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Electromagnetic Modeling of Emi Input Filters

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Proceedings of the International Conference of Integrated Power Electronics Systems (CIPS 2012), Nuremberg, Germany,

March 6-8, 2012.

I. Kovacevic

A. Müsing

T. Friedli

J. W. Kolar

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Dipl.-Ing. Ivana Kovaþeviü, Power Electronic Systems Laboratory, ETH Zürich, Switzerland

Dipl.-Phys. Andreas Müsing, Power Electronic Systems Laboratory, ETH Zürich, Switzerland

Dr.-Ing. Thomas Friedli, Power Electronic Systems Laboratory, ETH Zürich, Switzerland

Prof. Dr. Johann. W. Kolar, Power Electronic Systems Laboratory, ETH Zürich, Switzerland

Abstract

The paper summarizes a new modeling procedure for 3D virtual design of EMI filter circuits. The proposed method,

based on the coupling of the Partial Element Equivalent Circuit (PEEC) and Boundary Integral Method (BIM) methods,

extends the standard PEEC approach for modeling in the presence of magnetic materials, hence allowing the

PEEC-based modeling of toroidal EMI filter inductors. The PEEC-BIM coupled method is implemented into a 3D CAD

PEEC-based virtual prototyping platform (GeckoEMC). The developed EM simulation tool can give a comprehensive

understanding of EM behaviour of EMI filter inductors and capacitors, taking their geometrical and material properties

into account. Furthermore, it enables the modeling of optimal EMI filter structures including both parasitics and the ef-

fects originating from the mutual coupling and the interconnection of filter elements. The approach is verified by im-

pedance and transfer function measurements of different single phase single-/two- stage EMI filter structures. Good

agreement between the measurement and the PEEC-based simulation results was achieved for the frequency range from

DC up to 30 MHz.

1 Introduction i.e. from 150 kHz to 30 MHz [3]. The real characteristics

of components can be modeled by lumped equivalent cir-

With increasing switching frequency and high power den- cuits which are derived from the components’ physical

sity of Power Electronic (PE) systems, the problem to performance. However, the lumped equivalent circuits do

satisfy simultaneously power conversion performance and not fully explain the electromagnetic coupling effect and

Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) requirements as more sophisticated modeling techniques have to be used.

defined by EMC standards for radiated and conducted The Partial Element Equivalent Circuit (PEEC) method

emissions [1], is getting more difficult. Today, the design represents a useful EM modeling technique for power

of PE converter systems concerning EM Interference electronics applications that can be defined as circuit-field

(EMI) problems is mostly based on a trial-and-error pro- coupled problems. The research presented in this paper is

cess and often demands great knowledge and experience based on the PEEC method extended for modeling in the

in the wide field of electromagnetics. Accordingly, virtual presence of magnetic materials i.e. PEEC-Boundary Inte-

prototyping is increasing in importance as it enables engi- gral (PEEC-BIM) coupled method [5], [6]. Specifically,

neers to obtain comprehensive insight into the electro- the PEEC-BIM method is developed to enable PEEC-

magnetic behaviour of a PE converter system prior to based modeling of toroidal inductors of EMI filters and

building the final hardware prototype. the paper summarizes the experimental verification results

To reduce EMI problems of High Frequency (HF) for several single-phase EMI filter structures which were

switched power converters, which typically result from fully modeled and simulated by the proposed method.

“bad” PCB layouts, components’ parasitics, and mutual

electromagnetic coupling, EMI input filters and shielding

measures are employed in practice. The necessity of em-

2 PEEC-based Modeling of Power

ploying EMI input filters is due to conducted noise, which Electronic Systems

cannot be controled by proper layout techniques and The enormous increase of computational power of per-

shielding only. Apart from being an essential part of the sonal computers in recent decades has facilitated the de-

power converter, EMI filters introduce additional volume velopment of EMC simulators based on different numeri-

and cost to the overall converter design and therefore cal techniques, such as Finite Element Method (FEM),

have to be properly designed and built [2]. The main aim Finite Difference Time Method (FDTM), Boundary Ele-

of the work presented in this paper is to develop an EM ment Method (BEM), PEEC, Method of Moments

simulation environment – GeckoEMC [3] – that facilitates (MoM), etc. [7]. These numerical techniques are derived

virtual prototyping of EMI input filters for power con- either from the differential or integral formulation of

verters. Maxwell’s equations, in the time or frequency domain.

Low-pass passive filters are commonly used for control- The selection of the right model depends mainly on the

ling HF conducted noise. The HF performance of the pas- application and one can only discuss about the relative

sive filter components and their PCB arrangement have to (dis)advantages of the specific method, concerning calcu-

be taken into account in order to achieve the necessary lation time, accuracy, and implementation complexity [8].

attenuation within the whole frequency range of interest

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For EMC problems in power electronics, the modeling the self- and mutual inductances between PEEC volume

method of choice is usually the PEEC method [9], [10]. cells, C = P-1 is the capacitance (potential) matrix defin-

The PEEC method is originally derived for the EM mod- ing the self- and mutual- potentials of PEEC surface cells,

eling of IC interconnections. It is based on the discretiza- YL is the admittance matrix consisting of matrix stamps

tion (i.e. meshing) of electrical conductors into partial of additional circuit elements connected between PEEC

elements, i.e. inductance, capacitance, resistance, and nodes, and IS and VS are current and voltage sources for

voltage/current sources [11]. Thus, it can be easily cou- modeled excitations. Optionally, magnetic and electric

pled to any circuit simulator as e.g. SPICE or field strengths can be calculated in a post-processing step

GeckoCIRCUITS [12] and solved both in the time and via the known distribution of the current I and voltage po-

frequency domain. In comparison to the FEM approach, tentials V.

the discretization of the surrounding air volume is not re-

quired and only the meshing of conducting, dielectric, and 2.1 PEEC Modeling in the Presence of

magnetic volumes has to be performed. Accordingly, the Magnetic Materials

PEEC method turns out to be a fast and accurate model-

The main difficulty of the PEEC method is the inclusion

ing approach for the circuit-field coupled problems such

of models for magnetic materials. The PEEC-based mod-

as PCB tracks, EMI filters, power converter systems, etc.

eling of nonlinearity, anisotropy, and other magnetic

In Fig. 1, the PEEC model of a 0.35μm PCB copper track

properties is not straightforward and is not performed in

is shown. Starting from the real 3D geometry, the PEEC

practice. As a result, exact 3D PEEC-based models of

partial elements (RL, L, C, VL, VC) are first extracted by

magnetic components are not possible and the FE method

means of a filament mesh [13], then the PEEC equivalent

is typically applied for this class of problems.

circuit is derived from Kirchhoff’s current and voltage

As the PEEC method is a linear approach, in order to

laws, and finally solved for the unknown voltages and

model magnetic PE components via the PEEC method,

currents, [V, I] (c.f. Fig. 1, IAB, VA, VB). The voltage

the homogenization method has to be used, which means

sources VL and VC in Fig. 1 include mutual inductive cou-

that the magnetic core is modeled as a homogenous and

plings between PEEC volume cells and mutual capacitive

linear material defined by the relative permeability coeffi-

couplings between PEEC surface cells.

cient μr. Since the practical design of inductors and trans-

formers is based on frequency dependent μr (f) curves

given by manufacturers, or on μr (f) measurements, the

homogenization assumption is fully justified for PE appli-

cations which simplifies the PEEC-based modeling of

magnetic PE components in the frequency domain. Spe-

cifically, the EM influence of a magnetic core can be

modeled by replacing the core with a fictitious distribu-

tion of magnetic currents, KM, which have to be further

coupled to the electric (excitation) currents. According to

EM theory, the coupling between the fictitious magnetic

currents and the electric currents is derived from the

boundary condition for the tangential component of mag-

netic field lines (Ht). Consequently, the PEEC system ma-

trix in the presence of magnetic cores has to be extended

by additional columns and rows i.e. ĮMM , ȜMI and LM

matrices, to calculate these unknown KM currents (2).

ªA (R jZ L) jZ LM º ª V º ª VS º

« »« » «I »

« ( jZ P 1

YL ) AT 0 » «I » « S»

«0 » «¬K M »¼ (2)

Figure 1 PEEC-based modeling example (a) a 0.35μm ¬ Ȝ MI Į MM ¼ «¬0 »¼

PCB copper track (b) PEEC model of the PCB track (c)

PEEC equivalent circuit of the PCB track. The LM matrix includes the mutual inductances between

PEEC volume cells (e.g. electrical conductors) and the

The PEEC system matrix in the frequency domain is giv- magnetic currents KM. The elements of ĮMM and ȜMI ma-

en by trices are calculated via the boundary conditions (Ht) that

have to be satisfied at the points of the magnetic core sur-

ªA (R jZ L) º ª V º ª VS º face. The Ht boundary condition for a point at the core

« »« » «I » , (1) surface with the normal vector nMk, is defined by (3a) and

¬ ( jZ P 1

YL ) AT ¼ ¬I ¼ ¬ S ¼

then can be further translated in the matrix form as in

where A is the connectivity matrix defining the connec- (3b). The matrix entries of ĮMM and ȜMI are derived from

tion between PEEC partial elements, R is the resistance the Biot-Savart law considering the conductors and KM

diagonal matrix, L is the inductance matrix consisting of currents as sources of magnetic field. Hence, the new ad-

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ditional PEEC elements are defined by the discretization 3.1 Conductors Modeling

of the magnetic surface into NM panels carrying the un- In the first approach, two types of conductor geometries

known currents KMk, k = 1…NM. are used: rectangular and cylindrical, corresponding to the

3D PEEC models of a PCB track and a solid wire. The

1

( H coil ( M k ) H M ( M k ) ) u n M k (1 ) K M (M k ) (3a) input parameters to be defined are the cell conductivity,

Pr 1

PEEC cell position, geometry, and discretization num-

ȜMI I ĮMM K M 0 (3b) bers.

The 3D PEEC models of a PCB track and a solid wire,

shown in Fig. 2, are characterized by the same geomet-

2.2 Literature Overview rical and material properties as the real conductors. As the

The extended PEEC method for modeling in the presence thickness of PCB tracks (height = 0.35 μm) is much less

of magnetic materials based on the magnetic current ap- than the other two PCB track dimensions (x and y), the

proach is basically explained in [14] and is also used to discretization of the PEEC cell in z-direction (c.f. Fig. 2)

derive the so called “MagPEEC” method in [15], [16] for can be neglected. The x- and y-discretizations of a rectan-

RF inductors. Even though the theoretical background of gular PEEC cell and the x- and r-discretizations of a cy-

the magnetic current approach is well-known from elec- lindrical volume cell allow for more accurate EM model-

tromagnetic theory, the difficulties arise with the numeri- ing levels, e.g. a more detailed calculation of eddy-

cal implementation of the extended PEEC method for the currents and the proximity effect.

standard PE magnetic component geometries, i.e. the

mesh of magnetic volume, the selection of basis-functions

for the numerical implementation, and the singularity

problem for the calculation of the ĮMM matrix diagonal

elements.

So far, in literature, several assumptions were introduced

in order to circumvent these problems for EMI filter in-

ductors. In [17], the authors used a correction factor of an

effective permeability to extract the PEEC differential

mode partial inductance LDM of a common mode (CM)

filter inductor. In [18] and [19], the authors ignore the

presence of the magnetic core in order to simplify the

PEEC-based model of CM inductors with the aim to per-

form fast EMC optimization of a power converter.

Accordingly, the research presented in [5], [6], and [20]

has been focused on the derivation and implementation of

the PEEC-BIM coupled method for complete modeling of Figure 2 PEEC modeling of a PCB track and a solid wire

EMI filter toroidal inductors characterized by a frequency in GeckoEMC.

dependent permeability μr (f). In the following sections it

is shown in more detail that the developed method ena-

3.2 X/Y Filter Capacitors Modeling

bles fast and accurate simulation of full 3D EMI filter

structures. As a result, an EMC simulation tool for virtual The homogenization method [21] is applied to model X/Y

prototyping of EMI filters and other power electronic sys- film filter capacitors. The complex inner structure of a

tems, GeckoEMC, has been developed. film capacitor is characterized by a rectangular PEEC cell

with unknown conductivity ȡ, and the same dimensions as

the real capacitor. In Fig. 3, the PEEC model of a X/Y

3 3D Modeling of Filter Compo- film capacitor for EMI noise suppression is presented.

nents The discretization of the PEEC cell is performed in the

direction of the current path between positive and nega-

The starting point for PEEC-based modeling of a full EMI

tive electrodes (y-direction). The inner PEEC nodes are

filter structure is the development of 3D PEEC-based

used to model a frequency-dependant non-uniform current

models of passive filter components. PEEC models are

distribution between two electrodes (c.f. Fig. 4). The

extracted from the 3D geometry of components, adjusting

lumped equivalent circuit of filter capacitors consists of

the input parameters so that a good matching between the

the equivalent series inductance ESL, the equivalent series

simulated and the measured electrical properties of the

resistance ESR and the capacitance C. The conductivity ȡ

component is achieved. Subsequently, the correct model-

and the length of the connectors, lenC, corresponding to

ing of the mutual coupling effect is then verified by trans-

respective ESR and ESL, have to be chosen so that the

fer function measurements.

simulated impedance fits accurately the measured imped-

ance characteristics of the capacitor, ZC.

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of linear and homogeneous cores, the magnetic current

volume density is zero [22]. Hence, only the surface of

the core is discretized into NM panels carrying the un-

known currents KMk, k = 1…NM. The simulation and

measurement results showed that the developed PEEC-

model can be simplified by merging together all panels at

the angle ș (c.f. Fig. 6) into a magnetic current loop IMșj,

j = 1…ndivș, where ndivș is the discretization number in ș-

direction. Therefore, in the presence of a magnetic core

the number of unknowns is only ndivș instead of NM. The

input parameters for the PEEC simulation are the winding

properties (number of turns, wire dimensions, wire con-

Figure 3 The PEEC-based model of X/Y film capacitors. ductivity) and the core properties (core dimensions and

relative permeability curves).

Figure 4 Experimental verification of impedance and (a) the input capacitor loop impedance ZC (b) the transfer

mutual coupling effects between the input and output ca- function between the input and output capacitor loops.

pacitor loops.

Manufacturer, Type, Lead spacing C [nF]

The circuit with two capacitor loops presented, in Fig. 3 1 EPCOS, X2 305 V AC, 22.5 mm 470, 680

and Fig. 4, is used to verify the PEEC simulation results 1000

for impedance and mutual coupling effects. It can be 2 EPCOS, X2 305 V AC, 27.5 mm 680, 1000

shown by both, the PEEC simulation and the measure-

3 MURATA, X1/Y1 250 V AC, 10 mm 4.7

ments, that the connectors’ length lenC has a significant

influence on the HF behaviour of a capacitor, i.e. ESL.

Table 1 The main parameters of capacitors used for the

Therefore, the best way to determine the actual length of

verification of the proposed PEEC-based simulation ap-

the connectors is to fit the measured impedance of the in-

proach.

put capacitor loop consisting of a capacitor and the PCB

tracks. In this way, the PEEC capacitor model is correctly

parameterized and can be directly used for further model-

ing. The output capacitor loop is in that case an open cir-

cuit. The mutual coupling is evaluated by simulating the

induced voltage in the output capacitor loop terminated

with a 50 resistance. The simulation results are then

compared to the transfer function measurements

(Att = VOUT / VIN) between the input and output ports.

The impedance and transfer measurements were per-

formed using a Bode100 vector-network analyzer from

OMICRON (c.f. Section 4.1) operating in the frequency

Figure 6 PEEC-BIM model of a single-phase CM induc-

range from f = 10 Hz to 40 MHz. The good agreement

tor with DM winding configuration in GeckoEMC.

between the measurements and the PEEC simulation is

presented in Fig. 5 for two EPCOS B32924 1.0 μF ca-

Furthermore, it was shown that the excitation currents

pacitors at a distance of dist = 5 mm. The capacitors,

(phase windings) determine the distribution of the mag-

specified in Table 1, are used for the verification.

netic surface currents KM around the core i.e. the KM

strength is higher at the parts of the core covered with the

3.3 Toroid Filter Inductors windings. The PEEC-BIM model of a toroidal inductor is

The 3D PEEC-based model of toroidal inductors is de- verified by the impedance and the near-field measure-

rived via the PEEC-BIM coupled method, by replacing ments of a single-phase common mode (CM) inductor.

the magnetic core with a distribution of fictitious magnet-

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The properties of the toroidal inductors used for the veri- 4.1 Measurement Setup

fication are summarized in Table 2. As a first step, special attention is directed to building a

“good” EMI measurement set-up in order to perform

Winding: transfer function measurements with minimal external

Core: Manufacturer, Type,

No. turns, wire di- disturbance. In the HF range from approximately 10 MHz

Material

ameter onwards measurement results are very sensitive to any

1 VAC, VITROPERM 500F 2 × 7, parasitic or EM noise coming from other devices and the

W380, nanocrystalline [23] 1.4 mm measurement equipment itself. To investigate the influ-

2 Micrometals, T94-26, iron 1 × 12 ence of the measurement equipment, two devices operat-

powder [24] 1.4 mm ing in different frequency ranges were used: (a) Agilent

3 Magnetics, HighFlux 58204, 1×8 HP4396A network analyzer with an operating frequency

iron powder [25] 1.4 mm range from f = 100 kHz to 1.8 GHz, and (b) OMICRON

Bode 100 vector network analyzer, with an operating fre-

Table 2 The inductors used for the verification of the quency range from f = 10 Hz to 40MHz. The measure-

proposed PEEC-based simulation approach. ment set-ups are schematically presented in Fig. 9.

single-phase common mode inductors (c.f. Table 2, core

no. 1) (a ) CM and (b) DM winding configurations.

ferential mode inductors (c.f. Table 2, core no. 2/3) (a)

T94-26 core, 1×12 turns (b) HighFlux 58204 core, 1× 8

turns.

By measuring the mutual coupling between a pick-up coil Figure 9 Measurement set-ups: (a) a (DUT) device under

and a single-phase CM inductor with DM windings con- test with the connections to (b) Bode 100 vector-network

figuration, the EM influence of the core can be evaluated analyzer and (c) HP4396A network analyzer.

as it was shown in [5]. The verification results for the CM

and DM impedances of a single-phase CM inductor and The “EMI Filter Circuit” block represents the Device Un-

for the impedance of DM inductors are presented in Fig. 7

der Test (DUT) including the passive filter components

and Fig. 8.

placed onto the PCB. BNC connectors and 50 coaxial

cables are used for the connection between the DUT and

4 Results Verification the measurement equipment. To match the 50 output

The good agreement between the measurements and the resistance of the measurement equipment, 50 resistors

PEEC-based simulation results presented in the previous are either added onto PCB layout as SMD components or

section points out the usefulness of the implemented directly soldered to the input/output DUT terminals in se-

PEEC-BIM coupled method for 3D modeling of full EMI ries to the signal path. The 50 input resistors are also

filter structures. Accordingly, to demonstrate the capabili- required in the case of low HF input impedance in parallel

ties of the proposed approach, the transfer function meas- to the signal power source.

urements of several single-phase single-/multi-stage EMI The 1:1 input and/or output transformers have to be em-

filters were performed and then compared to the corre- ployed for galvanic isolation between the input and output

sponding PEEC-based simulations in GeckoEMC. sides to prevent short-circuiting the series impedance in

the ground path across the measurement equipment and

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also to reduce the shield currents in the coaxial cables. 4.2 EMI Filter Simulation - Verification

These transformers are not needed for the common-mode The capabilities of the proposed PEEC modeling ap-

measurements with the ground plane directly connected to proach are verified on the examples of single-/multi-stage

DUT. single-phase input filter structures. The transfer function

In the PEEC simulation, the transformers are modelled as measurements are performed for both CM and DM filter

ideal elements. The 1:1 transformers should have a low connfigurations (Fig. 11) taking into account also the

impact on the measured frequency characteristics of DUT. presence of electrostatic shielding effect. The PCB tracks

As a transformer is typically designed for a special appli- (width = 3 mm) are implemented on top layer and the

cation, its ideal EM behaviour is restricted to a fixed fre- copper (ground) plane, GP, on the bottom layer of the

quency range so that the measurements above and/or be- PCB. When the DM attenuation is measured, the GP cop-

low certain frequencies are prone to errors. Specifically, it per plane behaves as a floating ground plane while for the

was observed that both design and position of the trans- CM measurements the copper plane GP is connected to

former can have an impact on the transfer function meas- the ground of the measurement equipment and provides

urements, which is useful to gain knowledge for building the return path for the CM currents. The leakage induct-

a “good” measurement environment. Two transformers ance of single-phase CM inductors is used as DM induct-

were used in the measurements: Transformer 1, a com- ance for filtering DM current noise.

mercial wide-band transformer (CoilCraft WB1010-1

[26]) and Transformer 2, a custom-made transformer (10

turns of twisted pair on VITROPERM 500F W914 core,

wire diameter 0.2 mm) [23] built with approximately two

times lower parasitic capacitance between the primary

and the secondary windings (10 pF) than the Transformer

1. The calibration of the measurement devices is per-

formed for the through-connection between IN and OUT

ports to compensate the cable and connection setup ef-

fects (Fig. 10).

tion of a single-phase single-stage EMI filter structure.

An example of a C-L-C filter structure is presented in Fig.

12 [27].

100 vector-network analyzer.

plementation of a C-L-C filter structure with CM capaci-

tors connected to the copper ground plane (GP).

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functions which model the measured filter attenuation

characteristics observing all resonant frequencies with the

accuracy of few dB (Fig. 13).

and (b) CM transfer functions of the C-L-C filter structure

shown in Fig. 12.

ible for frequencies above 20 MHz. In Fig. 13, a small

mismatch between the measurements and the PEEC simu-

lation of the CM filter transfer function is coming from

the inaccuracy of the simulation input parameters such as Figure 14 (a) GeckoEMC model and (b) practical im-

the core permeability data and geometry of the input con- plementation) of a C-L-C filter structure with an electro-

nectors. The first resonance frequency at 140 kHz nicely static copper shield.

matches with the first resonant frequency of the ideal fil-

ter which is due to the resonant circuit formed by

LCM,DM - CDM; the second resonance at 1.2 MHz results

from CDM - LPCB - ESL (CDM); and the third resonance at

15 MHz is a result of the currents through the CCM capaci-

tors connected to the copper plane GP. Namely, the PEEC

based simulation enables a prediction of EMI filter per-

formance distinguishing the EM influence of all compo-

nents on the overall EMI filter HF behavior.

To verify the electrostatic shielding effect, a vertical cop- transfer functions of the C-L-C filter structure shown in

per plane connected to the PCB bottom layer via the CM Fig. 14 (a) with and (b) without shielding.

capacitor connections, shown in Fig. 14, is used. Good

agreement between the simulation and the measurement

(Fig. 15) shows the correctness of the PEEC-based model

of conductive thin plates.

According to the results in Fig. 15, the presence of the

copper shield increases the attenuation in the HF range

that can be explained by the induced eddy-currents in the

conductive vertical shield. The transfer function of a

C-L-C filter structure with a vertical copper shield and

two CM capacitors at the output part was measured to il- Figure 16 Comparison of two measurements using the

lustrate the influence of the input/output transformers. OMICRON Bode 100 vector network analyzer.

The first measurement (MEASUREMENT 1) was per-

formed with the custom-made transformer at the input 4.2.3 Modeling of a Two-Stage Filter Structure

side and the second measurement (MEASUREMENT 2)

with the commercial transformer connected at the output The developed PEEC modeling approach is further used

side, using the OMICRON Bode 100 network vector ana- to predict the attenuation of a two-stage EMI filter

lyzer (Fig. 16). In particular, the HF properties of the (C-L-C-L-C structure), as shown in Fig. 17 [28]. The

transformer and its placement introduce approximately 5 comparison between the simulated, the measured (using

dB deviation in comparison to the simulation results in the Bode 100 analyzer), and the analytical transfer func-

the HF range above 10 MHz. tions are given in Fig. 18. The first order impedance ap-

proximation of the DM capacitors (ESL-ESR-C) was used

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to analytically calculate the attenuation of a two-stage the dominant coupling effect is actually originating from

filter structure. The analytically calculated transfer func- the PCB layout and the DM capacitors ESL. The mis-

tion deviates from both the measurements and the simula- match above 10 MHz is due to the HF influence of the

tion in the HF range due to the inductive coupling effect transformer. The modeled two-stage EMI filter introduc-

of PCB layout which is not included in the analytical fil- es an insertion loss of approximately -120 dB, which is at

ter model. Accordingly, comprehensive analytical circuit the limit of the measurement equipment and cannot be

modeling requires further measurements like the accurately measured.

S-parameters measurements proposed in [29].

5 GeckoEMC Simulation Perfor-

mance

The mesh of the magnetic surface into NM panels deter-

mines the computational complexity and accuracy of the

implemented PEEC-BIM method. The simulations were

performed on standard PCs with a 64-bit Win OS and a

CPU clock frequency of 2.4 GHz. The PEEC simulations

of the filter circuits presented in Section 4 take several

minutes depending on the number of magnetic elements

i.e. magnetic cores to be modeled. The calculation time

can be separated into the pre-calculation of ĮMM and ȜMI

matrix elements and the post-calculation e.g. the calcula-

tion of transfer function in NF points in the frequency

domain. Thus, the PEEC-based modeling of the two-stage

single-phase filter presented in Fig. 17 results in a

1692×1692 square system matrix, and requires a simula-

tion time of 8 min: 6 min for pre-calculation and 2 min

for post-calculation in NF = 401 frequency points in the

range from f = 10 Hz to 40 MHz. The good matching be-

tween the measurements and the PEEC-simulation results

demonstrate that the PEEC discretization allows accurate

3D modeling of power electronic systems with signifi-

cantly less computational effort than required for an

equivalent FEM analysis.

Figure 17 (a) GeckoEMC model and (b) practical im-

plementation of a two stage C-L-C-L-C filter structure. 6 Conclusion

The work presented in the paper enables an efficient vir-

tual design of EMI filters and power converter systems

regarding both electrical functionality and EMC design

constraints. The PEEC method is shown to be a suitable

modeling technique for power electronic applications

providing simultaneously time flexibility, speed, and

accuracy. In the verification step, good agreement be-

tween measurements (accuracy of 5dB) and PEEC-

based simulation results of the filter transfer function was

achieved for different single-phase single- and /two-stage

Figure 18 PEEC-simulation vs. measurements of DM EMI input filter circuits, used to suppress conducted DM

transfer functions of the C-L-C-L-C filter structure shown and/or CM noise in the real power electronics systems.

in Fig. 17. The optimal PCB placement and selection of the compo-

nents is possible by recognizing the critical mutual cou-

Three resonant frequencies in the transfer function can be pling and parasitics effects. Accordingly, the developed

observed: fR1 = 0.59 kHz (due to CDM - LDM), EMC modeling environment (GeckoEMC) represents a

fR2 = 174 kHz (due to CDM - LPCB - LCM), fR3 = 588 kHz highly useful tool for virtual prototyping of EMI filters

(due to CDM - LPCB - ESL). A replacement of the 3D DM and other power converter systems, speeding up the de-

inductor model with a lumped circuit element L [via YL sign process and allowing engineers without wide practi-

see (1)], shows clearly that the inductive coupling be- cal experience to find good EMC designs.

tween the DM inductors can be neglected and does not The proposed PEEC-BIM coupled method implemented

change transfer function significantly. This implies that in GeckoEMC allows currently 3D electromagnetic mod-

,6%19'(9(5/$**0%+Â%HUOLQÂ2IIHQEDFK*HUPDQ\

&,360DUFK±1XUHPEHUJ*HUPDQ\ 3DSHU

eling of toroidal inductors. In the course of future re- [14] G. Antonini, M. Sabatini, G. Miscione, “PEEC

search, PEEC-BIM modeling of other core geometries modeling of linear magnetic materials,” in Proc. of

will be examined in more detail. IEEE Int. Symposium on Electromagnetic Compata-

bility, Portland, USA, Aug. 14-18, 2006, pp. 93-98.

[15] H. Long, Z. Feng, H. Feng, et al. “A new modeling

7 References technique for simulating 3-D arbitrary conductor-

[1] R. Redl, “Electromagnetic environmental impact of magnetc structures for RFIC applications,” IEEE

power electronics equipment,” in Proc. of the Tran. on Electron. Devices, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 1354-

IEEE, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 926–938, June, 2001. 1363, 2005.

[2] M. L. Heldwein, “EMC filtering of three-phase [16] P. Qijun, M. Weiming, Z. Zhihua et al., “MagPEEC

power converters ,” Ph.D. dissertation, Swiss Feder- modeling technique based on GMD,” in Proc of

al Institute of Technology, Zürich, 2007. APEMC 2008, Singapore, May 19-23, 2008, pp.

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[3] S. Weber, E. Hoene, S. Guttowski, J. John, and H.

Reichl, “Predicting Parasitics and Inductive Cou- [17] E. Hoene, A. Lissner, S. Weber, S. Guttowski, W.

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Dallas, USA, March 19-23, 2006, pp. 1157-1160. Proc. of 36th IEEE Power Electronic Specialists

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[4] Gecko Research, GeckoEMC, [Online]:

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http://www.gecko-research.com/geckoemc.html.

[18] T. De Oliveira, J-L. Schanen, J-M. Guichon, and L.

[5] I. Kovacevic, T. Friedli, A. Müsing, and J. W. Kolar,

Gerbaud, “Automatic layout optimization of an

“A Full PEEC Modeling of EMI Filter Inductors in

EMC filter,” in Proc. of IEEE Energy Conversion

Frequency Domain,” presented at 18th Int. Conf. on

Congress and Expo. (ECCE), Atlanta, Georgia,

the Computation of Electromagnetic Fields (COM-

USA, Sept. 12-16, 2010, pp. 2679-2685.

PUMAG), Sydney, July 12-15, 2011, pp.

[19] T. De Oliveira, J-M. Guichon, J-L. Schanen, and L.

[6] I. Kovacevic, A. Müsing, and J. W. Kolar, “PEEC

Gerbaud, “ PEEC models for EMC filter layout op-

modeling of toroidal magnetic inductors in frequen-

timization,” in Proc of 6th Inter. Conf. on Integrated

cy domain,” in Proc. of Int. Power Electronic Conf.

Power Electronic Systems (CIPS), March 16-18,

(IPEC), Sapporo, Japan, July 21-24, 2010, pp. 3158-

2010, Paper 13.3,.

3165.

[20] I. Kovacevic, T. Friedli, A. Müsing, and J. W. Kolar,

[7] J. Ekman, “Electromagnetic modeling using the Par-

“PEEC-based virtual design of EMI input filters,” in

tial Element Equivalent Circuit method,” Ph.D. dis-

Proc. of IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Ex-

sertation, Lulea University of Technology, Sweden,

po. (ECCE), Phoenix, USA, Sept. 17-22, 2011, pp.

2003.

1935-1941.

[8] H. Kogure, Y. Kogure, and J. C. Rautio, Introduc-

[21] E. Hoene, “EMC in Power Electronics,” in Proc. of

tion to RF design using EM simulators , 2010, Ar-

5th Inter. Conf. on Integrated Power Electronic Sys-

tech House Publishers.

tems (CIPS), March 11-3, 2008, pp. 1-5.

[9] A. Müsing, M. L. Heldwein, T. Friedli, and J. W.

[22] D. M. Cook, The theory of the electromagnetic field,

Kolar, “Steps towards prediction of conducted emis-

1975, Prentice –Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New

sion levels of an RB-IGBT Indirect Matrix Convert-

Jersey, pp. 289-324.

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Nagoya, April 2-5, 2007 , pp. 1181-1188. [23] Vacuumschmelze, Nanocrystalline VITROPERM –

EMC Components, Vacuumscmelze GmbH. & Co.,

[10] A. Domurat-Linde and E. Hoene, “Investigation and

2004.

PEEC based simulation of radiated emissions pro-

duced by power electronic converters,” in Proc. of [24] Micrometals, [Online]:http://www.micrometals.com.

6th Inter. Conf. on Integrated Power Electronic Sys- [25] Magnetics, [Online]:http://www.mag-inc.com.

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[11] H. Heeb and A. Ruehli, “Three-Dimensional inter- [27] S. Wang, F. C. Lee, D. Y. Chen, and W. G. Oden-

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[13] A. Muesing, J. Ekman, and J. W. Kolar, “Efficient daal, “Characterization and parasitic extraction of

calculation of nonorthogonal partial elements for the EMI filters using scattering parameters,” IEEE

PEEC method,” Trans. on Magnetics, vol. 45, no.3, Trans. on Power Electronics, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 502-

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,6%19'(9(5/$**0%+Â%HUOLQÂ2IIHQEDFK*HUPDQ\

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