You are on page 1of 13

METHODOLOGY APPROACHES

METHODS/ HISTORIC TEACHE STUDENT` LANGUAGE`S ROLE ABILITY CLASS SUMMARY ADVANTAGE/
APPROACH AL R’S S ROLE DISADVANTAGE
ES CONTEXT ROLE
Grammar During the Active. Passive. -The sentences is the basic unit Reading and Techniques Development of grammar
Translation 18th and 19th Presents, Memorizes of teaching and language writing are -presentation structures and vocabulary
century, in explains vocabulary, practice. major focus -explanation learning.
the and conjugate -Accuracy is emphasized. (Richards and -translation Easy elaboration of texts.
Europeans commands verbs and -Grammar is taught deductively Rogers, pag 3- Techniques
Universities. Ss’ in Ss’ translate (Richards and Rogers, pag 4- approaches -Translation of a Learning to translate
mother texts. approaches and methods in and methods literary passage.
Fortunately, tongue. language teaching) in language -Reading Writing practice.
this method teac comprehension
is not widely Teacher is Students are -Long elaborate explanations of hing) questions. mother tongue detailed
used today in the strict the passive grammar. -antonyms –synonyms grammar focus
teaching authority. receivers of -Grammar is taught deductively -Deductive application memorization of
English to the with strong emphasis on rule. vocabulary text translations
English information. accuracy. -Fill in the blanks behaviorist philosophy no
language -Emphasis on reading & writing -Memorization. focus on pronunciation
learners. Yet, skills (non on pronunciation) -Use words in
unfortunately -Vocabulary is taught in the sentences. Disadvantages
, some form of list of isolated words. -Composition. Ss’ don’t develop oral
aspects of -The use of L1 as medium of communicative skills.
this method instruction (explanation, Vocabulary selection is Has no theory content has
are still comparison, translation) based solely on the no context.
employed to reading text used, and Structure is more relevant
teach modern Learning Theory words are taught than content.
languages in Deductive learning is essential through bilingual word
the United for accuracy. lists, dictionary study, no daily-life
States, and memorization. The communication practice
primarily at Language detailed analysis of its grammar rules are out-of-context learning
the high grammar rules, followed by presented and
school and application of this knowledge to illustrated, a list of
university the task of translating sentences vocabulary items are
levels. and texts into and out of the presented with their
target language. (Richards and equivalents, and
Rogers, pag 3-approaches and translation exercises
methods in language teaching) are prescribed
(Richards and Rogers,
pag 4-approaches and
methods in language
teaching)
METHODS/ HISTORIC TEACHE STUDENT` LANGUAGE`S ROLE ABILITY CLASS SUMMARY ADVANTAGE/
APPROACH AL R’S S ROLE DISADVANTAGE
ES CONTEXT ROLE
The direct The direct Teacher Ss have to Language theory: Speaking and Associate meaning oral interaction no
method method was uses a understand listening with the TL directly. translation spontaneous use
an answer to series of meaning Language is for oral use. L1 is Use spoken language of language.
the resources without forbidden. Daily speech in L2 is The goals are in situations with no
dissatisfactio to make translation. important. listed under L1 translation. Lessons in the target
n with the meaning four areas. Direct associations of language a focus on
older clear, Students are Focus on teaching foreign words and everyday vocabulary.
grammar using active communicative abilities. Basic phrases with objects
translation miming, participants. personal and actions. Or speech Visual aids to teach
method. One sketches or Literary language communicatio is associated to vocabulary the accuracy of
of the most explanatio Culture: literature and the fine n skills: appropriate actions. pronunciation
famous ns. arts. -Oral comprehension and oral
supporters of Ss learn grammar inductively (listening to Techniques: expression.
this method The learn grammar rules. announcement
was the teacher is Phonetics played an important s in public -Teacher monologues. Disadvantages
German partner role, correct intonation became a places. -Direct repetition requiring small-size classes
Charles and guide key focus of interest and -Written -Formal questions and difficulty in generating
Berlitz, who for pronunciation models from (reading and answers. natural situations
founded the students. native speakers were promoted. writing -Reading aloud.
Berlitz chain personal Dialogues.
of private Learning Theory: letters) Role-plays.
language Academic -Self correction.
schools. Inductive learning is essential learning Conversations.
for discovery and fluency. skills: -Dictation.
-Oral -Drawing (for listening
(listening to a comprehension)
lecture) -Paragraph writing
-Written
(taking notes
in class).
METHODS/ HISTORIC TEACHE STUDENT` LANGUAGE`S ROLE ABILITY CLASS SUMMARY ADVANTAGE/
APPROACH AL R’S S ROLE DISADVANTAGE
ES CONTEXT ROLE
The reading Students Focus on the systematic Reading. Intensive reading:
approach had to read teaching of reading Tasks were
the text comprehension. Oral continuously
aloud or to communicatio supervised by the
do n was teacher who would
exercises secondary. check the degree of
consisting comprehension
of achieved.
questions
and Extensive reading:
answers. Were also part of the
learning process.

Materials contained
controlled vocabulary
and syntax structure.

METHODS/ HISTORIC TEACHE STUDENT` LANGUAGE`S ROLE ABILITY CLASS SUMMARY ADVANTAGE/
APPROACH AL R’S S ROLE DISADVANTAGE
ES CONTEXT ROLE
Audiolinguali The method Decided Active role Reaction to WWII the need for Training in Stimulus-response- Words use in context
sm (us) became very contents of non-native speakers to sound listening reinforcement and
popular in lesson and Students are native-like based on comprehensio reward. Authentic dialogues.
the 1960s. the pace of imitators of Behaviorist theory oral n, accurate
Language learning. every model language proficiency emphasis pronunciation. Importance to the Disadvantages
laboratories from their on perfect pronunciation only practice of repetition High affective filter
began to Teacher is teacher or target language. Recognition of and imitation. Memorization practice.
surge, and a model, recordings. speech
students were director Learning theory: symbols. Activities:
required to and
listen to controller Learning is based on Dialogues and pattern
audiotapes of the behaviorism for habit formation. drills were learned by
and repeat language Rules are induced from a process of mimicry
dialogues of the examples and repetitions. and memorization.
that captured students. First as a group then in
aspects of smaller groups and
daily living. Language theory finally individually.
Language is based on
Material’s role: A
descriptive linguistic primarily
dialogue was
for oral communication.
presented and students
were engaged un
drilling exercises
repeating the dialogue
sentences by
sentences, or in follow
up fluency drills on
grammar or
pronunciation.

Techniques:
-Dialogue
memorization.
-Minimal pairs (for
teaching
pronunciation)
-Complete the
dialogue.
Grammar games.
-Mechanical Drills
a. Repetition
b. Chain
c. Single-slot
substitution.
d. Multiple-slot
substitution.

METHODS/ HISTORIC TEACHE STUDENT` LANGUAGE`S ROLE ABILITY CLASS SUMMARY ADVANTAGE/
APPROACH AL R’S S ROLE DISADVANTAGE
ES CONTEXT ROLE
The Students L2 is the target – L1 is avoided. Emphasis on Sentence patterns Balance between
situational carried out (Only used when explain Oral (Help internalize the development of the 4 skills
approach listening and meaning of some words) presentations rules) at all stages
(Brit) or Oral speaking
approach activities Vocabulary
containing graded.
simple Reading and
phrases. writing were
introduced
once a
sufficient
lexical any
grammatical
basis was
established.
METHODS/ HISTORIC TEACHE STUDENT` LANGUAGE`S ROLE ABILITY CLASS SUMMARY ADVANTAGE/
APPROACH AL R’S S ROLE DISADVANTAGE
ES CONTEXT ROLE
The cognitive K. Chastain The Students Be able to generate their own Focus on Techniques: Development of
approach or K. Diller teacher experience language in new situations grammar “Competence” in the L2
Cognitive J.B Carroll supplies production of (Principle of Creativity) acknowledges. -Role play learner.
code learning learners new learning Learning must -Exchange of
with from their Learning theory: go from the information. Gives students opportunity
examples previous known to the -Substitution drills. to develop functional, not
of schemata. Responses are the result of unknown so -Application necessarily perfect,
“meaningf insight and intentional that the relationship. performances skills.
ul” and patterning. learners can -Implication
“meaningl familiarize relationships.
ess” Language theory: themselves -Collocations
pattern with the rules relationships.
drills. The concepts behind language--- first
grammar. Language as an (Knowledge) The latter portion of
operation---sets of an apply them any learning sequence
communicative functions. afterwards contains materials and
(Performance activities in which the
) students are given the
Learning must opportunity to
be meaningful communicate. Using
(In contrast to what they have
the routine learned.
repetition of
“drills”.
METHODS/ HISTORIC TEACHE STUDENT` LANGUAGE`S ROLE ABILITY CLASS SUMMARY ADVANTAGE/
APPROACH AL R’S S ROLE DISADVANTAGE
ES CONTEXT ROLE
Total physical The total Teacher Students act Learning theory: Teach oral Techniques: Students can listen getting
response physical centred as directors Innate bio-program for language profiency. -Commands. students to move physical
(Humanistic response approach. of the teacher learning via physical movement. -Role reversal. activity and memory
approach) (TPR) (Played and Reading and -Action sequence. connection
method was and active themselves, Language theory: writing
developed by and direct too. activities are Classroom activities Disadvantages
psychologist role and Language is primarily oral. Use complementar Role plays (Teacher Nor good for academic
James Asher provide of commands. Similar to the y helped acted as narrator and language
(1974). This opportuniti acquisition of native language. consolidate students performed the
method is es for L1 is used only at the beginning. structures and actions) Not requiring students to
based on the learning) vocabulary. produce language
principle that Emphasis on meaning and Slide presentations
people learn Teacher is grammar, therefore was learnt (Provide a visual
better when the inductively. support for the teacher
they are director of narration which was
involved all student Central linguistic item was the followed by
physically as behavior. VERB (particularly the commands and for
well as imperative) questions to students,
mentally. such as “What is the
dog doing?” or
based on “Where is the
Chomsky's supermarket?”
idea that
language is First stage teacher
pre-wired for avoided too much
language correction, since this
learning would inhibit learners.
using
physical Provide immediate
response to feedback.
verbal Materials: Kits to
instruction construct scenes on
specific places or
situations.
No need special
materials.
METHODS/ HISTORIC TEACHE STUDENT` LANGUAGE`S ROLE ABILITY CLASS SUMMARY ADVANTAGE/
APPROACH AL R’S S ROLE DISADVANTAGE
ES CONTEXT ROLE
Community Charles A. Teacher Students Learning theory (Use of Major goal is Reflection sessions Dissipate negative factors
language Curran transfer implies couselling) to achieve (Vital function of that block learning.
learning knowledge giving linguistic or CLL)
(CLL) support to Holistic learning communicativ Group work (small Focused personal
Role fellow e competence groups prepare commitments learner.
changes learners and in social discussion of a topic,
gradually. acting as situations. preparing a
counsellors conversation,
for the other preparing a summary
learners. of a topic for
presentation to another
group, preparing a
story.
Students analyze and
study transcriptions of
target language
sentences in order to
focus on particular
lexical.
Listening: Students
listen to a monologue
by the teacher
involving elements
they might have
elicited or overhead in
class interactions.
Materials:
-Notes on blackboard
-Recording of students
conversation.
-Teacher highlight
elements of grammar,
spelling etc.
METHODS/ HISTORIC TEACHE STUDENT` LANGUAGE`S ROLE ABILITY CLASS SUMMARY ADVANTAGE/
APPROACH AL R’S S ROLE DISADVANTAGE
ES CONTEXT ROLE
The silent Developed Silent Student -Adopted a structural syllabus. Receptive Presentation of Teacher cannot be
way by Caleb technican centered -Language is separated from its skills. structure overprotective
(SWL) Gattegno, the social context and taught Production Student uses the language
Silent Way Expert. Autonomus through artificial situations. Produce skills. -Feedback for self-expression
requires that Independent -Students learn the grammar -Find words
the teachers The Responsible rules of the language trough Meaningful -Real control of the The silent way views
remain silent teacher is a Cooperative largery inductive processes. learning Inter- language. learning as a problem
much of the silent language. solving, creative,
time, thus its facilitator Provide the learner with a basic Use materials such as discovering activity, in
name. In this of Use of practical knowledge of the Autonomy. Charts –coded which the learner is a
method, learning. visuals grammar of the language. charts- are used to principal actor rather than a
students are Teacher´s getting Willingness to teach visually illustrate mere listener.
responsible silence students to Adopted a basically structural communicate. and correct
for their own gives the produce syllabus. pronunciation. Disadvantages
learning. students language. Teacher too distant to create
responsibil Learning theory: Cuisenaire rod: To affective links.
Developing ity. Only links words and Materials deteriorate over
independence students- Cognitive psychology is the structures. (Is intended time.
, autonomy, student can basis. Learning occurs to promote Atmosphere too abstract for
and do learning. inductively – Rule formation. inventiveness, students.
responsibility creativeness, creativity
for learning Language Theory: and interest in forming Students are not challenged.
discovery communicative
learning, “Cognitive coding”---“ Color utterances. No direct teaching not
problem- rods” and “field charts”. L1 can authentic, rather awkward.
solving be used for explanations. Classroom activities
approach are organized. Language is separated from
teacher as a its social content and taught
stimulator Techniques: through artificial situations.
does not talk!
cusinere rods -Teaching Students learn the grammar
and wall pronunciation with rules of the language
charts to “sound color chart” through largely inductive
introduce -Cognitive coding with processes.
language color rods.
-Peer correction to
improve co-operative
manner.
-Self correction
gestures.
-Teacher´s silence.
-Structured feedback.
-Fields charts (For
spelling)
-Word charts (For
vocabulary)
METHODS/ HISTORIC TEACHE STUDENT` LANGUAGE`S ROLE ABILITY CLASS SUMMARY ADVANTAGE/
APPROACH AL R’S S ROLE DISADVANTAGE
ES CONTEXT ROLE
Suggestopedia Suggestopedi Teacher: Passive Vocabulary was a CENTRAL Listening 30 days – 6 days Gives creative solution.
a was Create issue and this method stressed (music) week-4 hours per day Encourages relaxation.
developed by situations. Students play memorization of vocabulary Speaking groups of 12 Ss. Strengthens self-image.
Bulgarian a child’s role pairs. (dialogues) Optimizes learning.
psychiatrist– Teacher is trusting in Writing and -Material presentation. Propagates talent.
educator seen as a the teacher. Learning theory: reading -Primary activation. Include, pictures, music and
Georgi source of (teacher reads -Secondary activation. movement.
Lozanov knowledge In order to make better use of several times) -Much attention is
(1982), who and our mental reserves, limitations Oral: devoted to learner Freedom highly student-
wanted to understand need to be desuggested. Grammar and feelings. centered
eliminate the ing. Learning is affective. vocabulary Low affective filter
psychologica exercises. Suggestion and Integration of music and
l barriers that Teacher is Language theory: Role plays, pedagogy combined art.
people have the games, songs. relaxation>presentatio
to learning authority. Communication is a two-plane n >relaxation>practice Disadvantages
and claimed process. Language and Automaticity Baroque No firm science behind
students can psychological/physical factors music/background more brain science than
learn a that influence the linguistic Language music games/puzzles educational sciences.
language message. Errors are allowed--- Culture etc.
approximatel confidence. Connection No focus on grammar or
y three to Techniques: authentic language.
five times as
quickly as -Classroom set up.
through -Positive suggestion.
conventional -Peripheral learning.
teaching -Visualization.
methods. -Choosing a new
identity.
-First concert.
-Second concert.
-Primary activation.
-Secondary activation.

METHODS/ HISTORIC TEACHE STUDENT` LANGUAGE`S ROLE ABILITY CLASS SUMMARY ADVANTAGE/
APPROACH AL R’S S ROLE DISADVANTAGE
ES CONTEXT ROLE
The Natural The natural The natural approach acted as a Input rather than naturalistic language
Approach approach was bridge between psycholinguistic practice. acquisition more emphasis
originally theories and the communicative Optimising emotional on exposure to language
created in approach. preparedness for input reducing learners'
1977 by learning. anxiety
Tracy Terrell, Acquisition vs. learning the A prolonged period of
a Spanish monitor hypothesis attention. Disadvantages
teacher in comprehensible input (i+1) the A willingness to use Difficulty in creating a
California natural order hypothesis learners written and other naturalistic language
and Stephen with low affective filter materials as a source environment and stress-free
Krashen. of comprehensible atmosphere for the students.
After the input.
original The CENTRAL role of
formulation, comprehension in the
Terrell Natural Approach.
worked with
Krashen to
further
develop the
theoretical
aspects of the
method.
Terrell and
Krashen
published the
results of
their
collaboration
in the 1983
book The
Natural
Approach.

METHODS/ HISTORIC TEACHE STUDENT` LANGUAGE`S ROLE ABILITY CLASS SUMMARY ADVANTAGE/
APPROACH AL R’S S ROLE DISADVANTAGE
ES CONTEXT ROLE
Communicati Sauvignon The Students are Learning theory: Techniques: Low affective filter,
ve approach (1983, 1997, teacher is a communicat practicing oral skills
2002) facilitator ors and Activities that involve real -Authentic materials. meaningfully and context,
suggests and active communication promote -Scrambled sentences. real-life like and
designing the monitor negotiators learning…meaningful -Language games. meaningful
curriculum to for of meaning. activities---effective learning. -Picture strip story.
include students’ -Role-plays. Disadvantages
language arts, learning. Language theory: -Fill in the gap. Oral productions is
language-for- emphasized more
a-purpose Language is for development of
(content- “communicative competence”---
based and meaning and function.
immersion)
activities,
personalized
language use, The communication principle
theatre arts real-life meaningful tasks
(including authentic and meaningful use of
simula- tions, language various activities
role-plays, appealing to all learning styles
and social learning by doing
interaction
games), and
language use
“beyond the
classroom”.
METHODS/ HISTORIC TEACHE STUDENT` LANGUAGE`S ROLE ABILITY CLASS SUMMARY ADVANTAGE/
APPROACH AL R’S S ROLE DISADVANTAGE
ES CONTEXT ROLE
Communicati Against Negotiator Learner Concentrates on getting learners Priorities Techniques: Whole learning person
ve language Situational between autonomy or to do things with language. Communicativ
teaching language the self, independenc e nature of -Transcription. Process view of language
(CLT) teaching and the e. Pays attention to functional as language -Reflection on 1.Opposed to a product
Audiolingual learning well as structural aspects of although the experience. view.
ism. process Encouraging language. linguistic or -Reflective listening. 2.Acceptance of error as
and the learners to structural -Human computer. part of the learning process.
Influenced by object of take Language is a system for the aspect of -Small group tasks. 3. New role for the teacher
humanistic learning responsibility expression of meaning. language. (facilitator)
methods. (Breen and for their own 4. learner autonomy or
Candlin, learning. The primary function of independence (Ss are
CLT 1980: 110) language is for interaction and responsible of their own
developed a Facilitator Students are communication. learning)
broad (Subordina dependent Categories of functional and
theoretical tion of on the communicative meaning as
base of its teaching to teacher in exemplified in discourse.
own, learning) initial states.
reflected in Different Early CLT:
the work of transmitter It is a point of view of language:
Allwright, of system of meanings would need
Wilkins, knowledge to communicate and express in
Widdowson, earlier terms of “notions” (Concept
Candlin, more such as location, frequency,
Brumfit, structure- time, sequence, etc.) and
Johson, based functions (request, threats,
Littlewood methodolo complains, offers etc.).
and Prabnu. gies.
Learning Theory:
Teacher is
a Learning is both cognitive and
counselor effective for successful and non-
that defensive performance, paying
removes attention to SARD.
the
threatening Language theory:
factors in
the Language is for communication,
classroom creative thinking and sharing
behind culture. Trust in the learning
students. process, the teacher and the
others. L1 can be used.

METHODS/ HISTORIC TEACHE STUDENT` LANGUAGE`S ROLE ABILITY CLASS SUMMARY ADVANTAGE/
APPROACH AL R’S S ROLE DISADVANTAGE
ES CONTEXT ROLE
Task based Teacher as Students are Learning theory: Speaking Techniques:
Language observer engaged and
learning or motivated in Use of authentic language and -Cooperation.
(TBL) counsellor L2 tasks. meaningful tasks using L2. -Collaborative work.
. -Exchanges ideas.
Language theory: -Elicitation or
brainstorming.
It segments the target language -Meaningful
into discrete linguistic items communication.
such as: points of grammar, -Practical extra
lexical items and functions. linguistic skill
building.
-Promotion of
language acquisition.
METHODS/ HISTORIC TEACHE STUDENT` LANGUAGE`S ROLE ABILITY CLASS SUMMARY ADVANTAGE/
APPROACH AL R’S S ROLE DISADVANTAGE
ES CONTEXT ROLE
Presentation-
practice and
Production
(PPP)
Lexical
Approach
Humanistic approach??