanherck, 1975). A new measurement principle was reported for measuring rotational accuracy of rotating tool type spindle using a stationary master ball (Kakino et al, 1977).

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It is difficult to install more number of inspection devices in the miniaturized machine tool due to space limitations.3. Autocollimator based optical measurement system was proposed for measuring radial rotational accuracy of an ultra speed spindle (Kengo Fujimaki and Kimiyuki Mitsui. asynchronous radial error of the spindle. This paper proposes a regression method for accurate identification of synchronous and asynchronous components of spindle error data obtained in time domain. 2007). Residuals of the regression fit are assumed as asynchronous components of spindle error data.5nm A computer aided data acquisition system is used for sampling the measurement data at discrete time interval.4M (2004) laid the modern foundation for understanding. 2008). 26-33 Micro computer based data processor was developed for the improved evaluation of spindle error motion (Sun and Bryan. 1985). Proposed method uses an iterative least square method for estimating model parameters. 1985). form error of master cylinder along with synchronous. Also.1 Experimental arrangement In the present work.1 Experimental arrangement for radial error measurement Specifications of the capacitive sensor used for spindle radial error measurement is shown in Table. test procedure mentioned in ANSI/ ASME B89. Table.3.Journal of Studies on Manufacturing (Vol.1) Ashok and Samuel / Regression Method for Identifying Spindle Radial Errors of a … / pp. These methods are not suitable for analysing the spindle error data acquired at discrete time intervals due to variations in speed during measurement (Marsh. However.iscrete time samples of spindle error data 27 . 2005). ANSI/ASME B89. 1 Specifications of capacitive displacement sensor S. Multiple capacitive sensors with larger sensing area were designed for simultaneous measurement of radial. angular. the inspection devices used for testing the miniaturized machine tool spindles require high bandwidth and resolution for enabling the spindle error measurement at high speed. Fig. RADIAL ERROR MEASUREMENT 2. discrete time samples of spindle error data are acquired for a harmonic cut-off value (H) of 32 cycles per revolution. A measurement system consisting of a laser diode and a quadrant sensor was developed for measuring spindle error and spindle speed (Jywe and Chen. 2. fs = 2Hfr (1) In the present work. 1.M standard is followed for conducting spindle radial error measurement in the miniaturized machine tool. The effect of number of harmonics and number of spindle revolutions on the fitting accuracy and the range of residuals are analysed and the results are presented.1-2010/Iss.05% 6 Peak to peak resolution 47. axial error motions of spindle (Chapman.2 Discrete time samples of spindle error data Fig. To avoid aliasing effects. 2005). specifying and testing axes of rotation errors of machine tool. the laser. Averaging method and Fourier transform method are used for separating synchronous and asynchronous components of spindle error data (Robert Gredja et al. 2.4. sampling frequency (fs) is fixed based on the rotational frequency of the spindle (fr) and the desired harmonic cut-off value (H). No Details Specified values 1 Range 250µm 2 Standoff 250µm 3 Output voltage 10 to -10 VDC 4 Output sensitivity 0. 2005). 2. A master cylinder is mounted in the spindle and capacitive displacement sensor is positioned in the probe holder. Measured spindle error data represents the total indicated runout of the spindle and it includes the contribution of centering error.08 V/µm 5 Linearity error 0. Experimental results of the proposed regression method are compared with those obtained using discrete fourier transform filtering method. Fig. optical measurement systems requires more setup time for the optics in the miniaturized machine tool and the alignment requires more time. An attempt has been made to measure the radial error motion of a high speed using capacitive sensors in a miniaturized machine tool (Lee et al. 1 shows the experimental arrangement for spindle radial error measurement. A sum of sinusoidal functions is used for approximating synchronous components of spindle error data. Spindle error data contains synchronous and asynchronous components that characterize the repeatable and non repeatable behaviour of the spindle.

3 list the estimated amplitude of sinusoidal function for the first 10 harmonic components of spindle error data. f0 is the fundamental frequency of spindle error data. Ah.3055 formulation is explained in Appendix A. Table.2 Least square estimation of regression model parameters An iterative least square method is used for determining the parameters of the regression model and its mathematical 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Amplitude of sinusoidal function (µ m) Bh Ah -6. Hence suitable methods for required for identifying the components of spindle error data. Table. 3 Fundamental frequency estimation of spindle data It is noticed that minimum value of sum squared residual error occurs at the frequency of 832.657µm.9975 2.6409 -0.0524 6. It can be seen that spindle error data shows a change in polarity and it is due to the displacement of master cylinder from its mean position during spindle rotation. Number of harmonics (h) m 'i = C + ∑ Ah cos(2π hf 0 ti ) + Bh sin(2π hf 0 ti ) h =1 H (2) Here C represents the mean value of the spindle error data. Periodic sinusoidal component is due to centering error of the master cylinder and it represents individual revolution of spindle.576 0. 3. The constant value (C) representing the mean position of master cylinder is found to be 1. 2 Samples of spindle error data S.0020 It is found that the magnitude of first harmonic component is higher than the other harmonics and it represents the centering error of master cylinder.1) Ashok and Samuel / Regression Method for Identifying Spindle Radial Errors of a … / pp.346 0. Parameters of the regression model are estimated for the samples of spindle error data obtained at the spindle speed of 50.5539 -0.8938 0.8880 6.2477 0.1575 -0.0814 0.01 Hz.2557 -3.0873 -0.2526 -0.152 Spindle error data (µm) -3.9579 -2.3932 4.3648 -0. Fig.1664 -2. REGRESSION METHOD FOR IDENTIFYING SPINDLE ERROR COMPONENTS 3. 3 Estimated amplitude of sinusoidal function It is difficult to interpret the synchronous and asynchronous components of spindle error data in time domain. 2.1132 0.3 Fitting of spindle error data Regression fit values are determined for the samples of spindle error data using the estimated model parameters and 28 . Table.000 rpm as shown in Fig. 3. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Sampling time (x10-3 Sec) 0.806 0.6647 -6.0233 0.1521 0. Amplitude of sinusoidal functions was estimated for the harmonic cut-off value of 32 CPR.1-2010/Iss.0684 0.8329 -4. H represents the number of harmonics to be included in the model and its value depends upon the harmonic cut-off used in Equation (1).3965 8.Journal of Studies on Manufacturing (Vol.68 Hz and this value corresponds to the fundamental frequency (f0) of spindle error data. Residual values of the regression fit are considered as asynchronous components.0172 0.0024 -0.333 Hz).0504 -0.461 0. 2. Sum squared residual error values are determined for the discrete frequency values and it is shown in Fig.0722 0. This value is estimated using the proposed analysis method. Table.922 1.0432 0. 2 show the discrete time samples of spindle error data for a spindle revolution and it is specified as black dots in Fig. asynchronous components superimposed on it. hence discrete frequency values are obtained in the frequency interval of 829-838 Hz with a resolution of 0. Bh represents the amplitudes of cosine and sine components of sinusoidal functions. Fundamental frequency of spindle error data will be around the spindle rotational frequency (50000/60 = 833. 26-33 Spindle error data shows a periodic sinusoidal pattern with synchronous.230 0.691 0. 3.037 1.0392 0.000 0. 3.115 0. It is assumed that formulated model is true and the residuals follow Gaussian distribution with zero mean and variance.1 Regression model for spindle error data A sum of sinusoidal function is used as regression model for identifying the synchronous components of spindle error data and it is given by equation (2).

6946 -3.2557 -3. 5. 26-33 it is shown in Fig.806 0.346 0.691 0. 5 (b).3150 -0.1371 -0.6409 -0.3498 -0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 0 0.5 Prediction bounds for the spindle error data Residuals of the regression fit is furthur analysed for the determining the satandard deviation and it is found that 0. 5. Prediction bounds for spindle error data 29 .23 0.0934µm.9974 3.9407 -3. 6.3932 4. It can be seen that the shape of the histogram resembles bell curve of the normal probabilty distribution and it validats the normality assumption of residuals.037 1.4766 -0.3017 6. Thus the regression model decomposes the spindle error data into synchronous and asynchronous components. This validates the fitness of the regression model for analyzing the spindle error data. Fig.0524 6. (a) Scatter plot Fig.3077 -2. 4 Regression fit and residual values S.922 1.2097 8.1643 0.8329 -4. 4 Regression model fitted to spindle error data Here the regression fit values represent the synchronous components and the residuals correspond to the asynchronous components of spindle error motion.1-2010/Iss.1) Ashok and Samuel / Regression Method for Identifying Spindle Radial Errors of a … / pp. Fig.3055 -3.7231 6. This value signifies the non repeatablily of high speed spindle and it is useful in determining a prediction bounds of the spindle error data. 3.Journal of Studies on Manufacturing (Vol.152 -3.461 0. It can be seen that the residuals are centered on the mean line and it doesn’t show any trend pattern.576 0.9579 -2.5303 4.0002 -0. Fig.8198 0.2133 -0.1384 -0.1649 0.2493 0.115 0. A correlation coefficient of 0. It can be seen that the sum of fit and residual values corresponds to the magnitude of spindle error data for the corresponding sampling time.9975 2.8780 -5. Table. Graphical analysis of residuals Histogtram plot is used for verifying the normal probability assumption of residuals and it is shown in Fig. Table 4 provide the fit and residual values for the samples of spindle error data.987 is obtained between the regression fit and the spindle error data. 5 (a) shows the scatter plot of the residuals. 6 shows the estimated upper bound and lower bound values of the spindle error data at 95% probability limits. 4.1868 0.4 Validation of regression method Residuals of spindle error data is analysed graphically using scatter plot and histogram for validating the assumptions of regression method and it is illustrated in Fig.6647 -6.4857 3.3965 8.No Sampling time (x10-3 Sec) Spindle error data (µ m) Fit values (µ m) Residuals (µ m) (b) Histogram Fig.8880 6.

8329 -4.4654 -3. In order to evaluate the performance of regression method.2193 -3.3965 8.7830 -2. Effect of increase in number of harmonics and number of spindle revolutions is also studied and the results are presented for the spindle error data obtained at spindle speed of 50. 26-33 Upper bound and lower bound values for the samples of spindle error data are given in Table.2478 6.461 0.5221 2.3055 -3.4726 3.9518 -1.1-2010/Iss.9975 2.3533 -6.1 Comparision with fourier transform filtering method To demostrate the limitation of the fourier transform method. As the spindle carries the micro cutting tool.23 0. 8. the components at the integer multiples of fundamental frequency is filtered in the frequency doamin as shown in Fig. It is noted that the fundamental frequency content at 1 cycles per revolution is affected by spectral leakage to the adjacent frequency bins. 4. 7.000 rpm.346 0. PERFORMANCE EVALAUTION OF PROPOSED METHOD Proposed regression method is applied to spindle error data for identifying synchronous and asynchronous compoents. samples of spindle error data containing a incomplete spindle revolution is consisdered analysis. Table. Fig.8880 6.2951 It can be seen that the predicted bound almost covers all the data.922 1.Journal of Studies on Manufacturing (Vol.806 0.037 1. This will reduce the accurate estimation of Fig. It should be noted that each sinusoidal component correspond to a complete spindle revolution and the partial sinusoid represented by the arrow corresponds to the incomplete spindle revolution. 7 shows the sample spindle error data containing an incomplete spindle revolution.691 0.576 0.1698 -4. Spectral leakage is due to the presence of partial sinusoid or incomplete spindle revolution. 5 Estimated prediction bounds for spindle error data S.8264 5.0013 -0.2557 -3. Spindle error spindle revolution data containing incomplete Fig. 8.152 -3.1) Ashok and Samuel / Regression Method for Identifying Spindle Radial Errors of a … / pp.0055 3.8325 -3. Correlation coefficient of fit vlaues and the range of residuals are used as the performance measures for evlauating regression method. results of the propsoed method is compared with discrete fourier transform (DFT) based frequency domain analysis method.3932 4.1983 7.6850 9.3446 -4. Filtering of synchronous components As the propsoed method processes the data in time domain.6647 -6.7769 6. prediction bound values will be useful in determing tool position errors and applying componsation to the synchronous and asynchronous errors of the spindle. Frequency content of the spindle error data is estimated using the discrete fourier transform method and the first 10 harmonic components are shown in Fig.9579 -2. 5. Frequency content of spindle error data Fig. In order to separatre the synchronous and asynchronous components of spindle error data. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 0 0. 9.115 0.4159 -3.7345 8. No Sampling time (x10-3 Sec) Spindle error data (µ m) Upper bound (µ m) Lower bound (µ m) magnitude of harmonic estimation. 4. inverse fourier transform method is applied to the filtered synchronous compoents for comparing the magnitude in time 30 .6409 -0.0524 6.4027 -5.0550 4. 9.

9906 0. When the spindle error data contain two revolutions.6021 2.9347 2.9805 0.0 for 32 cycles per revolution. Fig.9974 0.2551 2.9965 0. It means that spindle error data in a single revolution are assumed as synchronous components.4337 2. a correlation coefficient reaches a values of 0.9947 0. It is due to the random nature of asynchronous components in each spindle revolution.9951 0. Consequently. These results prove the imporved performance of the proposed regression method for identifying synchronous and asynchronous components of spindle error data.9970 0.9966 0.9991 0. It is found that the proposed regression fit follows the periodic sinusoidal trend with a correlation coefficient of 0.1) Ashok and Samuel / Regression Method for Identifying Spindle Radial Errors of a … / pp.2814 2.5201 2. 4.9956 0.9969 0.9333 3.5843 2.3 Effect of increase in number of spindle revolutions There is no guidelines for choosing the number of spindle revolutions required for analysing spindle error data (Marsh. the range of residual value decerases for the increase in the number of harmonics. Table.2090 3. Table 6.9942 0.2176 µm and 2.9974 When the regression method is applied to the samples of spindle error data containing a single spindle revolution.1608 2.7468 2.Journal of Studies on Manufacturing (Vol. however the synchronous components obtained using the frequency domain filtering method provides the correlation coefficient of 0. 10.4133 2.9950 0.9953 0.5742 3.9971 0.1948 Table 7.2565 2.6391 2.2708 2.9904 0. Hence the performance of the regression method is investigated for the spindle error data containing different number of revolutions. Comparision regression and fourier trnasform method Range of residuals are estimated to be 1.9940 0.9948 0.9957 0.2602 1. 6.8427 2.1-2010/Iss. 2008).9969 0. it is concluded that proposed method provides accurate identification of synchronous and asynchronous components for the spindle error data containing two revolutions. From the results.9974 0. 4.2041 2.9991.9965 0. In the present work. it is found that the correlation coefficient decreases to 0. Fig.9948 0.1826 3. Effect of number of harmonics Harmonics (cycles per revolution) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Correlation coefficient Range of residual values (µ m) 3.1151 µm for regression and fourier transfrom mehod respectively. Number of harmonics included in the regression model is 32 cycles per revolution.5273 2. Spindle error data containing two spindle revolutions are considered for analysis.7156. Correlation coefficient and the range of residuals are determined and the results for the first 15 harmonics are shown in Table. It is found to be the limiting 31 . It is found that the increase in number of harmonics improves correlation of the regression model with the spindle error dasta.7338 2.2 Effect of increase in number of harmonics Fitting accuracy of the regression method is evaluated by increasing the number of harmonics (H) considered in the regression model.6126 2.9970 0.0000 0.9980 0.1748 2.6217 2.8943 2.9954 0. correlation is coefficient is found to be 1.9964 0. the spindle error data is sampled for harmonic cutoff value of 32 cycles per revolution and it is the limiting value for the number of harmonics to be included in the regression model.6941 2. It is found that when the number of harmonics in the regression model is incerased to 32 cycle per revolution.999 the range of residual is found to be 1. It is also found that the range of residuals increases with further increase in number of spindle revolution. 7 shows the summary of results for 15 spindle revolutions.9973 0.2511 1.2602µ m. Effect of number of spindle revolutions Number of spindle revolutions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Correlation coefficient Range of residual values (µ m) 0.0000 1.9970. 10 shows the comparitive identifications for the synchronous compoents of spindle erorr data using the proposed regression method and the discerete fourier transform filtering method. 26-33 domain.

Journal of Studies on Manufacturing (Vol. Japan. (2005).. International Journal of machine tools & Manufacture. . Techniques of calibrating spindles with nanometre error motion. cos(2π Hf i t1 ) sin(2π Hf i t1 ) C A1 B1 cos(2π Hf i t3 ) sin(2π Hf i t3 ) . However.B. . Spectral leakage problem is observed in Fourier transform filtering method when it is applied to the spindle error data containing an incomplete spindle revolution. . fj = [f1. (2005). Kakino. Radial error measuring device based on auto collimation for miniature ultra high speed spindles. (2007). 241-244. APPENDIX A. and Chen.2) For the given discrete frequency fi. Assessment of radial errors of high speed spindle in a miniaturized machine tool. A sum of sinusoidal function is used as regression model for interpreting synchronous and asynchronous components of spindle radial error. Annals of CIRP. cos(2π f i tm ) sin(2π f i tm ) .3) It is expressed in simplified matrix form as given by m'i = Dj X j (A.2. . .5) 32 . Robert Grejda. (1985). Unification of terminology concerning the error motion of axes of rotation. Precision Engineering. 555-562. J. cos(2π f i tm−1 ) sin(2π f i tm−1 ) . and Ishii. Kimiyuki Mitsui.Y. m '1 1 m '2 1 m '3 1 . R (2008) Precision spindle metrology. S. f2. P. 47(11). . J. W. Lancaster. J. . 1677-1685. . the present method overcomes the spectral leakage problem and provides improved performance for identifying synchronous and asynchronous components of spindle error data. Precision Engineering. Jywe. hence a set of discrete frequency values (fi) are obtained in a specified frequency range given by fmin < fr < fmax with a constant increment of ∆f . linear regression model given in (A. Oct.19-22. m 'm−1 1 m ' 1 m cos(2π f i t1 ) sin(2π fi t1 ) .B. .k (A. International conference of leading Edge manufacturing in 21st Century. Nagoya. (A. . Report No. Richard Clouser and Earl Holland (1967). Sun. Spindle accuracy. The development of a high speed spindle measurement system using laser diode and quadrant sensor. 113-123. Bryan. Digital axis of rotation measurements. P and Peters. Methods for Specifying and Testing. = .S and Yang. DES tech It is seen that regression model contains linear parameters (ah. cos(2π f i t2 ) sin(2π f i t2 ) . N. 612. and Vanherck. LEAST SQUARE METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF REGRESSION MODEL PARAMETERS Regression model for identifying synchronous components of spindle error data (mi’) is given by m 'i = C + ∑ Ah cos(2π hf 0ti ) + Bh sin(2π hf 0ti ) h =1 H (A. . C. Yammoto.1) Ashok and Samuel / Regression Method for Identifying Spindle Radial Errors of a … / pp. This method can be useful in predicting and compensating tool position errors due to spindle error motions.…. Lee.3. Marsh. (1985). E. cos(2π Hfi tm−1 ) sin(2π Hfi tm−1 ) AH cos(2π Hf i tm ) sin(2π Hf i tm ) BH cos(2π Hfi t2 ) sin(2π Hfi t2 ) .D. bh) and non linear parameter (f0).4) Where D j is the basis matrix of containing ‘m’ rows and 2H+1 columns as given by 1 1 1 D j = .…. 135-136.H. Chapman. A new instrument for axis of rotation metrology. P. cos(2π f i t3 ) sin(2π f i t3 ) . Kengo Fujimaki. 1 1 cos(2π fi t1 ) sin(2π fi t1 ) cos(2π Hfi t1 ) sin(2π Hfi t1 ) cos(2π fi t2 ) sin(2π fi t2 ) cos(2π fi t3 ) sin(2π fi t3 ) . Eric Marsh. Proposed regression method requires minimum number of samples containing two spindle revolutions for accurate identification of spindle error data. 34. Annals of the CIRP. Vanherck. 5. 22. (2005). 439-444. Experimental results proved a good correlation between the regression fit and the spindle error data. 26-33 value for the number of spindle revolutions to be considered for analysis of spindle error data.fk] j=1. Inc. 45(11). 345-350. 7(3). 35 (1)..S.A. 29.H.New measuring method of rotating accuracy of spindle. International Journal of machine tools & Manufacture. 1162-1170..1) REFERENCES ANSI/ASME B89. 149164. (1975).J. . (1977) . Publications. B.. cos(2π fi tm−1 ) sin(2π fi tm−1 ) cos(2π fi tm ) sin(2π fi tm ) cos(2π Hfi t2 ) sin(2π Hfi t2 ) cos(2π Hfi t3 ) sin(2π Hfi t3 ) cos(2π Hfi tm−1 ) sin(2π Hfi tm−1 ) cos(2π Hfi tm ) sin(2π Hfi tm ) (A. U.4M Axes of Rotation. Annals of the CIRP. American machinist. 129137. (1973). Lee. PA 17602. Annals of the CIRP.Y. Ryan Vallance. 24. J. This method processes the spindle error data in time domain and it can be implemented for online analysis of spindle errors in high speed spindles. 2004 Bryan. Fundamental frequency of spindle error data (f0) will be around spindle rotational frequency (fr). Hence an iterative least square method is followed for estimation model parameters. CONCLUSION This paper presented a regression based identification method for analysing spindle radial error components of a miniaturized machine tool. J.1-2010/Iss. A capacitance based ultra-precision spindle error analyzer. Y. S. E.Y and Bryan.1) can be represented in matrix form for ‘m’ samples of radial error data with a harmonic cut-off ‘H’. .

. geometric error compensation in machine tools. Kyungpook National University.10) Residual errors are considered as asynchronous components ( ε i ) as presented by ˆ ˆ ε i = m'i − DX (A. 26-33 and Xj is the set of unknown linear model parameters as given by AUTHORS PROFILE Dr. BH ] S.Journal of Studies on Manufacturing (Vol.. He has presented five papers in the international/national conferences. He obtained his B.. ˆ Synchronous components of spindle error data ( msi ) identified by the regression fit is given by. X j = [ C . Then the linear least square solution vector of model parameters for the given discrete frequency (fj) is obtained by ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ X j = ( D j T D j ) −1 D j T m 'i = [C .. A H . He has five years of teaching experience and his area of interest includes machine tool metrology. B1 .12) 33 . Degree in Production Engineering and Systems Technology from Kuvempu University in 1994 and Ph. Fundamental frequency ( ˆ f0 ) of the spindle error data is determined as the discrete frequency value fj that minimizes the criterion given by Equation (A. India. A1 .1-2010/Iss.. E j = ∑ε 2i i =1 m (A. Chennai. He has been a Post Doctoral Fellow at School of Mechanical Engineering.. (A. computer aided inspection. AH ..6) These leads to a system of over determined of equations (m > 2H+1) and it can be solved by least square method by minimizing a sum of squared residual error. D degree in Mechanical Engineering from Indian Institute of Technology Madras in 2001. B 2 . South Korea. A1 . B 1 . M. he is pursuing Ph D degree at Indian Institute of Technology Madras.96σ (A.9) Sum of squares of residual error Ej is determined for all discrete frequency values (fj). E. spindle metrology. and evaluation of form errors. He has published over fifteen papers in refereed international journals. His active areas of research are: measurements and inspection of freeform surfaces. G. Samuel is currently working as Assistant Professor at the Department of Mechanical Engineering.7) Residual error єi is expressed in matrix form as given by ε i = ( m'i − D j X j ) (A. Degree in Mechanical Engineering from Mysore University in 1991.7).. Madurai. micromachining and laser vision systems..11) Standard deviation (σ) of the residual values is estimated and the prediction bound for spindle error data is obtained for 95% probability limit as given by ˆ m pi ' = m 'si ± 1. Currently. Chennai. Denis Ashok received his Bachelors Degree in Mechanical Engineering and Masters Degree in Production Engineering from Madurai Kamaraj University. A 2 . ˆ ˆ ˆ msi = DX − C (A. B H ] T (A.8) It is assumed that residuals follow normal probability distribution.1) Ashok and Samuel / Regression Method for Identifying Spindle Radial Errors of a … / pp. Tech. L. Indian Institute of Technology Madras.

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