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Republic of the Philippines

Province of Cagayan
Cagayan State University
Carig Campus
Contact Nos. 09055994943 & 09359186827
Carig Sur, Tuguegarao City 3500, Cagayan Valley, Philippines
COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES

EXERCISE #02

ROCK CLASSIFICATION AND PROPERTIES

Group I
Name of the Group: D’4 Legionnaire
Group Leader: Blessing Grace N. Saet
Members: - Lorie Madel P. Aggalut
- Hanzel J. Sosa
- Jordan Badajos

*An exercise in Envi. 73 - Fundamentals of Earth Science 1 st Semester, S.Y. 2018-2019


under: Engr. Erwin C. Torio, Ph. D. 1
ROCK CLASSIFICATION AND PROPERTIES

I. INTRODUCTION
Rocks are minerals that are fused together by natural processes into a solid mass. Rocks can be
found anywhere on the Earth's surface and are continuously destroyed and transformed between the
three rock types, igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic, through a process called the rock cycle. [1]
When molten rock, magma if it is below the Earth’s surface and lava if it is above, cools and
crystallizes, igneous rocks are formed. Igneous and other types of rock that have been eroded and
weathered into sediments and undergo transportation, deposition, compaction, and cementation are
sedimentary rocks. When rocks are transformed by heat, pressure, or chemically active fluids,
metamorphic rocks are formed. The cycle restarts when metamorphic and other types of rock melt into
magma. [1][2]
Igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks can be further classified according to texture,
composition, or formation. Igneous rocks can be classified further according to their texture and
composition. Based on how they are formed, igneous rocks can either be intrusive or extrusive. Igneous
rocks that are formed when magma solidifies underground are called intrusive rocks while those that
formed when lava hardens above the Earth’s surface are extrusive rocks. Slow cooling results in coarse-
grained rocks, rapid cooling results in fine-grained rocks, very rapid cooling results in a glassy texture,
and varying rates of cooling results in porphyritic texture. Granitic rocks are light colored igneous rocks
that are high in silica and contain minerals like quartz and potassium feldspar. Basaltic are dark colored
igneous rocks have much lower silica content and are calcium-rich and contain pyroxene. Andesitic rocks
are rocks between granitic and basaltic rocks and contain minerals like sodium, calcium, and feldspar.
Ultramafic igneous rocks are made up of minerals like olivine and pyroxene. [1][3]
Sedimentary rocks undergo compaction and cementation process. Compaction squeezes or fuses
sediments together while cementation deposits minerals between the sediments which act like a glue
that sticks the sediments together. Clastic and chemical sedimentary rocks are the two groups of
sedimentary rocks. Clastic sedimentary rocks are rocks that are formed when pieces of existing rocks are
compacted and cemented together. Chemical sedimentary rocks are formed from the deposited
precipitate of dissolved minerals from existing rocks. [1][4]
Metamorphic rocks can be formed through contact or regional metamorphism. Contact
metamorphism occurs when rocks experience extreme heat while regional metamorphism occurs when
rocks experience extreme pressure. Examples where regional metamorphism occurs are mountain
building and plate tectonics. Metamorphic rocks can be subdivided into two groups based on their
foliation: foliated and non-foliated. Foliated metamorphic rocks exhibit bands or planar patterns of
pressure while non-foliated metamorphic rocks have none. [2][4][5]
In this experiment, rock samples were collected to identify which type of rock they belong to and
to classify them according to texture, composition, and formation.

*An exercise in Envi. 73 - Fundamentals of Earth Science 1 st Semester, S.Y. 2018-2019


under: Engr. Erwin C. Torio, Ph. D. 2
II. METHODOLOGY
Site Location

The rock samples were collected in the excavation site at the back of the Victoria subdivision in
Carig Sur, Tuguegarao City.

Listed below are the materials that were used for the experimental test.
Materials
 3 different rock samples
 Hammer
 Zip bag
The three rock samples were collected in order to classify them according to their types,
formation, composition, and texture. The hammer was used to crush the rocks. The rock samples that
were collected were secured in a zip bag.
Below is Figure 1 which shows the procedure followed for this experiment.

Rock samples were The rock samples were


collected from outside hammered into pieces.
of the campus.

The rocks were further The rock samples were


classified according to their classified into igneous,
texture, composition, and sedimentary, and
how they were formed. metamorphic rocks.

Figure 1. Procedure used for the classification of the rock samples

First, the researchers ventured outside the campus to collect three different rock samples from
the chosen location. After the rock samples were collected, they were crushed into pieces using a
hammer to make it easier for the researchers to identify which type of rock the rock samples belong to.
After the determination of the rock types, the rock samples were further classified according to their
texture, composition, and how they were formed.

*An exercise in Envi. 73 - Fundamentals of Earth Science 1 st Semester, S.Y. 2018-2019


under: Engr. Erwin C. Torio, Ph. D. 3
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In this experiment, the corresponding rock type of the rock samples was determined. How the
rocks formed, the composition, and the texture of the rock samples were also identified.
The table below shows the classification of the rock samples.

Table 1. Classification of Rock Samples

Rock Samples Rock Type Texture Composition Formation

1. Granite Igneous Coarse-grained Granitic (feldspar) Intrusive

2. Shale Sedimentary Very fine-grained Clastic -

3. Sandstone Sedimentary Medium grain size Clastic -

Source: Tarbuck., Lutgens. (2006). Earth Science Chapter 03 Rocks [ppt].

The first rock sample is an igneous rock called granite. It has a course-grained texture which
means that the rock it underwent slow cooling which indicates that it is an intrusive igneous rock, a rock
that formed beneath the surface of the Earth. It is granitic and is composed mostly of the mineral quartz.
The quartz in the granite rock sample made the rock look like it is shining.
The second rock sample is a sedimentary rock. It is a red shale rock and is very fine-grained. It is
a clastic sedimentary rock and is formed through the compaction and cementation of muds.
The third rock sample is sandstone which is also a sedimentary rock. It has medium size grains of
sand and it is classified as a clastic sedimentary rock. It is formed through the compaction and
cementation of sand from the soil and from weathered rocks.
The researchers failed to acquire a metamorphic rock from the chosen location. An example of a
metamorphic rock is gneiss. Gneiss is a very hard, medium coarse-grained, banded foliated metamorphic
rock formed through regional metamorphism. [4]

IV. SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Two out of three rock samples collected were sedimentary rocks. Only one was igneous and
there were no metamorphic rocks since they are only often found in regions that experiences extreme
pressure and temperature like mountainous areas and volcanoes. The two sedimentary rocks that were
collected are both clastic and this could indicate that the chosen location has a lot of sediments from
bodies of water or from weathered rocks which forms sedimentary rocks. The presence of sandstone
and shale could indicate that there are sands and muds on the chosen site. The presence of igneous
rocks could indicate that there is a nearby volcano or a river which is responsible for transporting the
rocks from another place to the chosen site. It could also be that the igneous rocks are already formed

*An exercise in Envi. 73 - Fundamentals of Earth Science 1 st Semester, S.Y. 2018-2019


under: Engr. Erwin C. Torio, Ph. D. 4
long before the land was transformed into hills by plate tectonics and are only embedded into the
mountains during the process.

Some rocks can be classified just from looking at their appearance and texture. But to better
classify them, a microscope can be used in order to better identify the texture and composition of the
rocks. Identifying its mineral properties through the identification of the physical and chemical
properties of the rocks can also help in the determination of the texture and composition of the rocks.

V. LESSONS LEARNED
Knowing the classification and properties of rocks are very important and it starts with rocks
formed by crystallization of magma and because of that rocks will create naturally occurring aggregates
of one or more minerals.
- Hanzel J. Sosa

I realized that rocks are literally one of the foundations of our civilization wherein they are used
for building purposes and in roads. They are also inexpensive materials for work design.
- Lorie Madel Aggalut

Some rocks are difficult to identify if we only rely on our own sense of touch and sight. Also,
without prior and extensive knowledge, it would be even harder to classify the rocks.
-Blessing Grace Saet

Classifying rocks is a very good experience for me because it made me realize that the seemingly
common rocks are formed through complex processes and could have gone through the rock cycle over
and over again.

-Jordan Badajos

*An exercise in Envi. 73 - Fundamentals of Earth Science 1 st Semester, S.Y. 2018-2019


under: Engr. Erwin C. Torio, Ph. D. 5
ANNEX A

Figure 2. Rock samples. Shown are the rock samples: Granite (left), shale (middle), and sandstone
(right).

*An exercise in Envi. 73 - Fundamentals of Earth Science 1 st Semester, S.Y. 2018-2019


under: Engr. Erwin C. Torio, Ph. D. 6
REFERENCES:

[1] Tarbuck., Lutgens. (2006). Earth Science Chapter 03 Rocks [ppt].

[2] DK. (2011). Ultimate Visual Dictionary. Penguin

[3] Carroll, D. (2012). Rock Weathering. Springer Science & Business Media

[4] Moulton, G. (2013). CliffsNotes Praxis II: Middle School Science (0439). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

[5] Owen, C., Pirie, D., Draper, G. (2010). Earth Lab: Exploring the Earth Sciences. Cengage Learning

[6] Swason, J. (2014) Metamorphic Rocks. ABDO

*An exercise in Envi. 73 - Fundamentals of Earth Science 1 st Semester, S.Y. 2018-2019


under: Engr. Erwin C. Torio, Ph. D. 7