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A d v m i,I Orguk Geochealmy 1991

Org. Geochem.Vol. 19, Nos 4-6, pp. 545-555, 1992 0146-6380/92 $5.00+ 0.00
Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved Copyright © 1992Pergamon Press Ltd

Source rock potential (TOC + Hydrogen Index) evaluation by

integrating well log and geochemical data
BP Research Centre, Sunbury-on-Thames, Chertsey Road, Middlesex TWl6 7LN, England

Almtraet--Evaluation of source rock potential using well log data alone, e.g. density or sonic log, is limited
to the assessment of total organic carbon (TOC) content. Well logs that directly measure the most
important source quality parameter, the hydrogen content of the kerogen, do not exist. Therefore, a
method is proposed that combines log-derived TOC data with calibration schemes relating TOC content
to Hydrogen Index and maturity for individual source rock sets. The method has been applied to the
compositionally heterogeneous Kimmeridge Clay Formation of the North Sea and the homogeneous
Lower Toarcian Shale of N.-Germany. The combination of well log and geochemical data greatly
improves the accuracy with which the lateral and vertical distribution of source rocks and their potential
can be predicted on a basin and prospect level.

Key words---geochemistry, source rock, wireline log, density log, organic matter, kerogen, pyrolysis,
Kimmeridge Clay Formation, Lower Toarcian Shale

INTRODUCTION other geochemical data. A method is outlined here

which combines the determination of the total or-
Sophisticated basin modelling techniques are com-
ganic carbon content from density logs with an
monly applied in petroleum exploration in order to
empirically derived relationship between TOC, Hy-
predict the spatial distribution of oil and gas in a
drogen Index and maturity for a source rock suite.
sedimentary basin. An important aspect of these
The aim of this approach is to improve the database
models is the quantification of source rock volumes
used for more detailed volumetric calculations of the
and corresponding potential to generate petroleum.
petroleum generation potential on a basin and
However, detailed information on both source rock
prospect level.
occurrence and potential in sedimentary basins is in
general limited. Direct geochemical measurements on
source rocks are in most cases sparse and sampling DETERMINATION OF THE TOTAL ORGANIC
often does not allow an accurate regional assessment
of source potential. Consequently, wireline logs have The first step in developing a method to predict the
in the past increasingly been used to identify source quantity and quality of organic matter from logs is
rock intervals, to quantify the organic matter content the determination of the total organic carbon (TOC)
and interpolate between borehole geochemical data- content in a potential source rock. Conventional
sets (Herron,1987; Meyer and Nederlof, 1984; Car- methods are based on the physical properties of the
pentier et aL, 1989; Schmoker, 1979, 1981; Schmoker organic matter, such as low density and high sonic
and Hester, 1983; Mendelson and Toksoz, 1985; travel time, which influence log response in different
Passey et al., 1990). ways. Various logs or combination of logs have been
Common aims of all the existing methods are, used to detect and quantify organic matter in sedi-
firstly to identify the source rock intervals, secondly ments: gamma-ray log (Schmocker, 1981; Fertl and
and more importantly to improve the detection limit Rieke, 1980), pulsed-neutron spectral log (Herron,
of the organic carbon content and finally to improve 1986), density log (Schmoker, 1979; Schmoker and
the accuracy of the total organic carbon (TOC) Hester, 1983), sonic log (Dellenbach et al., 1983;
assessment. However, even the most reliable quantifi- Meyer Nederlof, 1984; Carpentier et al., 1989), resis-
cation of TOC content from logs does not permit a tivity log (Carpentier et al., 1989; Passey et al., 1990).
t r u e estimate of source potential. This requires the For detailed discussions on the advantages and disad-
determination of the hydrogen content ( C - H bonds) vantages of each method the interested reader is
o f the kerogen. A tool providing this facility does not referred to review papers by Passey et al. (1990),
exist at the present time. As a result any improvement Mendelson and Toksoz (1985) and Fertl and Chilin-
in the application of log data to assess the true source gar (1986). Testing various methods it was concluded
potential of a mudrock requires integration with that the application of the density log for the determi-
nation of the TOC content in the studied examples
*Present address: RWE AG, Research and Development, was the simplest and most reliable method. Rugosity
Kruppstrasse 5, 4300 Essen I, Germany. of the borehole walls or high pyrite content which


both could negatively influence the data, had no the porosity of the source interval from present day
significant effect. burial depth by using a generalized porosity/depth
In general, the bulk density of a sediment depends curve for mudrocks in the area of interest. The first
on the density of the mineral matrix, the pore volume option is preferred because of the many problems
(porosity) and density of fluids occupying the pore involved in establishing a generalized porosity/depth
space. Organic matter has relatively low density and curve such as overpressure and mineralogical vari-
its presence therefore causes a decrease in bulk den- ability effects. To apply the first option several con-
sity relative to sediment with no organic matter but ditions should be met: (1) ideally, the non-source rock
the same rock matrix and porosity. A direct corre- should contain no organic matter; (2) in addition, the
lation between TOC content and the bulk formation porosity and the density of the matrix of the source
density (as measured by density logs, Schmocker and and non-source interval should be similar. Porosity is
Hester, 1983) is only possible, however, if porosity, first calculated for the non-source interval:
kerogen, rock matrix and fluid density are constant.
The natural variation of these parameters prevents porosity ffi a m - - arts (1)
the general application of this kind of approach a m -- a w

across different basins.

an, = density of non-source interval; am = matrix den-
Modelling variation in sediment density as a func-
sity; a,~ = density of water.
tion of TOC content requires data such as the
In a simplified rock model, total rock density
porosity of the sediment, the density of the fluids,
depends on the volume and specific density of water
the rock matrix and the kerogen (Mendelson and
in the pore space (porosity), rock matrix and if
Toksoz, 1985). This kind of model requires careful
present kerogen. Provided porosity and rock matrix
application because slight variations in the input
of the non-source and source interval are the same,
parameters, in particular porosity and kerogen den-
the volume of kerogen represents the difference in
sity, have a major effect on the calculated TOC value.
bulk densities between the source and non-source
The input parameters should be calibrated resulting
in different constants for specific source rocks and
basins. To do this the first step is to determine the
true porosity of the source rock interval: i.e. the ¢~ = a, - a., (2)
(7 k -- a m
volume of the fluid-filled pore space between the
matrix grains. There are basically two ways to achieve Ok = kerogen volume; as -- density of source interval;
this: (1) calculate the true porosity from the density a,, = density of non-source interval; a m = matrix den-
log of the adjacent non-source interval; (2) estimate sity; ak = kerogen density.


Input parameter :
Matrix density - 2.7 g/cm 3

~" 2.4 Kerogen density - 1.2 g/cm s



0 2 4 6 8 10 ~2
Total Organic Carbon (%)

Fig. 1. Calculated variation of source rock density with increasing TOC content.
Source rock potential evaluation 547

Well Depth
2.6-] ~ 0 2240-2500m
t ~ O ~25~om

I "".~,, ~'~,~ -- • ~o~32~o.

2.4~_ ~'~,,.'~.~ "~.~,,~ O 03750-3800m
I ~ ~ ~ ' ~ ~ " , , O 3720-39605

u~ 2.2- ~'.~.~. U ~ 3km

- ~ 0 ~ ' " ~ ' 2 km

2.0 I I I I I I I I I I I I
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Total OrganicCarbon (%)
Fig. 2. Comparison between the observed ( ) and calculated ( - - - ) relationship between source rock
density and TOC content in the Kimmeridge Clay Formation of the North Sea.

• • • u----O
• • • O
8 m • I °° • o• •oo 0! .0
• • • • •
.', !:...
•0 .0o00
• O 00 •
i 00
i °
• $

4 j I, • I * oo • * * ***

oil Io'!: •"I• " I"
008 •0 •
• •

0 10 20 30 40
Delta Sonic TravelTime (ft/s)
(source vs non-source)
Fig. 3. Delta sonic travel time of a source and a non-source interval from the KCF vs the measured TOC
content of the source interval.



J • •
Q • •
llW'~a~ O• • • • •


0 10 20 30 40
DeltaSonicTravel.time ( ft I s )
Fig. 4. Delta sonic travel time o f a source and a non-source interval from the K C F vs the measured T O C
content of the source interval minus the measured T O C content o f the non-source interval.

In this equation kerogen volume is calculated as a density of 2.7 g/cm 3 were assumed, the TOC content
fraction of the whole rock. Taking account of poros- increases with decreasing formation density.
ity and using a standard factor of 0.85 kg carbon/kg The method was tested on the organic-rich Kimme-
kerogen to transform kerogen volume, the TOC ridge Clay Formation (KCF) in the Central North
fraction of the source interval is calculated Sea. This provides an ambitious test for the method
a~ ~k
because firstly, the organic matter is heterogeneous
TOC = W (3) both quantity and quality, secondly, it varies in
crk ~k + trm (1 - porosity - <~k)
maturity and thirdly, it varies in mineralogical com-
W = 0.85 kg carbon/kg kerogen. position. The measured bulk density of mudrocks
Equations similar to the ones described above have from the Kimmeridge Clay Formation are plotted
been published by Mendelson and Toksoz (1985), against TOC measurements, from cuttings and cores,
Schmoker and Hester (1983) and Schmoker (1979) of single wells in Fig. 2. The calculated regression
which even take into account the volume of pyrite. lines for each well are also plotted together with the
Results from the three methods differ slightly and it
depends on the user which kind of underlying rock
model he prefers. The principle of deriving TOC
content from density logs is not affected. In any case,
J Environment J
Depositional I Preservati°n
Conditions J
apart from porosity, two other input parameters have
to be defined, namely the kerogen and matrix den-
sities. Kerogen density depends on the organic matter
composition (maceral composition) and maturity. Matter
I Amountof Organic ] I c°rn°°sRi°n °f
OrgJinicMatter ]
The density of labile marine organic matter varies
between 1.1 and 1.4g/cm 3 whereas the density of
terrestrial organic matter (e.g. vitrinite) ranges from
1.3 to 1.7 g/cm 3 (Stach, 1982). The matrix density of
silieielastic sediments is less variable and is normally I Maturity J
assumed to be constant. High concentrations
of heavy minerals may, however, invalidate this
An example of the above calculations is shown in I ,o° I
Fig. 1. In this case where a calculated true porosity Fig. 5. Factors influencing the relationship between source
of 15%, a kerogen density of 1.2 g/cm ~ and a matrix rock maturity, T O C content and Hydrogen Index.
Source rock potential evaluation 549

predicted TOC-density relationship for organic-rich density logs, they are unaffected by rugose borehole
mudrocks at various depth (2-4 kin). There is good wall or by the presence of pyrite.
agreement between the calculated regression lines and In order to test the applicability of sonic logs in
the predicted TOC-density relationships. assessing the TOC content of mudrocks, the relation-
The detection limit for organic-rich mudrocks ship between sonic travel time and organic matter
using this method is about 2% TOC. Applying content was tested on the same Kimmeridge Clay
this method and comparing the results with measured sample set that was used in evaluating the density log.
data from the Kimmeridge Clay Formation showed The TOC content was calculated by comparing the
that for similar organic-rich source rocks the error sonic travel time of organic-rich to organic-poor
is __2% TOC. This error is acceptable for the mudrock intervals and relating the difference in sonic
purposes of assessing the TOC content of this kind travel time to the amount of organic carbon (Fig. 3).
of organic-rich source rocks in areas where no Apart from a vague trend of increasing TOC with
geochemical data is available. For more homo- increasing sonic travel time no direct correlation was
genous source rocks, such as the Bakken shale or the observed. Part of the scatter may be due to not
Lower Toarcian Shale (shown later) the error is compensating for the TOC content of the assumed
reduced. non-source interval. If this is done and the values
Sonic logs can be used in a similar way to density subtracted from the TOC value of the source interval
logs in order to calculate the TOC content of mud- the resulting correlation is better (Fig. 4). However,
rocks. However, the relationship between sonic travel even this improved version does not allow accurate
time and organic matter content is much less con- assessment of the organic carbon content. It is con-
strained than the relationship between bulk density cluded that sonic logs should not be used to estimate
and organic matter content. This is because sonic the amount of organic carbon in mudrock intervals.
travel time is influenced firstly by a greater variety of
parameters including lithology, porosity, and distri-
bution of organic matter (Meyer and Nederlof, 1984) RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TOC CONTENT, ORGANIC
and secondly, because the physical properties of AND MATURITY
organic matter vary substantially according to their
chemical composition e.g. different kerogen types, It has been suggested that density logs can provide
different maceral composition. In addition, the verti- reliable estimates of organic matter quantity (TOC
cal resolution of sonic logs is less than that of density content) in mudrock intervals. In order to improve
logs. One advantage of the sonic logs is that, unlike the effectiveness of this method and to achieve the


• 400
• • Y

• • go
• • 2• ,~ s
• es '~ • I
-- qL 0 . • O • •
u O •'s'O • • • •
o° o• .. o• • # • ° o
4oo • _j oOo • __ • •
oO°~ ° e• • o" • • go•" •

• • ~qs • ~s" oS• so "• • •

• •qlJU • • •
• O0
150 5 t
o~ •
• • • •
• • O•

. "..0 . . . :

o 2 4 6 8 10 12

Total Organic Carbon (%)

Fig. 6. Hydrogen Index versus TOC content of immature KCF mudrocks. Average H I values are assigned
to a low TOC source rock (<3%TOC-150HI) and a high TOC source rock (>3%TOC-400HI).

0(3 19/4:6.--P

final aim of predicting the true source potential, types of marine oil-prone source rocks: (1) the Kim-
density-derived TOC calculations must be integrated meridge Clay Formation (KCF) in the North Sea,
with geochemical information. The crucial step here representing a regionally heterogenous source rock
is to take the calculated TOC value from the density deposited in a predominately post-rift setting (I-Ierbin
log of a source interval and link it to a model that et al., 1991; Lott et al., 1989; Rawson and Riley,
describes the relationship between TOC content, or- 1982); (2) the homogenous, regionally widespread
ganic matter composition (Hydrogen Index ffi HI kg Lower Toarcian Shale of Central Europe characteris-
HC/tonne rock, Espitafie et al., 1977) and maturity. ing source rock deposition on a stable, shallow
Due to petroleum generation and expulsion, maturity marine shelf (Littke et al., 1991; Riegraf, 1985;
has a direct effect on both TOC content and Hydro- Jenkyns, 1985; Morris, 1980; Huc 1977).
gen Index of a source rock (Fig. 5).
The relationship between TOC content and Hydro-
gen Index is more complex. Because many factors, DISCUSSION AND RESULTS
such as initial organic matter supply in the deposi-
tional environment and preservation conditions Kimmeridge Clay Formation
during and after decomposition, determine the TOC A prerequisite for the proposed method is a geo-
content and Hydrogen Index of a source rock, the chemical database containing information on the
relationship between the two, is hardly predictable variation in TOC content, organic facies and
(Hartman-Stroup, 1987). Therefore, in most cases Hydrogen Index with maturity for the source rock.
there is no simple, numerical relationship between The first step in the calibration scheme requires
TOC content and HI which in addition would have the construction of TOC%-HI crossplots for
to take into account the effect of maturity on both different maturities. Figure 6 shows one example
parameters. Instead, simple schemes based on empir- for immature KCF mudrocks (Re% < 0.5%). The
ical data have been developed. In the following observed scatter is typical for source rocks
section two examples are given from two distinct deposited under varying conditions. This is mainly



I 8-

6 -

4 -

2 -

Fig. 7. Scheme showing the relationship between TOC content and average Hl's at various stages of
maturity (KCF mudrocks, North Sea).
Source rock potential evaluation 551

caused by (1) a variation in organic matter com- large predicted variation in the TOC content over the
position e.g. hydrogen-poor terrestrial organic mat- interval. The measured data from cuttings suffer from
ter versus hydrogen-rich marine organic matter, various problems such as: sampling and preparation,
(2) variation in preservation conditions at the sedi- cavings (zone 2 and 3), contamination and depth
ment-water interface and (3) variation in organic conversion. This is evident in particular in zone 2 and
matter supply e.g. autochthonous, primary pro- 3 where the decrease in TOC content is not shown by
ductivity versus allochthonous terrestrial organic the measured data nor, as sometimes suggested, by a
matter. In view of this only a simple separation of decrease in the gamma ray (GR) response. The most
the dataset into two groups is justified. Group 1 important result is, however, the correct assessment
consists of low to moderately organic-rich mud- of the source potential by the applied scheme. In zone
rocks (0.5-3% TOC), HI's ranging from about 50 1 where the measured data is believed to be fairly
to about 300. Group 2 comprises source rocks representative, good agreement is observed between
with more than 3% TOC and HI's of 300-550. In the calculated and measured present day source
a similar way, diagrams were produced for seven potential. Unlike the measured data, the calculation
different maturity stages and average HI-values scheme allows a continuous assessment of the source
assigned to each range in TOC-values. The results rock potential over the whole interval. In summary:
are summarised in Fig. 7 for the two source rock any assessment of the source rock potential of the
groups. This diagram can now be used to assess KCF in this particular well from cuttings data alone
average HI-values at a given maturity/depth level or GR response would firstly overestimate the source
from log-derived TOC-values in order to calculate rock potential in zone 2 and secondly, probably miss
the present day source rock potential. a source rock interval in the lower part of the
An example of the application of Fig. 7 is given in formation (zone 4).
Fig. 8. In this typical North Sea Well, the KCF is
characterized by low but variable density, implying a Lower Toarcian Shale
variable TOC content. Measurements on cuttings, To further test the proposed method, published
however, suggest a continuous organic-rich source wire-line logs and geochemical data for the Lower
interval (Fig. 8). From the density log, four zones Toarcian Shale from N-Germany were taken from
were tentatively identified. Here calculated average the literature (Rullkttter et al., 1988; Littke and
TOC values range from 0.5 to 8.0% TOC (Fig. 8). In Rullkttter, 1987; Mann and Miiller, 1988). As in
contrast to measured data from cuttings there is a the previous example for the KCF, a model to predict

GR Comp ISN il.l) C ( . . p ISiN RHOB Comp LDN DT Comp ISN

150 300 20 200( 240 14¢
0 15( .2 20 1.95 2.9~ 140 4C
-J Total TOlal
~/nd~en t rock
kg HC/ (%) HyCI.,u~e" I rock
4~ ~ | I | I i

ZoneI 8.0 220 17.6

i ,~ 37OO
~_~ 8.9 167 14.9

2 8.6 191 16.4 3.9 220 8.6

;~ , ~-* 7.6 151 11.5
= .."1 -- 78 153

Zone3 0.5 100 0.5

3750 '~~lrle4 ~ "-~ 3"1 2196.6 2.02204.4

GammaRsy ~ ~ Dsns~ So.~ ._Me~__yrsd

dsts(cunlngs} Calculatsddais
Fig. 8. Comparison between measured geochemical data of cuttings from the KCF of a North Sea well
and calculated data based on density log measurements and the application of a regional calibration
scheme relating TOC, HI and maturity (Fig. 7).

2.4 Input parameter :

i 2.2 1.3 10%


- 1.2 15%

O ~ 1.1 20%
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Total Organic
Fig. 9. Calculated variation of the decrease in source rock density with increasing TOC content (Lower
Toarcian Shale, N-Germany). Four curves are shown, each assuming different porosity and kerogen
density. Matrix density constant: 2.7 g/cm3.

the TOC content from the density logs was set up surrounding organic-lean shales (Fig. 11). Based on
(Fig. 9). The model was refined to take into account geochemical (pyrolysis) and maturity (vitrinite reflec-
the increase in kerogen density with maturity. This tance) data from four wells (Rullk6tter et al., 1988)
was possible in this case because (a) more detailed a regional TOC-HI-Maturity scheme was constructed
geochemical information was available and (b) the in order to calculate the source rock potential for a
source rock has a relatively uniform organic matter section of the Lower Toarcian Shale (Fig. 12). The
composition. predicted TOC content and the source rock potential
The typical log characteristics of the Lower Toar- varies from 10.2 to 12.8% TOC and 66 to 83 kg
cian Shale are shown in Fig. 10. Organic-rich, car- HC/tonne rock, respectively. This result is in excellent
bonaceous mudrocks (marls) are easily recognised by agreement with the actual measured data on
sharp shifts in the log traces relative to organic-lean cores (10.7% TOC, o 1.2; 71 kg HC/tonne rock, (75.0)
mudrocks. Following the procedure outlined above, (Fig. 11).
the TOC content of the source interval was calculated In cases such as the organic-rich, homogeneous
from the density difference between organic-rich and Lower Toarcian Shale, where a close correlation


( g-ore4 ) (GAPI) (ppm) (ohm.m) (ohm.m)
2.0 2.3 50 150 0 10 10 100 10 100 AGE
I I • I I I - I I I |

i Dogger,

Upper Urn,

50 Middle HaS,

Fig. I0. Log traces from the Lower Toarcian Shale (Well Wenzen) in N-Germany (from Mann and Miiller,
Source rock potential evaluation 553

• Lower Toarcian shale
1 measured data
c~ / 10.7% + l o
151~ '1
< .

~ 22.

0 I 2.o-
2.6 2.8 0 2 4 6 8 lg r
2.0 Z~ensi ", TOC % 10.2% 12.8%
[ nooou--g"t non-source I
Uas alpha I

Fig. 11. Comparison of density log-derived TOC data with measured data from core (Lower Toarcian
Shale, N-Germany).

exists between the decrease in TOC and HI with different wells is plotted against the measured source
maturity and the initial TOC content was regionally rock potential (P2). With density values from wireline
similar, a simplified way of directly assessing the logs of a new well it appears it would be possible to
source rock potential from density logs is possible. In roughly assess the source rock potential (P2) to
Fig. 13 the measured value of the source interval from within + 10%.



e- 8"


0.4 015 0~6 0~7 0~8 0.'9 1~0 1~1 112 113

VItrinite Reflectance ( Rm% )

Fig. 12. Scheme showing the relationship between TOC content and average HI's at various stages of
maturity (Ro%) (Lower Toarcian Shale N-Germany, data from Rullk6tter et al., 1988, Littke and
Rullk6tter, 1987).


lower Toarcian Shale

(N. Germany)
1.45% Rm

5 2.40 Well H~essen 0.88% Rm

Well Harderode

0 0.68% Rm

n- I Well Dielmissen

0.48% Rm

Well Wenzen
0 ' 1'o ' 20
' ' ;o . . 4o. . . 50 . . 6o ;o ' 8'0 ' ~
P2 ( kg HC / t rock )

Fig. 13. Kerogen conversion into petroleum with increasing maturity causes the decrease in source rock
potential (P2) and TOC content of the source rock. The latter effect results in an increase of source rock

CONCLUSIONS contents by the CARBOLOG method. Rev. Inst. Ft. Pet.

44, 669-719.
At present, the use of density logs is the simplest Fertl W. H. and Chilingar G. V. 0986) Total organic
and probably most reliable method to assess the TOC carbon content determined from well logs. SPE 15612.
content of siliciclastic source rocks from E-logs. Hartmann-Stroup C. 0987) The effect of organic matter
type and organic carbon content on Rock-Eval Hydrogen
However, the true source potential of a mudrock Index in oil shales and source rocks. Org. Geochem. 11,
interval can only be estimated by linking the log- 351-369.
derived TOC-values with empirically derived re- Herbin J.-P., Muller C., Geyssant J. R., Melieres F. and
lationships between TOC, Hydrogen Index and Penn I. E. (1991) Heterogeneite quantitative et qualitative
de la matiere organique dans les argiles du Kimmefidgen
maturity. These must be developed for individual du val de Pickering (Yorkshire, UK). Rev. Inst. Fr. Pet.
source rocks. The application of this integrated ap- 46, 675-712.
proach is therefore restricted to sedimentary basins Herren S. L. (1987) A total organic carbon log for source
with at least some geochemical information on poten- rock evaluation. Log Analyst, pp. 520-527.
tial source rocks. Once calibration schemes have been Huc A. Y. (1977) Contribution de la geochimie organique
a une esquiss¢ paleocologique des schistes bitumineux de
developed, however, all wireline log information can Toarcian de rest du bassin de Paris. Rev. Inst. Ft. Pet. 32,
be used to greatly improve the confidence in predict- 703-718.
ing the lateral and vertical distribution of source Jenkyns H. C. (1985) The early Toarcian and Cenomanian
rocks and their source rock potential from log data. anoxic events in Europe--comparison and contrasts.
Geol. Rundsch. 74, 504-518.
Furthermore, a continuous calculation of source rock Littke R., Rozal H., Leythaeuser D. and Baker D. R. (1991)
potential over the whole source rock interval is very Lower Toarcian Posidonia Shale in Southern Germany.
valuable in calculating the petroleum generation po- Erdiff Kohle 44, 407-414.
tential of specific source rocks on both prospect and Littke R. and Rullk6tter J. (1987) Mikroskopische und
basin scale. makroskopische Untersuchungen zwischen Profilen un-
reifen unf reifen Posidonienschiefers aus der Hilsmulde.
Facies 17, 171-180.
Acknowledgements--I wish to thank BP Research for per- Lott G.K., Thomas J. E., Riding J. B., Davey R. J. and
mission to publish this paper and give special thanks to Butler N. (1989) Late Ryazanian black shales in the
Keith Myers for discussion and Shona Grant for aid in Southern North Sea Basin and lithological significance.
improving the final version of this document. Prec. Yorkshire Geol. Soc. 47, 321-324.
Mann U. and Miiller P. J. (1988) Source rock evaluation by
well log analysis (Lower Toarcian, Hils syncline). Org.
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