Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering

Basics of Design Engineering Fluid Power is: Fluids, Connectors, Fluid Handling Components • Filters, Heat Exchangers, and Flow Sensors • Seals • Hydraulic & Fluid Transfer Pumps and Controls • Accumulators, Compressors, Vacuum Pumps • Power Actuators, Motors, and Shock Absorbers • Power Modulation and Control

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Fluids, Connectors, Fluid Handling Components
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1.1 Fluids 1.2 Fluid Performance Factors 1.3 Piping & Tubing 1.4 Tube Fittings 1.5 Hydraulic Hose 1.6 Hose Fittings 1.7 Quick-action Couplers 1.8 Manifolds 1.9 Reservoirs

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Filters, Heat Exchangers, and Flow Sensors

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2.1 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Filters 2.2 Air Dryers 2.3 Pneumatic Lubricators 2.4 Heat Exchangers 2.5 Flow Sensors 2.6 Gages & Meters (1 of 3) [06/04/02 7:47:23]

Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering


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3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7

O-Rings(Compression Seals) Pressure-energized Seals Exclusion Seals Split-ring Seals Circumferential Seals Compression Packings Diaphragms

Hydraulic & Fluid Transfer Pumps and Controls

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4.1 Hydraulic Pumps 4.2 Fluid Transfers Pumps 4.3 Pump Controls 4.4 Power Units

Accumulators, Compressors, Vacuum Pumps

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5.1 Accumulators 5.2 Intensifiers 5.3 Compressors 5.4 Vacuum Pumps

Power Actuators, Motors, and Shock Absorbers

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6.1 Cylinders 6.2 Electrohydraulic Actuators 6.3 Electropneumatic Cylinders 6.4 Rotary Actuators 6.5 Fluid Motors (2 of 3) [06/04/02 7:47:23]

Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering
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6.6 Hydrostatic Drives 6.7 Hydrokinetic 6.8 Hydroviscous 6.9 Shock Absorbers 6.10 Hydraulic Speed Control

Power Modulation and Control

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7.1 Pressure Valves 7.2 Flow Valves 7.3 Proportional Valves 7.4 Servovalves 7.5 Fluid Transfer Valves 7.6 Pneumatic Pressure Regulators

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Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering

A key element in fluid systems is the means of transmitting power from one location to another. Constructing a hydraulic or pneumatic system involves the design or selection of numerous components, and determining how they will all interact. A point that is often overlooked is that the fluid, and the means of moving it from one location to another, are critical in any fluid-power system. Because the functions of hydraulic fluid are rather basic -- to transmit power efficiently and lubricate moving parts, with low maintenance -- it is often taken for granted. But using the wrong fluid, or not maintaining it properly, means less than optimum performance, and can even destroy a system. Likewise, dirty air can foul compressors, jam valves, and ruin instrumentation. In addition to fluids, the various lines that transmit fluid -- tubing, hose, and connectors -- and the components that keep the fluid in good working order -- heat exchangers, filters, lubricators, and dryers -- are essential ingredients to fluid-power systems.

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Petroleum-based fluids (hydrocarbons) traditionally have been the principal choice for hydraulic work. This choice remains popular where there is no danger of fire, no possibility of leakage into spoilable industrial products, no wide temperature variations, and no environmental considerations. Fire protection, however, may dictate selection of a nonpetroleum fluid, especially when a broken hydraulic line could spray fluid into an ignition source. Work environment may suggest a nonhydrocarbon fluid where a hydrocarbon fluid could spoil food-related products or pollute a river. Hydraulic fluid must also be evaluated for general (1 of 3) [06/04/02 8:35:11]

Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering

compatibility with the system. Fluids are divided into five classifications for purposes of evaluation: premium antiwear, standard antiwear, rust and oxidation-inhibited nonantiwear, water-based, and phosphate esters. Also, standard antiwear and nonwear fluids are ranked according to their stability properties. Premium antiwear fluids are recommended for systems using both piston and vane equipment. The fluids permit operation at full catalog rating with maximum life expectancy. Seal materials usually considered for these fluids are Buna-N or Viton-A; temperature range is 0 to 160°F. Standard antiwear fluids are somewhat less stable than the premium fluids because they contain more additives. The fluids can be used with piston pumps, but speed must be limited to 1,800 rpm, temperature to 150°F, and pressure to 3,000 psi. Vane equipment, on the other hand, can be used at maximum catalog ratings with maximum life expectancy. Recommended seal materials are Buna-N or Viton-A ; temperature range is 0 to 160°F. This class of fluids includes a less-stable group. The group contains fluids such as crankcase oils for gasoline and diesel engines. The same operating restrictions apply, but no stability criteria are given. Hence, systems using these fluids should have special controls for filtration, water contamination, foaming, and temperature. Nonantiwear, rust and oxidation-inhibited fluids are also divided into stable and less-stable types. The stable fluids, such as turbine oils, are the preferred fluids for piston equipment. The fluids permit operation at full catalog ratings with maximum life expectancy. These fluids can be used with specially designed severeduty vane equipment but at reduced ratings and life. Recommended seal materials are Buna-N or Viton-A; temperature limits are 0 to 160°F. The less-stable class of these fluids includes tractor and (2 of 3) [06/04/02 8:35:11]

Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering

transmission fluids. They are suitable for use in piston equipment at full catalog rating, but life expectancy is difficult to predict. Again, the fluids should be used only with specially designed vane equipment at reduced ratings and life expectancy. Water-based fluids include invert emulsions and water glycols. Piston pumps operate satisfactorily on these fluids but have certain limitations. For instance, absolute inlet pressure should be about 25% higher than with petroleum-based fluids, and minimum inlet pressure is 13 psia. Because these fluids have lower lubricity, operating pressure is limited to about 3,500 psi, and speed to 1,800 rpm. Only specially designed severe-duty vane pumps can be used with these fluids. Again, absolute inlet pressure should be 25% higher than with petroleum-based fluids, and minimum inlet pressure is 13 psia. Recommended seal materials are Buna-N or Viton-A. Operating temperature range is 50 to 120°F. Phosphate esters can be used with piston and vane equipment at full catalog ratings. However, absolute inlet pressure should be about 35% higher than for petroleum-based fluids. Viton-A seals are compatible with most phosphate esters; however, some of these fluids require EPR seals. Temperature range is 0 to 160°F.

VITON® is a registered trademark of DuPont Dow Elastomers (3 of 3) [06/04/02 8:35:11]

sluggish operation.. hose. or not maintaining it properly. A point that is often overlooked is that the fluid.uid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp1%2Fppf%2Ehtml (1 of 6) [06/04/02 8:36:32] . Viscosity measures how a fluid resists flow. high-precision systems are particularly sensitive to viscosity at low temperatures. with low maintenance -. http://www.. and previous searches! To log is often taken for granted. compressibility. means less than optimum performance. and ruin instrumentation. A hydraulic fluid that is too viscous usually causes highpressure drop. safety.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering A key element in fluid systems is the means of transmitting power from one location to another. dirty air can foul compressors. It is the single most important property of a hydraulic fluid.and the components that keep the fluid in good working order -. jam valves. and high-power consumption. and dryers -.machinedesign. They can be penalized harshly by pump cavitation and sluggish response of critical actuators. Constructing a hydraulic or pneumatic system involves the design or selection of numerous components. gas transmit power efficiently and lubricate moving parts.tubing. In addition to fluids. But using the wrong fluid. E-mail: Password: Remember My Password Performance factors Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you. and environmental effects. and connectors -. Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites.heat exchangers. Likewise. and lubricity. and fluid properties such as viscosity. High-pressure.asp?m. Because the functions of hydraulic fluid are rather basic -. and the means of moving it from one location to another. and can even destroy a system. The trade-offs necessary to choose a fluid involve a consideration of application requirements such as health. please enter your login information. filters. and determining how they will all interact. the various lines that transmit fluid -. low-mechanical efficiency. stability. are critical in any fluid-power system. news of interest.are essential ingredients to fluid-power systems.

Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Low-viscosity fluids permit efficient low-drag operation. Others commonly have the viscosity index bolstered through the use of special additives. It is important if the system is regularly exposed to low ambient temperatures. These systems require a high viscosity-index fluid. this leakage can be predicted on the basis of fluid viscosity and streamline flow through a known gap. on the other hand. Fluids that come close to achieving the goal have high viscosity indexes. But if monitored carefully. http://www. Some fluids have fairly high viscosity indexes to begin with. The additives are expensive. reduce volumetric efficiency. but relatively insignificant if the system is to be used inside a heated plant.asp?m. A high viscosity index is most important in applications subjected to a wide temperature range: mobile hydraulic systems used outdoors.. and tend to lose effectiveness under high shear rates during long service.uid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp1%2Fppf%2Ehtml (2 of 6) [06/04/02 8:36:32] . and promote leakage. An industrial system in a heated plant. Typical viscosity indexes for petroleum oils range from 90 to 105. industrial systems that are stopped and started during the winter in an unheated plant. oils with viscosity-index additives perform well in industrial service. indicate wide fluctuations of viscosity with temperature. In reality. Pour point is the lowest temperature at which oil flows when chilled under specified test conditions. Viscosity index measures how viscosity changes with temperature. Ideally. could get by with a low viscosity-index fluid. and the like. on the other hand.. low indexes. But the clearance of some pump leakage paths depends on operating pressure and temperature. and those for polyglycols from 160 to 200. In theory. so leakage may show considerable deviation from the theoretical viscosity-flow curves. but tend to increase wear. this goal is unattainable. Pour point of the oil should be about 20°F below the lowest expected the fluid should have the same viscosity at very low temperatures as at high temperatures.

and the higher the temperature. the properties of hydraulic fluids should not change with use.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Compressibility is the degree to which a fluid undergoes a reduction in volume under pressure. the effect of bulk modulus shows up as a loss in volume. and corrosive products. Heat can also destroy a fluid. breaking down viscosity improvers and reducing viscosity. the shorter the life of the fluid. This loss represents a power loss. compressibility is about 0. while doing an excellent job at normal operating temperatures. instead of being a benefit. It determines system static rigidity and strongly influences system gain. Stability is the most important property for longevity of service. Contaminant particle sizes that can be tolerated in a http://www.000-psi pressure increase up to 4. An old rule of thumb states that for every 10°C or 18°F of temperature rise. A hydraulic system should operate below 250°F. Because compressibility increases with pressure and temperature. Some additives. Thus.5% for each 1. has its greatest effect on performance in servo applications. But certain factors can adversely affect fluid performance. Oxidation and hydrolysis tend to cause chemical changes and the formation of volatile components. ideally between 100 and 150°F. a fluid used at 110°C has about half the life as at 100°C. the rate of oxidation doubles.uid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp1%2Fppf%2Ehtml (3 of 6) [06/04/02 8:36:32] . or bulk modulus.asp?m.. As a rule of thumb. Mechanical stress from flow and cavitation can shear polymer chains. Ideally. In positive-displacement pumps. additives must be selected carefully. Compressibility..machinedesign. Chemical breakdown occurs. begins to harm the system. have limited thermal stability.000 psi. insoluble materials. or amplification. and the because few actuators recover the compressive energy in the fluid. it is important to systems with high-pressure pumps and motors. When a system operates at high temperatures.

but not all acidic materials are corrosive. Volatility is rarely the cause of pump cavitation. Where boundary lubrication conditions prevail. However. and valves. The amount of gas dissolved in hydraulic fluid depends on the partial pressure of the gas in contact with the fluid. But where pitting occurs.uid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp1%2Fppf%2Ehtml (4 of 6) [06/04/02 8:36:32] .asp?m. corrosion increases leakage by opening up tolerances of closefitting parts. http://www. Insoluble contaminants can be hard particles or sludges and gums. Most petroleum fluids satisfy the lubrication requirement in pumps. since the fluid must lubricate moving parts of the system to minimize wear. or in the course of hydrolysis. emphasizing the need and importance of good filtration and diligent maintenance practices. Although gas solubility increases slightly with temperature. They also resist the formation of varnish and sludge.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering hydraulic system are the same whether a fluid is synthetic or petroleum based. fluids for these applications should be fortified by antiwear particularly if these agents harden into varnish films. Sludges and gums can slow valve action. certain types of hydraulic pumps and motors place severe load-carrying requirements on the oil. They are stable in hydraulic service and their viscosities are unaffected by high rates of shear.. Furthermore. In most systems. motors. and resist viscosity increases caused by soluble oxidation products. the cause of cavitation is dissolved air. Hard particles can accelerate wear of closely mated moving parts such as pumps. These corrosives are usually acidic. there can be substantial localized loss of strength. Excessive production of these solids can clog even large filters.. In most instances. silting caused by all forms of solid materials will slow servovalves. and valves. Corrosive agents usually form because of thermal or oxidative decomposition. motors.machinedesign. The reason: Vapor pressures of most hydraulic fluids are too low to cause boiling at the pump inlet. glycol-based fluids are satisfactory. Lubricating ability is an important quality factor in hydraulic fluids. pressure has a far greater effect.

are Since most components have ferrous metal surfaces. and that equilibrium is established. and erratic. some reservoirs -. For example. It is normally provided through an additive called a rust inhibitor in the oil.particularly in aircraft systems -..Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Volumes shown in the accompanying graph were calculated under the assumption that fluids were saturated with nitrogen at 30 psia. noisy. Fluid in a hydraulic system always contains air as entrained bubbles. because the fluid does not reach equilibrium.uid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp1%2Fppf%2Ehtml (5 of 6) [06/04/02 8:36:32] . For pumps with short inlet lines and laminar flow within the line. The entrained air tends to increase compressibility of the fluid. Volumetric efficiency of the pump is reduced because air bubbles in the oil on the inlet side expand as the oil enters the pump. that gas phase follows the gas laws. The reason is that air pressurization automatically dissolves more gas in the fluid. Compression of this air generates heat and can increase oxidation. that gas evolving from solution is saturated with vapor of the liquid. When the bubbles collapse on the discharge side. To prevent cavitation.asp?m. Materials compatibility enters the picture as a final arbiter of which seals and components can be used with a certain fluid. the actual volume evolved may be less. turbulence agitates the fluid and speeds gas evolution. However. subject to rusting. Aeration and foaming resistance is another important indicator of fluid quality. Systems pressurized by pumping air into the reservoir require higher reservoir and inlet pressure than those pressurized mechanically. Many high-quality fluids contain antifoaming additives to release air readily. The inhibitor plates out on the metal surfaces to form a protective film. natural rubber is not oil resistant and should not be used in hydraulic systems http://www.machinedesign. making the system elastic. they can produce damage similar to cavitation erosion. corrosion prevention is essential. as well as in solution. Corrosion prevention capabilities of an oil are important because moisture is always present in hydraulic systems.

Zinc is also objectionable in a hydraulic system because products of oil oxidation can react with it to form metallic soaps.. Magnesium alloys generally suffer heavy corrosion when water is present. Some antirust additives used in hydraulic systems may attack zinc. So heat exchangers should be of steel. galvanized and other zinc-coated surfaces should be avoided. shrink. In contact with a given fluid. Copper should also be avoided in hydraulic systems. Most seals in contact with oil are made from nitrile VITON® is a registered trademark of DuPont Dow Elastomers http://www. silicones. Lead is attacked by products of oxidation..Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering using petroleum oils. or otherwise deteriorate. but others swell. Other materials susceptible to corrosion are magnesiumbased alloys and lead. rather than copper or brass.machinedesign.asp?m. Synthetic rubbers vary widely in their behavior when exposed to different fluids. Most tubing and fitting manufacturers present extensive tables of materials compatible with their product specifications.uid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp1%2Fppf%2Ehtml (6 of 6) [06/04/02 8:36:32] . but for a different reason. some are unaffected. Other materials suitable for oil systems include Neoprene. Therefore. It is an effective catalyst in promoting oxidation of all types of oils. and fluorocarbon rubbers.

Because the functions of hydraulic fluid are rather basic -.asp?m. with low maintenance -..are essential ingredients to fluid-power systems. and connectors -.heat exchangers. Pipe and tubing are used when rigid lines are preferred. http://www. Short pressure lines -. please enter your login 20 fps. and dryers -. and determining how they will all interact. news of interest. and the means of moving it from one location to another. and it must be strong enough to withstand internal transmit power efficiently and lubricate moving parts. In addition to fluids. means less than optimum performance. Inlet or suction lines . certain requirements must be met. the various lines that transmit fluid -.. Normally. good design practice dictates that fluid velocities should not exceed: q q q Pressure lines is often taken for granted.machinedesign. and previous searches! To log in. and can even destroy a system. The line must be large enough to carry the flow required. Likewise. E-mail: Password: Remember My Password Pipe and tubing Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you. But using the wrong (1 of 4) [06/04/02 8:37:20] . Constructing a hydraulic or pneumatic system involves the design or selection of numerous components.and the components that keep the fluid in good working order -. hose. or not maintaining it properly. No matter which conductor is used. lubricators. jam valves.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering A key element in fluid systems is the means of transmitting power from one location to another. filters. A point that is often overlooked is that the fluid. and ruin instrumentation.2 to 5 fps.tubing. are critical in any fluid-power system. Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites. dirty air can foul compressors.10 to 15 fps. Line size can be determined from the amount of fluid that must be carried and the maximum velocities at which the fluid may travel.

Outside pipe diameter conforms to the corresponding series for pipe threads. apply this basic equation:T=pdM/2S. Whereas pipe is relatively rigid and unbendable. and schedule 160 (somewhat lighter than the former double extra heavy). Tubing selection: Tubing is stronger and neater than pipe. nearly equal to the former "standard" designation. Wall thickness tolerance for all commercial quality pipe is +12%. and extra stress are not expected. and has a wider variety of fittings. vibration. Disassembly is improbable or very infrequent. Today. Pipe selection: Pipe generally costs less than tubing. The pipe schedules most commonly used for hydraulic systems are schedule 40.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering To determine the required wall thickness of pipe and tubing.. or where the line is long and straight. the outside diameter of each nominal size remains constant regardless of wall thickness. where p = pressure. Experts recommend that the following safety factors be used for noncritical applications: q q q 6 for systems in which hydraulic shock. schedule 80 (formerly extra heavy). tubing is easily bent into forms required for a system. and is normally used where: q q q The pipe can be connected directly to pipethreaded connections on system components.machinedesign. and S = material tensile strength. Four common materials are normally used for tubing. 10 for systems where considerable pressure shock or mechanical abuse is expected. in..asp?m. Steel tubing is the only type permitted by JIC standards http://www. d = outside diameter. (2 of 4) [06/04/02 8:37:20] .com/articleloader. Therefore.. M = safety factor. 8 for average system conditions. psi. the range of wall thicknesses available provides an equivalent range of inside diameters. Large volumes of fluid must be handled. Inside and outside diameters in nominal pipe sizes are listed in any standard reference source.

PTFE tubing can be used to 400°F and 1. and PTFE. Nylon tubing is used for pneumatic lines and lowpressure hydraulic lines to 250 psi. Plastic tubing is made from four basic materials: PVC. stationary. Use the safety factor of 4 for aircraft and missiles and for industrial. Polyethylene tubing is used for liquids and gas lines at temperatures from -60 to 160°F.asp? (3 of 4) [06/04/02 8:37:20] . Nylon has good impact and abrasion resistance but some nylons can be damaged by moisture. For example.000 psi in certain sizes. Copper tubing is restricted by JIC standards to lowpressure stationary applications and air circuits because it acts as an oil-oxidation catalyst and tends to work harden when flared.. nylon. noncritical applications with minimal shock and abuse. Hose sizes are similarly designated.12 tubing has a 12/16in.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering without restrictions. It can be used with compression tube fittings designed for plastic tubing and has excellent abrasion resistance. PVC can be used for pneumatic lines at pressures to 125 psi with continuous temperatures to 100°F. It is useful at temperatures from -60 to 200°F. In addition. Wall thicknesses of metal tubing can be calculated from the equation given earlier. but loses flexibility below 30°F. OD. polyethylene. except that the dash number refers to ID rather than OD.. copper tubing has poor resistance to vibration. Both seamless and electric-welded tubing meet requirements. Tubing sizes are designated by a dash system in which the number given is the numerator of a fraction listed in 16ths of an inch. Aluminum tubing of seamless quality has good bending and flaring properties and is approved by JIC for lowpressure tasks.machinedesign. 6 for average industrial applications with normal vibrations http://www. Compression fittings are acceptable. -.

.com/articleloader. 8 for JIC standard applications and for systems exposed to severe hydraulic and mechanical shock and (4 of 4) [06/04/02 8:37:20] . VITON® is a registered trademark of DuPont Dow Elastomers http://www.asp?m..Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering and impulse shock.

it is often taken for granted.machinedesign. Temperature and pressure decide which type of tube fitting is needed.asp?m. are critical in any fluid-power system. and previous searches! To log transmit power efficiently and lubricate moving parts. The fittings used on hydraulic tubing for high-pressure applications are categorized as either permanent or separable. news of interest. Most separable fittings are threaded. E-mail: Password: Remember My Password Tube fittings Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you. and the means of moving it from one location to another.. As the fitting pieces are drawn up tight. metal fittings are used with metal tubes.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering A key element in fluid systems is the means of transmitting power from one location to another. A point that is often overlooked is that the fluid. Likewise. and ruin instrumentation. hose.. Threaded flare fittings press the flared end of the tubing against the mating surface of the plastic fittings for low. please enter your login information. a conical seal is formed. jam valves. Typically. Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites. dirty air can foul compressors. the various lines that transmit fluid -.heat exchangers. or not maintaining it properly. Metal fittings are used for high temperature and pressures. Constructing a hydraulic or pneumatic system involves the design or selection of numerous components. Two flare configurations are standard with the http://www. and determining how they will all interact.tubing. filters. Because the functions of hydraulic fluid are rather basic -. But using the wrong fluid.and the components that keep the fluid in good working order -. lubricators. and connectors (1 of 4) [06/04/02 8:39:39] . but plastic fittings are sometimes used with metal tubes to reduce galvanic corrosion. and dryers -. means less than optimum performance. with low maintenance -. and can even destroy a system.are essential ingredients to fluid-power systems. In addition to fluids.

Threaded self-flaring fittings do not require a special flaring operation. No twisting action is transmitted to the flare and.asp?m. The 45° fittings are commonly made of brass. and marine systems. The 45° flare is used extensively in nonhydraulic automotive.machinedesign. and stainless steel. O-ring face-seal fittings compress an O-ring against a flat face. Application of tightening torque tends to twist the tubing. The 60° cone fittings seal by metal-to-metal contact. ensuring proper installation. providing a positive. Inverted flare fittings have a 42° flare on the inside of the fitting body. O-ring materials must be compatible with the sealed fluid. And once hand tight. During nut tightening. steel.. a special wedgeshaped sleeve presses against the tubing end to create http://www.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). they require less rotation to seal A three-piece fitting (nut and sleeve) creates tightening force with a short nut which is transmitted by a sleeve to the flared tube. Inverted flare fittings are used primarily in automotive applications. The long-necked nut requires its full length of tubing before a bend can start. refrigerant. The fittings exhibit good sealing reliability. making them suitable for plumbing in tight spaces. Several types of flare fittings are available. The 37° flare (formerly known as the JIC flare) is extensively used in hydraulic applications. but are highly torque sensitive in small sizes. with a tapered cone seating onto the tube (or nose in the hose swivel) in the most widely used version. Two-piece fittings place pressure against the flare with a longnecked nut that aligns and supports the tubing. because the nut is short. but 37° fittings are commercially available in (2 of 4) [06/04/02 8:39:39] . tubing bends can be placed closer to the fitting. leak-free seal. They provide near-instantaneous torque rise when the connection is tight.. Friction between nut and flare may produce unequal distribution of the compression force on the flare.

The resulting spring-action mechanical joint offers a leakproof seal and resistance to vibration. and S for highpressure. LL for low-pressure.. Metric threads are specified by DIN 2353 (the SAE J514 version of the 24° cone has UN and UNF threads). Application of this fitting is limited to thinwalled soft tubing. Permanent fittings may be welded. The 24° cone flareless fitting is second only to the 37° flared fitting in popularity.. usually copper. and is the most widely used fitting in Europe. Threaded flareless fittings do not require a flaring operation and are usually used with thick-wall (3 of 4) [06/04/02 8:39:39] . These fittings were developed by http://www. where high torque is not required to produce a flare. These fittings offer excellent sealing reliability. the design incorporates a 24° tapered throat on the fitting body. This joint is mechanically strong and vibration resistant. wherein the internal design configuration is machined in the boss part.asp?m. Since sealing results from nondestructive surface contact between sleeve and tubing. brazed. The ferrule-fitting principle is also used in an inverted flareless arrangement. longitudinal defects can affect the seal. Three different series are offered.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering a flare. and a nut that drives a ferrule into the tube as it is tightened. or adhesively bonded. L for high-pressure.machinedesign. Compression fittings seal when both ends of the sleeve are compressed during assembly and deflect into the tubing diameter to form two parallel grooves. Ferrule type flareless fittings seal by forcing the ferrule or sleeve cutting edge into the tubing wall to create an interference seal. swaged. with good reusability. but there is a welded option for L and S-series fittings that seal with an O-ring as well. and low-pressure vibration-free systems. Sealing is by metal-to-metal The tubing is inserted directly into the boss and connected with a male threaded nut which eliminates one seal and permits closer bends. The fitting works best on thin-walled tubing. severe-service applications. Sometimes called an EO style fitting.

and locking devices. and steel (4 of 4) [06/04/02 8:39:39] . Plastic fittings have a pullout resistance ranging from 20 to 300 lb. stainless-steel. depending on size. plastic fittings are highly competitive with steel. tubing material. Plastic grippers are used only with plastic tubes. But they cost less than metal. they have inherently low resistance to flow. deaden noise. so flow passages tend to remain free of obstructions.machinedesign. and can resist pullout forces over 300 lb. VITON® is a registered trademark of DuPont Dow Elastomers http://www. Obviously. failure pressures range from 250 to 3. Plastic or metal grippers are used to increase pullout resistance. they cannot be reused. Though developed for aerospace. With Metal grippers are used with metal tubes. stop galvanic corrosion.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering the aerospace industry. many of these fittings are now used in industry.000 psi. Plastic fittings cannot tolerate extreme heat or high pressures. some fittings have been tested at much higher pressures without failure. With polyethylene tubing. Although plastic fittings are usually used at pressures of 500 psi or less.. copper. and light weight are prime factors. and are so strong that the tubing tears before it pulls out of the fitting. low installation cost. plastic resists scale buildup and does not rust. where high reliability. Because plastic fittings are molded with smooth internal surfaces. and withstand assault by a wide range of corrosive fluids. At pressures below 500 psi and temperatures below 250°F.asp?m. the tubing always fails before the fitting.. Furthermore. or brass fittings. plastic fittings are well suited to lowtemperature fluid-transfer applications. Generally.

System pressure.machinedesign. A point that is often overlooked is that the fluid. filters. fluid. and environmental conditions form important factors in the use of hydraulic hose. and connectors -. means less than optimum performance. In addition to fluids. news of interest. E-mail: Password: Remember My Password Hydraulic hose Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you. lubricators. the various lines that transmit fluid -. are critical in any fluid-power system.d&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp1%2Fhose%2Ehtml (1 of 2) [06/04/02 8:42:01] . But using the wrong fluid. and dryers -.are essential ingredients to fluid-power systems. fluid velocity. or not maintaining it properly. Hose is widely used in applications where lines must flex and bend. Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites. Proof pressures are 50% of burst pressure. The SAE recommends that the operating pressure be no more than 25% of minimum burst pressure. Because the functions of hydraulic fluid are rather basic -. dirty air can foul compressors. and it also allows the hose to accept some surge pressures. please enter your login information. This is an acceptable safety margin for industrial use. pressure pulses. Size: Required hose size depends on volume and http://www. and the means of moving it from one location to another.and the components that keep the fluid in good working order -. transmit power efficiently and lubricate moving is often taken for granted. and can even destroy a system. Constructing a hydraulic or pneumatic system involves the design or selection of numerous components. jam valves.tubing.. and determining how they will all interact. temperature.heat exchangers. Likewise. with low maintenance -.. Pressure: Hoses are impulse tested from 100 to 133% of rated pressure. to allow for transient pressures. and ruin instrumentation.asp?.com/articleloader. and previous searches! To log in.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering A key element in fluid systems is the means of transmitting power from one location to another.

can accommodate most operating conditions. commonly used for hydraulic applications.. The reinforcement may be braided. normal braided reinforced hoses tend to fail at the wire crossover points in the weave. Sizes are designed in 16ths of an inch by using a "dash" equivalent to the numerator of the fraction. Wire-braid reinforcement. The advantage of spiral wire reinforcement is that it eliminates touchy crossover points permitting up to 97% of theoretical total coverage. flow is turbulent and energy is lost. Spiral wire-wound hoses are often used for applications with high-frequency surges in high-pressure systems.machinedesign. -40 to 200°F -. provides good service life at moderate cost. Sizes available for fluid-power applications range from 3/16 to 3-in.for example. As pressure surges. or combinations.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering velocity of fluid flow. These points cause bending and shear in wires that are already highly stressed. others are rated for temperatures down to -65°F. VITON® is a registered trademark of DuPont Dow Elastomers http://www. The wire is usually braided with 2 plaits over 2. or both. ID. Temperature: Hydraulic or pneumatic hoses must be able to tolerate both the external ambient and the internal fluid temperatures. size.d&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp1%2Fhose%2Ehtml (2 of 2) [06/04/02 8:42:01] .asp?. Thus. A hose with a broad recommended operating range -.. a metal wire. Some hose elastomers permit operation at rated pressure and temperatures up to 300° spiral wound. If fluid velocity is too high. Reinforcement type: The reinforcement may be a natural or synthetic yarn or fiber. "--10" is 10/16 or 5/8-in. These dash sizes are marked on the hose. which is economical and reliable with good dimensional stability.

to transmit power efficiently and lubricate moving parts.and the components that keep the fluid in good working order -.. are squeezed onto the hose at assembly. Thus.are essential ingredients to fluid-power systems. they can save money.asp?m.machinedesign.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering A key element in fluid systems is the means of transmitting power from one location to another. and determining how they will all interact. such as crimped or swaged fittings. and must be discarded when the hose assembly fails. A point that is often overlooked is that the fluid. Constructing a hydraulic or pneumatic system involves the design or selection of numerous components. and made of the right material. using the right attachment method. In addition to fluids. As the name is often taken for granted. They can be removed from a failed hose and installed on a new one. and can even destroy a system.tubing. jam valves.heat exchangers. or not maintaining it properly. with low maintenance -. and time as well. and connectors -. The best systems require the right type of fitting. Likewise. Permanent fittings. http://www. and dryers -. E-mail: Password: Remember My Password Hose fittings Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you. However. Wrong fittings can render even the best hose useless. and ruin instrumentation. and previous searches! To log in. are critical in any fluid-power system. filters. But using the wrong fluid. please enter your login information. Fittings types: Most fittings can be categorized as either reusable or permanently attached. and the means of moving it from one location to another. Because the functions of hydraulic fluid are rather basic -. the various lines that transmit fluid -. dirty air can foul compressors. Reusable fittings are screwed onto a hose or are bolted together. Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites. hose. these are only for onetime use.file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp1%2Ffitting%2Ehtml (1 of 3) [06/04/02 8:44:49] .. news of Fittings and hoses can be assembled in-house or purchased as assemblies from manufacturers. means less than optimum performance. lubricators.

or Monel can be used for systems carrying corrosive fluids or systems used in corrosive environment. straight thread. With these fittings. Most common connections are pipe thread.500 psi. Pipe threads have limited use on highpressure systems. the fitting is attached by squeezing the socket to compress the hose between the inner nipple and the radially squeezed socket. material selection is usually based on compatibility with the fluid and the environment. Field-assembled units are typically not skived. These fittings tolerate working pressure to 12. Connections: Hose fittings terminate in a wide variety of connections that can be used to mate with the components in the system.. Swaged fittings are assembled by drawing a fitting through a tapered die to reduce the outside diameter. Medium-pressure screw-assembled fittings are commonly used for SAE 100R5 series hose plus some air and refrigerant hoses. otherwise. instead. O-ring seal.000 psi. all of the systems work for their appointed tasks. Fitting suppliers can provide a detailed list of materials available and the fluids that they can handle.file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp1%2Ffitting%2Ehtml (2 of 3) [06/04/02 8:44:49] . Field-assembled permanently attached fittings are similar to the swaged or crimped hoses. but are assembled on special portable crimping or swaging SAE 100R hoses with thin covers are used. Stainless steel.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering these fittings generally cost less than reusable fittings. and require less time to make a hose assembly. Such fittings are suitable for hydraulic and air applications to 5. no special preparation of the hose (other than lubrication) is required before assembly. They can handle pressures to 5. Materials: Fittings are available in a wide variety of materials.asp?m. brass.machinedesign. High-pressure permanently attached fittings are usually factory assembled on to a standard hose that has been stripped to the bare metal ("skived"). and 37° joints.. Carbonsteel fittings are most widely used for both high and lowpressure hydraulic systems. http://www. If crimped.750 psi. split-flange.

machinedesign. VITON® is a registered trademark of DuPont Dow Elastomers http://www.asp?m. They are suitable for both air and hydraulic applications..file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp1%2Ffitting%2Ehtml (3 of 3) [06/04/02 8:44:49] . as well as a variety of other fluids. at working pressures to 4..Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Bolt-on and segmented reusable fittings are typically used on large hoses.000

But using the wrong fluid. Likewise. with low maintenance -. Constructing a hydraulic or pneumatic system involves the design or selection of numerous components. They can typically handle 3. or not maintaining it properly. diameter. and can even destroy a system. In addition to fluids. Some connectors cannot accept pressures this For these applications..d&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp1%2Fquick%2Ehtml (1 of 4) [06/04/02 8:46:12] . Because the functions of hydraulic fluid are rather basic -. and skill required to make and break fluid connections. the various lines that transmit fluid -.heat is often taken for granted. and connectors -. and ruin instrumentation. Many fluid systems require that hose be disconnected without excessive fluid loss. a trade-off is necessary to obtain other important operating characteristics.machinedesign. please enter your login information. Self-sealing couplers can be used in any part of a system where the pressure-drop rating on the coupler is permissible. Quick-action couplers are available for hoses from 1/8 to 10 in.000-psi pressures. Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites.tubing. They are suitable for vacuums down to 10³ torr. and dryers -. dirty air can foul compressors.. means less than optimum performance. On pump supply lines. quick-action couplers are used. A point that is often overlooked is that the fluid.asp?m. news of interest. E-mail: Password: Remember My Password Quick-action couplers Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you. They are also used to reduce the time. jam valves. a size should be selected http://www. lubricators.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering A key element in fluid systems is the means of transmitting power from one location to another. and the means of moving it from one location to another. filters. are critical in any fluid-power system. and determining how they will all interact. transmit power efficiently and lubricate moving parts.are essential ingredients to fluid-power systems.and the components that keep the fluid in good working order -. and previous searches! To log in. hose.

many different plastics. and as the exit connectors for small portable pumps that spill only a small amount of fluid. In hydraulic circuits they are usually used where lines can be exhausted before disconnection. brass. Seals are available in Buna N. joined usually by a springloaded ball-bearing sleeve lock. plus many proprietary compounds. They typically cost about 1. and opens when they are connected. Plain connectors are the simplest and least expensive quick-action coupler. titanium. silicone. VITON®. PTFE fluorocarbon. stainless steel. Either half may contain a leakproof shutoff valve that closes automatically when the halves are and natural rubber..5 times as much as comparably sized and rated plain connectors. http://www. aluminum.. Single-poppet connectors have one plain side and one side automatically closed by a poppet valve. They are typically found on farm equipment. Single-poppet connectors are often used in pneumatic circuits. where frequent hydraulic connections are required but spillage is unimportant. and aircraft. Selection of the right materials is simplified by the compatibility charts furnished by most coupler manufacturers. Each coupler consists of two halves. and proprietary metals that are inert to most chemicals. The main advantage of the double-poppet connector is that it automatically shuts off flow from both sides of the circuit. They consist simply of a male nipple and a female coupler. The halves are fitted with a locking device for connecting to each other.machinedesign. bronzes.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering that will not produce about 1.d&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp1%2Fquick%2Ehtml (2 of 4) [06/04/02 8:46:12] . butyl. Many types of couplers are available but all have a few factors in common. Double-poppet connectors are the most common type for hydraulic applications.asp?m. Neoprene. off-road vehicles. where the poppet closes off the air supply and there is no need to block flow from the actuators. Typical applications are in laboratory equipment and machine tools. A wide variety of seals and materials are available for these couplers: carbon steel.5-psi pressure drop at required flow.

even for connectors as large as 1 in. This feature eliminates the need to drain lines before disconnection.5 times as much as plain connectors. flush seals leave little space for dirt to collect. Some users report difficulty in sealing when the couplers are disconnected.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering allowing only a small volume trapped between the valves to spill when the coupler is disconnected. diameter.d&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp1%2Fquick%2Ehtml (3 of 4) [06/04/02 8:46:12] .. these connectors require the highest forces for connection under pressure. In addition. No fluid is lost upon disconnection. This type of coupler causes only a slight pressure drop but is responsible for significant air inclusion on connection and fluid loss on disconnection. sliding-seal connectors are almost always used for hazardous or toxic fluids and for other applications where minimum spillage is important. Sleeve and poppet couplers have a self-sealing poppet in one half and a tubular valve-and-sleeve arrangement in the other.machinedesign. or to provide a means to capture large volumes of spilled oil. Sliding-seal connectors are generally the Cadillacs of the line. When the coupler halves are disconnected. A passageway through the ball is rotated to permit flow. they are mechanically more complex than plain or single-poppet connectors. However. so spillage is typically less than 0.. Stapled coupler is held together with a barbed staple http://www. There is no space for trapped air. the seals are flush with the ends of the coupler and nipple. and cost about 3. In addition.asp?m. has the highest pressure loss of any and are easily wiped clean. and usually has the lowest pressure rating for a given size. a double-poppet connector costs about twice as much as a comparable plain connector. Air trapped between the balls enters the fluid system. and have more potential leakage paths. poppet and sleeve are fully closed before the external seal is closed. so freedom from fluid loss and air inclusion is the most important advantage of this type of coupler. When they are opened. As a result. However. Double rotating ball couplers use a ball in each coupler half.12 cc -. no air is entrained by the fluid upon connection.

machinedesign. and a mating inner half with grooves.asp?m. VITON® is a registered trademark of DuPont Dow Elastomers http://www..Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering that eliminates the need for wrenches and other assembly tools.d&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp1%2Fquick%2Ehtml (4 of 4) [06/04/02 8:46:12] . Hoses are connected by pushing the coupler halves together and installing the staple so that it passes through the complete assembly. Barbs at the end of the staple lock the coupler. The coupler can be disconnected by squeezing the staple to disengage the barbs. The coupler consists of an outer half with openings that accept the

with low maintenance -. But using the wrong fluid. As a result. so does the likelihood of leaky fittings and of tortuous flow paths that stretch out response time. As the number of connections in hydraulic systems increases. and dryers -. and can even destroy a system.are essential ingredients to fluid-power A point that is often overlooked is that the fluid. Likewise. Constructing a hydraulic or pneumatic system involves the design or selection of numerous components.and the components that keep the fluid in good working order -. slashing assembly time and reducing the chance of leakage. dirty air can foul compressors. means less than optimum performance. hydraulic manifolds are finding greater use in both mobile and industrial is often taken for granted. hose. or not maintaining it properly.asp?.to transmit power efficiently and lubricate moving parts. and the means of moving it from one location to another. jam valves.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering A key element in fluid systems is the means of transmitting power from one location to another..tubing. Manifolding drastically reduces the number of external connections required. and determining how they will all interact. and ruin instrumentation. But there are other.because flow http://www. filters. Actuator response time can be reduced -sometimes as much as 50% -. please enter your login information. and previous searches! To log in.. news of interest. lubricators. almost equally important advantages: q q Space requirements are reduced because many valves are combined in a single package. and connectors -. E-mail: Password: Remember My Password Manifolds Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you. Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites. the various lines that transmit fluid -.machinedesign. In addition to fluids. are critical in any fluid-power system. Because the functions of hydraulic fluid are rather basic -.heat exchangers.e=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp1%2Fmanifolds%2Ehtml (1 of 4) [06/04/02 8:48:20] .

In some systems.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering q q paths are shortened and straightened. but the cost must be balanced against reduced system assembly costs. hose.machinedesign.. For simple manifolds of three to five valves.asp?. The higher http://www.e=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp1%2Fmanifolds%2Ehtml (2 of 4) [06/04/02 8:48:20] . which combine many valves and flow paths in one manifold block. Maintenance costs are reduced because valves can be replaced as units. few manifolds are so costly that the break-even point is more than 1. usually calling for the services of outside experts. Whereas a simple list specifying fittings. are sensitive to large contaminant particles such as metal chips. Manifold design and testing are costly. but may take considerably longer for special and hose for a system can usually be generated in-house within a day. Fabrication of a prototype may take as little as one week if only standard components are used. the design of a manifold block is considerably more complex. pieces of rag.000 units. System cost can be reduced because of decreased requirements for tube. a coarse screen is used at the manifold inlet to filter out these contaminants. With these advantages come some limitations. And the vital step of prototype testing adds another few weeks. but in most cases the pump filter provides adequate protection. Probably the most important is that more design time and testing time are required. Manifold manufacturers typically require one to three weeks to generate a technical proposal. and because of decreased assembly time. they tend to produce fluid temperatures somewhat higher than those encountered in conventionally plumbed systems. tubing. the breakeven point may be as few as 20 units. In systems without a pump filter. a manifold filter rated at 20 to 25 µm absolute is recommended. Because manifolds and valve packages enclose flow paths and place valves close to each other. and sealing tape.. Other factors may limit manifold use in some systems: q q Unit-block manifolds. and fittings.

design effort is minimal." These packages consist essentially of valves that bolt directly to each other. One set of lines connects all valves in the package. Because all components are standard units. In addition to directional-control valves. fault location is typically more difficult with manifolds than with valve packages or conventional systems. flow regulators. Although valve replacement is easy in both unitblock manifolds and valve packages. The valve packages are typically furnished without extra assembly charges..Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering q temperature may affect seal and gasket selection. check valves.machinedesign. components such as flow dividers. If half or more of the answers are " q q q q q q q Are valve fittings placed in inaccessible locations? Is fluid leakage likely to pose a hazard to personnel or the environment? Is space at a premium? Is actuator response time significant? Is easy valve maintenance important to the system user. without intermediate plumbing. lock valves.. The questions that follow can serve as a quick guide for evaluating the potential benefits of manifolding valves. One way to retain many of the benefits of manifolding while avoiding much of the design time and cost associated with unit-block manifolds is to use valve packages. These attachments can be added to a bank of directional-control valves to form packages tailored to specific applications. or "modular manifolds. and relief valves are available in modular form. and may require a larger oil cooler. Are locking or crossover valves needed in association with directional-control valves? Is a long production run expected? http://www. The difficulty arises because flow passages in manifolds are not easily blocked off to isolate different portions of the circuit.asp?." chances are good that the use of manifolds will prove cost effective.e=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp1%2Fmanifolds%2Ehtml (3 of 4) [06/04/02 8:48:20] .

com/articleloader...e=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp1%2Fmanifolds%2Ehtml (4 of 4) [06/04/02 8:48:20] .asp?.machinedesign.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering VITON® is a registered trademark of DuPont Dow Elastomers http://www.

. and can even destroy a system. and dryers -. a reservoir holds the fluid in a convenient spot for the pump inlet. First. or not maintaining it properly. A point that is often overlooked is that the fluid.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering A key element in fluid systems is the means of transmitting power from one location to another.heat exchangers. and connectors -.are essential ingredients to fluid-power systems. and the means of moving it from one location to another. Likewise. in which the turbulent fluid returning from the hydraulic system is allowed to settle and deaerate. news of interest. From these complex and occasionally conflicting requirements have grown a body of folklore about reservoirs.=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp1%2Freservoirs%2Ehtml (1 of 4) [06/04/02 8:52:40] . Elegant rules of thumb proclaim that the reservoir should be at least three to five times the size of http://www. And to complete the complex list. jam valves. with low maintenance -.tubing. But using the wrong fluid. most reservoirs are called upon to perform a fluid-conditioning role. and ruin instrumentation. Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites. thus cooling the heated fluid.machinedesign. In addition. means less than optimum performance. filters.asp?. hose. are critical in any fluid-power In addition to fluids. Constructing a hydraulic or pneumatic system involves the design or selection of numerous components. E-mail: Password: Remember My Password Reservoirs Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you. lubricators. many users expect a reservoir to exchange heat with the outside transmit power efficiently and lubricate moving parts. and previous searches! To log in. dirty air can foul is often taken for granted.and the components that keep the fluid in good working order -.. please enter your login information. and determining how they will all interact. Many functions in hydraulic systems are provided by reservoirs. It supplies extra fluid to the circulating system in the event of leakage or cylinder extension. the various lines that transmit fluid -. Because the functions of hydraulic fluid are rather basic -.

the reservoir can be much smaller. Integral reservoirs offer maximum performance in minimum space and usually provide an excellent cosmetic appearance. a 50-gallon reservoir for the example system. the reservoirs can be categorized as integral. dual purpose. thus eliminating the need for extra additional space. most applications require a standard industrial reservoir that performs the standard gamut of tasks. http://www. the reservoir can be as small as one time the per-minute flow They must be designed carefully to surmount possible operating problems such as localized heating and poor accessibility. For example. If a heat exchanger is not available.asp?. most of these intricate rules are based on the thought that the reservoir must dissipate much of the system heat. space within a machine base can often be made fluid tight at little extra cost.or.=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp1%2Freservoirs%2Ehtml (2 of 4) [06/04/02 8:52:40] . Integral reservoirs are those built into the structural members of the hydraulic system or machine.. certain types of closed hydraulic systems require almost no reservoir at all. a tractor-transmission case is also used as the reservoir for the tractor hydraulic system. Accessibility for cleaning of the reservoir and servicing intake filters may be difficult or even impossible.machinedesign. And. In general.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering the per-minute flow. or tubular structural members in a machine can be used as reservoirs. Actually. For example. If a heat exchanger is used. accordingly. For example. Primary benefit is the space saved. Dual-purpose reservoirs are those in which a common reservoir is used for hydraulic fluid and lubricating fluid. the rules are generally accurate. perhaps as little as one-half to one-third the flow. With astute design of internal baffles and settling areas.. using instead an external makeup pump to put more fluid into the system as required. or separate. of course. localized heating of a machine base by high-temperature hydraulic fluid can cause thermal distortions that produce machine inaccuracies. Rules of thumb aside. a 50-gpm hydraulic system is thought to need at least a 150-gallon reservoir.

L-shaped packages have a tall. however. the traditional rules of thumb for determining reservoir size are inadequate. The drive motor extends above the tank top. space required tends to offset the saving. The only accurate method is to determine the heat balance of the hydraulic system. The fluid must meet the requirements of both the hydraulic system and the transmission gears. the reservoir fluid provides a positive feed to the pump. In They may be rectangular (with pump and motor mounted on the top). With a rectangular system. narrow rectangular tank with pump and motor mounted beside the tank on a common base. The inlet filter is readily accessible. vertical. The motor pump cover and any attached controls must be removed as a unit for servicing the reservoir. As mentioned earlier. either below or above the fluid level. the pump inlet line is short and can be opened without difficulty for servicing. or L-shaped. calculate the amount of heat that will http://www. If a separate heat exchanger must be added. and the pump is supported on the underside of the top. In some high-performance systems. in an overhead configuration. again provides positive inlet pressure for the pump and permits easy tank access for servicing.. A rectangular tank placed above the pump and motor. and a shutoff valve must be included to permit servicing the pump without draining the reservoir..Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Offsetting this are several limitations. A vertically mounted motor and pump can be combined to reduce space requirements. However.=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp1%2Freservoirs%2Ehtml (3 of 4) [06/04/02 8:52:40] . temperature control of the fluid may be difficult because there are two sources of heat for the reduced total amount of fluid. access for pump service is limited. these requirements may be almost mutually exclusive. maximum size of the system is limited. a shutoff valve must be included to permit servicing the pump without draining the tank. If the line enters below the fluid level. The pump suction line enters the tank through the side.machinedesign. Although this arrangement protects the pump and keeps lift requirements to a minimum.asp?. Separate reservoirs are most commonly used for industrial jobs.

experts recommend that extra features be included.asp?. Such a calculation will quickly reveal the necessity for a heat exchanger.. then determine the amount of space available and the amount of heat that can be dissipated in that amount of reservoir space. if it Design: The Basics of Design Engineering be generated in it through lost work.machinedesign. VITON® is a registered trademark of DuPont Dow Elastomers http://www. After a decision is made on a heat exchanger. Whatever the size and type of reservoir used. the reservoir size can be determined..=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp1%2Freservoirs%2Ehtml (4 of 4) [06/04/02 8:52:40] .

" Many pump manufacturers object to this filter location.&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp2%2Ffilter%2Ehtml (1 of 7) [06/04/02 8:54:55] . ISO 4406: ISO 4406 is a hydraulic cleanliness rating system based on the number of particles larger than 5 and 15 µm in a 1-ml fluid sample. In most industrial pneumatics. claiming that it "starves" the pump inlet.. ISO 4406 is an internationally recognized standard for To log in. and previous searches! The typical hydraulic system is cleaned by a single filter in the circuit. such as on the return line.. in a pressure line. Often this filter is located on the inlet line in front of the pump. so the filter may be located at other points in the circuit. news of interest. or on a bypass line. Filters are rated on the ability to retain contaminants of certain size levels. it is occasionally called a "suction filter" or "suction strainer. Often the filters are found in conjunction with regulators and sometimes lubricators comprising a filterregulator-lubricator (frl) for the system. http://www. E-mail: Password: Remember My Password Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you. a 1-ml sample containing 140 5-µm particles (ISO 4406 range number = 14) and 28 15-µm particles (ISO 4406 range number = 12) has an ISO 4406 cleanliness rating of 14/12. please enter your login information.asp?m. to protect the pump and downstream much like light or electricity. A standardized chart is then referenced to convert the particle counts into the ISO 4406 rating format.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Hydraulic and Pneumatic Filters Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites. Filtration for pneumatic systems is handled quite differently.sometimes more than one filter per system. compressed air is supplied from a single compressor to a large number of operating systems. Individual filters are used on the separate systems -. For example.machinedesign. so used. as a plant resource.

Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering expressing the level of particulate contamination in hydraulic fluid. and then a measured quantity of the mixture is passed through the test filter and collected in a container.. According to Pall Industrial Hydraulics Corp. To differentiate between usable fluids with a clean rating and silt-loaded fluids with the same rating. The diameter of the particle. To determine absolute rating. fluid samples with a high silt content (0 to 3 µm) can be reported as clean according to ISO 4406. Rather than invent a new rating system.&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp2%2Ffilter%2Ehtml (2 of 7) [06/04/02 8:54:55] .45 µm. and for specifying required cleanliness levels for hydraulic components and systems. thoroughly agitated. Nominal rating: Nominal filtration rating is an arbitrary value determined by the filter The membrane filter is then examined under high magnification to determine the diameter of the largest particle captured. is the absolute filtration rating of the tested filter element. Absolute rating: Absolute filtration rating specifies the diameter of the largest hard.machinedesign. A specific amount of artificial contaminant is mixed with the clean test fluid.. spherical particle that passes through a filter under controlled conditions.0004 g of contamination per 100 ml.asp?m. Pall cleanliness code: Some users and manufacturers of hydraulic systems have complained about a potential problem with interpreting portions of ISO 4406. Pall suggests to simply expand ISO 4406 to include a third range number that considers the contamination level of particles larger than 2 µm. The widely accepted system provides a consistent and meaningful vehicle for dialog between manufacturers and users. the filter is installed in a test system. expressed in microns. The rating system refers more to the types and sizes of holes in the http://www. Pall has proposed a cleanliness code with a three-number format.. The fluid is then passed through a very fine membrane filter with a typical pore size of 0. The rating is also an indication of the largest opening through a filter. Test fluid is first circulated through a cleanup filter until fluid sampling indicates no more than 0.

they do not present a clear indication of the largest-size particle that can pass through a filter. contaminant ingestion rate. reservoir contaminant level. But this approach increases both initial and maintenance costs. In fact.. First.&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp2%2Ffilter%2Ehtml (3 of 7) [06/04/02 8:54:55] . Nominal filter ratings have many limitations. Second. amount. or bypass line could require different filter specifications because system parameters such as pump flow rate. Another important factor controlling system reliability is filter location. ß ratio could be specified to maintain contaminant levels far below those actually required. it is a nonstandard system that lacks consistency from one manufacturer to another. Due to these factors. Since each component has a different resistance to contamination. As can be expected. it can be considered as the contaminant ingestion point for the circuit. All these parameters combine to control the required filter ß ratio..Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering filter medium than actual filter performance. perhaps the most common filter-related application error is selecting an element based on nominal rating. A suction-line filter removes contaminants before they enter the pump. and flow rate can change with filter location. To ensure maximum reliability. Placement of the filter in the suction. The life of a hydraulic or pneumatic component depends on the type.machinedesign. filter rating and size must be carefully matched to system needs to produce the most economical system. Since the reservoir collects all generated and ingested contaminants. A pressure-line filter removes contaminant either http://www. reservoir size. nominal filtration ratings can lead to problems in the field. the filtration level must be matched to the system's most sensitive therefore. nominal ratings have lost favor to the more sophisticated Beta filtration rating system. and size of contaminant particles passing through it. return. This typically leads to contaminated systems and accelerated component failure. pressure.

these installations may require larger. The reasons for this are simple: Because pneumatic devices operate at lower pressures than hydraulic components. In such a circuit. thus. air does not entrain and carry along particles at the same density as hydraulic fluid. the ingestion point can be either between the work components and filter or at the reservoir. Accordingly. A bypass circuit allows a large portion of the total pump flow to bypass the filter. Also. Filter cost generally increases with increasing size and increasing ß ratio. Similarly. A typical coalescing filter passes through four levels of filter media. The ingestion point is either between the pump and filter or at the reservoir. but can still provide maximum component life. In systems with http://www.machinedesign. a perforated shroud of steel. less-costly filter. Return-line and bypass filters. but the process is not quite as involved. a special filter which may be fiberglass.asp?m. In the bypass circuit. Pneumatic filters also require careful selection. more-expensive filters. The situation is much more critical if the air is to be used with fluid logic components that are sensitive to the presence of oil aerosols. with size having more effect.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering between the pump and the other components or between any of the components. the filter handles only the amount of flow necessary to maintain the contamination level required by the system components.01 µm or larger.&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp2%2Ffilter%2Ehtml (4 of 7) [06/04/02 8:54:55] .. operate at lower pressure and. on the other hand. the ingestion point can be after the work components but before the bypass line or at the with a return-line filter. Such a filter is claimed to coalesce over 99% of all oil and water aerosols. For these jobs.. This lower flow specification allows the use of a smaller. the opportunity for abrasive and silt-induced wear is considerably reduced. in addition to removing solid particles of 0. tolerances in them are typically much larger. including a foamlike core. and a foam cover. are usually less expensive. Since suction and pressure-line filters must handle higherpressure flows. so the task of filtering a pneumatic system is reduced. most experts recommend various types of coalescing filters.

its collapse pressure should be considerably higher than the pressure flow through the filter bypass valve at peak surge. metal bowls may include a sight glass. large filters are drained manually through a valve. a so-called 100-mesh screen provides absolute filtration of about 220 µm. the silt-control filters are nearly always made of a material that cannot be cleaned.machinedesign. a roughing filter extends the life of the coalescing filter. All compressed air filters must be drained. metal bowls are considered safer in severe environments. and resin-impregnated paper (disposable) will filter to around 30 µm absolute. http://www. or scale. Normally. condensate.&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp2%2Ffilter%2Ehtml (5 of 7) [06/04/02 8:54:55] .com/articleloader. Whichever filter element is used. the bowl can be removed and cleaned.asp?m.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering significant quantities of oil.. When the filter is depressurized. Bowl guards to fit over transparent bowls are available from most manufacturers.. Filter bowls are available in transparent plastic and in metal. Manual drains on small filters are usually simple petcocks at the bottom of the bowl. Automatic drains are available for all sizes of filters to simplify maintenance. A 200-mesh screen filters to 105 µm. which are cleanable. special filters that are capable of 1 to 5-µm absolute filtration are necessary. Unlike the various metal chip-control filters. For chip control. and the filter element can be replaced or cleaned as required. If simple chip control is required of a filter. If silt control is the required function. This feature permits maintenance of the filter without the need to break pipe connections. A generous margin of safety here insures against filter collapse. they must be disposed of when they become filled. a sintered-woven wire mesh may filter to as fine as 25 µm absolute. Most pneumatic filters of up to 2-in. the choice of a specific element is pretty easy. the element can usually be a straight wire mesh or screen with relatively coarse holes. pipe size are made with a removable reservoir bowl. To provide visibility. Such screens are often rated by mesh size or by pore size.

in which the weight of an artificial contaminant added to the filter to attain a preselected differential pressure is measured. such a filter element must have a collapse pressure equal to the operating system pressure. Because service conditions may vary. a duplex filter can be used. filter elements used in them must be designed to withstand resultant cyclic stress.&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp2%2Ffilter%2Ehtml (6 of 7) [06/04/02 8:54:55] . this service life is seldom guaranteed. most manufacturers can furnish filter housings that will adequately support the filter element and restrain the fluid. Or if the system must be continued in operation. but can tolerate short periods of unfiltered All materials used in the filter element must be compatible with the hydraulic fluid to be used over the entire temperature range expected in service. Element life is measured by manufacturers with a dirt-capacity test. If the flow of filtered fluid cannot be interrupted. A duplex provides two filters separated by a three-way valve.. Also. Filter elements designed for long life under fatigue conditions are available and required in most hydraulic systems.machinedesign. Normally. filter manufacturers can recommend a filter with adequate life for a particular application. to the detriment of the hydraulic system. experts recommend a filter without bypass. The housing should open quickly with a minimum of tools for element changes. Flow continues through one while the other can be serviced. for critical applications.. Because most hydraulic systems fluctuate pressure and flow. a conventional filter with a servicing bypass can perform the same functions as a duplex unit.asp?m. Make sure that the housing selected allows easy servicing: An inconvenient filter simply isn't changed or serviced often enough. it may be necessary to "derate" the filter to ensure that the filters do not fill or break up toward the end of service lives. Filter elements chosen must have adequate on-stream life. http://www.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering If the system requires that no dirt be allowed to pass through the bypass valve.

The devices include electrical (7 of 7) [06/04/02 8:54:55] . Bypass valves should be located so that collected dirt on the filter element is not swept downstream by the flow of oil passing through the valve. and provide danger signals so that the elements can be serviced. http://www. the orifice should be large enough to avoid excessive differential pressure on the filter element. With full flow through the bypass valve.. continuousreading visual indicators. they are useful and should be considered.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Bypass valves in filters must be capable of handling the maximum flow that can be expected through the filter assembly if it clogs up. The memory indicators show the highest differential pressure that the filter element has experienced. Differential pressure indicators are options on nearly all filter housings. visual indicators with memory..asp?m. and are useful for jobs where an operator cannot watch the differential-pressure indicator continuously. they inform operating personnel of accumulated contaminant buildup in the filter.machinedesign. Typically.

In vapor form. and calcium chloride are common. tool. usually between the air receiver and distribution lines. three types of dryers can be Individual dryers may be used directly upstream of specific components that require dry or ultradry air. As the compressed air passes through the vessel. http://www. some pneumatic instruments and logic elements require ultradry air. the water does little damage in most components. The dried air is then discharged through the outlet port at the same temperature at which it entered. and previous searches! Water vapor is contained in high-pressure air. Such a unit dries the whole pneumatic system in a plant and prevents a host of filtration problems throughout the system.. Deliquescent dryers are simply large pressure vessels filled with a chemical having an affinity for water -.machinedesign. But if the water is allowed to condense in the system. For providing either mainline or point drying. freeze up actuators.asp?m.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Air Dryers Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites. it can rust pipes.d&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp2%2Fdryer%2Ehtml (1 of 4) [06/04/02 8:57:55] . Main-line pneumatic system dryers are installed close to the compressor. they require that the salt be replenished To log in. For example. and damage a process. at the other end of the scale. Deliquescent air dryers are inexpensive and simple. urea. E-mail: Password: Remember My Password Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you. the salt dissolves in the water vapor and drips to the bottom of the tank where it is drained.. most pneumatic hand tools require only that moisture not actually turn to liquid during the airexpansion process. or instrument.salt. news of interest. Manufacturers of pneumatic components normally specify that air of a certain dryness be supplied for best operation. please enter your login information. however.

A desiccant dries air by adsorbing moisture on its surface and holding the water as a mono or biomolecular film. Desiccant dryers use nonconsumable chemicals such as silica gel or active alumina. the corrosive salt solution can cause drain traps to clog. They are available for a wide range of dew point requirements -..asp?m. Since this setup requires cold air to precool inlet air. less-expensive heat exchangers and compressors can be used. a fine salt mist can be entrained in the air and be carried downstream to corrode system components.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering regularly. Most dryers of this type precool the incoming air before it reaches the refrigeration chiller. even with fluctuations in airflow and ambient temperature. Newer models are somewhat more efficient.from 33 to 100°F -. Also.machinedesign. Although more costly than standard designs. The method of http://www. dryers employing air-to-refrigerant heat exchangers are available.d&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp2%2Fdryer%2Ehtml (2 of 4) [06/04/02 8:57:55] but these types are limited to inlet air temperatures of 70°F or lower. Refrigerated dryers cannot suppress dew point below 33°F because ice forms and clogs the heat exchangers. Generally. Where slow start-up cannot be tolerated. these dryers are the most economical choice because of their low initial cost. refrigerated air dryers use two heat exchangers in series to condense entrained moisture and reheat the outlet air. The precooling arrangement is usually an air-to-air heat exchanger that uses outgoing cold air to cool the inlet air. Deliquescent air dryers can suppress the dew point by only about 20°F below the inlet temperature. and can remove almost all the moisture from compressed air. Refrigerated air dryers remove moisture from air by cooling it so that water vapor precipitates out. these dryers provide a nearly constant dew point. the dryer has a start-up delay before it reaches the required dew point. In addition. Precooling reduces the load on the chiller so that smaller. Where dew point requirements are above 32°F.and require little operator attention.

Heaterless dryers regenerate desiccant by passing a quantity of the dried air through the offstream vessel. since high regenerative temperatures can damage equipment and desiccant. internal or external heaters.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering regeneration. Depending on the amount of heat applied. These dryers use refrigeration cooling to remove most of the incoming moisture and to cool the onstream vessel for maximum adsorption efficiency. Heat-pump dryers combine the best features of heaterless desiccant and refrigerated dryers. There are three ways to regenerate a desiccant: with air. However. is the primary distinguishing feature among the various types of desiccant dryers.d&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp2%2Fdryer%2Ehtml (3 of 4) [06/04/02 8:57:55] .machinedesign.. a pressure dew point of -40°F uses about 14% of the compressed airflow for regeneration. and desiccant can last 10 to 15 years if the air is prefiltered to prevent oil contamination. Heaterless dryers produce dew points down to -150° For example. Heat-regenerative dryers are similar to heaterless dryers except that the desiccant vessels contain heating elements.asp?m. the process of removing adsorbed water from the desiccant. or a heat pump. maintenance costs and downtime can be higher. Most regenerative desiccant dryers are dual-chamber systems with one chamber on-stream drying the compressed air while the other is off-stream being regenerated. To minimize air usage. these types still require 2 to 6% purge airflow to produce a pressure dew point of -40°F. the higher the cost of power to run the heaters. some dryers are equipped with controls so that purge rate can be adjusted to accommodate variations in ambient temperature.. Thermal energy from http://www. These dryers are the most expensive desiccant types to operate because they require high purge airflows to regenerate the desiccant. The less purge air used. Heat-regenerative dryers have the same dew-point range as heaterless types. Maintenance costs are low because they have few moving parts.

.machinedesign.asp? Thus.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering the inlet air then is used to heat the offstream vessel and a small amount of purge air for regeneration. because regeneration takes place at a lower temperature. Heat-pump dryers produce stable dew points down to 100°F. the hazards and maintenance problems of heat-regenerated dryers are eliminated. In this type of dryer. heat-pump dryers have considerably lower operating costs than the other types. http://www. Also.5% purge airflow to regenerate the desiccant. a -40°F pressure dew point requires 1.d&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp2%2Fdryer%2Ehtml (4 of 4) [06/04/02 8:57:55] ..

asp?m. and previous searches! The increased use of manifolding. And pulse lubricators are available for still more difficult applications.. please enter your login information. Oil particles emitted from direct-flow lubricators have diameters ranging from 0. Smaller components use less air. oil particles with diameters larger than about 80 µin.machinedesign. They are inexpensive. and must depend on the sweeping action of the air to reach their intended destination.. so oil particles take longer to reach their destination. Even in a straight line. and include no sections where air must rise vertically. But these difficulties are not insurmountable.4 µ E-mail: Password: Remember My Password Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to (1 of 2) [06/04/02 9:03:53] . About 96 to 97% of these particles are larger than 80 µin. They form pools in the bottom of the line. complex valves. The problem is to get enough oil to the components without flooding them. except that they recirculate misted oil past a To log in. Manifolds and complex valves contribute to this coalescing action by inserting restrictions and turbulent areas in the flow path. Direct-flow lubricators spray a mist of oil directly into the air line. and miniature components have increased the difficulty of transmitting lubricants to pneumatic components. and tend to coalesce on air lines fairly rapidly. news of interest.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Pneumatic lubricators Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites. Recirculating-flow lubricators are similar to direct-flow lubricators. do not exceed about 25 ft in length. http://www.02 in. tend to coalesce within about 25 ft from the lubricator. Flow paths that are too tortuous or lengthy for a direct-flow lubricator may present no problem to a recirculating flow lubricator. to 0.. and can adequately lubricate most pneumatic systems if air lines are reasonably straight.

Because the injection point is at the (2 of 2) [06/04/02 9:03:53] . Pulse lubricators do not spray an oil mist into the line. Large particles remain in the bowl because of their mass. but cannot be refilled under pressure. The amount of oil directed to each actuator can be controlled individually to match actuator requirements. particles injected into the air stream have diameters ranging from 0. http://www. accurately measured amount of liquid oil directly into a pneumatic actuator. These smaller particles can traverse up to 100 ft of straight pneumatic line. the length and complexity of the pneumatic line leading to the actuator is Recirculating-flow lubricators cost about the same as comparable direct flow models.machinedesign..Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering baffle and into the bowl. Pulse lubricators are mechanically more complex and more costly than either direct-flow or recirculating-flow lubricators. As a result. and medium particles coalesce on the baffle. but instead inject a small..asp?m.4 to 80 µin.

Standard liquid-toliquid units have a working pressure of 150 psi and can To log in. An inefficient system. with the straight-tube units most thermally efficient and least expensive. high-pressure applications. The heat input can be dissipated through natural cooling..Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Heat exchangers Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites. or one poorly matched to its task. The (1 of 5) [06/04/02 9:04:41] . A normal rule of thumb is that U-tube exchangers are best suited for high-temperature. and previous searches! Unwanted heat is a problem for all hydraulic systems. These units are compact. and the hydraulic fluid passes around and between the tubes. news of interest. reverse-flow units provide the greatest heat transfer for a given size. Either type can have either a fixed or removable tube bundle. Liquid-to-liquid exchangers draw heat from the hydraulic fluid and transmit it into a cooling fluid. Even a well-designed system operating at top efficiency converts about 20% of its input power to heat.. http://www. and are often less expensive to install and maintain than other types. parallel. usually water. Liquid-to-liquid exchangers are available in single or multiple-pass. There are two basic types of shell-and-tube exchangers: the U-tube (or hairpin) type and the straight-tube type. or reverse-flow arrangements.asp?m. Most liquid-to-liquid exchangers use a shell-andtube package. but fixed bundles must remain in the shell. Removable bundles can be withdrawn from the shell as an assembly for maintenance. please enter your login information. consisting of a bundle of small tubes inserted into a shell. if this is insufficient. The coolant flows through the small tubes. may convert nearly 100% of input power to heat at certain times in the cycle. E-mail: Password: Remember My Password Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to reliable. a heat exchanger is added to the system.

and travels back to the evaporator end through the wick. they operate without necessity for water and they are portable. They require ambient air at least 10 to 15°F below the required oil output temperature for efficient operation. copper. Units up to 600 hp are available on special order. or where a portable heat exchanger is required. Working much like an automobile radiator.. heat at the input. Liquid-to-air heat exchangers transfer heat from hydraulic fluid to ambient air. liquid-to-air exchangers are larger. they have been used to help supply plant heating requirements during winter months. giving up its latent heat.machinedesign. The finned tubes can be made of aluminum. or condenser. Air-cooled exchangers are most commonly used where water is costly or unavailable in sufficient quantities to dissipate the required heat. returns to a fluid state. Air is moved through the core by forced or induceddraft fans.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering handle temperatures to 300°F. The only requirement for long life is that fins must be protected from clogging and dirty environments. There the vapor condenses. end causes the fluid to evaporate. Special units are available to operate at pressures to 300 psi. In return. and are brazed or roller expanded to the header tank. they allow air to be passed over finned tubes containing the hot liquid. heavier. and noisier than liquid-to-liquid (2 of 5) [06/04/02 9:04:41] . it consists of an enclosure containing a fluid that can be vaporized and a material or structure. In its basic form. steel. Vapor travels through the center of the container to the output. operating at pressures to 300 psi. The heat pipe is a high-performance thermal conductor. although the actual temperature difference between oil and water should not exceed 200°F. These liquid-to-air heat exchangers are available in sizes to 100 hp. or evaporator. http://www. or stainless steel.. In some instances. Typically. called a wick. In an essentially isothermal process.asp?m. a single mesh (window screen) overlay avoids fin clogging and provides for easy cleaning. that provides capillary action.

Slits or spirals. are necessary. may be used.asp?m. Sometimes. special wicking material. a separate cooling circuit from a reservoir to the heat exchanger may be used to circulate the oil independent of changing flows in the main (3 of 5) [06/04/02 9:04:41] . the tube orientation and desired heat flow. one of the Freons. Most commonly used tubes operated in the 0 to 500°C range using water. Working fluid depends on the temperature range over which the heat pipe is to operate. functions in the 550 to 1. for example. which may be comparatively expensive. Pipe materials are usually metal. which operates between -259 and -248°C. sodium. and silver may be the working fluids. but for some electrical applications they can be made from a dielectric material. and flexible heat pipes are used where the evaporator and condenser cannot be in line or where both heat-pipe ends oscillate independently. and the amount of heat to be moved. hydrogen. The wick design used depends on the working fluid.machinedesign. http://www. The wicking material or structure performs two functions: channeling liquid through the tube. and wetting the tube interior. Any geometry that preserves the essential evaporationcondensation cycle can be used. For cryogenic applications. or a variety of organic fluids such as Dowtherm A. Flat heat pipes are being made. Tubular heat pipes predominate because most are fabricated from stock tubing materials. For large hydraulic systems operating at high pressures. Location: All heat exchangers should be installed in the low-pressure side of a hydraulic circuit. lithium. For high or various types of cloth. such as sintered metal. such as copper or aluminum. mesh. Sodium.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Although called heat pipes. This location eliminates the need for a high-pressure unit. not all of these devices are cylindrical. Heat exchangers should be protected against damage from high-pressure surges by a relief valve..000°C range.. cut or formed into the tube wall may be sufficient in some cases.

and this stagnant fluid can create a thermal barrier within the heat exchanger. the colder the chilling fluid (air or water). These deposits cut heat efficiency. Therefore. permitting water to pollute the hydraulic fluid. Experts recommend that line filters be installed upstream of the unit to protect the exchanger from excessive accumulations of dirt and (4 of 5) [06/04/02 9:04:41] . Most hydraulic fluids tend to form viscous layers on contact with an extremely cold surface. layer of noncirculating fluid has the insulating quality of a ¼ -in. the heat exchanger can be bypassed during cold weather starting until fluid has reached the operating temperature. low cooling-fluid velocities should be avoided.-thick layer of rock-wool insulation. Where fouling is possible.up to a point. Another potential hazard to cooling efficiency is tube corrosion. the more heat will be removed from the oil -. The colder the chilling fluid. the heat-transfer capability of an exchanger under cold-weather operation may be improved by restricting the temperature or supply of the chilling fluid. the fluid may be too cold for efficient operation of the exchanger. a 1-in.. At temperatures below a certain level. If the only available water is hard (with excessive minerals) or brackish (with excessive salt). a system bypass line should be provided around the heat exchanger. Such a bypass line also permits maintenance of the heat exchanger without shutdown of the hydraulic system. http://www. For example. Corrosion restricts coolant flow and can eventually perforate the soft water should be used in water-type heat exchangers to prevent corrosion and scaling in the tube bundle.asp?m.. the thicker is the viscous layer in the hydraulic fluid. Clean. Protection: Generally. scale and dirt deposits can form in the small-diameter tubes.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering For systems that are to be used outside. Experts recommend use of a zinc anode or chemical inhibitor in the cooling water circuit to prevent or reduce this deterioration in the tube bundle. Such a bypass line permits efficient yearround operation. which can degrade thermal efficiency.machinedesign.

Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Doubling up: If the flow requirements of the hydraulic system exceed the capacity of standard heat (5 of 5) [06/04/02 9:04:41] .com/articleloader. this "ganged" arrangement is simpler and more efficient than use of a single. the liquid-to-liquid exchanger is installed in series with.asp?m. Again. During normal operation. Many hydraulic circuits generate high thermal loads for relatively short periods. under extreme operating conditions. two smaller standard units of equal capacity can be connected in parallel to dissipate the heating load. a small liquid-to-liquid unit is required to carry the additional load. http://www. but downstream of. the liquid-to-air unit.machinedesign. normal loads can be carried away by a standard liquid-air exchanger but. With a bypass line around it.. very large exchanger capable of handling peak loads. the thermal load is shared equally by each small exchanger at a total system cost much less than a single large unit custom built for a system. In such circuits. In this arrangement.. the water-type exchanger is held in standby during normal system operation.

id&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp2%2Fflow%2Ehtml (1 of 6) [06/04/02 9:06:13] . Two basic classes of flowmeters are differential producers and linear flowmeters. and economical meters. and older designs are being improved and updated. Prime considerations when selecting a flow sensor include: the type of fluid being measured. ease of installation. conductivity. Fluid properties and the abruptness of the contraction also play a role in the operation of these meters. viscosity. The pressure/flow relationship depends on the length and condition of the reference piping. pressure tap locations. and cleanliness. and maintenance requirements.. and previous searches! Recent advances in flow sensing have resulted in more accurate. either gradually or abruptly. kinetic energy increases at the expense of potential energy (static pressure). news of interest. Equally important are the requirements of the sensor itself: Flow velocity range..asp?m.machinedesign. new types of flowmeters are being introduced. its temperature and pressure. Increasingly important is the ability to interface meters with a computer for instantaneous flow readout to remotely control When flow is contracted. The difference between pressure at the full pipe section and that in the vicinity of the contraction is related to the square root of the velocity at the full section minus the square root of the velocity at the contraction. E-mail: Password: Remember My Password Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you. cost can be a major factor in the decision. durable. corrosiveness. or to allow unattended process operation. accuracy. To meet such demands. http://www. Finally.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Flow Sensors Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites. please enter your login information. Differential-producer flowmeters create a restriction in the flow field. and the geometry of the restricting element To log in. General range is 4:1.

and accuracy is ±1 to 2%.machinedesign. Line sizes are typically 2 in. Generally. http://www. Any change in these characteristics alters the relationship. Orifice-plate flow sensors are the most widely used of the differential pressure flow sensors. and flow tube. Differential pressure is produced by a pipe section with an elliptical entrance and nozzle exit. the devices are costly. and accuracy ±1 to 2%. the sensor must be moved around in the stream so that a variety of readings can be taken to yield a velocity profile.flow is determined based on a pressure-flow relationship. and larger.asp?m. venturi.. the dynamic range for these sensors is limited to about 4:1. In general. A pitot tube measures velocity at only one point in the fluid stream. A pitot tube consists of a special tube facing into the flow to measure a velocity-augmented impact pressure and a second tube that measures static pressure. However. Venturi tubes produce differential pressure through a section of pipe with a tapered inlet and diverging outlet. the differential drops off quickly as flow decreases. The contoured surfaces allow measurement of dirty gas and liquid. making these devices extremely sensitive to installation conditions.. greater. an orifice sensor is a circular plate inserted between flanges of a pipe with a round or other shape hole bored in the plate center. from 1 to 3%. Pressure taps on each side of the orifice plate measure the pressure differential. line sizes are 2 (2 of 6) [06/04/02 9:06:13] .Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering (differential producer). Because the relationship between flow and pressure involves a square root. Flow nozzles are expensive and may cause permanent pressure loss. matching system flow range and characteristics. Flow nozzles are generally used in steam/vapor flows at high velocities. Pitot tubes provide basic flow measurement for laboratory tasks. Accuracy also varies with flow others being nozzle. and a transmitter produces a signal that is proportional to the square of flow rate. Accordingly. The greatest disadvantage to this class of flowmeters is that they require a secondary measuring system -. Difference between the two pressures is normally measured on a U-tube manometer. For this reason.

Accuracy over this range is generally about 1%. and are bidirectional. It works with both clean or dirty gases and liquids.. These sensors are compatible with a variety of fluids. and provide a wide flow range. down to a few cc per minute. Pressure drop across the turbine is quite low (generally about 20 psi at maximum flow). Positive-displacement meters offer the ultimate in volumetric accuracy. Typical range of this class of flowmeters is 10:1. consisting of a disk supported concentrically in a pipe section. with the "output shaft" of the motorlike device driving the gage readout. A big advantage of positive-displacement types is their ability to discern extremely low flow. and response is linear over the entire range. Operating principle is the same as with a standard orifice meter. have a dynamic range up to 400:1.machinedesign. Meters are either linear due to the principle of operation or linearized through electronic means.5 to 1% of flow rate).Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering The annular orifice. they function like a hydraulic or pneumatic (3 of 6) [06/04/02 9:06:13] . simplifying electronics. Because these meters are very similar to the hydraulic and pneumatic motors used in fluid-power applications. The dynamic range or turndown ratio (that is. A proximity sensor detects turbine blade movement and generates a frequency signal that is analogous to flow rate. They are also highly accurate (typically 0. positioned in a tube. which rotates with passing fluid flow. Turbine flowmeters use a turbine. Hydraulic pulsation has no effect on these sensors. which is an advantage turbine sensors hold over some other types. was developed to overcome the problem of dirt buildup in front of a standard orifice. http://www. and larger line sizes. and they can be placed almost anywhere in the system. the ratio of maximum to minimum flow rates) is up to 35:1 in some turbine flow sensors. Volumetric flowmeters whose output is not proportional to the square root function are termed linear flowmeters. accuracy is ±2%.. generally 4 in. they are suitable for extremely high pressures. but require maximum interference with the flow stream.

asp? (4 of 6) [06/04/02 9:06:13] . Flow oscillation is a linear function of flow rate. In the time-in-flight method. In some models.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Rotameters are the most common variable-area meters. Flow is proportional to the amount of deflection. One is a piezoelectric crystal element that senses induced strain in the shedder bar. used with clean liquids. Vortex-shedding sensors detect flow from viscosityrelated effects of a blunt object in a flow stream. used with dirty liquids. A number of methods have been developed to detect vortex passage. when fluid flows around an object. they are most suitable when used for a single fluid. in a regular pattern. Rotameters are typically used for low-pressure flow readings. When the jet attaches itself to the lower wall. a high-frequency pressure wave is transmitted across the pipe at an acute angle. Basically. Ultrasonic meters use one of two methods. it encounters a flow diverter that splits the flow toward the upper wall. In the Doppler method. the pressure http://www.machinedesign. in which a fluid jet adheres to the walls of a Venturi nozzle. as greater orifice area is required around the float to transmit the flowing fluid. vortices are shed alternately from one side of the time-in-flight or Doppler. A heated thermistor placed in the upper feedback passage measures oscillation rate. Fluid-oscillator meters are based on the Coanda effect. and hence flow.. At the upper wall. it encounters a second flow diverter that splits flow back to the lower wall.. The reading is taken directly from the float position. the float is lifted higher in the tapered tube. and then the other. Both have good dynamic range (20:1) and excellent accuracy (0. As the fluid flow increases.8%). the nozzle and port assembly can be moved to obtain a complete velocity-profile distribution curve. another is diaphragm pressure sensors located just beyond the shedder bar. consisting of a tapered tube in which a float is supported by the fluid flowing up through the tube. Jet-deflection meters use measured flow to detect a high-speed jet from receiving ports. The time required for the beam to cross the pipe relates to flow rate. Sensing the rate of vortex passage gives a measure of flow velocity.

Because the magnetic field changes with piston (5 of 6) [06/04/02 9:06:13] . at pressures to 3..asp?m. Adjacent to the flow path. not over an entire area. They are typically used to scan a flow field to gain specific details.machinedesign. depending on particulate concentration. (Most fluids are. But to maintain their accuracy. typically 0. Magnetic piston flowmeters feature only one moving part. nor is viscosity. that is free to travel in the flow-path bore.. Solids and contaminants are not a problem. The principle of operation involves crossing two laser beams in the flow path. in line with the piston. When flow passes through this pattern. with the notable exception of petroleum-based fluids.5 gpm.) Because there is no obstruction in the pipeline.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering wave is refracted back to a detector by particulates in the fluid.5 fps. Located in the flow path is a piston-shaped magnet. The prime limitation of magmeters is that they require a conductive fluid. and accurately measure flow from 10 cc/min to 3. magmeters have no pressure drop and no parts that will wear out. In operation. and the piston rises or falls as flow increases or decreases. They consist of a flow tube which generates the magnetic field in the pipeline. generally encapsulated in Teflon. light http://www. The meters are expensive.000 psi. creating interference fringe patterns with alternating light and dark A second magnet of opposite polarity is located external to the flow stream. the voltage produced by the transducer can be directly related to flow. The resulting magnetic repulsion opposes piston movement and provides resistance to flow. The difference between reflected frequency and transmitted frequency relates to flow rate. a Hall-effect transducer senses the resulting magnetic field and converts it to a millivolt signal.5% of flow rate over a dynamic range up to 300:1. Laser-Doppler flow sensors differ from other types in that they measure flow at a point. flow lifts the piston off its seat. and accuracy ranges from ±1 to 4%. and an electronic converter that measures induced voltage. they must have a flow rate above 1. These meters are highly accurate. Magnetic flow sensors operate on the principle that the movement of a conductor through a magnetic field induces a voltage.

Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering reflected by particles in the fluid correspondingly follows the light density variations.asp? cyclically brighter and darker.. and a few thousand m/sec at the high end..000:1. Accuracy in the range of a fraction of 1% is typical. (6 of 6) [06/04/02 9:06:13] . these devices can measure velocities in the mm/sec range at the low end.machinedesign. The frequency of this cyclic variation is directly related to flow velocity. Dynamic range is about 100. http://www. and they are very good at following high-speed transients.

asp?. a piezoresistive pressure sensor. and an operational amplifier.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Gages and Meters Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites. The sensor signal is converted from analog form into a digital signal by the analog-to-digital (a/d) converter.d&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp2%2Fgage%2Ehtml (1 of 4) [06/04/02 9:07:25] . on industrial systems. sometimes in conjunction with remote-reading an analog-to-digital converter. these two devices take care of levelmonitoring needs of most fluid-power systems. news of interest. or fluid level. If potential damage from loss of fluid could be costly. alternatively. An alternative to the analog electromechanical system consists of a microprocessor (MPU). http://www. flow.. Fluid level in the reservoir can be monitored inexpensively. pressure and temperature switches are typically gaging elements with a snapaction or solid-state switch included. E-mail: Password: Remember My Password Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you. The pressure is a function of the liquid level in the tank. Dipsticks are most common on mobile systems. The simplest level-monitoring devices are dipsticks and sight gages. they can be readily obtained. the pressure sensor generates a voltage in response to the pressure applied to it by the liquid in the tank. If switches are necessary to initiate system action. sight gages. For To log in. low-level alarms actuated by float switches should be used. the alarm circuit can be wired to shut down the system. measurements can be made with dozens of different types of gages connected directly to the system. or where the level is unlikely to be observed periodically by the operator. Where fluid level is critical. Together. In this system.. please enter your login information. Most a/d converters require the millivolt sensor output to be amplified. special sensors on the equipment can generate air or electrical signals that are displayed remotely on electrical meters or gages. Typically. and previous searches! Any fluid system may need to measure pressure.

Maximum system temperature can easily be as much as 130°F higher than that measured in the reservoir. The MPU then drives a display. They permit readings of both absolute and differential pressure. Measurement accuracy depends largely on the number of levels chosen to define the tank and system calibration. A word of warning: A thermometer installed in a sight-level gage does not indicate maximum system temperature. although some systems have remote-reading thermometers with a readout on the operator's control panel. Manometers are the simplest of all pressure gages. either digital or analog. with excellent accuracy. but static response is excellent. Dynamic response is poor. High and low-temperature alarms operated by thermostats are often used and may automatically shut down the system. In basic form. and pneumatic systems. They are used almost exclusively for measurements in industrial Pressure to be measured is fed into one tube. The advantage of measuring reservoir temperature is that it indicates whether or not the system is operating normally -. This comparison is used to determine the volume of liquid in the tank.asp?. while the other (the reference tube) is either left open to the atmosphere or connected to a differential source. Temperature monitoring is often omitted from mobile systems. The height difference between the fluid legs is proportional to the applied pressure. Industrial systems typically have a thermometer installed as part of the sight-level gage or as a probe in the suction or return line. to show the level of liquid in the tank. Bourdon-tube gages are the most commonly used of all pressure gages. The digital signal that the MPU receives from the a/d converter is manipulated so that it can be compared with data in lookup tables..machinedesign.a substantial benefit considering that the thermometer typically costs less than a dollar. It indicates only the temperature of the fluid adjacent to that wall of the reservoir. http://www. an operational amplifier (op amp) is included in the system. where pressures above 15 psi are expected. manometers consist of a U-shaped tube about half-full of liquid..d&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp2%2Fgage%2Ehtml (2 of 4) [06/04/02 9:07:25] .Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering this reason. which are stored in ROM.

Industrial gages are widely used for plant services such as steam. pressure vessels. including commercial hydraulic. and oil refineries. dynamic response is fair. As the diaphragm moves. They are usually less expensive to replace than repair and they have only modest accuracy.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Accuracy of Bourdon gages is good to excellent. Normal test gages are used for most such jobs.. Industrial gages have rugged cast cases and higher accuracy than commercial gages. The movement displaces a connecting linkage that actuates a pointer on the gage face. http://www. are: q q q q Commercial gages are designed for low unit cost.machinedesign. and the qualities recommended for specific jobs. and static response is excellent. Differential-pressure gages are available in Bourdontube mechanisms.d&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp2%2Fgage%2Ehtml (3 of 4) [06/04/02 9:07:25] . each connected to a different pressure source." As the pressurized fluid enters this tube. which shows the pressure difference between the two gages. They are normally used to measure pressures less than 15 psi. and waterline pressure. Diaphragm gages are based on a flexible diaphragm that is distended by pressurized fluid. Test gages are the super-accurate specials used for calibrating other gages. and on equipment designed for installation in industrial plants. oil. However. The main working element in the gage is a tube (a Bourdon tube) shaped like a letter "C. they have two independent measuring chambers. Process gages are used in equipment such as autoclaves. Because of the way the diaphragm expands. they have cast metal or plastic cases and are highly accurate. they have only one pointer. and pneumatic systems. it actuates a direct mechanical linkage attached to an indicator. it tends to straighten it. these gages have a linear pressuredisplacement relationship only over a comparatively narrow pressure range. The major types of Bourdon gages.asp?. laboratory test gages are used for maximum accuracy and readability. Typically. moving the tube tip..

They are most useful over maximum pressure ranges from 0.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Diaphragm gages can read both absolute and differential pressures with fair accuracy. fair dynamic response.d&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Ffluidccp2%2Fgage%2Ehtml (4 of 4) [06/04/02 9:07:25] . Diaphragm gages should not be confused with diaphragm-protected gages. http://www.. but static response is excellent. Bellows gages are troubled somewhat more by hysteresis and zero shift than other gages.5 to 150 psi.asp?. they can be used to measure both absolute and differential pressures with fair to good accuracy.machinedesign. but have much greater extension to cope with wider pressure ranges.. In these Bellows gages work like diaphragms. In this range. Diaphragm-protected gages are usually filled with a temperature-stable fluid. Dynamic response is only fair. the diaphragm does not actuate the pointer. but merely isolates the gage from the fluid being measured. and excellent static response.

Some qualities a seal must have are obvious such as containing the fluids for which it is not so obvious factors include having sufficient strength to resist extrusion under maximum temperature and pressure. some compromise is almost always necessary because the desired features conflict with one another. Seal selection is by no means an exact science. many OEM designers use the seal manufacturers' expertise. They can also be used in light-duty dynamic applications because of http://www. the seal must be compatible with the fluids it contacts to maintain its physical integrity. E-mail: Password: Remember My Password Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you.asp?. Loading of a dynamic seal is a good example. Dynamic seals must have good wear resistance to ensure long life. which are presumed to be totally leak free. the designer must decide which factor has precedence. In any application. Stability is required to resist twisting and deformation in the seal cavity.machinedesign. and previous searches! To log in. Unfortunately. Finally. Seal selection is often an imprecise and time-consuming process.fluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fseals%2Fcomp%2Ehtml (1 of 3) [06/04/02 9:11:21] . Reducing this load increases seal life but permits more fluid to escape at low pressure. Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites. In struggling with these design factors.. These are generally the seals of choice in static sealing applications. The seal often is so critical to the system that it should be considered early in the design. High loading between seal and moving surface results in good sealability but also produces high friction and wear. Also. please enter your login information. news of interest. overall economics must be considered. involving numerous compromises.. Compression seals Compression seals come in a variety of shapes and are characterized by the high unit load exhibited between seal and walls. Other. This is especially important at low pressures. when the seal alone and not system pressure must supply the sealing force.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Preventing leaks and contaminant ingression keeps a system operating as intended.

and forces the elastomer into microscopic surface grooves on mating parts. As pressure rises.fluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fseals%2Fcomp%2Ehtml (2 of 3) [06/04/02 9:11:21] . An O-ring can be considered an incompressible viscous fluid with very high surface tension. Excessive compression set found in lower grade rubber reduces the effective sealing Probably the most widely used compression seal is the simple O-ring. They are made of PTFE and come in a variety of shapes. Backup rings protect O-rings and other squeeze packings from extrusion by high pressures. the O-ring flows up to.machinedesign. is preferred. volume swell can soften the http://www. caps or slippers prevent extrusion at high pressure.. Like backup rings. the clearance gap between components. blocking the flow of the less-viscous fluid being sealed. which depends on seal dimensions and hardness. At this point. caps also protect against friction in reciprocating applications.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering their adequate performance at low cost. However. the seal can shear. Properly installed. both sealing force and contact area increase. resulting in leakage. the O-ring is squeezed about 10 to 15% of its original cross-sectional diameter. but not into. At its pressure limit.500 psi and can be used at lower pressures when diametral clearances are large. To counteract compression set. 5 to 15% swell is recommended for a static seal. caused by absorption of hydraulic fluid. leading to failure. They are generally used at pressures exceeding 1. High temperatures accelerate this condition. a controlled amount of volume swell of the rubber. In light-duty dynamic applications. The compression absorbs the tolerance stack up between mating surfaces (or between shaft and gland in dynamic applications). Under moderate pressure. part of the O-ring starts to extrude into the clearance gap.. Compression set of the elastomer is of prime importance when choosing a static seal.asp?. This "fluid" is forced by mechanical or hydraulic pressure to flow into the sealing cavity. In most applications.

asp?. Thus. exhibits excellent abrasion and tear resistance. But PTFE does not seal as well as rubber and is susceptible to damage from solid contaminants. O-rings are also suitable for light-duty rotary applications.the tendency of elastomers under tension to shrink when for example.fluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fseals%2Fcomp%2Ehtml (3 of 3) [06/04/02 9:11:21] .Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering elastomer and increase friction. some seal manufacturers permit O-ring use at speeds to 1. Compression seals are available in a wide variety of shapes. but fill the gland better and have a more stable geometry. This sets up a destructive cycle in which friction and heat give rise to even more friction and heat until the seal fails. and H-rings are examples of seals that do much the same job as Orings.machinedesign. but has poor compression set characteristics. they provide satisfactory life if running speeds are limited to 750 fpm. Teflon cap seals consist of a compression seal with a Teflon cap. They are primarily used in applications where high velocity may cause frictional heat buildup. Generally. and sealed pressures to 200 psi..500 fpm and pressures to 800 psi. quad rings. However. http://www. Urethane. Rectangular rings. Adding an O-ring to a urethane lip seal provides the compressive sealing force needed at low pressure. PTFE is used because of a low coefficient of friction and excellent wear characteristics. rather than tension. This is avoided by using the O-ring in compression. swell in dynamic applications should be limited to 5 to 6%.. leading to heat buildup. The key to using O-rings in rotary applications is avoiding the Gow-Joule effect -. O-ring loaded lip seals are a good choice when wear resistance and low-pressure sealing are necessary.

please enter your login information. They are most often used when one form of fluid energy is available. and complementary on others.asp.. Because these devices are directly competitive with pumps on some jobs. without requiring a new prime mover. and previous searches! To log in.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Converting mechanical energy to fluid form provides the "muscle" in a fluid-power system. However. news of interest. while in fluid-power systems it is a pump. These normally are driven by an electric motor or internal combustion engine. most pneumatic systems are used with a receiver. Most commonly. In a pneumatic system the power source is an air compressor. The pumps may deliver flows of less than one to as much as 600 gpm. The power source is the key element in a fluid-power system. Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites. In some hydraulic (1 of 5) [06/04/02 9:14:29] . they are included in this section. In that kind of task.machinedesign. but that decision can affect the choice and application of a hydraulic pump. the storage device. and a hydraulic system is required for a specific small job. it is a tank or receiver. They are capable of withstanding output pressures in the range of 500 to about 15. an airpowered intensifier lets the pneumatic system power the hydraulic circuit. of course. In hydraulic systems. Hydraulic pumps Most hydraulic pumps receive fluid from a reservoir and pump it to a loaded actuator in such a fashion that the actuator can perform work. is an accumulator. E-mail: Password: Remember My Password Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you. such need exists in a plant in which compressed air is readily available.. Most systems can be made to work more efficiently when something is installed in the system to allow storage of temporarily unneeded fluid delivered from the pump or compressor. intensifiers or "boosters" replace pumps or compressors. in pneumatic systems. The decision to use an accumulator in a hydraulic system is less clearcut. http://www. but a specific system must use another form.000 psi. Various concepts are applied to convert the mechanical energy from a motor or engine to fluid energy in the system.

000-psi service. although some are suitable for 5.000 psi. Most piston pumps are designed for a maximum rating of 3. Therefore.000 to 4. It is worth noting that a pump does not create pressure. As a pump rotates.500 to 2.. permitting fluid under atmospheric pressure in the reservoir to flow into the pump inlet.000 psi.000-psi range.000 psi. As the load is placed on the fluid. Then the pump ejects this fluid. It merely moves fluid. capacity. usually at a pressure higher than atmospheric. For example.asp. Size is usually expressed as volumetric flow output (gpm). the fluid has very little pressure. Other words with the same meaning are flow. it develops a partial vacuum on the inlet ("suction") side. Pump pressure rating is generally limited by the capability of the pump to withstand pressure without undesirable increase in internal leakage. Typically.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Pressure: Pump pressure rating is one of the major considerations in determining whether it can do the job. http://www.000 psi.000-psi pump is a unit that can maintain flow against a load of 3. with maximums in the range of 1. or delivery rate. maximum pressure for external gear and vane pumps are from 2.000 to 4.. Pressure is created by the load on the fluid. the pressure at the outlet side of the pump increases to a value that is normally indicated as the pump maximum. ratings for maximum continuous service are often clustered in the 2. Typically. Flow rating of a pump is based on performance under a specific set of conditions. size. causing the flow.200 rpm. a 3. Although many pumps can withstand pressures within the very wide range of 500 to 15. if no load (2 of 5) [06/04/02 9:14:29] . and without damage to the pump parts. A few permit higher pressures for intermittent peak loads Flow: The second most important consideration in selecting a pump is its size and delivery.000 psi. Internal-gear units run somewhat lower. Nearly all hydraulic pumps work in rotary fashion. pumps used in mobile applications are generally tested at 1. at an outlet pressure of 100 psi and atmospheric inlet pressure.machinedesign. manufacturer's literature states the conditions under which the rating is made.

Certain types of pumps do not work well with some hydraulic fluids. When other fluids are used in these pumps. q q q Volumetric efficiency is the ratio of actual to theoretical delivery. In addition.=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput1%2Fpump%2Ehtml (3 of 5) [06/04/02 9:14:29] . with three efficiency ratings commonly given. Efficiency: Pump quality is rated in efficiency. a pump must be specially selected to operate with special fluids. which may be limited by the ability of the pump to fill without cavitating or by other mechanical considerations.oil -. and fluid compression.machinedesign. Fluid compatibility: For years.asp. Even when pump and fluid are basically compatible. http://www.. with pump life cut up to 50% with some fluids. Accordingly. Mechanical losses are due principally to internal friction.and nearly all worked well with them. Maximum speed and pressure permitted may also be reduced. but is changing as safety considerations and government compliance agencies force greater acceptance of fire-resistant hydraulic fluids. Difference between actual and theoretical delivery is normally due to internal leakage necessary to lubricate the pump (called "slippage") and other factors. stability characteristics of fireresistant fluids are often different than those of hydraulic oils. some suffer. Most pumps used today were designed for petroleum fluids -. often in the mid to high 90s. Mechanical efficiency is the ratio of overall efficiency to volumetric efficiency. Different system operating temperatures and drain periods may be required for optimum performance. Overall efficiency is the ratio of hydraulic power output to mechanical power input. petroleum oils have been the "standard" hydraulic fluid used in power circuits. pump seals must often be changed for compatibility with the other fluid. This situation remains today.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Speed: A third consideration is the speed Volumetric efficiency is typically very high. The permissible speed range and inlet pressure requirements for any design are usually clearly defined.

the same basic mechanism may deliver 8 hp/lb. in general. While no all-encompassing standard for rating hydraulic fluid performance exists today. but high during boundary lubrication. depending on the applications for which it is built. The simplest way to guard against excessive wear is to maintain reasonably high viscosity. Most premium hydraulic fluids used today meet the requirements of these rating systems. Test data on "typical" pumps is readily available from most fluid suppliers. For instance. where every pound carries a double penalty. and valves is relatively low during full-film lubrication.75 hp/lb. Some manufacturers recommend that fluids have an adequate concentration of antiwear additives that can protect against wear. motors.. marine. even during boundary lubrication. the axial-piston design that is widely used in industrial. The additional expense of a highly refined piston pump capable of delivering 4 hp/lb is warranted for aircraft use. The guidelines evolved to meet the needs of the particular manufacturer. and overcome deficiencies each saw when certain fluids were used in their equipment. Subtle differences in pump design and conditions of use can drastically change wear rates. Environment: Usually.5 hp/lb. effect of ambient temperature and altitude on performance is independent of the type http://www. When reduced to miniature size for missile use (and when life is sacrificed for power). One common type of mobile pump has a ratio around 0.asp.=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput1%2Fpump%2Ehtml (4 of 5) [06/04/02 9:14:29] . but merely that the fluid meets the recommendations for a particular type of pump and application. Size and weight: Straightforward comparison of size and weight characteristics by basic pump type is prevented by the overlap of individual designs. and aircraft applications can have many power/weight ratios.machinedesign. should not be concerned with the exact nature of the tests.. The design but there are some instances where field and bench experience do not correlate well. others may be 2. some component manufacturers and users have developed widely recognized specifications for fluids.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Wear of hydraulic pumps.

http://www. is the critical factor.machinedesign. pump-inlet conditions are more sensitive when these fluids are used. many oils will be too thin to maintain proper lubrication at high-load points.with possible pump damage -. Minimum operating temperature is generally set by the increase in fluid viscosity as temperature falls. Fire-resistant fluids have a higher specific gravity than petroleum oils. it is possible to compensate for extremes of ambient temperature and to control fluid temperatures within a satisfactory range. which can vaporize if pressures are low or temperatures high. Under elevated temperatures. When minimum or maximum temperatures are specified for a hydraulic cavitation -. Above allowable temperatures. When fluid thickens to the point where inlet conditions can no longer keep the pump completely full. Limits for satisfactory operation are established primarily by the effect of the environment on the fluid rather than by the type of pumping action. not ambient temperature. Humidity only affects requirements for the exterior casing.. and may progressively deteriorate as a result of oxidation. In most cases. accompanied in some cases by higher viscosities at low temperatures..occurs. High altitudes can produce a somewhat similar effect when the fluid reservoir is not pressurized. The usual solution is to supercharge the main pump with an auxiliary pump.asp. some seals may harden. or to flood the inlet by locating it below the fluid level in the reservoir.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering of pump. Thus. Maximum allowable operating temperature depends on the properties of the fluid seals being used.=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput1%2Fpump%2Ehtml (5 of 5) [06/04/02 9:14:29] . the operating temperature of the fluid. Many fire-resistant fluids contain water.

http://www. but a specific system must use another form.. is an accumulator. while in fluid-power systems it is a pump. and previous searches! To log in. Various concepts are applied to convert the mechanical energy from a motor or engine to fluid energy in the system. Most commonly. it is a tank or receiver. and complementary on others. most pneumatic systems are used with a receiver. they are included in this section. the storage device. such need exists in a plant in which compressed air is readily available.. Because these devices are directly competitive with pumps on some in pneumatic systems. In hydraulic systems. of course.machinedesign. The power source is the key element in a fluid-power system. The decision to use an accumulator in a hydraulic system is less clearcut. but only with the movement of fluid. an airpowered intensifier lets the pneumatic system power the hydraulic circuit. please enter your login information. Two major types of fluidtransfer pumps are positive-displacement (either bulkhandling or metering pumps) and nonpositivedisplacement (centrifugal). Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites.asp?. intensifiers or "boosters" replace pumps or compressors. However. without requiring a new prime mover.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Converting mechanical energy to fluid form provides the "muscle" in a fluid-power system. These normally are driven by an electric motor or internal combustion engine. news of interest.=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput1%2Ffluid%2Ehtml (1 of 7) [06/04/02 9:15:41] . In that kind of task. and a hydraulic system is required for a specific small job. In a pneumatic system the power source is an air compressor. but that decision can affect the choice and application of a hydraulic pump. Fluid-transfer pumps Fluid-handling or transfer devices are not basically concerned with the modulation or transfer of power. E-mail: Password: Remember My Password Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you. They are most often used when one form of fluid energy is available. Most systems can be made to work more efficiently when something is installed in the system to allow storage of temporarily unneeded fluid delivered from the pump or compressor. In some hydraulic systems.

or http://www. Most plunger pumps must be stopped for stroke adjustment. the plunger pressurizes a small volume of hydraulic fluid as it moves. Circumferential-piston pumps use counterrotating rotors driven by external timing gears. Diaphragm pumps of this type can deliver outlet pressures to 5. they tend to cost more than peristaltic pumps for the same flow delivered. diameter cannot be varied in a given pump.000 psi. some pumps are built so the plunger never contacts the diaphragm. Generally.000 to 30. Outlet pressures delivered by plunger pumps are as high as 50.000 psi. Of course. often used in fluid-power applications. the pumps are often used for shear-sensitive fluids. The gears can be arranged as a pair of similarly sized gears. diaphragm pumps are built like a plunger unit. Fluid volume delivered depends on plunger diameter and stroke length. This configuration. They are selfpriming and have high suction lift capability. or those with entrained particles or gases. as three stacked gears. as separated internal gears.000 psi for some lab units. They usually consist of one or more pistons that draw fluid through an inlet check valve and expel it through an outlet valve. instead. except that a bellows or diaphragm is fitted to the end of the plunger shaft. They offer the freedom from external leakage of a peristaltic pump.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Plunger or piston pumps are one type of commonly used positive-displacement pump. With capacities up to 450 gpm. while providing a positive seal. Diaphragm and bellows pumps are used when pump leakage or process-fluid contamination cannot be tolerated.. but a few offer the option of in-service adjustment. stresses the diaphragm because of unequal loading from the plunger.machinedesign. perform equally as well as fluid-handling pumps.=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput1%2Ffluid%2Ehtml (2 of 7) [06/04/02 9:15:41] . so stroke length is made and the fluid displaces the diaphragm. Maximum flow is as high as 26 gpm for traditional plunger pumps and much higher for multipiston units.. Gear pumps. To equalize diaphragm loading.asp?. Maximum pressures for industrial pumps usually range from 5. yet permit higher pressures and easy flow adjustment.

. Flexible-vane pumps are similar to sliding-vane hydraulic pumps. Nutating action provides a number of operating benefits. However. Displacement of gear pumps is fixed. Also. that wobbles without rotating and creates line contact with both plates. As the contact lines pass the inlet port. rotors are driven by external timing gears to avoid rotor contact in the fluid stream. In some models. so they are often used for shear-sensitive fluids. bypassing flow and preventing damage to the pump parts. Lobed pumps have relatively large displacement. Finally. The fluid. Nutating pumps have a disc. Motion of the rotors creates an expanding cavity on the inlet side. The pumps are self-priming from 6 in. providing longer seal life.=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput1%2Ffluid%2Ehtml (3 of 7) [06/04/02 9:15:41] . held between two plates. High-pressure blades with thicker cross sections boost operating pressure to about 60 psi. These relatively inexpensive pumps pass medium solids and are easy to maintain in the field. when dry and 21 ft when wet. high-pressure impellers fatigue more rapidly because higher stresses develop when flexing. Operating temperature is limited to about 180°F. This feature eliminates the need for a separate pressure relief valve in the system. a bellows seal can be used on the shaft in place of a mechanical face or lip seal.asp?. Peristaltic pumps consist of a flexible tube that is http://www. a constant-volume cavity that carries fluid to the outlet side.machinedesign. and a contracting cavity that forces fluid out. Flexible-impeller pumps usually operate at discharge pressures of 20 to 30 psi. A socalled bridge separates inlet flow from outlet flow. as well as fluids with entrained gases or particles. because pump parts do not rotate. Lobed pumps resemble gear pumps. liquid is pulled into the cavities between the disc and plates..Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering as gerotors. then. but they substitute flexible elastomeric vanes for rigid vanes. the disc excursion flattens to relieve excessive pressure. and cannot be varied during is swept through the pump to the discharge port (much as a squeegee wipes water from a window) where it is released under pressure.

Most pumps permit a maximum outlet pressure of only 50 psi or less. so flow rate can be changed by stopping the pump. Centrifugal pumps are a practical choice for fairly constant. should be determined. and often require gravity feed or a pressurized intake. three-roller pumps are said to pull a vacuum of 28 in. Two-roller pumps do a relatively poor job of drawing liquid into the pump. pressure rise (or change in head) in ft of fluid. The result is usually expressed as a dimensionless number. http://www. rpm. A chief advantage of these pumps is freedom from external leakage. However. large flows of over 100 gpm at moderate pressures and low fluid some models have an adjustable track height. Q = flow rate. and is found from: Ns = N * (Q^½ / h ^¾) where N = impeller speed.=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput1%2Ffluid%2Ehtml (4 of 7) [06/04/02 9:15:41] . However. changing tubes. Hg when equipped with tubing that has a hardness of 60 Shore A. ft..5 gpm. After operating requirements have been set. and restarting the pump. and other conditions such as high fluid viscosity or temperature. and can leak only if the tube ruptures. adjusting track height. so delivery rate can only be changed during operation by varying pump speed. but three-roller pumps providing flows up to 40 gpm are available. Ns.asp?. Displacement is determined by tube size. Two-roller pumps provide flows as high as 3. As the rollers move along the tube. gpm. they force fluid through it.. and h = net positive suction head. Peristaltic pumps are simple and quite inexpensive for the flow rates they provide.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering progressively compressed by a series of rollers. Fluid is contained within the tube. Specific speed is a characteristic quantity used to describe a centrifugal pump. The first step in selecting a centrifugal pump is to determine application requirements: quantity of flow. specific speed.

) Volute and diffuser pumps draw liquid into the impeller at its center and fling it outward by centrifugal force. diffuser. stationary diffuser blades in the casing around the outside circumference of the impeller blades are curved in the opposite direction from the blades. they provide more efficient pumping in a smaller package than volute or diffuser types. a parallel system of two or more pumps is usually necessary. because it operates at the highest rotational speed and is the smallest that can be used. (NPSH is the total of potential and kinetic energy heads in the fluid at the intake to a pump. The diffuser has less slippage and higher pump efficiency than the volute.=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput1%2Ffluid%2Ehtml (5 of 7) [06/04/02 9:15:41] . a volute. and in multistage pumps. in this range. minus fluid vapor pressure. The velocity -.a channel of gradually increasing area..especially its tangential component -. Diffusers are usually used in mixed and axialflow vertical pumps.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering If the required specific speed falls between 500 and 15. In a volute pump. The amount of energy transformed and efficiency of the transformation depend upon the shape of the then partially transformed into additional pressure by the pump casing. If specific speed is less than 500.asp?.000. Most single-stage horizontal pumps are built with volute casings. the pump with the highest specific speed is generally the best choice. Propeller and mixed-flow pumps are commonly used at very high flow rates and low heads (above 300 gpm and below 40 ft). Within the limits of net positive suction head (NPSH) available.000.. the impeller discharges the liquid into a "volute" -. but the additional blades increase complexity and cost. In a diffuser pump. For a specific speed above 15. a peripheral or even a positive-displacement pump should be considered. Propeller pumps operate like a boat propeller encased http://www. The liquid leaves the impeller with higher pressure and velocity than when it or propeller pump becomes the best selection.

Suction characteristics of propeller pumps are not good. They have excellent suction characteristics. parallel to the axis of the impeller. This may extend to the outer ends of the blades.000. this pump is often called a turbine pump.=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput1%2Ffluid%2Ehtml (6 of 7) [06/04/02 9:15:41] . http://www. and suction intakes. the mixed-flow pump can have only a singlesection inlet. The confined passage reduces friction losses in the pump and thus increases efficiency.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering in a tube. shaft positions. and is pushed out with no change in the direction of flow. These low-volume.. They are sometimes called turbine-vane. or closed..000 to 15. Among the most important options are impeller type. Options often determine the usefulness and applicability of a centrifugal pump. Propeller pumps are available for vertical or horizontal operation. high-head pumps deliver 1 to 50 gpm and up to 500 ft of head discharge. number of stages. As with the propeller type. Liquid is drawn into the pump. with specific speeds from 10. Thus.asp?. A closed impeller has an outer shroud (attached to the outer edge of the blades) as well as an inner one. Peripheral pumps have circular. thus. Because the rotors are similar to those in water turbines. the head is generated partly by propeller action and partly by centrifugal force in a volute casing. confined to the space between the shrouds. Liquid is. rotating impellers but provide characteristics similar to those of a positivedisplacement pump. In a mixed-flow pump. or regenerative pumps. Peripheral pumps usually cost less than centrifugal or positive-displacement pumps. but often have a much shorter The impeller in a centrifugal pump can be open. drawing up to 28 ft of head. the mixed flow pump bridges the gap between the propeller and purely centrifugal types. Mixed-flow pumps can produce a larger range of heads than straight pumps. semiopen. so intakes must be located below (or only slightly above) the surface of the liquid being pumped. viscous-drag. on the inside of the blades. The shroud supports the use of thinner blades.machinedesign. A semiopen impeller has a circular plate. An open impeller consists of blades attached to a hub. or inner shroud.

An impeller can be designed for either single or doublesuction operation.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Staging is used to increase head or flow of centrifugal pumps.volume flow remains about the same.. Because liquid velocity can be kept high as it moves through the housing. The impellers of a multistage pump are on the same shaft. and the housings are a single unit. Suction intake can also affect pump performance. but output pressure is almost doubled. a twostage pump is more efficient than two single-stage pumps connected in series to produce the same head and volume. A two-stage pump is essentially two pumps in series so flow is almost twice that of a single-suction type for the same net positive suction head. http://www.machinedesign. A double-suction impeller draws in liquid at both sides..=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput1%2Ffluid%2Ehtml (7 of 7) [06/04/02 9:15:41] .

Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites. They reduce power loss by adjusting the relationship between pressure and flow for various power levels. news of interest. please enter your login information. of course. The decision to use an accumulator in a hydraulic system is less clearcut.2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput1%2Fcontrol%2Ehtml (1 of 4) [06/04/02 9:20:06] . the storage device. Because these devices are directly competitive with pumps on some jobs. it is a tank or receiver. intensifiers or "boosters" replace pumps or compressors.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Converting mechanical energy to fluid form provides the "muscle" in a fluid-power and a hydraulic system is required for a specific small job. most pneumatic systems are used with a receiver.. variable-displacement pumps were developed. and complementary on others. In hydraulic systems. In that kind of task. E-mail: Password: Remember My Password Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you. while in fluid-power systems it is a pump. they are included in this section. but that decision can affect the choice and application of a hydraulic pump. but a specific system must use another form. without requiring a new prime mover. in pneumatic systems. Pump controls To minimize wasted energy in hydraulic systems. and previous searches! To log in. In some hydraulic systems. an airpowered intensifier lets the pneumatic system power the hydraulic circuit.machinedesign. Most commonly. However.asp?. Various concepts are applied to convert the mechanical energy from a motor or engine to fluid energy in the system. The power source is the key element in a fluid-power system.. is an accumulator. Electrohydraulic control of flow and pressure directly at the pump often permits more flexibility and more http://www. such need exists in a plant in which compressed air is readily available. In a pneumatic system the power source is an air compressor. These normally are driven by an electric motor or internal combustion engine. Most systems can be made to work more efficiently when something is installed in the system to allow storage of temporarily unneeded fluid delivered from the pump or compressor. They are most often used when one form of fluid energy is available.

A major factor is the tremendous energy savings -. The solenoids or PPC convert current to a proportional force. amplifier card.40 to 50% is not uncommon -.. because the input signal can be adjusted to compensate for the difference. and 4% for pressure control. this is not a problem. Repeatability when moving from low to intermediate pressure is typically within 1%. However. or an amplified current signal to drive proportional pressure controllers (PPC).machinedesign. an LVDT can be connected to the cam ring or swash plate to monitor position and. or other such device provides a signal to an electronic driver board. PC. This low-current signal is amplified into either a pulse-width-modulated signal sufficient to drive proportional solenoids on the pump.realized by applying these controls. microprocessor. Usually. If the pump is driving a hydraulic motor. flow. With closed-loop control. or amplifier card. and pump hardware remain the thus. The basics of electronic pump control are rather straightforward. Sensors are added to the system to measure the desired parameter.asp?. If pressure must be controlled precisely. A programmable controller. http://www. especially with closed-loop feedback control. and reduces the number of valves in a circuit. Due to hysteresis when cycling up and down. a pressure transducer is added to the system. For flow control. closed-loop feedback is necessary. along with an electronic summing card that compares input with actual output. in turn controlling pressure and flow.. pressure differential can be as much as 4%. or the swash plate in an axial piston pump. when precise linearity is a must. command inputs. The benefits to using electrohydraulic control are numerous. a tachometer can be used to sense motor speed and adjust pump flow as necessary.2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput1%2Fcontrol%2Ehtml (2 of 4) [06/04/02 9:20:06] . Accuracy is enhanced.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering efficient operation of variable-volume pumps. potentiometer. Linearity is generally within 3% for flow. providing pressure control to a piston which adjusts the ring position in a variable vane pump.

Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering A circuit can be substantially simplified by moving to electronic pump control. For a complicated circuit. it will not work if system pressure falls below the pump's minimum deadhead value. Loading a new program to the controller is all that is necessary to change operation.asp?. Because of precise control over acceleration and deceleration. One possible drawback to electrohydraulic pump control is that there is only one pressure or flow to work with at one time. This method cannot be used to control stationary position of an actuator. tracking down a problem area is usually simplified. pump life can be extended dramatically. because valving is eliminated. and control and power elements are separate entities. Programmable controllers are used most often. manifolds. but stopping a specific position requires valves. If control is http://www. and these controls are. and timing. Acceleration to a general location is performed well by electrohydraulic pumps. some sort of valving must be used. Because the circuit is generally simplified. cycles times can be decreased without introducing detrimental impact loads. For applications that require two or more simultaneous pressure or flows. If not.2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput1%2Fcontrol%2Ehtml (3 of 4) [06/04/02 9:20:06] . Programming these controls is not very complicated. connectors and other plumbing. The error can then be isolated by checking inputs and outputs at the controller and boards. because pump outputs are directly proportional to command inputs. the cost of pressure and flow control valves.machinedesign. By disconnecting the electronics and actuating the pump manually. for the most part. Because the pump is controlled by pressure Because the pump always operates at the lowest possible pressure. resulting in more flexibility and substantial setup time savings. so programming is really just a matter of setting voltage or current. the problem probably lies in the electronics. often exceeds that of the controller and other electronics. one quickly determines if the problem is a hydraulic one. adapted for retrofit onto standard pumps in the field today..

.. controls affect only swash plate or ring position. Also. and do not compensate for pump inefficiency or fluid compression. http://www.2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput1%2Fcontrol%2Ehtml (4 of 4) [06/04/02 9:20:06] . either an artificial load pressure must be generated at the pump outlet. Closed-loop feedback is needed should such compensation be necessary.asp?.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering needed at low load pressures.machinedesign. or another means of control must be

Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites. In that kind of task. filter. while in fluid-power systems it is a pump. and a hydraulic system is required for a specific small job. in pneumatic systems. an airpowered intensifier lets the pneumatic system power the hydraulic circuit. pump.%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput1%2Fpower%2Ehtml (1 of 3) [06/04/02 9:22:27] .asp. Most commonly. In some hydraulic systems. a power unit consisting of a reservoir. please enter your login information. E-mail: Password: Remember My Password Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you. heat exchanger. However.. and complementary on These normally are driven by an electric motor or internal combustion engine. In hydraulic systems. is an accumulator. Various concepts are applied to convert the mechanical energy from a motor or engine to fluid energy in the system. but a specific system must use another form. news of interest. and basic system valving could be used. without requiring a new prime mover. Most systems can be made to work more efficiently when something is installed in the system to allow storage of temporarily unneeded fluid delivered from the pump or compressor. The decision to use an accumulator in a hydraulic system is less clearcut. such need exists in a plant in which compressed air is readily available.. They are most often used when one form of fluid energy is available. The pump includes integral controls. drive motor.machinedesign. but that decision can affect the choice and application of a hydraulic pump. the storage device. of course. perhaps http://www.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Converting mechanical energy to fluid form provides the "muscle" in a fluid-power system. it is a tank or receiver. most pneumatic systems are used with a receiver. Power units Sometimes the complexity and magnitude of a job suggest that a system of separate hydraulic components would be difficult to put into action. and previous searches! To log in. intensifiers or "boosters" replace pumps or compressors. The power source is the key element in a fluid-power system. Because these devices are directly competitive with pumps on some jobs. In a pneumatic system the power source is an air compressor. they are included in this section. In such a case.

asp. Many control modes are possible: Mechanical. all necessary line connections.machinedesign. the system should have adequate reserve capacity. Low-pressure hydraulic control circuits or low-power electrical circuits permit remote selection of multiple volumes. other functions can be provided. And hydraulic servomotor controls can be used to provide automatic control of high accuracy. and limit switches provide remote operation. fluid level and temperature gages. automatic decompression. They point out that hydraulic power units with compatible components. a fixed delivery. For simple push-pull applications or constant power drive. In applications requiring more complex functions. pneumatic. one-way pump may be adequate. Mechanical extensions or electric pilot motors with geared head..%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput1%2Fpower%2Ehtml (2 of 3) [06/04/02 9:22:27] . a variable-displacement unit is probably necessary.. limiting pressures. The heart of a system is one or more pumps. zero flow. The simplest direct control is a hand-operated screw. or http://www. electric. or troubleshoot it. build it. acceleration. This type of power unit is a fine example of operational convenience. brakes. and observation and clean-out covers. and deceleration of flow. diesel engine. The reservoir includes inlet filter. design the system. controllability. line shaft. Manufacturers agree that an assembled unit is more expensive than a combination of components purchased separately. and relief valves. and usually provide maximum system efficiency. Any type of drive can be supplied with a power unit: electric motor. supplied by one manufacturer for a specific system. and automatic interlocks. constant power. hydraulic. These include controls of generative and regenerative direction of flow. and electrohydraulic controls are available. Although most pump controls merely select the output volume or flow.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering an auxiliary supercharge pump. gas turbine. lifting lugs. with minimum noise. But they suggest that the additional cost is offset by the fact that the user need not select the components. In either case.

3. Type of service cycle. 12. Maximum force and working pressure required. or environmental conditions. Type and accuracy of control and functions. Heat-exchange method required. Noise specifications.asp. 7. 4. Work to be performed. 6. To design and build a power unit.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering others.%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput1%2Fpower%2Ehtml (3 of 3) [06/04/02 9:22:27] . 10. special requirements.machinedesign. Space available. Type of input power available to power unit. 9. 2. Any unusual conditions of the application.. The most widely used drive is an electric motor directly coupled to the pump through a flexible coupling. Type of machine or application.. among other things: 1. http://www. the project engineer must know. Size and weight of machine moving parts. 5. Minimum and maximum working speeds. 11.

spring loaded. E-mail: Password: Remember My Password Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you. Spring-loaded accumulators are at the other extreme. diaphragm. the compressed gas expands and forces the stored fluid back into the system. with concrete disks loaded onto an oversized piston. accumulators are useful tools in developing efficient hydraulic systems. Hydraulic accumulators with separating elements are further divided into bladder. as pressure in the system falls.asp?.e%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput2%2Faccumulator%2Ehtml (1 of 3) [06/04/02 9:23:54] . Then. please enter your login information.) The fluid section connects to the hydraulic circuit so that as pressure rises fluid enters the accumulator and the gas compresses. Generally small and lightweight.. However. (Some types. with a gas-tight element separating the two. or weight loaded. http://www. such as air receivers. making them useful in mobile applications. They use the compressibility of a gas -. Basically.machinedesign. Often found in older. and piston To log in.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Accumulators Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites.. news of interest. They are generally classified by the means of stored energy: gas loaded. The latter are typically very large devices. weight-loaded accumulators have a large capacity and uniform output pressure but present problems with installation and servicing. The bulk of hydraulic accumulators are gas loaded. have no separating element.usually nitrogen . and previous searches! Accumulators are simple devices that store energy in the form of fluid under pressure. spring-loaded accumulators are limited to small volumes and pressure below 500 psi. high-demand applications such as steel mills. a hydropneumatic accumulator has a fluid compartment and a gas compartment. Because of their ability to store excess energy and release it when needed.for storing energy. a spring gives a repeatable output force.

Bladder accumulators consist of a pressure vessel and an internal elastomeric bladder that contains the gas. To operate. usually through the fluid end of the vessel. The bladder can be replaced. 8:1 for welded. In other words.asp?. a poppet prevents the diaphragm from being ejected through the fluid connection. The bladder is charged through a gas valve at the top of the accumulator. the diaphragm is pressed into the bottom half of the vessel before the seam is electron-beam welded. The change in gas volume in the bladder between minimum and maximum operating pressure determines the useful fluid capacity. The poppet valve is sized so that maximum volumetric flow (typically to 15 liter/sec. Pressure ratios are generally 10:1 for threaded. the bladder is charged with nitrogen to a pressure specified by the manufacturer according to the operating conditions. Threaded models can be disassembled and the diaphragm replaced. When system pressure exceeds gas-precharge pressure of the elastomeric diaphragm. Welded diaphragm accumulators are nonrepairable. but up to 140 liter/sec for high-flow designs) cannot be exceeded. As in the bladder type. for an accumulator with a maximum operating pressure of http://www. they are lighter and cost substantially less than threaded or bladder designs. the diaphragm is held between top and bottom halves of the vessel by a threaded ring.machinedesign.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering designs. In the former. while a poppet valve at the bottom prevents the bladder from being ejected with the outflowing fluid.e%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput2%2Faccumulator%2Ehtml (2 of 3) [06/04/02 9:23:54] . containing the separating element -. Another difference is the ratio of maximum operating pressure to gas-precharge pressure. in threaded models.. and 4:1 for bladder accumulators.. Diaphragm accumulators are usually comprised of a spherical or cylindrical pressure vessel. the poppet valve opens and hydraulic fluid enters the accumulator. There are two different designs: welded and threaded.

but bladder designs are generally considered the most versatile of the three. Each type of separated.. but are available to about 125 gallon capacity. Diaphragm accumulators are the least expensive. for example. An advantage diaphragm accumulators hold is that they can be mounted in any position.asp?. with the gas side up. For piston and bladder accumulators vertical mounting is the preferred orientation. The largest piston designs are typically about 100 gallon capacity. bladder and diaphragm models are ideal. and sealing system. As system pressure exceeds the minimum operating level for the accumulator. Bladder designs predominate between one and 15 gallons. Piston accumulators have an outer cylinder tube. minimum gas-precharge pressures would be 300 psi for threaded. a piston element. Charging the gas side forces the piston against the end cover at the fluid end. which forms the separating element between gas and fluid. but maximum capacity is only about one gallon. hydropneumatic accumulator has advantages. bladder and piston models are competitively priced.. the piston moves and compresses gas in the cylinder. and 750 psi for bladder types. The cylinder holds fluid pressure and guides the piston. the seals in piston types are not designed to hold pressure indefinitely without being cycled. Accumulators with a higher pressure ratio are more efficient because they have a greater volume of usable fluid. For emergency service. For similar quality and performance.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering 3. though. http://www.e%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput2%2Faccumulator%2Ehtml (3 of 3) [06/04/02 9:23:54] . Piston units are not recommended because they are too slow to react to shock waves. 375 psi for The system can leak and fail with no obvious indication to the outside. However. For shock and pulsation. many users prefer piston accumulators. end caps.000 psi.machinedesign.

They deliver fluid only when the cylinder demands it.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput2%2Fintensifier%2Ehtml (1 of 6) [06/04/02 9:27:10] . oil-to-oil.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Intensifiers Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites. E-mail: Password: q q q Because heat is not generated while static hydraulic pressure is maintained and little is generated during rapid cycling. Other advantages exist: q To log in. Booster systems are generally more compact than equivalent pump-and-tank units. small oil reserves are required. there are no relief-valve losses. and air-to-air. news of interest. Direction control of booster-operated cylinders is through air valves which are usually less expensive than hydraulic valves. Since all the oil from the booster is directed to the cylinder. but just as reliable.machinedesign. Because high hydraulic pressure is easily attained. and previous searches! Intensifiers. use a large quantity of low-pressure fluid to produce a smaller quantity of higher-pressure fluid. Pressure regulation of booster discharge is controlled by an economical air pressureregulator valve. also known as boosters. please enter your login Because pressure and direction-control valves are located in the air portion of the Remember My Password http://www. There are three classes of intensifiers: air-tooil. booster-operated cylinders can be smaller in diameter. Hydraulic boosters can develop and maintain high pressure for long periods of time without using power or generating heat in the circuit.

However. If the high-pressure stroke must be long. If a ready supply of shop air is available. an oil-to-oil booster is the best choice. a http://www. Selection of a booster type is probably the easiest decision of all. single-ram boosters offer little advantage. Generally. Therefore. large boosters are required. Four-way hydraulic valves should also be Design: The Basics of Design Engineering q air-oil booster circuits. The double-pressure booster circuit can be used. a normal one-shot booster will be used. few fittings and usually no valves are required in the boosterto-cylinder connection. calculated volumetric ratios of slave cylinder versus output cylinder should produce accurate results. Valves that have tank drainbacks should be avoided.machinedesign. air-to-air boosters are somewhat less predictable than other types. If low-pressure hydraulic fluid is readily available. If a one-shot source of fluid for clamping and holding is required. an air-to-oil booster will be used. A booster can drive more than one cylinder if the cylinders work in unison. if a stroke/diameter ratio of 3. Because air is compressible. Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you. additional boosters are required. but only if the driven cylinder load can be divided into a low-pressure traverse stroke and a reasonably short high-pressure stroke. and if the cycle must repeat rapidly. only certain types of hydraulic valves can be used in air-to-oil booster circuits. to sequence two or more cylinders. However. For large quantities of high-pressure air or oil. However. Single-ram boosters are limited in their capacity to supply high-pressure oil.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput2%2Fintensifier%2Ehtml (2 of 6) [06/04/02 9:27:10] . because they generally cause momentary pressure drops in the system and throw the booster out of phase with the cylinder.7:1 is used to determine size of the output cylinder. because they use booster capacity during operation. boosters can be used as a hydraulic power source only in single-cylinder applications. Boosters are limited in their volumetric capacity. Air-to-air boosters permit the use of low-cost air cylinders at line pressures greater than those available from normal shop-air compressors. if a continuous supply of fluid is required to reciprocate a cylinder or rotate a motor.

A tripleheaded type must be used where rapid cycling is required.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput2%2Fintensifier%2Ehtml (3 of 6) [06/04/02 9:27:10] . First. Double-acting continuous boosters supply oil during both parts of the stroke. Finally. Next. Ar = booster ram area. L. Both require valving or external controls to produce the necessary reciprocating action. a doublepressure booster can be used. making provisions for fluid compressibility. booster size must be determined. the normal circuit extends the actuator.machinedesign. for a single-pressure booster can be calculated from L = ( (Vc + Vo) / Ar ) + l where Vc = total cylinder volume. If the maximum cylinder force is required only for the last portion of the stroke. with savings in booster size and air consumption. With such a booster. Booster size: If a cylinder requires high-pressure delivery throughout the stroke. Therefore. Vo = oil volume loss due to compressibility. but the singleacting model is generally simpler. and the booster supplies fluid only for the maximum force portion of the stroke. output speed of the actuator must be checked to ensure that it is sufficient for the selected booster. A double-headed booster can be used if the number of cycles per minute is low.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering continuous booster should be considered. The two types are double acting and single acting. Booster stroke L for this arrangement is: http://www. output generally has less ripple. and l = booster ram pretravel. Continuous boosters replace a pump in the system because they provide a steady output of high-pressure fluid. and automatic bleeding and filling are not important. a singlepressure booster circuit is needed. the size of the makeup fluid tank must be determined. Three major steps are involved in selecting the right booster for an application. If the cylinder size is known. allowing for bleeding air from the fluid.

In rapid-cycle booster applications. tanks must have a volume slightly greater than the displaced volume of the cylinder. A tank larger in diameter than the cylinder results in better surface quiescence during the fill stroke. Act as pressure sources to traverse or return cylinder. its size depends on how much the system leaks.machinedesign.000 psi. Pressurized tanks must also serve as an outlet for entrained air. Tank size: The air-oil tanks in booster circuits perform three general functions: 1. Well-designed tank baffles eliminate churning at oil velocities below 15 fps. tanks are also outlets for entrained air. oil is considered incompressible. it is safer to assume that oil can be compressed at the rate of approximately 1% per 1. When the tank functions as a reservoir. This churning aerates the oil and produces excessive Both equations contain a term for oil compressibility. Make up for leakage. Tanks for rapid-cycle booster applications should have: http://www.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering L = ( (Vp + Vo) / Ar ) + l where Vp = volume required to move the cylinder through the high-pressure portion of the stroke. Each cycle then sprays foam out the air-valve exhaust. In most hydraulic applications. Here. 2. the lower tank baffle should not be exposed to air pressure. When at the low-level point. the tank is not pressurized and acts primarily as a reservoir. However. Provide outlets for entrained air. Volume of the tank should be enough to preclude oil level reaching the upper tank baffle at the high-level point. 3. When functioning as a pressure source. oil has a tendency to churn as it flows back into the tank. But in high-pressure applications.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput2%2Fintensifier%2Ehtml (4 of 6) [06/04/02 9:27:10] .

Air gets into the system in many ways. This type of operation ensures that air does not build up in the system. yet holding the booster "on. the most common being the use of two-position air valves. Properly designed baffles. A diameter larger than the cylinder diameter. Experts recommend that self-bleeding boosters be used wherever possible. This results in high-pressure air being left "on" for long periods. the air dissolves quickly into the oil. so the self-bleeding boosters are particularly important for applications that seem prone to aeration. A fill rate less than 4 fps.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput2%2Fintensifier%2Ehtml (5 of 6) [06/04/02 9:27:10] . This problem can be avoided by using a three-position. Cycle rate should be set so that the flow through the interconnecting pipes does not exceed 15 fps. Air valves should be located close to the booster and air-oil tanks. Cylinder speed: If rapid cylinder action is required. open-center valve and arranging the circuit so the tank can be exhausted by centering the valve." Another alternative is to use a bladder or piston separator in the air-oil tank.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering q q q q q Ports equal to or larger than the cylinder ports. Consider both high-pressure and low-pressure work reactions. causing spongy operation.machinedesign.can release air from the fluid. Also. These and other causes can rapidly aerate fluid in even a welldesigned system. and be connected with http://www. Air tends to enter the fluid when it churns in the tank. causing "spongy" operation that impairs function and efficiency. A location above cylinders and boosters so the system can be self-bleeding. air exists naturally in most hydraulic fluid. and vacuum in the system -caused when boosters outspeed cylinders on reset -. In addition. the hydraulic cylinder should be sized so that the reaction force (force required to do work) is 50 to 60% of available cylinder force at calculated pressure. Tank height should be specified by matching rated-tank capacity with the cylinder the vacuum can draw air past seals into the system.

For efficient flow conditions. and Ap = internal area of pipe. oil pressure is equal to air-line pressure -. Vo. and adequate internal area. special care must be taken to ensure that the system is piped with a minimum of fittings and coupled as short as possible.3202 * Q * Vp ) / Ap where Q = cylinder displacement. Three-way and four-way valves should be sized as though they were to operate a rapid-cycle air cylinder directly. If calculated oil velocity exceeds 15 fps. if used. When estimating the speed of booster-operated cylinders. Air pressure-regulator valves. should be selected for satisfactory flow capacity at regulated pressure. Pressure drop in a low-pressure circuit can materially reduce traverse speed. When air-oil tanks are traversing or resetting the cylinder. An air storage tank between the pressure regulator and the four-way valve optimizes air-valve response. Cylinders and tanks also can be specified with larger-than-standard ports to minimize pressure drops. The valves should be selected for lowpressure drop. http://www. system line sizes should be increased to maintain speed. as well as matching port sizes.machinedesign. in the lines leading to the cylinder: Vo = ( 0. start by calculating oil velocity.usually around 80 psi. Sizing the cylinder so that the reaction force is approximately 50 to 60% of the available force at 80 psi usually offsets the effect of the pressure drop. On critical systems. fast response. Vp = cylinder piston speed. oil velocity should not exceed 15 fps.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput2%2Fintensifier%2Ehtml (6 of 6) [06/04/02 9:27:10] .Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering a minimum of piping. Self-relieving regulators prevent downstream pressure

which is almost a "utility" in the plant like water or electric service. facility-type compressed and under pressure at the time it is delivered. Nevertheless. or nonpositive-displacement compressors are typically larger. Most devices used to compress air are very similar in concept and -. and previous searches! The main difference between pumps and compressors is that the fluid delivered by compressors -. The only other substantive difference is that most hydraulic systems are powered by a single pump that is actually a part of the system.air -. even if there is no load on the hydraulic pumps. and preferably 10 to 25% more. Four basic rules can provide substantial improvement in compressor life with only moderate design effort: q To log in.perhaps even in hardware -. discrete jobs. and selection considerations are similar. E-mail: Password: Remember My Password Pumps and compressors should be sized to provide at least the required pressure and flow. many small compressors are available for specific.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Compressors Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites. Dynamic. capable of long periods of maintenance-free operation if properly integrated into pneumatic systems. Compressors are fairly simple devices. please enter your login information. whereas a host of pneumatic systems are often powered by a single compressor. typically they are positive-displacement compressors.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput2%2Fcompressor%2Ehtml (1 of 4) [06/04/02 9:28:49] . Yet time and again they suffer from early failures because obvious precautions were ignored during system design. news of interest.

machinedesign. Pumping units should be placed in a clean. with the pistons compressing the gas and valves controlling its inlet and outflows. Like their hydraulic counterparts. the compressors are inexpensive. and low starting-torque requirement. dry environment. vane pumps.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering q q q Filters should be selected to protect the pumping unit. at pressures to 150 psi. gas-sampling instruments. Lobed-rotor compressors have two rotating elements that revolve in opposite directions in a chamber. These compressors typically cover the pressure range up to 10 psig. Reciprocating compressors consist of a piston moving within the cylinder to trap and compress the gas. with little pulsation in the compressor In principle. and medical applications. Bellows compressors consist of a welded metal bellows connected to inlet and outlet ports with check valves. such a unit is like an automobile engine. Diaphragm compressors are a modification of the reciprocating compressor. Lubrication is not needed. Relief valves should be selected to keep pressure or vacuum at appropriate levels. They are compact and relatively vibration free. and are used in pollution detecting and measuring devices. being driven instead by timing gears. with low operating cost. Reciprocating compressors have good part load efficiencies and are useful for wide variations in operating conditions. The sliding vanes are closely fitted in the rotor slots and wear very little during operation. cool. Sizes range from less than 1 to over 5. Compression is performed by the flexing of a metal or fabricated diaphragm which is caused by the motion of a reciprocating piston in a cylinder under the diaphragm. Because the rotors do not actually http://www. In most compressors.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput2%2Fcompressor%2Ehtml (2 of 4) [06/04/02 9:28:49] . the rotors do not actually touch and do not drive each other.000 hp. allowing high purities to be maintained. and sometimes to protect downstream components or products as well. The space between the diaphragm and the piston is usually filled with liquid. These compressors are available in power ranges from 10 to 500 hp. Vane compressors are simple machines with few moving parts. Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you.

Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering

touch, air leaks between them at a small but constant rate. This leakage, called "slip," is constant for a given compressor at a given pressure. For highest efficiency, these compressors should be operated at maximum speed. They are available in power ranges from 7 to 3,000 hp, delivering pressures to 250 psi. Because the internal lobes do not contact, they need no lubrication. Liquid piston compressors have no moving parts in wearing contact. A rotor with multiple forward-curved blades rotates in an elliptical casing. Fluid, trapped within the casing, is carried around the inner periphery by the blades. Space between the blades changes volume due to the elliptical fluid path, and the inner surface of the liquid ring trapped between the blades serves as the face of a liquid piston. These compressors accept liquid slugs and fine particles without serious damage. Lubrication is required only in bearings located outside the pump housing. These compressors deliver up to 150 psi throughout the range of 10 to 500 hp. Centrifugal compressors are best suited to moving large volumes of air at relatively low pressures. Basically, they consist of a high-speed rotating impeller, a diffuser section where velocity is reduced and pressure increased, and a collector section that further reduces velocity and increases pressure. Centrifugal compressors can handle high flow demands well, but when demand decreases much below rated flow and output pressure rises, the compressors can surge. In surge, the pressure field at the compressor outlet varies randomly. If allowed to continue, this condition can damage bearings, blades, and even the housing itself. Centrifugal compressors typically use from two to six stages, supplying from 400 to 3,000 cfm at speeds to 20,000 rpm. Regenerative blowers (also known as peripheral blowers) use a disclike impeller with blades mounted around its outside edge. As the impeller revolves, air is drawn into the space between the blades. Centrifugal force moves the air in a spiral path outward to the housing, where it slips by the initial blade and returns to the base of the succeeding blade, where the process is repeated. In some models, a flow splitter creates two flow paths, so that the air must make two circuits around the impeller. In other models, the splitter is omitted, and the air makes only one circuit before exiting. Regenerative blowers (3 of 4) [06/04/02 9:28:49]

Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering

provide air flows up to 1,000 cfm and pressures to 8 psi. Helical compressors look like two giant screws meshing together; they work much like hydraulic screw pumps. Maximum pressure from these machines is approximately 125 psi in single-stage configurations. Helical compressors may be either oil flooded or dry. Dry helical compressors, like lobed units, require timing gears to maintain proper clearance between the rotating elements. These units are most efficiently operated at high continuous speeds. Flooded compressors do not require any timing gears, because the oil-laden screw surfaces can drive each other. However, oil separators are needed to remove the oil from the air as it leaves the compressor. They are available over a power range of about 7 to 300 hp. Single-screw compressors are based on the same principle as helical compressors. As the central screw rotates, air trapped between the screw teeth is compressed against the star-shaped rotors. These compressors tend to have low vibration and noise levels, and low discharge pressures. Lubrication is required. (4 of 4) [06/04/02 9:28:49]

Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering

Vacuum pumps

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In principle, industrial vacuum pumps are merely compressors run with the inlet attached to the vacuum system and the outlet open to exhaust. In smaller sizes, compressors and vacuum pumps are often identical machines. However, in the large sizes that might power a plant-wide vacuum system, the machines differ in minor ways that are intended to enhance efficiency for one application or the other. Manufacturers strongly advise that the same machine not be used for both vacuum and compression at the same time. The heavy loads will damage it. Three criteria control pump selection: degree of vacuum produced, rate of air removal, and power requirement. However, applications such as filtration may subject the unit to the ingestion of foreign material. The first pump performance criterion is the vacuum it produces. Manufacturers provide a maximum vacuum rating expressed as absolute pressure in mm Hg, or vacuum in in. Hg. Larger units are usually rated only for continuous duty, but smaller units may have a higher vacuum rating for intermittent duty. In smaller units, temperature-rise considerations limit the vacuum that can be produced. Continuous and intermittent vacuum ratings are determined for standard atmospheric pressure: 29.92-in. Hg. Lower ambient pressures reduce the vacuum that can be produced. The rating is determined from:

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power. Hg. flow and power -. Hg. which can overheat if on time greatly exceeds off time. Vo = original vacuum rating at standard conditions. Overall pump efficiency (including both volumetric and mechanical efficiency) can be evaluated by combining this data. This heat gradually raises pump temperature and can drastically reduce service life. Hg. The last pump criterion is power requirement. http://www. Some manufacturers also provide curves of capacity at different speeds for a given vacuum. which is proportional to flow and pressure differential. At higher vacuum levels.92 Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you. so little heat is transferred to the air. at high flows. Much of the heat generated by friction must be dissipated by the pump. where Va = adjusted vacuum rating.can be affected by pump temperature. little air flows through the pump. Vacuum pumps are flow rated according to the volume of air exhausted with no pressure differential across the pump.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Va = ( Vo * Pa ) / 29. This is done by dividing the free-air capacity of the pump at the required vacuum level by drive power required at that condition.machinedesign. Power output of the pump can be found from pressure-flow curves provided by manufacturers. Compared with air compressors. The result is proportional to the product of gage vacuum and air-flow rate and is representative of efficiency. Hg (so-called "open capacity") to maximum vacuum rating. in. Input power and speed requirements are also shown in the data. Rate of air removal is the second criterion. is generally low. in.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput2%2Fvacuum%2Ehtml (2 of 6) [06/04/02 9:30:31] . vacuum (or pressure differential) is high. vacuum pumps require relatively little power. vacuum is low.vacuum. At low flows. All three performance criteria -. Therefore. and Pa = anticipated atmospheric pressure at the application site. Temperature excursions are especially important to intermittent-duty pump. Manufacturers provide curves showing free air delivery at rated speed for vacuum levels ranging from in.

diaphragm. while two-stage units are rated to 29 in. rotary-screw. The design is available in both one and two-stage versions.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Vacuum pumps are classified as either positive or nonpositive displacement. rocking-piston. This results in somewhat lower vacuum compared to that produced by a reciprocating piston. but they are also heavier and more expensive. Rocking-piston pumps combine the compact size and quiet. Single-stage pumps provide vacuum up to 25. Here.under a variety of operating conditions. A nonpositive-displacement pump. Principal types of positive-displacement vacuum pumps include piston. have a higher capacity. This generates relatively high vacuum. oilless operation of the diaphragm pump with the high-vacuum capabilities of the reciprocating-piston pump. constant volume of air. A positivedisplacement pump creates vacuum by isolating and compressing a distinct.makes for quiet. Hg. and a vacuum is created at the other port where the air is drawn in. However. Hg -. An eccentric connecting rod mechanically flexes a diaphragm inside the closed chamber to create a vacuum. While nonpositive-displacement pumps cannot produce high levels of vacuum. and reliable operation. The alternating piston action moves air past check valves in the cylinder head to create a vacuum at the inlet port.machinedesign. rotary-vane. but little flow. a piston is rigidly mounted (no wrist pin) on top of the diaphragm unit's eccentric connecting rod. Typical pumps of this type have one or more pistons linked to a rotating crankshaft.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput2%2Fvacuum%2Ehtml (3 of 6) [06/04/02 9:30:31] .5 in. large diameter. Lubricated piston pumps are quieter.low flow. and feature a much longer life than oilless designs.from 27 to more than 29 in. The compressed air is vented out one port. produce less vibration. An elastomeric cup skirts the piston and functions both as a seal -http://www. on the other hand. they provide high flow rates. uses rotating impeller blades to accelerate air and create a vacuum at the inlet port. and short stroke -. and liquid-ring designs. the diaphragm's lower compression ratio -. Reciprocating-piston pumps generate relatively high vacuums -. lobed-rotor. Hg. Diaphragm pumps offer the advantage of the fluid chamber being totally sealed from the pumping mechanisms.

thus maintaining contact with the cylinder walls and compensating for the rocking motion. Hg sometimes can be operated at restricted airflow or "blanked-off" conditions for short periods of time to provide higher vacuums. Single-stage rocking-piston pumps produce vacuum to 27. operating at sound levels as low as 50 dBA. A drawback to rocking-piston pumps is that they cannot generate a lot of airflow. the vanes slide in and out. No valves restrict flow or require maintenance in the rotary design. lubricated rotary-vane pumps are capable of slightly higher vacuum compared to oilless designs. Hg range. oil-lubricated designs have vacuum capabilities up to 29. Hg or more of vacuum. flat vanes rotating in a cylindrical case to generate vacuum. As with other types of pumps available in both lubricated and oilless configurations. Even the largest twin-cylinder models have flow rates of less than 10 cfm. there are a few exceptions. Hg. As an eccentrically mounted rotor turns. The absence of a wrist pin is the key to the pump's light weight and compact size. including high flow capacities. Hg. in the less than 1-torr range.and as a guide member for the rod. generating as little as 45 dBA or sound. The compact units are also quiet. two-stage designs can generate 29 in. Rotary-vane pumps usually have lower vacuum ratings than piston pumps.5 in. Or. trapping a quantity of air and moving it from the inlet side of the pump to the outlet. Rocking-piston pumps are also relatively quiet.machinedesign. The pumps offer a number of advantages. vibration-free operation.5 in. However. Depending on the application and vacuum level required. Rotary-vane pumps use a series of sliding. low starting and running torque requirements. Some two-stage. and continuous Pumps with recirculating oil systems reach still higher vacuums.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering equivalent to the rings on a piston compressor -. staged rotary-vane pumps. The cup expands as the piston travels upward. http://www. low-duty pump rated for continuous duty of 20 in. an economical alternative to using a high-vacuum pump is two standard. a highvolume. in the 20 to 28 in.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput2%2Fvacuum%2Ehtml (4 of 6) [06/04/02 9:30:31] .

Regenerative blowers have many advantages because individual air molecules pass http://www. Centrifugal blowers. Two meshing rotors with helical contours trap air as the screws turn in opposite directions. a short-life brush-type ac or dc motor powers these blowers. creating a vacuum. In addition to being the compression medium. liquid is thrown outward by centrifugal force to form a liquid ring concentric with the periphery of the casing. discharging compressed air and water. A rotary-screw pump's vacuum capabilities are similar to those of piston pumps. Neither lubricated design is as widely used as rotary-vane and piston pumps. with the added advantage of being nearly pulse-free.machinedesign. During the next 180° of rotation. are an excellent choice where only intermittent use is required. the air space is reduced. Due to the size of the gears and rotors. especially in smaller sizes. mounted eccentrically in a cylindrical case that is partly filled with water. Lobed-rotor pumps bridge the gap between positive and nonpositive-displacement units. Rotary-screw and lobed-rotor vacuum pumps are two other types of positive displacement pumps. both designs lend themselves to larger installations. the air space in the impeller cell expands during the first 180° of rotation. trapping air and withdrawing it from the system. which are widely used in vacuum cleaners. The pumps have a pair of mating lobed impellers that rotate in opposite directions. Due to the eccentric position of the impeller. generally operating at high speeds and attaining moderate vacuum levels. multistaged centrifugal blowers and regenerative blowers are the major types of nonpositive-displacement pumps. As the impeller Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Liquid-ring pumps feature a multiblade impeller. High-speed.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput2%2Fvacuum%2Ehtml (5 of 6) [06/04/02 9:30:31] . This action creates chambers of decreasing volume behind and increasing volume in front of the rotor chambers. for example. the liquid ring absorbs the heat of compression as well as any powder or liquid slugs entrained in the air. To keep costs down.

the air flows around the housing contour and back down to the root of a succeeding blade. At first glance. centrifugal force moves the air molecules from the blade root to its tip. but at lower flow rates. Multistage versions produce higher vacuum levels.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpower%5Finput2%2Fvacuum%2Ehtml (6 of 6) [06/04/02 9:30:31] . http://www.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering through many compression cycles with each revolution compared to the single compression per stage for multistaged centrifugal types. where the flow pattern is repeated. The end result is not a particularly high vacuum -. This action provides a quasi-staging effect to increase pressure differential capability. Leaving the blade tip. up to several hundred cfm.approximately 100-in. But flow capacity is very high. As the impeller rotates. H2O in singlestage models. regenerative blowers are similar to rotary-vane but have a special blade and housing configuration.machinedesign. The speed of the rotating impeller determines the degree of pressure change.

Cylinders work through linear extension. Where the function of the cushion is to reduce shock or hammering against the cylinder head.machinedesign. Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' a lift against gravity -. power a stroke in only one direction. Cushioned cylinders are single-acting cylinders with a built-in shock absorber. Air and hydraulic motors. motors impart continuous rotary motion to objects. http://www. please enter your login information. or reversed flow. are usually not interchangeable. E-mail: Cylinders Password: When fluid is pumped into a cylinder. This low-cost cylinder can be used for any job -. Often. It can be returned by gravity. all types of actuators are available for pneumatic or hydraulic operation. springs.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpamsa%2Fcyl%2Ehtml (1 of 4) [06/04/02 9:31:51] Remember My Password . and previous searches! To log in. Movement can be all at once. news of interest. some external force must push the piston back to its starting position. When the fluid is allowed to drain from the cylinder. though similar. Single-acting cylinders. Generally. the same cylinder can be used for either air or low-pressure oil operation. or in increments. the simplest type. Fluid-power actuators are available in a number of forms to provide specific types of the piston may even rotate or carry fluid.that provides a returning force. rotary actuators twist an object through only a partial arc.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Actuators convert fluid energy into useful work. piston and rod are forced to move in or out against a load.

so they extend with spring action and retract pneumatically or hydraulically. . Double-acting cylinders contain two fluid chambers so that pressure can be used to both extend and retract the rod. and can be used in nearly all types of applications. the hollow piston rod is restrained and the cylinder body is forced back and forth to shift the moving table.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering cushions are usually nonadjustable. The http://www. Ram cylinders are frequently used for large press applications and for jacking.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpamsa%2Fcyl%2Ehtml (2 of 4) [06/04/02 9:31:51] Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you. Spring-return cylinders are similar to the low-cost single-acting types. The cylinder must be about twice as long as the required stroke to include space for the spring. Some cylinders are spring loaded in the opposite direction. but with a spring added to return the piston to its starting point. Double-end rod cylinders are double-acting types with a rod extending from each side of the piston. This type of cylinder is by far the most common. the oldest and most common.machinedesign. so double-acting cylinders retract faster than they extend. In a design variation often used on planers. so that fluid or another machine element can be passed through the cylinder. it may require too much force to compress. Tie-rod cylinders. are typically used in industrial jobs. Ram cylinders are usually single-acting types with a rod at or near full-piston diameter. So the piston moves at the same rate and delivers equal forces in each direction. This type is widely used in both pneumatic and hydraulic service. if the spring is heavy enough for speedy piston return. A chief advantage of this type is that working areas of both piston sides are equal. Effective working area of the rod side of the piston is less than that of the other side. The large-diameter ram is favored when column loads are extremely high or when the rod overhang in a horizontal cylinder could cause sagging. and exert less force on the retraction stroke. Double-end rod cylinders are available with a hollow rod. but is not always suitable for hydraulic service. Sealing devices work in both directions. But adjustable cushions are available for applications where precise cylinder speed is

it is compact and They are often used to actuate rotating chucks on turret lathes. yet can be disassembled for repair by unthreading either or both ends from the cylinder body.machinedesign. This is the least expensive type of cylinder. a typical job is lifting the bed of a dump truck. Rotating cylinders are available both with solid and hollow pistons. lowest at the end of the stroke. no leakage across the piston. http://www. Threaded-head cylinders offer a compromise between tie-rod and one-piece units. Rotating cylinders impart linear motion to a rotating device.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpamsa%2Fcyl%2Ehtml (3 of 4) [06/04/02 9:31:51] .Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering cylinder body is held together by four or more tie rods that extend the full length of the body and pass through the end caps or mounting plate. They are frequently used as pneumatic actuators in food and drug industries because they require no lubrication and do not exhaust a contaminating oil mist. In operation. One-piece cylinders are most often used on mobile equipment and farm machinery. Double-acting actuators with twin diaphragms are available for applications requiring pressure reversal. The body is either cast integrally. But it cannot be repaired when damaged or worn. Fluid is ported to the rotating cylinder through a stationary distributor. they may perform any of the common cylinder functions except telescoping. Total stroke length may be as much as four times as long as the collapsed length of the cylinder. Force output varies with rod extension: highest at the beginning. Spring-return models should not be pressurized in the reverse direction because reversals can pleat the diaphragm and shorten its life. or extremely sensitive response to small pressure variations. Telescoping cylinders provide a long stroke from a short body. Diaphragm cylinders are used in either hydraulic or pneumatic service for applications that require low friction. when only the area of the final stage can be used to transmit force. telescoping cylinders are widely used for vehicle applications. Threaded units are relatively compact and streamlined. Available in either single or double-acting models. or head and body may be welded together. when full piston area is used.

More often. Special guides can be added to standard cylinders to prevent rod http://www. but this is often expensive and unwieldy.machinedesign.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Nonrotating cylinders are used in applications that demand both accurate linear position and precise angular orientation. twin-rod or rectangular cylinders are used.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpamsa%2Fcyl%2Ehtml (4 of 4) [06/04/02 9:31:51] .

http://www. the same cylinder can be used for either air or low-pressure oil operation. Generally. E-mail: Electrohydraulic actuators Password: The coupling of electronic and hydraulic technology is becoming increasingly common. Cylinders work through linear extension. Key to the operation of these actuators is the feedback system. especially in electrohydraulic actuators. motors impart continuous rotary motion to objects. though similar. are used.machinedesign. and previous searches! To log in. Fluid-power actuators are available in a number of forms to provide specific types of action. Linear transducer: One method for accurately sensing cylinder rod position is with a linear displacement transducer. Air and hydraulic motors. Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites. A number of different feedback systems.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Actuators convert fluid energy into useful work. please enter your login information. with the sensor rod extending into the hollowed-out piston rod. In one widely used system. both mechanical and (1 of 3) [06/04/02 9:38:59] Remember My Password . There is no physical contact between the sensor and cylinder rods. Advances in transducer logic and control capabilities have resulted in cylinders that transmit high forces with a high degree of positioning accuracy. depending on the accuracy and durability required. are usually not interchangeable. rotary actuators twist an object through only a partial arc. all types of actuators are available for pneumatic or hydraulic operation. the transducer housing is mounted to the cylinder end cap. Often. news of interest.

piston motion again causes ball screw in.000 steps per revolution. This permits oil flow to the cylinder. are http://www. Finer resolution can also be provided through microstepping. Hydraulic amplifier: Another way to accurately control position is to hydraulically amplify the motion of a stepping motor. Several choices of ball screws and helical cams provide a selection of servovalve gains and speed ranges to suit most applications.machinedesign. . the ballnut attached to the piston rotates the ball screw. which is connected to the spool. Rotary encoder: A somewhat similar means of control is with a rotary encoder.003 in.001 to 0. The controller processes this information and signals the servovalve to maintain or change flow accordingly. Stepping-motor rotation moves a cam to shift the valve spool laterally. Current pulses transmitted down the sensor interact with the magnetic field and return a sonic pulse. By combining a stepping motor. Distance can be determined by measuring the transmission/reception time interval. and repeatability of 0. which detect the presence of a magnetic material.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering To determine position. After machining. a magnet is attached to the cylinder piston. As the cylinder piston moves. the ball screw is attached to the encoder. Hall-effect sensors: Another approach for position sensing uses a precision-cut square thread on the cylinder rod exterior. and ball screw.0005 in. Two Hall-effect sensors. Precise measurement of the screw rotation corresponds to a linear piston position. are possible. returning the finish and dimensions to original specifications. Here. But in this case.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpamsa%2Fact%2Ehtml (2 of 3) [06/04/02 9:38:59] Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you. cylinder. This spool rotation maintains the relative motion of the cam.001 to 0. Positioning accuracy is 0. so the speed of the cylinder is directly proportional to the rotational speed of the stepping motor. servovalve. the rod is plated to fill the thread grooves. which gives standard stepping motors up to 25. positioning accuracy of 0.

Accuracy of this system is 0. system supply pressure is routed to the control valve and the rod end of the piston. every value of electrical input has a corresponding rod position.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering positioned at the rod surface one-quarter thread pitch apart. forcing the valve sleeve to move through a proportional distance. the follower moves up and down. As the piston moves back and Likewise. but detect the square thread peaks.025 ± 0. Output is in the form of two square waves which are 90° out of phase. thus. which moves the sleeve until control-valve flow to the piston is shut off. Thus. flow is ported to the cylinder piston. As the piston moves. causing the piston to move. An electrical input to the force motor moves the valve spool through a distance and direction corresponding to the magnitude and polarity of the signal. Because flow through two equal orifices gives equal pressure drop. Between the orifices. pressure at the piston is one-half supply pressure. the follower rides along the feedback cone. rod displacement is directly proportional to the magnitude and polarity of an electrical input to a force motor. Flow at the control valve passes through two equal size orifices to tank when in a neutral condition. it meters flow in or out of the cylinder.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpamsa%2Fact%2Ehtml (3 of 3) [06/04/02 9:38:59] . which is held in contact with the follower by a compression spring. Mechanical feedback: In one mechanical feedback system. The piston is sized to be twice the area of the rod-side area. the follower is held in contact with the feedback cone on the piston. http://www. When the spool is displaced relative to the sleeve. Here. These sensors "see through" the nonmagnetic chrome plating.machinedesign. forces on the piston are balanced. The valve spool rides in a sleeve.005 in.

machinedesign.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Actuators convert fluid energy into useful work. Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites. though similar. pressure applied or not But. Fluid-power actuators are available in a number of forms to provide specific types of action. news of interest. Cylinders work through linear extension. development of fast-acting precision pneumatic valves. transporting parts. please enter your login information. the same cylinder can be used for either air or low-pressure oil operation. Often. able to produce freely determined rod positions. until recently. Advances in closed-loop control theory. Air and hydraulic motors. pick-and-place operations. rotary actuators twist an object through only a partial arc. the need for increased capabilities in automated systems has spurred development of programmable pneumatic equipment. and the availability of high-speed electronics and user-friendly interfaces now make proportional pneumatics a reality. Remember My Password http://www. are usually not interchangeable. and small-parts assembly.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpamsa%2Fepc%2Ehtml (1 of 3) [06/04/02 9:42:10] . offering performance that matches closed-loop electrical and hydraulic systems. all types of actuators are available for pneumatic or hydraulic operation. Generally. pneumatic systems were almost entirely limited to on/off control -. However. motors impart continuous rotary motion to objects. and previous searches! To log in. E-mail: Electropneumatic cylinders Password: Pneumatics is generally preferred for applications such as material handling. or a cylinder extended or retracted.for example.

com/articleloader. The system allows up to 32 user-defined set points for each of eight programs. giving smooth deceleration to the desired position. and pick-and-place systems. In a positioning application. Most pneumatic cylinder manufacturers offer piston or rod position sensing capability with their product. One common method is the mechanical limit switch. Continuous monitoring of rod position and velocity. A multiaxis positioning configuration is also offered for control of up to eight axes. valve precision and speed must exceed that of the control loop as a whole. or to solid-state relays for timing and output. the valve shifts overcenter to build up pressure that opposes cylinder movement. Another type of pneumatic. The drawbacks most often cited are the susceptibility of mechanical parts to damage or wear. closed-loop control system features a continuous-acting valve as the control element.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering One such system features a pneumatic cylinder with a linear position sensor built into the rod. the cylinder and load. a pneumatic brake. . Variables other than proportional feedback come into play. combined with positive stopping action of the brake. The system contains no mechanical brake. spot welding. for example.machinedesign. the system requires a more powerful microprocessor than typically found in hydraulic servosystems. Controlling cylinder movement requires quick and precise valve response. Typical applications include material-handling. and that the switch gets in the way of machine http://www. Internal algorithms control rapid shifting of the valve from one side to the other. short-stroke cylinders could pose control difficulties. A rule of thumb that governs the stability of closed-loop control requires the valve natural frequency to be at least three times that of the controlled system. cylinder natural frequencies in the 1 to 5-Hz range are well within the capabilities of pneumatic control valves. enabling the user to interface with electronic controls. But for most material-handling applications. Valve speed determines how rapidly the system compensates for unwanted deviations. When free programmability and multiposition capabilities are not important. lower-cost options are available.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpamsa%2Fepc%2Ehtml (2 of 3) [06/04/02 9:42:10] Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you. as the rod approaches the set point. As the control element. along with position sensor and electronic controller. ensures accurate positioning. for example. Thus. It interfaces to I/O devices such as computers or programmable controllers. Large-diameter. although this device seems to have fallen into disfavor. and an electronic controller.

Hall-effect devices react much faster than reed switches. This eliminates excess compressible air in the lines between cylinder and flow control. regardless of the switch used. the magnetic field closes the switch. In many applications. Overall. completing an electric circuit and producing an electric signal. Hall-effect switches are limited to dc only. although the price differential is decreasing.005 in. Reed switches have the advantage of operating on ac or dc current. on the order of versus 500 Hz. More often. giving more precise control. even if the switch is very fast and accurate. with no moving parts to wear out.especially in midstroke -.machinedesign. or less. Others prefer to use Hall-effect sensors in combination with a piston-mounted magnet. not switch accuracy. But often rod difficult.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering operation. On the other hand. and then be hampered by a slow switch. getting the valves to react fast enough may be the real problem. One type of proximity switch is an enclosed reed switch that is activated by a permanent magnet mounted to the piston.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpamsa%2Fepc%2Ehtml (3 of 3) [06/04/02 9:42:10] . Also. the trend seems to be towards these solid-state devices. It is a waste of money to install microprocessor-based logic. mounting fast-acting valves as close to the cylinder as possible is important. determines the overall repeatability of rod position. Because air is a compressible fluid. while a Hall-effect switch is electronic. As the piston approaches. The main difference between these two devices is that a reed switch is a mechanical device. reed switches are about half the price of their electronic counterpart. proximity switches mounted to the cylinder OD are used. Both switches have a repeatability of 0. precise positioning of the cylinder rod -. In such cases. http://www. These provide noncontact indication of cylinder piston position.

Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering

Actuators convert fluid energy into useful work. Fluid-power actuators are available in a number of forms to provide specific types of action. Cylinders work through linear extension; motors impart continuous rotary motion to objects; rotary actuators twist an object through only a partial arc. Generally, all types of actuators are available for pneumatic or hydraulic operation. Often, the same cylinder can be used for either air or low-pressure oil operation. Air and hydraulic motors, though similar, are usually not interchangeable.

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Rotary actuators


Rotary actuators produce oscillating power by rotating an output shaft through a fixed arc. They are compact, simple, and efficient. They produce high instantaneous torque in either direction and require only a small space and simple mountings. Rack-and-pinion actuators use fluid pressure to drive a piston connected to a gear rack, which rotates a pinion. Standard units are available with rotation of 90, 180, or 360°. They can be obtained with two parallel piston-rack units to double output torque. Outputs to 35 million lb-in. are available. Vane actuators consist of a shaft mounted in a cylindrical housing, with one or more vanes attached to the shaft. Applying fluid pressure to the vanes produces shaft rotation. (1 of 3) [06/04/02 9:45:01]

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Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering

An internal barrier between housing OD and shaft divides interior volume into two chambers. For this reason, single-vane actuators are normally limited to about 280° of rotation, and double-vane actuators to about 100°. Torque is directly proportional to vane area and effective fluid pressure. Vane actuators have torque outputs as high as 500,000 lb-in. Helix actuators have helical grooves in the piston rod that convert linear to rotary motion. Helical actuators are available with standard rotations varying from 100 to 370° with outputs to 15,000 lb-in. A relatively new actuator gaining wide acceptance uses double helical gearing. This design features two moving parts: the piston sleeve, which reciprocates and rotates; and the output shaft, which only rotates. As the piston sleeve reciprocates in helical actuators, the outer spline engages the ring gear and causes sleeve rotation. At the same time, the inner spline engages another set of helical teeth on the output shaft. This causes relative shaft rotation in addition to that of the piston sleeve. Planetary actuators increase helix angle and reduce actuator length by replacing sliding action with rolling action. Planetary rollers on the piston between the helical shaft and housing grooves provide an arrangement similar to the gears in a planetary speed reducer. As in double helical actuators, planetary actuators have two basic moving elements, the piston assembly and shaft assembly. Piston movement causes rollers to follow helical grooves in the housing, forcing piston rotation. Simultaneously, the rollers follow helical grooves in the shaft, forcing shaft rotation. Design is such that 90° piston movement results in 180° of shaft rotation. Largediameter bearings and mounting flanges on this unit can carry large moment, thrust, and radial loads. Linear cylinders consist of a simple cylinder with a pin-ended rod connected to a crank arm that drives the rotating shaft. These devices are typically pressure actuated in both directions and are equipped with adjustable stops for accurate adjustment of stroke.

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Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering

Stroke is ordinarily adjustable from 85 to 100°. Fail-safe variations on the basic cylinder are used where a power failure or fluid loss could suspend the controlled object in a dangerous position. Fail-safe actuators are spring-loaded to ensure the return of the shaft to a safe position -- they are available with torque outputs to over 5,000 lb-in. Scotch yoke actuators provide torque from a linear cylinder mechanism. They can be either single or double acting, producing torque as high as 45 million lb-in., driving through comparatively short arcs -- about 90° maximum. Output torque is not constant, but increases as the piston moves away from its center position. Sprocket actuators provide long rotations. Up to five complete turns (1,800°) and torques to 23,500 lb-in. are available from sprocket actuators. In these devices, two pistons, a chain, and a sprocket convert fluid pressure into torque. The large piston acts as the driver, pulling the chain. The smaller piston seals against fluid leakage past the return side of the endless chain. Bladder actuators route fluid into rubber bladders that push against a cup-shaped lever arm to provide rotary motion up to 100°. As long as bladders remain intact, there can be no leakage across the lever arm, so the actuators provide excellent angular accuracy. Bladders can be compounded for compatibility with almost any fluid medium, and are insensitive to abrasive particles in the fluid. (3 of 3) [06/04/02 9:45:01]

Cylinders work through linear extension. Air and hydraulic motors. motors impart continuous rotary motion to objects. they generate a rotating force that may either twist the plate or the barrel in which the pistons are rotated.usually seven to nine (1 of 4) [06/04/02 9:46:22] . in a few hydraulic motors. the same cylinder can be used for either air or low-pressure oil operation. Often.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Actuators convert fluid energy into useful work. Generally. In most designs.machinedesign. all types of actuators are available for pneumatic or hydraulic operation. The internal engineering of each is quite different. the shaft is driven directly from either the barrel or the cam plate. The pistons are restrained at one end by an angled plate: As they bear against the plate. Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites. and previous searches! To log in. rotary actuators twist an object through only a partial arc. the shaft is driven through a differential-gear arrangement that permits low speed and high torque. Remember My Password http://www. Axial-piston motors contain several pistons -. are usually not interchangeable.that are extended by high-pressure fluid. Fluid-power actuators are available in a number of forms to provide specific types of action. but the operating philosophies are very similar. E-mail: Fluid motors Password: Generally. please enter your login information. news of interest. though similar. hydraulic and pneumatic motors are organized along similar principles.

500 lb-in.000 psi and deliver torques to 1.700 lb-in.000 rpm.500 rpm. They consist of a pair of matched spur or helical gears enclosed in a case. Radial-piston air motors are generally limited to free speeds below 4. connects the inner gear to the output shaft. In hydraulic designs. with eccentric action at both ends. axial-piston motors produce maximum torques to 17. and the inner gear is allowed to orbit within it.000 rpm. http://www. Gerotor air motors function similarly to their hydraulic counterparts.. from pressures to 5. and are arrayed in a number of ways. these motors deliver torques to 3. Operating at pressures to 1. A stub spline shaft.1 to 2. Speeds can range from 0. generating maximum speeds to around 4. Differential gear motors are a variation of the gerotor type. Tooth velocities and wear are low and power density is high.000 psi and operating to 3. Gear-on-gear motors are the most common hydraulic units. They can produce torques over one million lb-in. The inner gear seals against the outer to guard against fluid leakage.000 psi. and built-in lubrication. Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you. Pneumatic axial piston motors are available only in the smaller ranges.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Axial-piston motors have a reputation for high volumetric efficiency. These units develop maximum torques of about 6.500 psi. generally under 200 rpm. accepting inlet pressures to 3. but are designed for low-speed with design speeds below 2. They provide high starting torque. often called gerotors.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpamsa%2Fmotor%2Ehtml (2 of 4) [06/04/02 9:46:22] .000 psi.000 lb-in.000 rpm. Radial-piston motors have pistons that radiate out from the drive shaft.000 rpm. reliability. at pressures exceeding 5. combined with excellent operation at both high and low speeds.000 rpm.000 rpm. at speeds to 1. developed to produce high torque at low speed.machinedesign. in sizes to 3 hp. but are not normally governed.500 lb-in. Gear-within-gear motors can accept pressures to 2. The outer gear is held fixed. B>Gear-within-gear motors. are very compact for their displacement. Most axial piston air motors are grease lubricated and require provision for regular servicing. at speed ranges to over 5.

it applies force against the vane. with a fixed crescentshaped element between the gears. These motors produce speeds to 5.) In both hydraulic and pneumatic versions. maximum torque is 4. vane motors consist of a slotted rotor mounted eccentrically within a circuit cam ring.machinedesign. The torque of a four-port motor is twice that of a similarly sized two-port motor. Vane motors are used for both pneumatic and hydraulic operation. In the latter configuration. Top speed is 4. are available at rated operating pressures of 90 psi. Vanes in the rotor slots are free to move in and out. operating on maximum pressures of 500 psi. the motors tend to have higher efficiencies. at maximum continuous pressures of about 2. These pneumatic vane motors must be provided with some method for feeding lubricant into the air stream because the outer ends of the vanes rub against the cylinder wall. they are often spring-loaded to the outward position. For normal but the principle of vane operation is equally acceptable. and speeds to 850 rpm. A few vane motors for hydraulic applications use even more ports to create a high-torque. low-speed motor. (In reality.500 psi.400 lb-in.000 lb-in.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Roller-gerotor motors are a variation on gerotor differential-gear motors. and longer lives. each vane provides torque to the rotor twice each revolution. with only two inlet ports. with rated speed approximately 50% of that level..000 rpm. or passes in and out through two ports on each side of the vane. They also typically require a governor to http://www.000 rpm. These motors accept pressures up to 4. Torques well in excess of 2.500 psi and produce torques to 16.000 lb-in. Vane motors for pneumatic systems operate at free speeds to 13. Most hydraulic vane motors use a two or four-port configuration so that the fluid passes in one side of the vane and out the other. turning the rotor and allowing the fluid to sweep from inlet to outlet ports. lower starting torques.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpamsa%2Fmotor%2Ehtml (3 of 4) [06/04/02 9:46:22] . Crescent gear motors have a small gear within a larger one. the same motor is rarely suitable for operation on both hydraulic fluid and air. and speed is approximately half. The gear teeth seal against the crescent.000 rpm. Lobes of the outer gear are replaced by rollers that reduce friction. As air or fluid enters the motor. Thus.

400 rpm. steam. at continuous pressures of 2. Maximum speed range is 650 to 1.000 rpm.machinedesign. Rotary abutment motors are hydraulic units that consist of a three-lobe rotor.200 lb-in.. with each lobe carrying a roller in a dovetail groove. They deliver torques to 3. and the Freons.000 psi.000 psi. they cannot compensate for wear so they require good filtration for continued trouble-free service. with continuous speeds in the range of 5 to 1. The sealing arrangement is substantially frictionless and relatively insensitive to wear. Unlike conventional vane motors. http://www.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpamsa%2Fmotor%2Ehtml (4 of 4) [06/04/02 9:46:22] . at continuous pressures to 2. The motors provide continuous running torques as high as 3. Timing gears between the output shaft and rotary abutments keep the rotor and abutments in proper phase.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering inhibit operation at free speed. Axial-vane motors use vanes that rotate instead of sweeping in and out to seal. no lubrication is required in the drive gas. may damage itself or connected machinery. The rollers provide a positive seal between the rotor and housing. They also are available with or without gear reducers to provide a range of speeds from 0 to 25. An ungoverned vane motor. They can be driven by a wide variety of gases and vapors such as compressed air. Turbine motors are available with power ratings from fractional horsepower to 85 shaft hp at drive pressures to 90 psig.500 rpm. Because turbine motors fully expand the compressed gas and have very low frictional losses. The motor contains two rotary abutments. Units without gear reducers typically weigh from 3 to 20 lb. Turbine motors used exclusively in pneumatic systems. allowed to reach free speed. they are the most efficient type of pneumatic motor for integral-horsepower applications. These motors may have very small fixed clearances and low stalled friction for excellent lowspeed capability. one of which rotates to pass a rotor lobe while the second seals the rotor hub.200 lb-in. can be either single or multistage units. natural gas. Because the motors have no rubbing surfaces as in vane motors.

Air and hydraulic motors. hydrostatics have a continuous power curve without peaks and But despite the superior performance of hydrostatics. Typically outperforming mechanical and electrical variable-speed drives and gear-type transmissions. motors impart continuous rotary motion to objects.machinedesign. Generally. they offer fast response. and they can increase available torque without shifting gears. Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites. a major drawback has been higher cost compared to their mechanical counterparts. news of interest. and previous searches! To log in. maintain precise speed under varying loads. and allow infinitely variable speed control from zero to maximum. Remember My Password http://www. are usually not interchangeable. Often.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpamsa%2Fdrive%2Ehtml (1 of 4) [06/04/02 9:48:42] .Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Actuators convert fluid energy into useful work. rotary actuators twist an object through only a partial arc. Cylinders work through linear extension. all types of actuators are available for pneumatic or hydraulic operation. Fluid-power actuators are available in a number of forms to provide specific types of action. though similar. the same cylinder can be used for either air or low-pressure oil operation. Unlike gear transmissions. please enter your login information. E-mail: Hydrostatic drives Password: Hydrostatic drives are widely recognized as an excellent means of power transmission when variable output speed is required.

continue to boost performance levels. golf-course maintenance equipment. Similarly.5 hp/lb of motor. older motors provided about 0. Part of the reason for the increasing attractiveness of hydrostatic transmissions is improved design of pumps and motors -.5 hp/lb. These factors now make hydrostatics an economical choice for many applications.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Manufacturers. Performance: Hydrostatic transmissions are commonly available with at least three standards of output performance: q Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to light-duty units (less than 20 hp) are being used on equipment such as lawn tractors.5 gpm/lb. and heavy-duty transmissions (approximately 60 hp and higher) on agricultural and large construction equipment. motor. a 400% increase. variable-torque transmissions are based on a variable- http://www. Currently available pumps deliver about 0. As a result.machinedesign. and offer advanced electronic controls.with the convenience of single-package procurement installation. and easy controllability -. Early hydrostatic transmissions were intended primarily for low-cost applications such as farm equipment and garden tractors.125-gpm flow per pound of pump. ability to be stalled without damage. It contains pump. For example. A basic hydrostatic transmission is an entire hydraulic system. however. and power. trenchers.particularly higher flow and pressure ratings in a more compact package. Such a system provides all the noted advantages of a conventional hydraulic system -.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpamsa%2Fdrive%2Ehtml (2 of 4) [06/04/02 9:48:42] . torque.particularly in controls -have made these transmissions suitable for a broad range of applications. and all required controls in one simple package. But improved designs -. plus smooth and controllable acceleration. and other such vehicles. several years ago. harvesters. produce smaller and lighter packages. new motors provide about 2. and small machine tools. Variable-power. most pumps could be expected to deliver about 0.such as stepless adjustment of speed. medium-duty units (25 to 50 hp) on skid-steer loaders.

eliminating high-pressure oil leaks either to the reservoir or to the environment. variable-power transmissions are based on a variabledisplacement pump supplying fluid to a fixed-displacement motor under constant load. but speed range is usually limited to 4:1. Drive configurations: Hydrostatic transmissions usually take one of two general configurations. heat exchanger. Constant-power. driving a fixed-displacement motor. Corner horsepower is the product of the maximum force and maximum speed required by the function. up to 42:1. Transmission sizing: Hydrostatic transmission size normally is based on the corner horsepower of the work function. Speed is controlled by varying pump delivery. A split transmission consists of a power unit with the hydraulic pump. with wide speed ranges. They are usually bolted directly to a mechanical differential axle to form a hydrostatic transaxle. The hydraulic motor is remotely mounted and connected to the power unit through hose or tubing. even though these two conditions rarely occur simultaneously.machinedesign. or close-coupled. transmissions have a hydraulic pump and motor that share a common valving surface. A cast casing or housing provides a self-contained oil reservoir. while high-volume production mandates easy assembly. They can provide a combination of constant torque and constant power. The forte of this unit is efficiency. Close-coupled transmissions are typically found in light-duty applications. structural support for the rotating elements. Corner horsepower for vehicle propulsion is http://www.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpamsa%2Fdrive%2Ehtml (3 of 4) [06/04/02 9:48:42] .Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering q q displacement pump supplying a variable-displacement motor. valves. split or close coupled. and heat dissipation. These units are adjustable. variable-torque transmissions are based on a variabledisplacement pump with a power limiter. Integrated. and expensive. Split transmissions are typically used in heavy-duty applications because they offer wide flexibility in configuring a system for the most efficient use of space or best weight distribution. and simple controls. flexible. where tight space constraints require compact units. filters. and controls mounted on a reservoir. This is considered the best general-purpose drive. This arrangement provides an extremely short oil-flow path.

primer-mover speed. and so on. and N = maximum transmission speed.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpamsa%2Fdrive%2Ehtml (4 of 4) [06/04/02 9:48:42] . is the product of maximum output torque (generally at a specified maximum pressure) and maximum output speed: Ht = ( Tt * N ) / 9. slope on curves. road crown. including speed and rate of acceleration and deceleration. or where a failure has %.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Hc = ( Ft * V ) / 3. %. another is system diagnostics -. N.relating when servicing is needed. when failure is imminent. One such feature is performance monitoring. While not currently economical for every application. V = maximum vehicle speed. kW. rate of material flow. Initial transmission selection is made by comparing the results of these calculations. proportional controls offer a reasonable payback in most traction drives and propel systems through fuel savings and increased productivity. Such features are relatively easy to add into software because many of the variables needed are already measured for control. Electronic controls: Control capabilities for hydrostatic transmissions have advanced from simple remote electrical actuators to packages that offer complete optimization of machine performance. t = torque efficiency. final-drive ratio. Selection is refined by considering the effects of duty cycle. http://www. but also steering. Ht. rpm. Transmission corner horsepower. Acceptance will quicken when the added benefits in addition to primary control are recognized. electronics on paving equipment not only controls the transmission. paving height.600n where Hc = corner horsepower.550 :where T = theoretical torque at maximum system pressure. and design life. For example. km/h. rolling radius. Ft = maximum vehicle tractive force. and n = final drive efficiency. N-m.

com/articleloader. Generally. motors impart continuous rotary motion to objects.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpamsa%2Fkinetic%2Ehtml (1 of 3) [06/04/02 9:49:45] Remember My Password .000 hp. Air and hydraulic motors. Because there is no mechanical lockup between the driver and driven elements.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Actuators convert fluid energy into useful work. Only variable-speed hydrokinetic couplings are equipped with heat exchangers. Often. the same cylinder can be used for either air or low-pressure oil operation. the drive has a constant 2 to 4% slip that. However. rotary actuators twist an object through only a partial arc. To remove heat generated by this slippage. please enter your login information.000 hp but higher ratings are common. all types of actuators are available for pneumatic or hydraulic operation.machinedesign. although reducing efficiency.000 to 30. These drives are controlled by adjusting http://www. Cylinders work through linear extension. constant-speed hydrokinetic couplings used for soft starts are totally self-contained and do not need heat exchangers. Largest units are rated at 25. provides good shock protection to the driven and the driving equipment. E-mail: Hydrokinetic Password: Hydrokinetic drives are typically rated from 1 to 5. Fluid-power actuators are available in a number of forms to provide specific types of action. Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites. all hydrokinetic drives require a heat exchanger. news of interest. and previous searches! To log in. though similar. are usually not interchangeable.

This is because a fluid. to protect gearboxes from torque fluctuations. or pneumatic controllers. in a standard constant-speed hydrokinetic fluid coupling. but a few drives are manually controlled. and on automatic transmissions. Typical applications include conveyor drives. Recent developments in fluid couplings allow some to produce soft starts and low torque limits. However.machinedesign. fluid couplings can only offer torque limitations of 170 to 180%. Studies from power utilities suggest that for large power transmission. Most scoop-tube controlled hydrokinetic drives use electrical.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering the amount of oil in the casing. Maximum torque occurs at about 10% slip. Torque limitation can be as low as 130% but normally is about 150%. on diesel engines. Without the softstart feature. maximum torque is transmitted at 100% slip when the turbine is stalled and the impeller turns at motor speed.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpamsa%2Fkinetic%2Ehtml (2 of 3) [06/04/02 9:49:45] . Operation below this minimum ordinarily is not permissible except in the transient conditions of clutching and declutching. hydrokinetic fluid drives require less maintenance than hydrostatic or hydroviscous types. Thus. maximum torque is not exactly at 0% output speed. These minimum output speeds are typically 20 to 30% of input speed for variable torque loads and 35 to 45% for constant-torque loads. http://www. Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you. minimum output speeds are usually specified. Because the drive operates by the impeller input circulating the oil. This can be significant and must be considered if a fluid coupling is used as a torque limiter in a power train. In theory. usually too high for material-handling equipment. the hydrokinetic drive is particularly vulnerable to inaccuracies at low speeds. rather than a solid surface. transmits power from impeller to turbine. The minimum output speed at which the drive will continuously operate is given usually in terms of a percent of input speed. to provide smooth starts and minimize belt stretch.

machinedesign.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering http://www.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpamsa%2Fkinetic%2Ehtml (3 of 3) [06/04/02 9:49:45] .com/articleloader.

by controlling pressure. E-mail: Pressure valves Password: The primary concern in fluid-power circuits is to control either pressure level or the rate of flow. These valves. supply flow. In a hydraulic system. pressure varies. flow to an actuator. Virtually every fluid-power system requires some type of valve. valves may control pressure. experts recommend that they be supplemented with http://www.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Valves are essential elements for controlling fluid system performance. If orifice size. For more accurate control.machinedesign. If they must hold the load for long periods. most flow-control valves could be used to control pressure. In theory. or quantity of flow permitted past a given point. several types of pressure-control valves have been developed.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpmc%2Fvalve%2Ehtml (1 of 3) [06/04/02 9:50:55] Remember My Password . Counterbalance valves resist movement or balance the load being held by a cylinder or motor. Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites. although they may differ in construction. And advanced ceramics are being used for longer life and contamination resistance. and fluid viscosity are fixed. Typically. provide excellent dynamic control. if any one of the three varies. please enter your login information. news of interest. Trends in the valve industry today include miniaturization of traditional designs and space-saving stackable valves. such valves produce only the crudest kind of pressure control. pressure remains constant. they are categorized by the function to be performed. Manufacturers are also turning to plastics to cut weight while improving lubricity and corrosion resistance. Compatibility with electronic controls means enhanced valve performance. and previous searches! To log in. Pneumatic valves are similar in design and operation to their hydraulic counterparts.

Diverting valves (known in the mobile industry as "sequence valves") establish flow priorities within a circuit by using a pressure-actuated three-way valve with controls. Pressures can be cascaded through several steps if needed. A check valve can be included for uncontrolled return flow through the valve. Many sequence valves have two or more spools or poppets that must be actuated before flow can pass through the valve. The valve assembly directs pressurized fluid to a primary port until a predetermined pressure level is reached. Reducing valves are used with suitable orifices to provide uniform pressure drop in flowcontrol valves. unloading valves can be arranged to accept a signal from an accumulator. the reducing valve receives the signal from its low-pressure outlet. Typically. when the http://www. At this Sequence valves are used to determine the sequence of machine operations by sensing pressures other than maximum. or pilot pressure can be used to hold the spool in the open positive to permit free return flow through the valve. The valve is often biased by a spring or weight that may be supplemented with a pilot mechanism. a signal shifts the control spool.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpmc%2Fvalve%2Ehtml (2 of 3) [06/04/02 9:50:55] Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you. which has better static-holding capabilities. . Flow continues at the secondary as long as the pressure in the primary outlet is maintained. and can be fitted with free-flow checks to permit flow in the opposite direction. These normally closed valves permit flow between inlet and output ports when the pressure reaches preset levels. In a typical application. At a predetermined pressure. flow is diverted from the primary outlet to a secondary outlet. In a normally open two-port unit. Reducing valves can limit pressure levels by restricting flow through a portion of a hydraulic system. ensuring that a certain minimum pressure has been developed in one part of the circuit before fluid can pass through another part.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering a pilot check valve. Unloading valves provide free passage through a low-pressure area when a signal is applied to a pilot connection.machinedesign.

and they may well be subject to such problems as noise and chatter. They do not reset automatically and must be manually repaired after fracturing. the pump unloads to tank. some electrically modulated relief valves perform an almost servo function to instantly modulate system pressure over a wide range of electrically signaled values. The unloading pressure of this type of valve is commonly determined by a spring-loaded spool. Essentially. Relief valves do the same job as safety valves.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpmc%2Fvalve%2Ehtml (3 of 3) [06/04/02 9:50:55] . or have the pressure setting protected from tampering. Safety valves pop open to avoid or eliminate abnormally high pressure peaks. In addition.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering accumulator is charged to the specified level. but they also smoothly and continuously modulate flow to keep pressure from exceeding a preset level. the valves can be controlled by application of a pilot pressure to hold the valve closed at pressures higher than that provided for by the safety valves perform the function of "fuses" in the system. As system pressure rises. the spring can be adjusted to vary unloading pressure. devices called hydraulic fuses also can be used.machinedesign. These quasi-valves use a disc or similar device that fractures at a preset pressure. http://www. In lieu of one. Alternatively. When system pressure drops. the valve closes smoothly and quietly. relief flow through a properly sized valve increases until the entire pump output passes through the valve. They are typically nonadjustable. They are designed strictly for fast action rather than pressure modulation. Relief valves are available with simple direct actuation or with piloted operation. A relief valve is normally closed until the pressure level approaches a preset value.

Pneumatic valves are similar in design and operation to their hydraulic counterparts. If actuator outlet is controlled. If the flow inlet to an actuator is controlled. news of interest. Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites. or quantity of flow permitted past a given The amount of flow that passes through an orifice and the pressure drop http://www. and previous searches! To log in. Trends in the valve industry today include miniaturization of traditional designs and space-saving stackable valves. Compatibility with electronic controls means enhanced valve performance. flow to an actuator.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpmc%2Fflow%2Ehtml (1 of 4) [06/04/02 9:51:31] Remember My Password . Virtually every fluid-power system requires some type of valve. Noncompensated flow controls are simple valves that meter flow by restricting or throttling. In a hydraulic system. bypassing involves routing part of the flow around the circuit so that the actuator receives only the portion needed to perform its task. When that part of the fluid being diverted to the reservoir or another part of the circuit is controlled. it is said to be a "bleed-off" system. valves may control pressure. And advanced ceramics are being used for longer life and contamination resistance.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Valves are essential elements for controlling fluid system performance. although they may differ in construction. it is called a "meter-out" circuit. please enter your login information. E-mail: Flow valves Password: Flow is controlled by either throttling or diverting it. Throttling involves reducing orifice size until all of the flow cannot pass through the orifice. Manufacturers are also turning to plastics to cut weight while improving lubricity and corrosion resistance. the circuit is said to be a "meter-in" system.machinedesign.

a fixed resistor valve can be used. when heat generation through power loss can be tolerated. Experts recommend these noncompensated valves when accuracy is not important. Restrictive flow regulators work like an automatic variable orifice to control flow by http://www. Flow pressure drop across this orifice is used to shift a balanced spool against a control spring. a needle valve is paired with a check valve that offers resistance to flow in one direction only. others have no such provision. Common noncompensated valves are adjustable needle valves. using any metering method. with free flow upon reverse. As pressure increases. the ball or poppet is usually lightly spring loaded against one of the ports. they incorporate a metering orifice. Usually. Like the noncompensated units. They do not accurately control flow if load or viscosity changes. produces a constant flow. In either type. Some fixed restrictors make provision for disassembling the valve and changing the orifice. The combination permits flow to be adjusted in one direction. which in turn. adjustability is either unimportant or potentially harmful.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpmc%2Fflow%2Ehtml (2 of 4) [06/04/02 9:51:31] Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you. Basically. For some tasks. Check valves use a ball or poppet to prevent flow in one or more directions. the orifice is not changed during circuit operation so the valve is considered nonadjustable. and in such circuits as gravity lowering. it consists of a check valve with an orifice embodied in the This spool movement is used to maintain a constant pressure drop across the orifice. This type of twovalve combination is typically called an adjustable restrictor valve. or shuttle valves. For such tasks. In threeport valves. .machinedesign. They can be used in any circuit. internal ridges guide the ball between ports. In two-port valves. where they can be used efficiently. and inexpensive. Both fixed and variable restrictor valves are simple. flow through them varies with fluid viscosity and pressure across the valve.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering across it are directly related. Pressure drop across the orifice is relatively low. Pressure-compensated flow controls maintain nearly constant flow despite variations in circuit pressure. reliable. valve flow increases.

instead of restricting flow through the valve. Restrictive flow regulators are ideally suited to constant-pressure closed-center circuits and meter-out situations. the spool moves farther to restrict or throttle the controlled flow. Compensator spool movement blocks fluid flow through the valve. Bypass flow regulators control flow by diverting excess pump output to the reservoir. Spool movement progressively blocks off flow area restricting or throttling flow through the valve. and only as a meter-in device. spool movement diverts or bypasses excess flow to the reservoir. permitting full use of both regulated and bypass flow. They are also recommended for gravity lowering devices where uniform lowering speed is required regardless of the load.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpmc%2Fflow%2Ehtml (3 of 4) [06/04/02 9:51:31] . The resulting force imbalance moves the spool against the control spring.machinedesign. The ability of these valves to accept all flow supplied to them excludes them from these applications. Bypass flow regulators cannot be used as meter-out devices in any circuit or as meter-in devices in constantpressure circuits. Experts say they are the only pressure-compensated flow control that can be used in these applications. and automatically changes with load. Design: The Basics of Design Engineering throttling or restricting. But. The resulting pump or supply pressure is slightly higher than that required to do the work. The same basic control orifice and compensator spool are used as in the restrictive flow regulator. If bypass-circuit pressure is greater than regulated-circuit pressure. Full pump flow is at the higher of the two pressures. These regulators are used exclusively in variable-pressure open-center circuits. Flow passing through the metering orifice is accompanied by a pressure drop that is applied to each end of a balanced spool. Movement of the spool first uncovers the bypass-flow area. the combination flow regulator maintains a constant controlled flow. Regardless of pressures in either circuit. Flow through a controlled orifice produces a pressure that shifts a compensating spool. They control flow by both restricting and bypassing. Combination bypass and restrictive flow regulators are a combination of the first two mentioned.

com/articleloader. They establish priority flow to the control circuit and bypass to the secondary circuit only when the flow demands of the primary circuit are met. If pump supply is less than that required at the regulated port. This type of combination valve is ideally suited for meter-in speed control in open-center fixeddisplacement pump circuits. all flow goes to the regulated port and none is diverted.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Combination flow regulators are sometimes called "priority" valves. http://www.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpmc%2Fflow%2Ehtml (4 of 4) [06/04/02 9:51:31] .machinedesign.

solenoid force is balanced by spring force to position the spool in proportion to the input signal. or quantity of flow permitted past a given point. Positioning accuracy can be improved by removing the centering springs and adding a http://www. velocity. In operation. Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites. news of interest. flow to an actuator. please enter your login Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Valves are essential elements for controlling fluid system performance.machinedesign. E-mail: Proportional valves Password: The performance of proportional valves falls in the wide spectrum between on/off solenoid valves and electrohydraulic servovalves. Many proportional valves are modified versions of four-way. In a hydraulic system. although they may differ in construction. The valves are termed proportional because output flow is not exactly linear in relation to input current. Trends in the valve industry today include miniaturization of traditional designs and space-saving stackable valves. on/off solenoid valves in which proportional solenoids replace conventional solenoids. the valves are an inexpensive way to control position. Compatibility with electronic controls means enhanced valve performance. valves may control pressure.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpmc%2Fprop%2Ehtml (1 of 3) [06/04/02 9:52:40] Remember My Password . or force on equipment requiring high-speed response at high flow rates. Virtually every fluid-power system requires some type of valve. and previous searches! To log in. Pneumatic valves are similar in design and operation to their hydraulic counterparts. And advanced ceramics are being used for longer life and contamination resistance. Despite their nonlinear response. Manufacturers are also turning to plastics to cut weight while improving lubricity and corrosion resistance.

Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering

positioning sensor to the end of the spool. The sensor signal then cancels the solenoid signal when the spool reaches the specified position. Proportional valve parts are built to be interchangeable; thus, the spool in lowperformance valves can have considerable overlap in the null position. This overlap causes flow deadband, which is not critical for flow-control systems but can cause errors and instability in positioning systems. However, a definite trend in the valve industry is the increasing difficulty in differentiating between servo and proportional valves. Historically, proportional valves could not match servovalve performance and were primarily used in open-loop applications. They were mass produced, while servovalves required meticulous manufacturing and fit-up, making them up to ten times more expensive. Proportional valves also had wider clearances, making them more forgiving and more tolerant of contamination. However, such definitions no longer hold in many cases. For example, closed-loop proportional valves are available that function much like servovalves. By using high-force, continuous-action solenoids, minimum-friction mechanical moving parts, and rapid-response electronics, the valves offer servolike performance without drawbacks like contamination sensitivity and high pressure drop. A key feature in the valve is a spool and sleeve assembly with no overlap in midposition. While this requires precise manufacturing, it is less costly than other servo designs. The valves control flow or pressure, or actuator position, velocity, force, or torque, and can synchronize the action of a number of cylinders. They are suited for applications such as press systems and molding machines, for traditional servo markets like flight simulators and airframe testing, and for those areas currently using proportional systems that need to further upgrade performance with a closed-loop system. Some manufacturers are producing proportional valves that are essentially servovalves made to mass-production specifications, with much greater tolerance allowances and looser fits than in their standard servo line. However, adding electronic feedback results (2 of 3) [06/04/02 9:52:40]

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Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering

in performance almost as good as that of a servovalve. In many cases, this gives performance perfectly suited to an application at a lower cost. (3 of 3) [06/04/02 9:52:40]

Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering

Valves are essential elements for controlling fluid system performance. Virtually every fluid-power system requires some type of valve. In a hydraulic system, valves may control pressure, flow to an actuator, or quantity of flow permitted past a given point. Pneumatic valves are similar in design and operation to their hydraulic counterparts, although they may differ in construction. Trends in the valve industry today include miniaturization of traditional designs and space-saving stackable valves. Compatibility with electronic controls means enhanced valve performance. Manufacturers are also turning to plastics to cut weight while improving lubricity and corrosion resistance. And advanced ceramics are being used for longer life and contamination resistance.

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Electrohydraulic servovalves, capable of controlling pressure, flow, or position in proportion to an electrical input, offer unsurpassed performance in a fluid-power system. At one time, conventional servovalves used on aircraft or machine tools provided operating characteristics exceeding those required for industrial and mobile applications. They were also too expensive and too sensitive to environmental contamination. However, with the development of custom designs specifically for industrial and mobile equipment, the use of servovalves is moving into the critical circuits of these systems. For example, most robotic applications involve relatively low hydraulic resonance, in the range of 3 to 5 Hz. This low resonance is a result of the high load masses and large fluid (1 of 4) [06/04/02 9:55:50]

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Where high accuracy is needed for either velocity or position. and the use of hardened materials. Flow is a function of the square root of the difference between supply pressure and load pressure. precise positioning. making them more compatible with practical filtration levels.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering volumes under compression in a typical robotic system. Gain-compensated valves incorporate internal feedback to correct for load-fluctuation effects on output and. but it does not necessarily produce a fixed flow. the typical flow range for these systems is 10 to 40 gpm.machinedesign. Servovalves were adapted to the mobile market primarily by opening critical clearances in the pilot stage. Also. good stability. thus. The valves can be modified to trade frequency response for increased spool operating force by enlarging the spool area exposed to pilot pressure. In a servovalve. as load pressure increases. far higher than is required. good velocity and acceleration control. increases spool actuating force by an equivalent amount while lowering frequency response to 20 to 80 Hz at 90° phase lag. more nearly approach the ideal steady-state curve. Thus.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpmc%2Fservo%2Ehtml (2 of 4) [06/04/02 9:55:50] Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you.5 times. . good damping characteristics. experts recommend an external transducer and feedback loop. and predictable dynamic response. Increasing this area by 2 to 2. allows contaminants to simply wash through the valves without clogging or causing damage. Conventional servovalves supplying this level of flow have frequency response capabilities of 120 to 130 Hz at 90° phase lag. the use of servohydraulics usually is justified when one or more of the following characteristics is required: high load stiffness (both static and dynamic). both flow and effective pressure drop across the valve decrease. for instance. thus improving system reliability. Amount of correction depends on the valve design. a given electrical signal produces a definite position of the main-stage spool. The wider clearances. Today. Higher spool actuating force enables the valve to overcome spool seizure caused by silting.

which is the slope of a straight line drawn from the zero flow point to equalize deviations of the flow curve from a straight line. and the flow-saturation region near rated input current. Pressure gain characteristics are very important because in a practical system some usually small. Null characteristics: Ideally. Generally. The flow curve is generally divided into three operating ranges -. Ideally. excessive null shifts. Flow: A flow curve is obtained by cycling the valve over the rated input current range and recording a continuous plot of output flow versus input current for one cycle. the slope of the normal flow curve in any specified region is the flow gain. When the term flow gain is used without reference to a particular region.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpmc%2Fservo%2Ehtml (3 of 4) [06/04/02 9:55:50] . or input current. this ideal condition is seldom attained. a valve produces zero output at zero current input. but finite. and return or load pressure.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Steady-state characteristics are used to specify valve operating properties to ensure that the required system operating characteristics are not compromised by a limiting action of the valve due to inadequate flow. However. The null shift may be due to changes in temperature. value of output-pressure change is required to overcome load friction before load movement is possible. or other foreseeable causes. rated flow gain would be equal to normal flow gain. pressure. portions corresponding to the two polarities may differ (symmetry).null region with low input currents. the flow curve forms a closed loop. region of normal flow control at intermediate input currents. In practice. normal flow gain is implied. Pressure characteristics: Pressure gain is related to the rate of pressure increase per unit current increase. the entire system is affected by the pressure-gain characteristics of the valve. It is expressed in terms of null http://www.machinedesign. The locus of the midpoints of this loop is the zero-hysteresis flow curve. hysteresis. Flow gain is change in output flow per unit change in input current. Thus. It is used to measure valve flow gain. Therefore. and symmetry. some of the steady-state valve parameters must be based on dynamic analyses to ensure required system response. supply pressure. under zero load unless otherwise specified.

An inherent resonance can cause system instability or oscillation. Limits for the dynamic characteristics of each component must be specified if the required system dynamics are to be maintained.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering bias. Dynamic characteristics: have an important effect on the dynamics of the system. Valve dynamics can be determined either by a transient-response or a frequency-response test. http://www. The transient response of the valve can be so slow that it limits the transient behavior of the entire system.machinedesign.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpmc%2Fservo%2Ehtml (4 of 4) [06/04/02 9:55:50] .com/articleloader. or the current change required to produce zero flow. depending on the specific system application.

The easy replacement http://www. Globe valves have a replaceable plug and seat. Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites. news of interest. and a metal-to-metal seal. and previous searches! To log in. where tight shutoff was not required. please enter your login information. because each one had its own area of utility. Manufacturers are also turning to plastics to cut weight while improving lubricity and corrosion resistance. In a hydraulic system. Choosing a fluid-handling valve used to be easy. in sizes up to 6 in. beliefs were formed which may inhibit the selection of the best valve for a job. ball and gate valves were favored. Pneumatic valves are similar in design and operation to their hydraulic counterparts. Other globe valves are available with elastomeric disc seals. Compatibility with electronic controls means enhanced valve performance. although they may differ in construction.machinedesign. or no-flow requirements.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Valves are essential elements for controlling fluid system performance. For on-off. but only with the movement of fluid. or quantity of flow permitted past a given point. And advanced ceramics are being used for longer life and contamination resistance. flow to an actuator. butterfly and slide valves were used. Globe valves are used for throttling purposes and where positive shutoff is required. full. As a result. valves may control (1 of 6) [06/04/02 9:57:17] Remember My Password . Trends in the valve industry today include miniaturization of traditional designs and space-saving stackable valves. E-mail: Fluid-transfer valves Password: Fluid-handling devices are not basically concerned with the modulation of power. Virtually every fluid-power system requires some type of valve.

although elastomeric seats have been used for very fine adjustments. but problems of sticking and galling limit their usefulness. or (2 of 6) [06/04/02 9:57:17] . Cock. http://www. Pressure loss through a globe valve is somewhat high. nonlubricated seals. The seat is typically metal. Other types of globe valves include: Angle valves in which the fluid makes a 90° turn as it passes through the valve. Needle valves are used for very small. The early forms of the cock valve used metal-to-metal. but the higher the pressure. reduces friction and wear between the surfaces when the plug is turned. valves are the oldest type of valve and still enjoy wide use for on-off service. The end of the stem is pointed like a needle and fits accurately into the needle seat. accurately adjustable flows. In this valve. Y-valves that have a reduced pressure drop because the flow passes straight through the valve. and also lifts the plug slightly to reduce the torque required to operate the valve. the more difficult the task of sealing around the stem and the greater the torque required to operate it. A nonlubricated-plug valve may use a tapered plug with a mechanical lifting device that unseats the plug before it is turned to reduce the operating torque required. but they permit a finer adjustment of flow. Needle valves which are functionally similar to globes. Plug valves of this type are still used. Pressure loss through an angle valve is less than that through a conventional globe valve. Globe valves can be used at high pressures. Plug valves are made with both tapered and cylindrical plugs and in lubricated and nonlubricated models.machinedesign. The lubricant prevents leakage between the plug and body. the lubricant is forced into the valve under pressure and is extruded between the plug face and the seat in the body.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering of the plug and seat makes repair simple and inexpensive. These difficulties were largely overcome by the development of the lubricated-plug valve. Or it may Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you.

and in pressure ratings to 7. and the benefit increases as the pressure rating of the valve increases. Advances in materials. In addition.000 psi. The bulk of the control does not occur with a minor movement of the handle. The ball valve is somewhat similar in its operation to the butterfly in that a one-quarter turn opens or closes it. primarily polymers. and 80% at 82° or 91% of full open. have reduced the cost and extended applicability of ball valves. and the self-wiping action of the seat as the ball-plug rotates prevents any buildup of contamination to impede full closure of the valve. Ball valves are relatively low in cost.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering have an elastomeric sleeve or plug coating with a low coefficient of rubbing friction. Plug valves are available in sizes as large as 34 in. design improvements have suited ball valves for some types of flow control. It has two advantages over the butterfly. less. and in pressure ratings as high as 10. The passage through a butterfly valve is obstructed by the cross section of the disc and. such as throttling the flow of air at differential pressures as high as 1. they open and close with one-quarter turn of the handle. Thus.machinedesign. Ball valves represent a modification of the plug valves with a spherical instead of a tapered or cylindrical plug. so must the strength and thickness of the disc. they are easy to clean and repair. Many http://www. a ball valve has relatively good throttling characteristics at low flow. and it provides a clear passage to the fluid. Ball valves were developed as on-off valves without much attention given to throttling characteristics. Only 3% of total flow occurs at 10\#161> of handle travel.000 psi. The pressure drop through the samesized ball valve is. 10% at 30°.com/articleloader. however. 50% at 70°. therefore. 30% at 56°.500 psi. and the valve presents little resistance to the flow of fluid through it. It is available in higher pressure ratings. However. plus improvements in design. provide unimpeded flow through the full bore with minimum pressure drop. and their handle position shows immediately whether the valve is open or closed. as the pressure rating increases.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpmc%2Ftransfer%2Ehtml (3 of 6) [06/04/02 9:57:17] . Ball valves are available in pipe sizes to 42 in.

and low-pressure drop. butterfly valves retain their traditional virtues. Butterfly valves range in size from small to enormous. a gate valve is excellent for service that requires either full or no flow. or slurries. But capabilities have been greatly extended by offset discs and polymeric seals. They also required only a one-quarter turn to change from closed to the fully open position.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering designs of ball valves are available to satisfy different requirements. A modern butterfly valve may include a pressure-tight resilient seat and an angularly offset disc. Repeated movement of the disc near the point of closure against upstream pressure can create drag between the seat on the downstream side and may gall or score the seat Both are typically used in a fully open or fully closed position because close regulation of flow is not possible. In addition. Nevertheless. tight sealing.200 psi while retaining many traditional advantages. light weight. including those with all metal seats and seals. These and other design innovations have enabled butterfly valves to be used for throttling. and are well suited for large flows of gases. crescent-shaped aperture causes a high flow velocity that can erode seat faces.machinedesign. and some that are completely lined with plastic. Butterfly valves were once used for low-pressure service where complete shutoff was not necessary. Butterfly valves had the advantage of small size. the high-velocity flowing liquid impinging against a partially open disc or wedge produces vibration that can damage seating surfaces and score the downstream side. Gate valves include wedge and double-disc valves. liquids.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpmc%2Ftransfer%2Ehtml (4 of 6) [06/04/02 9:57:17] . It http://www. and they were not used to modulate flow. A gate valve can be used for throttling only when the valve is in an almost shut position. and withstanding pressures as high as 1. Today. Other butterfly valve designs use a hard seat and an O-ring or piston ring around the disk to seal. simple design. The small. where most of the flow reduction occurs.

Lift valves. This seal principle permits use of erosion-resistant material in the port areas. The flow area at the point of control is equal to the full cross-sectional area of the line.000 psi while retaining the slide-valve advantages of quick opening or closing. The development of a seal that operates in shear has permitted production of special slide valves that operate at pressures to 10. The effective operating temperature range is limited by the properties of the diaphragm and run from -60 to http://www. Ordinarily. They are made in sizes to 16 in. Complete shutoff is almost impossible.. to give any required relationship between percent of opening (stem travel) and percent of full flow. However. Slide valves can be made quite thin for jobs where space is a problem. so these valves show excellent throttling characteristics without undue seal wear. commonly referred to as control valves. Ordinary slide valves are made in sizes from 2 slurries. Slide valves consist of one or two discs. The principal advantage of this type of valve is that the stem seal is eliminated. slide valves are used to control flows of low-pressure fluids where tight shutoff is not required. liquids. They can handle straight-through flow of gases. or corrosive fluids. Diaphragm valves consist of a body. bonnet. and fluidized solids. Because flow is straight through the line. Diaphragm valves are used primarily for handling viscous fluids. pressure drop across a gate valve is only about 1/50 that of a globe valve of comparable size. slurries. unobstructed flow. are generally constructed with two ports in parallel. They can be used to throttle flow.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering has essentially no flow restriction when fully open. and low operating torque. low-flow throttling characteristics are not good.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpmc%2Ftransfer%2Ehtml (5 of 6) [06/04/02 9:57:17] . Some slide valves are made with soft seats to reduce the required manufacturing tolerances for a better seal. and are used at pressures to 400 psi. usually without a spreading mechanism. globe valves are preferred if lines must be opened and closed frequently. but because of the large shutoff area. and up. and a flexible diaphragm that is pushed down by the stem to effect closure. Fluid pressure on the disc presses its surface against the seat for closure.machinedesign.

com/articleloader.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpmc%2Ftransfer%2Ehtml (6 of 6) [06/04/02 9:57:17] . http://www. Pressure ratings run to 300 psi.machinedesign.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering 450°F.

Click 'register' to customize your own page with quick access to your favorite vendors' sites. And advanced ceramics are being used for longer life and contamination resistance. valves may control pressure. In a hydraulic Trends in the valve industry today include miniaturization of traditional designs and space-saving stackable valves. commonly called pressure-reducing valves. flow to an actuator. please enter your login information. Regulators are a special class of valve containing integral loading. Such regulators provide long service life and relative ease of maintenance at competitive prices. sensing.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpmc%2Fpneumatic%2Ehtml (1 of 3) [06/04/02 9:59:38] Remember My Password . Virtually every fluid-power system requires some type of valve. Manufacturers are also turning to plastics to cut weight while improving lubricity and corrosion resistance. or quantity of flow permitted past a given point. actuating. or precision.machinedesign. Precision regulators are for applications where regulated pressure must be controlled with close http://www. E-mail: Pneumatic pressure regulators Password: Pressure regulators. they can be broadly classified as general purpose. Available in many configurations. although they may differ in construction. news of interest. and previous searches! To log in. and control components. General-purpose or utility regulators have flow and regulation characteristics that meet the requirements of most industrial compressed-air applications. maintain constant output pressure in compressed-air systems regardless of variations in input pressure or output flow. Compatibility with electronic controls means enhanced valve performance. special purpose.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering Valves are essential elements for controlling fluid system performance. Pneumatic valves are similar in design and operation to their hydraulic counterparts.

Pistons.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpmc%2Fpneumatic%2Ehtml (2 of 3) [06/04/02 9:59:38] . Pressure droop is most pronounced when the valve first opens. Regulators can use either a piston or diaphragm to sense downstream pressure. The amount that output pressure changes with variations in supply pressure is called the regulation characteristic and is influenced by the ratio of diaphragm area to valve area and the degree of valve unbalance. the important factors to consider are: Please enter your email address to have your password emailed to you. When selecting a pressure regulator. the spring nears its maximum the principle of operation and the loading. However. Output pressure accuracy is determined by the droop due to flow changes (regulator characteristics). the spring loses some sensitivity. http://www. at the high end. Ideally. Special-purpose regulators often have a unique configuration or special materials for use with fluids other than compressed air. At the lower end of the pressure range. The functional difference between precision and general-purpose regulators is the degree of control accuracy of the output pressure. the required pressure should be in the center one-third of the rated outlet pressure range. Such regulators are used when the outcome of a process or the results of a test depend on accurate pressure control. Factors contributing to droop are: load change with spring extension.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering tolerances. and control components are basic to all designs.machinedesign. actuating. on the other hand. depending on the intended application and the performance requirements.04 psi). Most regulators use simple wire coil springs to control the downstream pressure. Diaphragms are generally more sensitive to pressure changes and react more quickly. Regulator construction can range from simple to complex. are generally more rugged and provide a larger effective sensing area in a given size regulator. They should be used where sensitive pressure settings are required (less than 0. Various size springs are used to permit regulation of the secondary pressure within specific ranges. and unbalance of area forces on the valve. effective area change with diaphragm displacement.

note where adapters are required. 5. consider the location. adjusting method. Special features such as high relief or remote control. Pipe size: Not all regulators are available in all pipe sizes. 9. When selecting a regulator. Accessories or options include gages and panel mounting. application. relief devices. Also. 10. Filters. 6. Also. http://www. or close control of pressure-relief points. Regulator adjustment frequency: A number of different adjusting methods are possible. 7.Machine Design: The Basics of Design Engineering 1. pipe size should be consistent with flow requirements. Degree of pressure precision required. dead-end service or intermittent actuation may require positive valve shutoff. The consequences of a regulator malfunction or failure: A damper or relief valve might be needed to protect personnel or equipment. Maximum flow required at regulated pressure. and user. and other system options should be considered in the selection process.machinedesign. Environmental or fluid conditions that could be incompatible with materials used in the regulator. 3. bleed units. 8. Minimum and maximum regulated pressure required: Regulators can have a broad adjustment range and may require a specific spring or accessory to match the requirements. lubricators. Normal line pressure. minimum and maximum pressure should be within the middle third of the regulator range. 2.asp?main=bde&Section=bdefluid&file=%2Fbde%2Ffluid%2Fpmc%2Fpneumatic%2Ehtml (3 of 3) [06/04/02 9:59:38] . 4.

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