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Report on Transistor Amplifiers by

jorge morocho
Lab Introduction

What we know so far of the transistor can make it difficult to think about its
possible applications since we have only taken care to study its behavior and its
characteristics.
The present practice tries to present one of the main applications of the
amplification and thus obtain the required results in the practice that will be
carried out below.

Lab Overview

Question

Additional Comments

Answer

We understand by amplification the fact that a variation occurred at the input of


the circuit appears enlarged at the output, applying this concept to the transistor
if we cause a variation of the base polarization we will obtain a much greater
variation of the collector current therefore of the collector-emitter voltage.
Generally using the transistor as an amplifier the base bias variations are
caused by the application of a small AC signal to the input that wishes to appear
at the increased value output, but being a reflection of the input.

Transistor Amplifiers

Question

1-1 What is the main role of an amplifier?

Answer

A. An amplifier's main role is to take a large input signal and make it smaller
by decreasing the signal voltage.
B. An amplifier's main role is to take a small input signal and keep it
unchanged.
C. An amplifier's main role is to take a small input signal and make it larger
by increasing the signal voltage.
D. An amplifier's main role is to take a large input signal and keep it
unchanged.

Question

1-2 What is true about voltage gain?

Answer

A. Voltage gain is independent of signal frequency


B. Voltage gain is measured in volts
C. Voltage gain is equal to Vout/Vin

Question

Additional Comments

Answer

Simulate: Explore the Behavior of a Transistor Amplifier

Question

1-3 What is the calculated gain of the simulated circuit?

Note: Voltage gain = AV = =

Answer

29.53

Question

1-4 What is the gain at 100 Hz? AV=

Answer

30.049

Question

Additional Comments

Answer

Implement: Transistor Amplifiers


Question

1-5 Given a β of 100 and VBE of 0.7, calculate IB and IE , and write the
calculated results in Table 1-2 below.

After you have calculated your results, use the DMM to measure IB and
measure IE. You can measure from the exposed metal leads or create a
measurement point using a wire or header pin. Write the measured values in
Table 1-2 below.

Table 1-2

Answer

Data Calculated Value Measured Value

IB 446.25 uA 512.3 uA

IE 11.03 mA 9.97 mA

Question

1-6 Do the measured values correspond to the calculated values? Why or why
not?

Answer

not because the components have their loss therefore they are similar but not
the same

Question

1-7 Calculate linear gain (Output Vpp/ Input Vpp). Calculate gain in dB and
write the results below.

Oscilloscope Gain (dB) =

Answer

30dB

Question

Additional Comments

Answer

Exercise: Frequency Response of the Amplifier


Question

1-8 Use the cursors to find the gain at 100 Hz and write it down.

Bode Gain (dB) =

Answer

29.55

Question

1-9 Does the measured gain coincide with the gain found using the
oscilloscope?

Answer

30.049

Question

1-10 How do these values compare to the values measured in simulation? Why
might they be different?

Note: Keep in mind that simulated values are for linear gain while measured
values are for dB gain.

Answer

Question

Additional Comments

Answer

the simulated values are for linear gain, while the measured values are for gain
in dB, therefore the values are different.

Analysis

Question

1-11 Record any observations that you haven't noted above.

Answer

The voltage gain of an emitter follower is exactly a little less than one, since the
emitter voltage is limited to the diode drop of about 0.7 volts below the base. Its
function is not the gain of voltage but the gain of current or power and the
adaptation of impedances.

Question

1-12 List the most important characteristics and applications of a transistor


amplifier.

Answer

The device can be characterized as a current amplifier, which has many


applications in amplification and switching. Since a transistor is a three-terminal
device and there are four input-output terminals, one of the terminals of the
transistor must be common for the input and output circuits this leads to names
like common emitter, etc., for the three types basic amplifiers

Question

1-13 Discuss how, in the previous steps, you measured the voltage gain of
a transistor amplifier circuit.

Answer

which is obtained by measuring the value of the input voltage and the output
voltage and making its quotient

Question

1-14 What happens to the amplified signal from a transistor amplifier if we


increase the input signal amplitude?

Answer

when increasing the input signal the signal that we have output is distorted

Question

Additional Comments

Answer

Emitter Follower Amplifiers - Voltage Response

Question
2-1 Use the table below to record the peak-to-peak current from Probe 1 and
Probe 2.

Table 2-1

Answer

Probe Peak-to-Peak Current (µA)

Probe 1 - Input Current 37.398

Probe 2 - Output Current 371.09

Question

2-2 Calculate the current gain using the following equation:

AI =

Answer

2.48722

Question

2-3 Calculate the circuit gain for a range of resistance values by:

 Modifying the resistance (RE)


 Running the simulation
 Making the measurement
 Stopping the simulation

Then, complete Table 2-2 below:

Table 2-2

Answer

Resistance of Probe 1 - Input Probe 2 - Output


Gain
RE Current (µA) Current (µA)

1k 76.22 495.96 6.51

2k 41.74 495.56 11.87

3k 29.74 495.03 16.64


Resistance of Probe 1 - Input Probe 2 - Output
Gain
RE Current (µA) Current (µA)

5k 19.94 493.40 24.74

Question

Additional Comments

Answer

Conclusion

Question

2-4 Summarize any observations from the lab that haven't been addressed
elsewhere.

Answer

A transistor in a circuit will be in one of three conditions: In cut without collector


current, useful for operation as a switch. In the active region some collector
current, more than a few tenths of a volt above the emitter, useful for amplifier
applications. In saturation the collector a few tenths of a volt above the emitter,
high useful current for "on" applications.

Question

2-5 In your own words, talk about the purpose of an emitter follower amplifier.

Answer

In an amplifier follower of transmitter impedance input is much higher than its


output impedance so that a signal source would not have to work so hard this
can be seen in the fact that the base current is of the order of 100 times less
that the emitter current the low output impedance of the emitter follower is
adapted with a low impedance load and dampens the signal source

Question

2-6 Give a few application examples of a transistor amplifier.

Answer

The design of electronic circuits of small size great versatility and ease of
control. Generation of signal such as oscillators, wave generators,
radiofrequency emission.
Question

Additional Comments

Answer

Lab Conclusion

At high frequencies capacitive components appear in the transistor, this causes


the amplifier to behave like a band pass filter when performing the BJT
amplifiers, which is based on knowing very well its characteristics in each
polarization, since there the design starts as well as the calculations. It is
convenient that the resting point is located in the vicinity of the center of the
load line and that the gain is not excessively high to give stability to the circuit
and give us distortions respectively.