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Unit 6: Information Communication technology and cyber law

Introduction
The term ICT refers to technology that uses digital computer’s massive processing power with the digital
communication technology. So ICT refers to the computer technologies along with fast growing communication
technologies. In border sense, ICT covers the products that will store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit and receive
information electronically in a digital format.

OR

ICT is most often used to describe digital technologies that include methods for communication as well as
technologies for storing and processing information. ICT uses various digital technologies, to process data into
information and to transform the information to intended recipient using communication technology or using
network concept.

1. Social impact of the ICT


With the increasing use of ICT, it had created both positive as well as negative impact on society.
1.1. Positive impact
1.1.1. Create opportunity for technological employment (Impact on employment)
The development of ICT has created many new jobs like programmer, data entry operator, system
administrator, DBA, graphics designer, web page developer etc. Due to the computerization of
offices and organization – persons with Computer and communication (ICT) skilled will get the
goods jobs.
1.1.2. E-commerce
E-commerce is the act of doing business online and it is becoming more popular day by day. E-
commerce is possible due to the ICT.
1.1.3. Impact on communication
Due to the ICT, the communication (email, chat, video call etc), becomes very cheap and fast. And
computer also used in communication fields like TV, radio, telecom etc.
1.1.4. Impact on education
ICT tools are used as teaching tool in science, health, medicine, engineering and all most in all
fields. ICT also made possible to provide online education and distance learning breaking the
geographical barrier to get education.
1.1.5. Impact on health sector: Due to the ICT, telemedicine has been possible – through which people
of remote area will get benefit. Expert system such as MYCIN, PUFF etc can be used for quick
disease diagnosis. Computer are used for taking X-RAYS, CT-SCAN etc. and recording patient
information
1.1.6. Impact on entertainment:
1.1.7. Impact on banking sectors:- Due to the ICT, services such as ATM, ABBS are possible. Computers
are also used to keep records of customer’s transactions.

1.2. Negative impact


1.2.1. Piracy: Computer related technologies are used for copying, distributing (pirating) software,
movies, music, books without permission. Internet is one of the main sources for pirating.
1.2.2. Unemployment: Development of ICT also causes the unemployment problems for those who do
not have basics knowledge about computer program (word, excel, power point etc). This can be
realized that every vacancy recommend a computer literate.
1.2.3. Pornography: Internet is the main source of pornography. It is the process of viewing adult
content like text, image or video. It will affect the study and behavior of children.
1.2.4. Theft: There is a chance of transferring the money from ones account to another’s account by
hacking password, PIN code etc. computers and internet also used for stealing valuable
information of companies, government organizations etc.
1.2.5. Digital divide: ICT also causes the digital divide by breaking the society into two groups:- people
with Internet access and people without Internet access.

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Unit 6: Information Communication technology and cyber law

2. Digital divide
Digital divide is a term that refers to the gap between communities that have access to ICT, such as
computers and Internet, and who do not have such access.
The digital divide exist between the people living in rural areas and those living in urban areas,
between the educated and uneducated people, between poor and rich people and globally between developed
and developing countries. Because of digital divide recent technologies such as e-commerce, e-business, e-
medicine, e-learning etc are difficult to implement.
For the development of countries, this gap must be bridged. The bridging of this gap creates new jobs,
such as outsourcing. Bridging the digital divide makes possible to learn new thing, stay up to date with current
affairs, to have quick and easy communication with friends, family, relatives etc. New programs must introduce
by the county for bridging this gap such as providing laptops, computer and Internet connection at low cost.

3. Computer ethics
Ethics means the moral beliefs and rules about right and wrong. Therefore the computer ethics is a set
of moral principles that regulate the use of computer and computer Network. Some issues of computer
ethics include intellectual property right, privacy concern, and how computers affect the society. some of
the instruction that instruct the people to use computer and computer network ethically are:
i. Do not use the computer to harm the other people.
ii. Do not interfere with other people’s computer work.
iii. Do not spy around other people’s file.
iv. Do not use computer to steal.
v. Do not use computer to bear false witness.
vi. Do not use or copy commercial software which you have not paid.
vii. Do not use other people’s computer resources without authorization.
viii. Do not use other people’s intellectual output.
ix. Always think about the social consequences of the programs you are writing or the system you are
designing.
x. Use a computer in ways that shows consideration and respect.

4. Intellectual property law:


Intellectual property refers to creations of mind such as invention, literacy, and artistic work and
symbol, name, images, and designs used in the commerce. For example, a story, a song, a painting, an invention
etc.
Intellectual property is divided into two categories:
Industrial property: -which include inventions (patent), trademarks, industrial design, and
geographic indications of source.
 Copyright: This includes literacy and artistic works such as film, novel, plays, musical works,
artistic work such as painting, drawing etc.
For these creations of mind, the creators have the exclusive right to their creations. The part of
intellectual property that is relates to cyber space covered by cyber law. The part of intellectual property that are
related to cyber law are as follows:
o Copyright law related to computer software, computer source code etc.
o Trademarks law in relation to domain names.
o Semiconductor law which relates to the protection of semiconductor design and layouts.
o Patent law in relation to computer hardware and software.
5. Privacy, Anonymity
Privacy is the way to protect ourselves from disclosing our personnel detail, objects to others in order to
maintain secrecy. Privacy is very important to maintain, but due to our foolishness our privacy may be
leaked, others may know every secret about us. The user of Internet must maintain online privacy, as we are
exposed day by day to others through internet. One way to maintain privacy is to share information about
you to others if the social networking sites are fully secured for communication.
The word anonymity means to disguise or hide oneself and pretend to be unknown person to maintain
privacy. For example, if you send something to second party without having your real name, the receiver

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Unit 6: Information Communication technology and cyber law

may not know who the sender is, in this situation anonymity is maintained. In computer ethics, to some
extent anonymity is good to maintain privacy but sometimes it could lead to computer crime like spam
mail, spoofing, etc.

6. Computers crime:
Crime related to computers, computers networks, internet, software are termed as computer crime. I.e.
computer crime is illegal use of computers by an unauthorized individual, either for pleasure (as by
computer hackers) or for profit (as by a thief).
Computer crime is great threat caused by the criminal or irresponsive action of a minority of computer
users who are taking advantages of the wide spread use of computers in our society.
Thus computer crime presents a major challenge to the security of computer-based information systems
and development of effective system controls.

Criminal activities related to computers are:


6.1. Unauthorized use of computer; which might involve stealing username and password or might involve
accessing victims computers via Internet through backdoor.( a back door is point of entry into a
computer system , often mistakenly left by the original programmer).
6.2. Creating and releasing malicious computer program. E.g. virus, worm
6.3. Harassment and stalking cyberspace.

7. Cyber law
Cyber law may be defined in simple words as the laws or acts or rules framed and adopted by the concerned
authority like individual government, organization for safe guarding against the digital crime or any crimes
concerned with computer that are performed by the people willfully to damage, make loss, steal information,
etc.
Cyber law governs (regulate) the legal issues of cyberspace. The term cyber space is not restricted to the
internet. It is a very wide term includes computers, computer networks, the Internet, Data, software etc. Cyber
laws cover laws relating to the following:
Electronic and digital signature: Electronic signature (especially digital signatures) are fast becoming
the de-facto standard for authentication (verification) of electronic records, emails, electronic data
interchange etc. Comprehensive laws are required so that uniform standards and procedures can be
established.
Computer crime law: computer crime is the illegal use of a computer by a unauthorized person for
pleasure or for theft. The growing dependence of computer and internet has made us all potential
victims of internet threats. Some countries has enacted legislation that specially deal with computer
crimes
Intellectual property law: Cyber law covers the intellectual property laws that relate to cyber space and
its constituents. This includes:
o Cyber law related to computer software, computer source code etc.
o Trademarks law in relation to domain names.
o Semiconductor law which relates to the protection of semiconductor design and layouts.
o Patent law in relation to computer hardware and software.
Data protection and privacy law: many nations have enacted legislation relating to data protection and
privacy within their jurisdictions. It is pertinent to note that due to the nature of the internet and the
amount of information may be accessed through it, such law is critical to protect the fundamental rights
of privacy of an individual.
Telecommunication law: Telecommunication system fall within the ambit (domain) of cyberspace and
therefore would form an integral part of cyber laws.

Note: Cyber law of Nepal, and IT policy refer book page 244 and 245

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