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References u + = i/+(j/+) (1)

1 K . - T . Yang, "Possible Similarity Solutions for Laminar Free
Convection on Vertical Plates and Cylinders," J O U R N A L O P A P P L I E D has been c o n f i r m e d experimentally bj- N i k u r a d s e [10], and subse-
M E C H A N I C S , vol. 27, T R A N S . A S M E , vol. 82, Series E , 1960, pp. 230- quent^' b}' m a n y other authors.
236. See also discussion of this paper in March, 1961, issue of the The experimental relation has been described analytically in
J O U R N A L OP A P P L I E D M E C H A N I C S , pp. 153-154.
various ways, some of which are listed in Table 1. It will be
2 R. Eichhorn, " T h e Effect of Mass Transfer on Free Convec-
tion," Journal of Heat Transfer—TRANS. A S M E , vol. 82, Series C,
1960, pp. 260-263.
3 A . S. Gupta, "Steady and Transient Free Convection of an Table Formulas for the ' 'law of the w a l l " "
Electrically Conducting Fluid From a Vertical Plate in the Presence Author Range of validity Formulas
of a Magnetic Field," Applied Science Research, Section A, vol. 9,
Prandtl [ll] 1
O t y + < 11-5
1960, pp.319-333. = 2/ t
Taylor [18]" 11.5 ^ y + u+ = 2 . 5 In y + + 5.5

M+ = y+
von Karman [7] < 30 M+ = 5 In y+ - 3.05
U+ =
A Single Formula for the Reichardt [15] u+ =
2 . 5 In y +

2 . 5 In ( 1 +
+ 5.5

O A y +)

"Law of the Wall" + 7.8{l - e~«+n<

- (?/+/ll)e-°-33"+

D. B. SPALDING 1 0 Z y+ < 26 M+ = f
Summary dy*
Deissler [2|
It is shown that experimental velocity distributions m a y be 1 + nhi + y + (1 - e-"!" + " + )
well fitted, in the laminar sublayer, the transition region, and n = 0.124
the turbulent core, b y the formula: 26 y< u+ = 2 . 7 8 In i/ + + 3.8

y+ = u+ + 0.1108{e°-4u+ - 1 - 0.4«+ - (0.4m+)«/2I

o r'
- (0.4w+)3/3! - (0.4m+)V4!} 0
van Driest [19]

Omission of the (0.4m ) + 4 term gives an equally good fit. The

1 + {1 + 0.64y + 2 [l - exp (-I/+/26)] 2 }'/>
corresponding expressions for the ratio of turbulent shear stress

to total shear stress agree with the measurements of Laufer [8] 2 0 t y + < 27.5 M+ = 14.54 tan 7i(0.0688i/+)
ltannie [13|
quite closely. 27.5 ? y+ = 2 . 5 In ? / + + 5.5

" See also Hofmann [5], Reichardt [14], Rotta [16], Miles [9],
Elrod [3], and Frank-Kamenetsky [21].
6 These authors did not, at the dates in question, state the formulas
u = time-mean velocity of fluid in x-direction
attributed to them in the table. However, they did introduce the
u+ = u V p / r
idea of a sharp division between a laminar sublayer and a fully turbu-
x = distance along the wall in the direction of flow lent core; when compared with experimental data, this idea leads
directly to the formulas given.

= .'/ VVp//imolecular
= Mtotal//^moleculnr noted t h a t all t h e a u t h o r s m e n t i o n e d , except Reichardt [15] and
Mmoiocuiar = absolute viscosity of fluid in l a m i n a r motion van Driest [19], have found it necessary to use at least t w o ex-
/Utot»i = ratio of shear stress to gradient of time-mean p r e s s i o n s , v a l i d f o r d i f f e r e n t r a n g e s o f y+, in o r d e r t o d e s c r i b e the

velocity profile adequately.

^turb = Mtolal Mmolccular The problem. A single formula, expressing the M + ( J/+) relation
p — density of fluid over the whole range of the variables, is both more satisfying
</) = density of fluid divided by density of fluid adjacent aesthetically and more convenient practically than the two-point
to wall f o r m u l a s o f T a b l e 1. H o w e v e r , R e i e h a r d t ' s f o r m u l a is r a t h e r com-

p l e x in f o r m , w h e r e a s v a n D r i e s t ' s i n v o l v e s a q u a d r a t u r e requiring
T = shear stress in fluid, assumed independent of y numerical evaluation. There is n e e d for a simpler, easily evalu-

ated formula.
Such a formula would preferably fit the experimental data
P u r p o s e of note. Numerous formulas have been proposed to de- closely, contain sufficient adjustable constants to permit modifi-
scribe the universal turbulent velocity profile, called b y Coles [1] c a t i o n in t h e light of n e w e x p e r i m e n t a l data, a n d h a v e a n analyti-
the " l a w of the wall." T h e present note discloses a n e w formula cal f o r m p e r m i t t i n g easy integration of t h e various functions of the
w h i c h is v a l i d o v e r t h e w h o l e r a n g e o f d i m e n s i o n l e s s d i s t a n c e y+.3 velocity distribution which arise in, for example, the theory of
The new formula has a form which, on the one hand, permits heat transfer through a turbulent boundary layer.
analytical determination of several important boundary-layer
Looked at mathematically, our problem is to establish a
parameters, and, on the other, m a y provide the vantage point
formula which:
for a new look at the theory of the turbulent boundary layer.

T h e s e m a t t e r s are o n l y t o u c h e d o n briefly in t h e following. (i) passes through the point: y+ = 0, u + = 0;

The u n i v e r s a l turbulent velocity profile. P r a n d t l ' s [12] p o s t u l a t e , (ii) is t a n g e n t i a l at this point to: u + = y + ;

that the velocity in t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d of a wall should obey the (iii) is a s y m p t o t i c at large y + to:1

1 Professor of Heat Transfer, Department of Mechanical Engineer- = 2.5 In y + + 5.5 (2)
ing, Imperial College of Science and Technology, London, England.
(iv) fits the experimental points at intermediate y + values.
Manuscript received by A S M E Applied Mechanics Division,
March 8, 1961.
2 Numbers in brackets indicate References at end of Note. 4 Here the most popular constants for the logarithmic velocity pro-

3 See Nomenclature at beginning of Note. file have been accepted.

Journal of Applied Mechanics SEPTEMBER 1961 / 4 5 5

Copyright © 1961 by ASME

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The N e w " L a w of the W a l l "

+ +
The simplest y (u ) relation. T h e previous efforts to find a single

formula fitting the foregoing specification M + has been sought ex-

plicitly in terms of y + . There is, however, n o need to demand

this; a relation giving y + explicitly in t e r m s of u + is j u s t a s good,

and indeed m a y even be better for some purposes.

Once this possibility is recognized, progress can be m a d e

swiftly. W e n o w seek a T/+(M + ) relation such that

near u + = 0:i/ + = u +

and at large u+:y+ = O.llOSe0-4^ (4)

the latter equation being derived directly from equation (2).

T h e equation which immediately suggests itself is:

= u+ - f ( U K ^ e 0 - 4 " 1 0.4m+) (5)

This satisfies r e q u i r e m e n t s (3) and (4). Does it also fit the ex-

perimental data? This can be judged b y reference to Fig. 1,

which contains the experimental data of Laufer [8]. Evidently, Fig. 1 Experimental data of Laufer [8] for velocity distribution near the
equation (5) fits the d a t a fairly well, b u t gives values of u + which wall in turbulent pipe flow, compared with various analytical expressions
are approximately 10 p e r cent low when y + lies b e t w e e n 10 and

50. Fig. 1 also contains, as broken curves, the asymptotic ex-

pressions (2) and (3). PRANDTL-TAYLOR MODEL
Improved y ' ( u ' ) relations. If we define a dimensionless " t o t a l "
(i.e., " m o l e c u l a r p l u s t u r b u l e n t " v i s c o s i t y ) e + by

— MtoCa t/fJ-mo !ccu Inr (6)

O 8
then the assumption that the shear stress is i n d e p e n d e n t of dis-
AUFER [8] RE = 5 0 0 , 0 0 0
tance from the wall, when combined with the definitions of w+

and y + , leads to the relation:

| O 6

dy+ ^ TURB
du + •U T O T A L

O 4
Equation (5) therefore implies the e+(u+) relation:

e+ = 1 -f- 0 . 4 X 0.1108(e°-4"+ - 1)

(0.4m + ) 2

1 + 0.04432 + + (8)

N o w there are theoretical reasons (Reichardt, [15]; Hinze,

[4]) against a growth of e + in t h e w a l l r e g i o n w i t h a power of y +

w h i c h is less t h a n 3, if t h e s h e a r stress v a r i e s a l o n g t h e w a l l , and

less than 4 if there is n o such variation. Equation (8) satisfies Fig. 2 Experimental data of LauFer on turbulent-stress distribution near
neither requirement. 5 However, it is e a s y to see w h a t must be the wall in turbulent pipe flow, compared with various analytical ex-
d o n e t o t h e v e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n if e i t h e r o f t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s is
to be satisfied: the distribution formula becomes, respectively:

Laufer [8] h a s also m a d e m e a s u r e m e n t s of the ratio of the tur-

(0.4m+) 8 _ (0.4m-1-)3|
y + = u + + 0.1108 <e°-4u+ - 1 - 0.4M +
bulent shear stress d i v i d e d b y t h e total shear stress n e a r t h e wall.
2! 3! f
His measurements in a pipe flow, of Reynolds number 500,000,
(9) are shown in Fig. 2 as a bold line; y + is the abscissa and the

viscosity ratio /Uiurb//itotni is t h e ordinate. Also drawn in Fig. 2

are the corresponding relations deduced from equations (9) and

(0.4 m+)2 (10). These are, respectively:

= « + + 0.1108 1 - 0.4M +
(0.4 m + ) 3
_ (0.4w
1 + 1/0.04432 <je».'«+ - 1 - 0.4M ^
31 4! f
_ (0.4M*) 2
) ~j
Curves corresponding to equations (9) and (10) are plotted in 21 f j
Fig. 1, T h e y fit the experimental data rather better than does

equation (5), but it is n o t p o s s i b l e to say which of the two gives

the more precise fit. Whether the (0.4M +)4 term should be in-

cluded or n o t will therefore p r o b a b l y have to be decided on other = 1, 1 + 1/0.04432 j e 0.4u + _ i _ o ,4M +

M total

5 Nor, incidentally, do the expressions of Reichardt and van Driest (0.4m+) 2 (0.4m + ) 3

which appear in Table 1. 2! 31

456 / SEPTEMBER 196 1 Transactions of the A S M E

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Comparison of these relations with the experimental curves (iv) When the density varies such that density ratio rj> i s a
shows that the former equation gives the better fit at low y+, known function of u + , is it r e a s o n a b l e to calculate the velocity
while the latter gives the better fit at high y + . However, it is profile from a suitably modified version of (11)? This would
probable that both curves can be regarded as equally satisfactory run:
w h e n e x p e r i m e n t a l s c a t t e r is t a k e n i n t o account.
A l s o p l o t t e d in Fig. 2, as a b r o k e n s t e p l i k e c u r v e , is t h e /it„rb/ = 0:4<Kw+)- (13)
Htotal distribution which corresponds to the assumption of a sharp
b o u n d a r y between a laminar sublayer a n d a fully turbulent outer which can be evaluated by numerical quadrature without dif-

region. Clearly this gives a very poor representation of the ficulty. T h i s t h o u g h t m i g h t lead t o m o r e 6 satisfactory theories of

data. friction and heat transfer in compressible boundary layers. If

Further p o s s i b l e i m p r o v e m e n t s . Equation (10) fits the require- equation (13) is n o t as suitable a starting point for analysis as

ment that e + i n c r e a s e s w i t h t h e f o u r t h p o w e r o f u+, and so of y+, that, for example, of v a n D r i e s t [20], w h a t is t h e p h y s i c a l reason

close to the wall. However, even if this is c o r r e c t , t h e r e is no for this?

reason w h y the first nonzero term of the expansion should happen I t is n o t i n t e n d e d to suggest answers to these questions here.

to be that which appears in the expansion of 0.1108e°-4uT. In They are put forward solely to provoke thought and criticism.

other words, it m a y be that further terms should appear inside

the braces of equations (9) a n d ( 1 0 ) w h i c h h a v e the effect of only
partially canceling the corresponding terms in the exponential (а) Formulas have been presented [equations (9) and (10)]

expansion. Discussion of such further developments will b e de- which represent adequately the experimental data for the uni-

ferred to a later publication. versal turbulent velocity profile w h e n the viscosity and density
of t h e fluid a r e uniform.

Discussion (б) T h e f o r m u l a s are flexible e n o u g h to permit further adjust-

Practical u s e of the n e w f o r m u l a . Fig. 1 shows that equations (9) ment of constants in the light of new experimental data, and

or (10) can be used to represent the " l a w of t h e w a l l " within the simple enough in form to permit analytical integration in im-

a c c u r a c y of t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a . Moreover, as just n o t e d , the portant cases of interest.

general form of t h e s e e q u a t i o n s is s u f f i c i e n t l y f l e x i b l e t o accom- (c) T h e formulas represent y + explicitly in terms of u + instead

m o d a t e a n y f u r t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n s of c o n s t a n t s w h i c h experiment of v i c e v e r s a . I t a p p e a r s possible that other aspects of turbulent

shows to be necessary. Of course, the constants 0.4 and 0.1108 boundary-layer analysis may be profitably re-examined with

m u s t n o t b e regarded as sacrosanct. velocity as the independent variable.

ft should also be noted t h a t t h e f o r m o f t h e e q u a t i o n s is very

suitable for analytical work involving such expressions as J"u +

dy+; for this integral can be written as J,u+(dy+/du+)du+, The author expresses his gratitude to Prof. J. O. Hinze of

which can be evaluated in closed form, since dy+/du+ i s e a s i l y Delft, Holland, f o r his helpful comments on an earlier draft of

obtained by differentiating the y + (M + ) relation. T h e w a y is t h e r e - this Note.

fore open to the analytical derivation of drag laws, for example,

without the approximations which are usually introduced (e.g.,
1 D. Coles, "The Law of the Wake in the Turbulent Boundary
"seventh-power" profiles). T h e s e possibilities will b e elaborated
Layer," Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol. 1, 1956, pp. 191-226.
elsewhere. (See, for example, Spalding [17].) 2 R. G. Deissler, "Analysis of Turbulent Heat Transfer, Mass
Theoretical i m p l i c a t i o n s . Equations ( 9 ) and ( 1 0 ) are presented
Transfer and Friction in Smooth Tubes at High Prandtl ajid Schmidt
Numbers," NACA Tech. Rep. 1210, 1955 (supersedes NACA Tech.
solely as useful interpolation formulas; they are not based on
Note 3145, 1954).
any postulated mechanism of turbulent transport. Neverthe- 3 H. G. Elrod, "Note on the Turbulent Shear Stress Near a
less, they provoke certain questions which it m a y be profitable Wall," Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences, vol. 24, 1957, p. 468.
to investigate further. S o m e of these will n o w b e listed. 4 J. O. Hinze, "Turbulence," McGraw-Hill Book Company,
New York, N. Y „ 1959, p. 472.
(i) Does (10), for example, satisfy a differential equation in
5 E. Hofmann, Forschung a.d. Geb. Ing., vol. 11A, 1940, p. 159.
which it+ and y+ appear only as differentials? 6 T. von Karman, "Mechanische Ahnlichkeit u. Turbulenz,"
T h e a n s w e r is r e a d i l y s e e n ; it is: Nachr. Ges. der IPiss. Giitlingen, Math. Phys. IClasse, vol. 58, 1930.
7 T. von Karman, "The Analogy Between Fluid Friction and
—:I— = Q4 —:I— Heat Transfer," Trans. ASME, vol. 61, 1939, pp. 705-710.
(11) 8 J. Laufer, "The Structure of Turbulence in Fully Developed
du + > ' du + s

Pipe Flow," NACA Tech. Rep. 1174, 1954.

Similarly, equation (5) satisfies the differential equation: 9 J. W. Miles, Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences, vol. 24, 1957,
p. 704.
d*y+ d2y+ 10 J. Nikuradse, "Gesetzmiissigkeiten der turbulenten Stromung
= 0.4 - (12) in glatten Rohren," Forschung a.d. Geb. Ing., No. 356, 1932.
du+' du
11 L. Prandtl, "Eine Beziehung zwischen Wiirmeaustausch und
(ii) S u c h differential e q u a t i o n s a r e r e m i n i s c e n t of t h o s e derived
Stromungswiderstand der Fliissigkeit," Z. Physik, vol. 11, 1910, pp.
by Prandtl [12] and von Karman [7] as starting p o i n t s for the
12 L. Prandtl, "Uber die ausgebildete Turbulenz," Z. fur angew.
logarithmic velocity profile. Can a physical significance be at- Math. Mech., vol. 5,1925, p. 136.
tached to these equations? Could they have been derived by 13 W. D. Rannie, "Heat Transfer in Turbulent Shear Flow,"
p o s t u l a t i o n of a p h y s i c a l m o d e l f o l l o w e d bj' d i m e n s i o n a l analysis? Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences, vol. 23, 1956, p. 485.
14 H. Reichardt, "Die Warmeubertragung in [turbulenten
(iii) The von Karman d i f f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n is d e r i v e d f r o m the
Reibungschichten," Z. angeio. Math. Mech., vol. 20, 1940, p. 297.
consideration that the local "mixing length" must be related to 15 H. Reichardt, "Vollstandige Darstellung der turbulenten
local values of (du/dy), (b2u/dy2), and so forth. Is there any Geschwindigkeitsverteilung in glatten Leitungen," Z. angew. Math.
reason w h y u s h o u l d h a v e b e e n c h o s e n as d e p e n d e n t a n d y as in-
Mech., vol. 31, 1951, pp. 208-219.
16 J. Rotta, Ing.-Archiv., vol. 18, 1950, p. 277.
d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e in t h i s a n a l y s i s , o t h e r t h a n t h e i r r e l e v a n t one
17 D. B. Spalding, "Heat Transfer to a Turbulent Stream From a
that w e happen to perform experiments b y fixing the position of Surface With a Step-Wise Discontinuity in Wall Temperatures,"
the Pitot tube first and then taking the reading? If not, a rela- paper to be presented at the joint ASME-I. Mech. E, Heat Transfer
tion of the mixing length to (by/d'i), (d2y/bu2), and so on, is Conference, Boulder, Colo., August 28-September 1, 1961.
equally valid. 6 Or, of course, less.

Journal a! Applied Mechanics SEPTEMBER 196 1 / 4 5 7

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18 G. I. Taylor, "Conditions at the Surface of a Hot Body Ex- where
posed to the Wind," Brit. Aero. Res. Comm. R&M No. 272, 1916, p.
423. a + tok2b
19 E. R. van Driest, "On Turbulent Flow Near a Wall," Journal dt = u k = m
of the Aeronautical Sciences, vol. 23, 1966, p. 1007.
20 E. R. van Driest, "Turbulent Boundary Layer in Compressible
E q u a t i o n s ( 6 a , b) g i v e t h e d a m p i n g f a c t o r d,. a n d t h e n a t u r a l fre-
Fluids," Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences, vol. IS, 1951, p. 145.
21 D, A. Frank-Kamenetsky, "Diffusion and Heat Exchange in q u e n c y cot f o r a n y principal m o d e with damping when condition
Chemical Kinetics," Princeton University Press, 1955, p. 184. First (2) holds. In the latter case, in fact, a necessary and sufficient
published in the USSR, 1947. condition for dynamic stability o f t h e s y s t e m is that

a + wko*b > 0 (7)

On Classical Normal Modes of a for each undamped natural frequency coto. [It is interesting to

Damped Linear System note that (7) can be satisfied even in cases when either a or b

(but not both) is n e g a t i v e . Equations (3) through (66) are valid

MORRIS MORDUCHOW1 whether [c] is p o s i t i v e d e f i n i t e o r not.]

Consider, finally, a beam subjected to an external damping

IT HAS BEEN essentially shown by Rayleigh [L]2 that if the
load f(x)bY/dt and an internal damping load (g/oS)b/i)l(EIY")"
d a m p i n g m a t r i x of a linear v i b r a t i n g s y s t e m is a linear combina-
(cf., e.g., [3]) per unit length, where '=b/dx. Moreover, suppose
tion of the stiffness a n d inertia matrices, t h e n t h e d a m p e d system
f(x) = cp{x), w h e r e c is a c o n s t a n t , 3 a n d p(.r) is t h e m a s s p e r unit
will h a v e principal m o d e s w h i c h are exactly the s a m e as those of
length of the b e a m . Let Y{x, I) = y(x)epl. Then the equation
the u n d a m p e d system. Caughey [2] h a s r e c e n t ^ d e v e l o p e d more
for the free bending vibrations reduces to:
general conditions for the existence of classical n o r m a l m o d e s with

damping, including the above condition as a special case. In cp + p2

both [1] and [2], t h e a n a l y s i s is b a s e d o n t h e use of normal co-
(.EI(x)y")" + P(x) = 0 (8)
ordinates. T h e p u r p o s e of this N o t e is t o d e m o n s t r a t e Rayleigh's 1 H P
condition ( e q u a t i o n (2) b e l o w ) in a straightforward m a n n e r with-

out the use of normal co-ordinates and hence without asssuming H e n c e t h e p r i n c i p a l m o d e s h a p e s y{x) will b e t h e s a m e as without
a k n o w l e d g e of the t h e o r y associated w i t h transformations to such any damping, and the value of p in a n y mode will b e such that
co-ordinates. This procedure, in addition to being instructive,

will also lead to explicit results for the damping factor and
cp + p2
= - " t o 1 (9)
natural frequency in any principal mode, and will be seen to
1 + — P
yield some interesting implications. Finally, the method of

analysis given here will be applied to a vibrating beam with

simultaneous internal and external damping. where u> k o i s the undamped natural frequency in the H h mode-

Setting p — —dk + ioik, equation (9) implies

Let a dynamical system be governed b y the equations

M X } + wife} + = o (1) dk = (10a)

2 2 uk
where [m], [cj, a n d I A'] a r e s q u a r e ( i n e r t i a , d a m p i n g , a n d stiffness,
respectively) matrices of order n. Moreover, suppose

4a),1 + (c2 - 4w;:o2)u>i.2 + '2cgo>kM: + g*toko< = 0 (106)

[c] = a[m] + b[k] (2)
T o first p o w e r s of g,
where a and b are a n y constants. T o solve equations (1), let

eg V
[h] = {H}eP' (3) wk = uke (11)
4 wA,2

where* { H } i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e t u n e t, a n d p i s a c o n s t a n t . Then,

if e q u a t i o n ( 2 ) h o l d s , e q u a t i o n ( 1 ) r e d u c e s to w h e r e ukc = [w^.,, 2 — (c/2)2]'/ 2 = the natural f r e q u e n c y in the kth

mode for g — 0. In the case of internal damping only (c = 0),

equations (10a) and (10b) yield:

([m] +
\p2 + ap/
m H } = 0 (4)
- >A
, goho i + ( i _
- [1 - (1 - f/2)'/2]'A
E q u a t i o n ( 4 ) is s e e n t o b e t h e s a m e as t h e e q u a t i o n f o r n o damping * = " v ^ L
(o = b = 0), b u t with (l/?>2) replaced by (1 + bp)/(p2 + ap). (12a)
Hence the characteristic normalized vectors { # } with damping

will b e the same as those without the damping. Moreover, if in

the fcth mode without damping pk- = —tok2 (where o3kc denotes W t = V 2 " U + ( 1 ~ ff2)Vl]lA

the undamped natural frequency in the A^th m o d e ) , then for the

M h mode with damping
1 Lord Rayleigh, "Theory of Sound," vol. 1, Dover Publications,
1 + bPl 1 New York, N. Y „ pp. 130-131.
(5) 2 T. K. Caughey, "Classical Normal Modes in Damped Linear
Vk1 + <>Pk Dynamic Systems," J O U B N A L O F A P P L I E D M E C H A N I C S , vol. 27, Trans.
ASME, vol. 82, Series E, June, 1960, pp. 269-271.
Thus 3 M. Morduchow, "On Internal Damping of Rotating Beams,"
NACA Technical Note 1996, December, 1949.
Pi. = ~dk ± itok (6a) 4 M. Morduchow, "On Application of a Quasi-Static Variational
Principle to a System With Damping," J O U R N A L OP A P P L I E D M E -
Associate Professor of Applied Mathematics, Polytechnic Institute
CHANICS, v o l . 21, TRANS. A S M E , v o l . 76, M a r c h , 1954, p p . 8 - 1 0 .
of Brooklyn, Brooklyn, N. Y.
2 Numbers in brackets indicate References at end of Note. 3 In [4] it has been shown that a necessary, as well as sufficient,

Manuscript received by ASME Applied Mechanics Division, condition that the mode shapes be entirely unaffected by a damping
March 2, 1961. load of the form f(x)i>Y/c)t is that f(x) be proportional to p(.r).

458 / SEPTEMBER 1961 Transactions of the A S M E

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