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Quality Improvement Tools – Free Seminar

Quality Improvement Tools

FREE Professional Development Seminar Series

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Agenda (Problem Solving Tools)


1. The seven classic quality tools
2. Basic management and planning tools
3. Process improvement tools
4. Innovation and creativity tools

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The seven classic quality tools

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Seven Classic Tools of Quality


1. Pareto charts
2. Cause-and-effect diagrams
3. Flowcharts
4. Control charts
5. Check sheets
6. Scatter diagrams
7. Histograms

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Pareto charts
▪ A Pareto chart is a bar graph. The length of the bars represent frequency or cost
(money or time), and they are arranged in order from longest on the left to shortest
on the right.
▪ Therefore, the chart visually shows which situations are more significant.
▪ Also called: Pareto diagram, Pareto analysis
▪ Variations: weighted Pareto chart, comparative Pareto charts

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When to Use
▪ When analyzing data about the frequency of problems or
causes in a process, and . . .
▪ When there are many problems or causes and you want to
focus on the most significant, or . . .
▪ When analyzing broad causes to their specific components, or..
▪ When communicating with others about your data

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Example
Types of Customer
Complaints – 2013

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Types of Document Complaints

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Weighted Pareto Chart

Weightage

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Comparative Pareto chart example

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Cause-and-effect diagram
▪ The fishbone diagram identifies many possible causes for an effect or problem.
▪ It can be used to structure a brainstorming session. It immediately sorts ideas into
useful categories.

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Example – Iron contamination

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Flowcharts
▪ A flowchart is a picture of the separate steps of a process in sequential order.
▪ Also called: process flowchart, process flow diagram

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When to use
▪ To develop understanding of how a process is done, or . . .
▪ To study a process for improvement, or . . .
▪ To communicate to others how a process is done, or . . .
▪ When better communication is needed between people involved with the same
process, or . . .
▪ To document a process, or . . .
▪ When planning a project

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Examples

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Control Charts
▪ The control chart is a graph used to study how a process changes over time.
▪ Data are plotted in time order. A control chart always has a central line for the
average, an upper line for the upper control limit, and a lower line for the lower
control limit.
▪ Also called: statistical process control and process behavior chart

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When to Use
▪ When controlling ongoing processes by finding and correcting problems as they
occur, or . . .
▪ When predicting the expected range of outcomes from a process, or . . .
▪ When determining whether or not a process is stable (in statistical control), or . . .
▪ When analyzing patterns of process variation from special causes (non-routine
events) or common causes (built into the process), or
▪ When determining whether your quality improvement project should aim to
prevent specific problems or to make fundamental changes to the process

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Types of control charts


▪ Variable data are measured on a continuous scale.
• For example, time, weight, distance, or temperature can be measured in fractions or
decimals.

▪ Attribute data are counted and cannot have fractions or decimals. Attribute data
arise when you are determining only the presence or absence of something: success
or failure, accept or reject, correct or not correct.
• For example, a report can have four errors or five errors, but it cannot have 41⁄2 errors.

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Out of control signals

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Check sheets
▪ A check sheet is a structured, prepared form for collecting and analyzing data.
▪ This is a generic tool that can be adapted for a wide variety of purposes.

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When to Use
▪ When data can be observed and collected repeatedly by the same person or at the
same location, and . . .
▪ When collecting data on the frequency or patterns of events, problems, defects,
defect location, defect causes, and so forth, or . . .
▪ When collecting data from a production process

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Example – Telephone Interruption

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Scatter diagram
▪ A scatter diagram is used to look for relationships between variables.
▪ One variable may cause a second to change, or a third factor may affect both of
them.
▪ Scatter diagrams can reveal such relationships or can verify that the variables are
independent.

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When to Use
▪ When you have paired numerical data, and . . .
▪ When the dependent variable may have multiple values for each value of the
independent variable, and . . .
▪ When trying to determine whether the two variables are related

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Example

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Histogram
▪ A frequency distribution shows how often each different value in a set of data
occurs.
▪ A histogram is the most commonly used graph to show frequency distributions. It
looks very much like a bar chart, but there are important differences between them.

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When to Use
▪ When the data are numerical, and . . .
▪ When you want to see the shape of the data’s distribution, especially:
▪ When determining whether the output of a process is distributed approximately
normally, or . . .
▪ When analyzing whether a process can meet the customer’s requirements, or . . .
▪ When analyzing what the output from a supplier’s process looks like, or . . .

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Normal Distribution

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Other distribution types

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Basic management and planning tools

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Basic management and planning tools


▪ Affinity Diagrams
▪ Tree Diagrams
▪ Process Decision Program Charts (PDPC)
▪ Matrix Diagrams
▪ Interrelationship Digraphs
▪ Prioritization Matrices
▪ Activity Network Diagrams

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Affinity Diagrams
▪ The affinity diagram organizes a large number of ideas into their natural
relationships.
▪ This method taps the team’s creativity and intuition.

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When to Use
▪ When you are confronted with many facts or ideas in apparent chaos, or . . .
▪ When issues seem too large and complex to grasp
▪ And when group consensus is necessary
▪ Typical situations are:
• After a brainstorming exercise, or . . .
• When analyzing verbal data, such as survey results, or . . .
• Before creating a tree diagram or storyboard

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Brainstorming output

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Affinity Diagram

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Tree Diagrams
▪ The tree diagram starts with one item that branches into two or more, each of
which branch into two or more, and so on.
▪ It looks like a tree, with trunk and multiple branches.
▪ It is used to break down broad categories into finer and finer levels of detail.

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When to Use
▪ When an issue is known or being addressed in broad generalities and you must
move to specific details, such as:
▪ When developing logical steps to achieve an objective, or . . .
▪ When developing actions to carry out a solution or other plan, or .
▪ When analyzing processes in detail, or . . .
▪ When probing for the root cause of a problem, or . . .
▪ When evaluating implementation issues for several potential solutions, or
▪ After an affinity diagram or relations diagram has uncovered key issues, or as a
communication tool, to explain details to others

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Example

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Process Decision Program Charts (PDPC)


▪ The process decision program chart systematically identifies what might go wrong in
a plan under development.
▪ Countermeasures are developed to prevent or offset those problems.
▪ By using PDPC, you can either revise the plan to avoid the problems or be ready with
the best response when a problem occurs.

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When to Use
▪ Before implementing a plan, especially . . .
▪ When the plan is large and complex, and . . .
▪ When the plan must be completed on schedule, or . . .
▪ When the price of failure is high

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Example

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Matrix Diagram
▪ The matrix diagram shows the relationship between two, three, or four groups of
information.
▪ It also can give information about the relationship, such as its strength, the roles
played by various individuals, or measurements.

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When to Use
▪ When trying to understand how groups of items relate to one another, or . . .
▪ When communicating to others how groups of items relate to one another
▪ When distributing responsibilities for tasks among a group of people (sometimes
called a responsibility or accountability matrix)
▪ When linking customer requirements to elements of a process (sometimes called a
critical-to-quality or CTQ matrix)
▪ When sorting out which problems are affecting which products or which pieces of
equipment
▪ When looking for cause-and-effect relationships

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L shaped matrix diagram

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Interrelationship Digraphs
▪ The relations diagram shows cause-and-effect relationships. Just as important, the
process of creating a relations diagram helps a group analyze the natural links
between different aspects of a complex situation.

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When to Use
▪ When trying to understand links between ideas or cause-and-effect relationships,
such as:
▪ When trying to identify an area of greatest impact for improvement, or . . .
▪ When a complex issue is being analyzed for causes, or . . .
▪ When a complex solution is being implemented, or . . .
▪ After generating an affinity diagram, cause-and-effect diagram, or tree diagram, to
more completely explore the relations of ideas

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Example

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Prioritization Matrices
▪ A prioritization matrix is an L-shaped matrix that uses pairwise comparisons of a list
of options to a set of criteria in order to choose the best option(s).

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When to Use
▪ When a list of options (initiatives, projects, solutions, major equipment or key
personnel selection) must be reduced to one or a few choices, and . . .
▪ When three or more important criteria must be considered, especially when some
are subjective, and . . .
▪ And, when the decision-makers are willing to invest time and effort into the
decision-making process
▪ Also, when prioritizing any list, such as when asking customers to prioritize desired
product features

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Example – Step 1

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Step 2

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Step 3

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Activity Network Diagram

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Process improvement tools

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Process improvement tools


▪ Root Cause Analysis
▪ 5 Whys
▪ PDCA
▪ Six Sigma DMAIC Model
▪ Failure Mode And Effects Analysis (FMEA)
▪ Statistical Process Control (SPC)

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Root Cause Analysis


▪ Seven-Step Problem-Solving Model
1. Identify the problem
2. List possible root causes.
3. Search out the most likely root cause.
4. Identify potential solutions.
5. Select and implement a solution.
6. Follow up to evaluate the effect.
7. Standardize the process.

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Five Whys.

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PDCA/PDSA Cycle

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Six Sigma and the DMAIC Model


▪ Statistically speaking, sigma is a term indicating to what extent a process varies from
perfection. The quantity of units processed divided into the number of defects
actually occurring, multiplied by one million results in defects per million.
▪ 6 sigma = 3.4 defects per million opportunity

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Failure Mode And Effects Analysis (FMEA)


▪ FMEA is used for analyzing designs or processes for potential failure. Its aim is to
reduce risk of failure.

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FMEA Example

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Statistical Process Control (SPC)


▪ Control charts – already completed.

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Innovation and creativity tools

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Innovation and Creativity Tools


▪ Brainstorming
▪ Mind Mapping
▪ Nominal Group Techniques
▪ Multivoting

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Brainstorming
▪ Brainstorming is a simple way for a group to generate multiple ideas such as possible
solutions to a known problem.
▪ The list of ideas will then be reviewed to ensure that everyone understands them
and will then be processed by reducing the list to a smaller set from which a final
selection will be made.

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Mind Mapping

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Nominal Group Technique


▪ Nominal group technique (NGT) is a structured method for group brainstorming that
encourages contributions from everyone.

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When to Use
▪ When some group members are much more vocal than others, or . . .
▪ When some group members think better in silence, or . . .
▪ When there is concern about some members not participating, or . . .
▪ When the group does not easily generate quantities of ideas, or . . .
▪ When all or some group members are new to the team, or . . .
▪ When the issue is controversial or there is heated conflict

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Multivoting
▪ Another way to reduce a long list of items to one or a few is to have the group select
from the list those that they prefer.

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End of the seminar

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