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Section# 5

8. The diagram shows a typical bacterium, with parts labelled P, Q, R and S.

(a) (i) Which part is made from DNA?

............................................................................................................................... (1)

(ii) Which part is the cytoplasm?

............................................................................................................................... (1)
(b) Lactobacillus are bacteria that are used to make yoghurt. The table lists four stages,
1, 2, 3 and 4, and a description of what happens at each stage in the production of
fruit-flavoured yoghurt.

(i) Suggest why stage 1 is needed.

...............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................... (1)

(ii) Why must the milk be cooled during stage 2?

...............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................... (1)

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(iii) Explain why the mixture is kept at 40 °C for several hours during stage 3.

...............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................... (2)

(iv) Suggest why fruit is sterilised before being added to the yoghurt.

...............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................... (2)
(Total 8 marks)

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Q9.

Acomparison was made of the yield of a crop grown using three different treatments. The
table shows the results.

(a) (i) When compared with using no fertiliser, what is the increase in crop yield using
chemical fertiliser?
.................................................................................................. tonnes per hectare (1)
(ii) When compared with using no fertiliser, the percentage increase in crop yield
when using chemical fertiliser is 10%. Calculate the percentage increase in crop
yield when using biofertiliser compared with using no fertiliser. Show your
working.

Answer .................................% (2)

(b) Explain how nitrogen fixing bacteria help the crop to grow.

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......................................................................................................................................

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...................................................................................................................................... (4)

(c) One disadvantage of chemical fertilisers is that they may need to be applied several
times during the growth of the crop. Give one reason for this.

......................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... (1)

(Total 8 marks)

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10. (a) The diagram shows a stage in the cloning of animals. The nucleus of an egg cell is
removed and replaced with the nucleus from a body cell called the donor cell. This
modified cell is shown as egg cell X.

In the table, tick the row with the correct description of the nucleus that was removed
from the original egg cell and the nucleus in egg cell X that came from the donor cell.

(1)

(b) Cloning experiments have been carried out with frogs at early stages of development.
These experiments showed that the age of the donor cells used to provide the nuclei
had an effect on the number of offspring that survived. The results of one experiment
are shown in the table.

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(i) Plot the data in the table on the grid below. Join the points with straight lines.

(ii) At what age did the donor cells produce 50% of offspring that survived?

............................................................................................................................... (1)

(iii) Describe the relationship between the age of donor cells and the percentage of
offspring that survive.

...............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................... (1)

(c) The process described in (a) can be used to make clones of transgenic animals.
What is meant by the term transgenic?

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... (2)
(Total 8 marks)

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5. Farmers have attempted to increase the yield of crop plants by the use of glasshouses and
fertiliser.
Explain how the use of glasshouses and fertiliser can result in an increase in crop yield.

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(Total 6 marks)

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13. Fish farming is a way of providing a source of protein as food for humans.
Describe and explain three different ways a fish farmer can help to increase the yield of
fish.

1 ..........................................................................................................................................

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............................................................................................................................................ (2)

2 ..........................................................................................................................................

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3 ..........................................................................................................................................

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............................................................................................................................................. (2)

(Total 6 marks)

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15. Scientists have successfully cloned a mammal (a sheep known as ‘Dolly’). Describe the
stages used in producing a cloned mammal.

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(Total 6 marks)

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17. Farmers can improve their crop plants or farm animals by the use of selective breeding.
Explain what is meant by selective breeding and give two examples of its use.

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(Total 6 marks)

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Q4. The diagram shows a leaf from a crop plant before and after it was attacked by an insect
pest.

(a) Suggest how the insect pests would affect crop yield.

......................................................................................................................................

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......................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... (3)

(b) Explain why farmers often spray pesticide onto their crops.

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......................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... (2)

(c) The table shows the changes in the numbers of an insect pest in a glasshouse during
a period of 50 days. The crop was sprayed with pesticide twice during this time.

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(i) The crop was first sprayed with pesticide on day 5. Use the data in the table
to suggest the day on which the crop was sprayed with pesticide for the second
time.

............................................................................................................................... (1)

(ii) What was the decrease in numbers of the insect after spraying with pesticide on
day 5?

............................................................................................................................... (1)

(d) Give two disadvantages of using pesticides.

1 ...................................................................................................................................

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2 ...................................................................................................................................

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...................................................................................................................................... (2)
(Total 9 marks)

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13. The passage below describes stages involved in the process of micropropagation in
plants.
Use suitable words to complete the sentences in the passage.
Very small pieces are cut from the tips of stems or side shoots of a plant.
When these pieces have been removed they are called

...................................................................................... . They are cut to a size

of about 0.5 to 1 mm. They are then placed in .................................................................. medium

containing ...................................................................................... and

......................................................................................, which help the pieces to

grow into small plants. When the small plants have grown roots they are

transferred to a glasshouse. They are grown in pots

containing......................................................................................, and

conditions such as ...................................................................................... and

...................................................................................... can be controlled. The small

plants produced are called ......................................................................................,

which means they are genetically ...................................................................................... .

(Total 9 marks)

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Marks Scheme

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6. The technique of selective breeding can be used to produce a crop of tomato plants that
flower early.
The table shows the steps taken to breed early-flowering tomato plants.
Complete the table by using numbers to show the correct order of the steps.

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7. Explain how growing crops in glasshouses can alter the yield of a crop.

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(Total 5 marks)

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14. Cauliflowers are vegetables. They may be grown by micropropagation. Small pieces of
plant (explants) are grown on nutrient jelly. The young plants are then transferred into
growing trays. The technique produces clones. The process is shown in the diagram.

(a) Explain why the young cauliflower plants are described as clones.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... (2)

(b) Give one advantage and one disadvantage to the grower of producing new cauliflower
plants that are clones.

Advantage .....................................................................................................................

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Disadvantage ................................................................................................................

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...................................................................................................................................... (2)

(c) Scientists have produced transgenic animals. These animals can also be cloned.

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(i) What is meant by the term transgenic?

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................... (2)

(ii) Describe two possible uses of transgenic animals.

Use 1 ......................................................................................................................

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Use 2 ......................................................................................................................

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............................................................................................................................... (4)

(Total 10 marks)

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16. Cystic fibrosis is a condition that affects the lungs.
(a) People with cystic fibrosis have mucus in the air passages of their lungs that is thicker
and stickier than normal.
Suggest how cystic fibrosis affects the ability of a person to do exercise.

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...................................................................................................................................... (3)

(b) Cystic fibrosis is an inherited condition. Attempts have been made to treat people
with cystic fibrosis by transferring normal genes into lung cells with defective genes.
This is an example of genetic modification.
Describe how a gene can be transferred from one organism to another using genetic
modification.

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(Total 9 marks)

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7. The techniques of selective breeding and micropropagation (tissue culture) can be used
together to produce large numbers of plants with desired characteristics.
(a) The table shows the steps taken to produce plants using selective breeding.
Complete the table by using numbers to show the correct order of the steps.

(b) Give two reasons why micropropagation (tissue culture) is a useful technique to use
after a selective breeding programme.

1 ...................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

2 ...................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... (2)

(Total 5 marks)

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8. The table below shows the crop yield of three different crops when grown in soil and in
liquid fertiliser.

(a) Name the mineral ion in soil and in liquid fertiliser that helps plants make
chlorophyll.

...................................................................................................................................... (1)

(b) Calculate the percentage increase in the growth of tomatoes in liquid fertiliser
compared to those grown in soil. Show your working.

Answer .......................... (2)

(c) Suggest why the growth of all the crops was better in liquid fertiliser than it was in
the soil.

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...................................................................................................................................... (2)

(Total 5 marks)

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11. Certain species of yeast are used to make beer. The yeast cells digest starch to make a
sugar. This sugar is then used in anaerobic respiration to make the beer.
(a) Write the word equation for anaerobic respiration by these yeast cells.

...................................................................................................................................... (2)

(b) When making beer, the yeast cells do not normally digest all the starch. This means
that the beer produced is high in carbohydrate. However, when making bread a
different species of yeast is used. This species is able to produce an enzyme that helps
to digest more of the starch. The production of this enzyme is controlled by a gene.
The yeast cells normally used to make beer can be genetically modified to contain this
gene.
(i) Describe the steps that would be taken to produce these genetically modified
yeast cells.

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(ii) Suggest how these genetically modified yeast cells could produce beer that is low
in carbohydrate.

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............................................................................................................................... (2)
(Total 8 marks)

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13. Fish farms produce large numbers of fish as food for humans. The fish are kept in ponds
and fed a diet that includes lipids and vitamin D.
The picture shows one type of fish that is farmed.

(a) (i) Suggest why fish need lipids.

...............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................... (1)

(ii) Suggest why fish need vitamin D.

...............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................... (1)

(b) For every 100 units of energy ingested by each fish, 23 units are assimilated into
biomass. Give two reasons to explain what might have happened to the other 77 units
of energy.

1 ...................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

2 ...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... (2)
(c) Excreted waste from the fish must be removed from the ponds. If it is allowed to
escape into rivers it might cause pollution.
Describe and explain the events that might occur as a result of this pollution.

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(Total 9 marks)

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4. A farmer noticed that small insects called aphids were feeding on the leaves of his tomato
plants. The farmer knew that ladybirds eat aphids, so he released lots of ladybirds onto
his tomato plants.
(a) (i) Use this information to draw a food chain in the space below. (2)

(ii) Suggest how the aphids would affect the yield of tomatoes.

...............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................... (2)

(iii) The farmer released ladybirds to reduce the number of aphids.


What name is given to this method of reducing the numbers of an insect pest?

............................................................................................................................... (1)

(b) The farmer could also use pesticides to reduce the numbers of an insect pest.
Describe the disadvantages of using pesticides compared to using ladybirds.

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...................................................................................................................................... (3)

(Total 8 marks)

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5. The photograph shows a dog called Snuppy. Snuppy was the first dog to be produced by
cloning. He was cloned using cells from the skin of his father.

Describe the stages that might have been used to produce Snuppy.

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(Total 5 marks)

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7. A German scientist, named Berthold, performed a series of experiments into the
development of cockerels (male chickens).
In experiment 1 he castrated the cockerels. This means he removed their testes.
The castrated cockerels grew fatter and developed feathers that made them look like hens
(female chickens) rather than cockerels. Their behaviour changed and they no longer
crowed and were less aggressive.

(a) Suggest why the castrated cockerel developed a different appearance and behaviour
from a normal cockerel.

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...................................................................................................................................... (3)

(b) In experiment 2 he removed the testes from a young cockerel and put them into
another cockerel, which had previously been castrated.

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(i) Suggest why the castrated cockerel that had testes put into its body developed
normally.

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................... (2)
(ii) Farmers have used the results of Berthold’s experiments to increase meat
production. Suggest why castration would lead to an increase in meat
production.

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............................................................................................................................... (2)

(Total 7 marks)

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14. Fish are an important food source for humans and fish farming now provides an increasing
proportion of the fish we eat. This is because fish farming has many advantages compared
to trying to catch fish in the wild.
(a) Give one reason why fish are an important food source for humans.

......................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... (1)

(b) Give two ways in which fish farmers maintain water quality. In each case explain
how it is achieved.

1 ...................................................................................................................................

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2 ...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... (4)

(c) Suggest three ways in which a fish farm might cause harm to the local ecosystem.

1 ...................................................................................................................................

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2 ...................................................................................................................................

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3 ...................................................................................................................................

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(d) Give two advantages of fish farming compared to catching fish in the wild.

1 ...................................................................................................................................

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2 ...................................................................................................................................

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(Total 10 marks)

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6. The photograph shows ‘CopyCat’, the first cat to be produced by cloning.

(a) The passage below describes the steps taken to produce CopyCat. Use a suitable
word to write on the dotted lines to complete the passage.

A ............................................... from a body cell taken from CopyCat’s

mother was put into an ............................................... egg cell. The egg cell

was then given an electric shock to make it divide by the process

of ................................................ The resulting ball of cells, called an

..............................................., was placed into the ...............................................

of another cat (surrogate mother) and after some time CopyCat was born. CopyCat

is known as a clone because she is genetically ............................................... to her

mother. (6)

(b) Use the symbols XX or XY to complete the table to show the sex chromosomes of
each of the animals used in cloning CopyCat. One has been done for you.

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12. ‘Triticale’ is a cereal plant produced by crossing two closely related plants, wheat
and rye. Wheat has high nutritional quality and the yield is high. Rye is resistant to
drought and fungal infection and tolerant to cold. Triticale shows a combination of these
characteristics.

(a) Suggest how each of the following characteristics would help the growth of triticale.
(i) Cold tolerance.

...............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................... (1)

(ii) Resistance to fungal infection.

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................... (2)

(b) Producing a new species, such as triticale, with particular desired characteristics can
take a long time. This is because it takes several generations to produce plants with
the desired combination of alleles.
Now it is possible to incorporate a gene for a useful characteristic from a different
species using genetic modification. Describe the procedure of genetic modification.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

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......................................................................................................................................

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...................................................................................................................................... (5)

(c) When a new plant has been produced with desired characteristics, micropropagation
(tissue culture) can be used to continue the commercial production of this plant.
Give two reasons for using micropropagation in this situation.

1 ...................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

2 ...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... (2)
(Total 10 marks)

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14. The graph shows the mass of fish and meat eaten in some countries.

(a) (i) In which countries do people eat more fish than meat?

............................................................................................................................... (1)

(ii) Meat and fish contain approximately 100 g of protein per kilogram.
Calculate how many kg of protein a person in France obtains in one year from
eating meat and fish. Show your working.

Answer = ..................................... kg (2)

(iii) Why is protein important for growth?

...............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................... (1)

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(b) The photograph shows a fish farm. A fish farm produces large numbers of fish of
the same species. The fish are kept in cages in the water. Water is able to circulate
through the cages. The fish are given small amounts of food at regular intervals
during the day.

(i) Suggest why it is important that water can circulate through the cages.

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............................................................................................................................... (2)
(ii) Suggest why fish farmers supply small amounts of food at regular intervals.

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............................................................................................................................... (1)

(c) Some fish farmers calculate a ‘Food Conversion Efficiency’ (FCE). The formula they
use is shown below

Suggest why fish farmers aim to have a high FCE.

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......................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... (2)

(d) Competition between members of the same species of fish (intraspecific) can reduce
the yield of fish. Competition between different species (interspecific) can also
reduce the yield of fish.
Describe ways in which fish farmers can reduce these types of competition.

Intraspecific ..................................................................................................................

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Interspecific ..................................................................................................................

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...................................................................................................................................... (4)

(Total 13 marks)

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8. Wolves are at risk of extinction because their numbers are decreasing.
Scientists hope that cloning might help to increase the numbers of wolves and prevent
their possible extinction.
Scientists from North Korea have claimed to have produced the first cloned wolves.
The two wolves produced were female and were named Snuwolf and Snuwolffy.

(a) Suggest three different reasons why the number of wolves is decreasing.

1 ...................................................................................................................................

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2 ...................................................................................................................................

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3 ...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... (3)

(b) To obtain Snuwolf and Snuwolffy, scientists transferred embryos into surrogate
mothers.
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(i) Describe how the cloned embryos may have been produced.

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(ii) What is the purpose of the surrogate mothers?

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............................................................................................................................... (2)

(iii) In total the scientists transferred 251 embryos into surrogate mothers in order to
obtain Snuwolf and Snuwolffy.
Calculate the percentage success rate of this procedure.
Show your working.

Answer .......................................... % (2)

(iv) How many male wolves were involved in producing the females Snuwolf and
Snuwolffy?

............................................................................................................................... (1)

(Total 11 marks)

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12. The bark (outer covering) of a cherry tree found in some African countries contains a
chemical that is used to reduce the pain of prostate cancer.
Removing the bark has killed many cherry trees.
This has caused the cherry tree to become endangered.
(a) (i) Suggest what is meant by the term endangered.

...............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................... (1)

(ii) The bark of the tree contains phloem. Explain why removing the phloem is
killing the trees.

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................... (2)

(b) Micropropagation (tissue culture) is now being used to reduce the need to damage
cherry trees in their natural habitat.
Small pieces of tissue (explants) are taken from a parent tree and placed on sterile
nutrient agar in test tubes. The explants grow into small trees which are then grown
into bigger trees that can be used to extract the painkilling chemical from their bark.
The photograph shows some of the test tubes.

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(i) Suggest why sterile cotton wool is placed in the mouth of each test tube.

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................... (2)

(ii) Name one substance in the sterile nutrient agar needed to provide energy for the
explant to grow.

............................................................................................................................... (1)

(c) Give two reasons why micropropagation is an effective method to produce these
plants.

1 ...................................................................................................................................

2 ................................................................................................................................... (2)

(Total 8 marks)

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14. Some people cannot control the level of glucose in their blood because they cannot make
a hormone called insulin.
Fortunately, genetic modification of bacteria has been used to make human insulin. The
passage below describes the process. Complete the passage by writing one suitable word
on each dotted line.
The gene for insulin production is obtained from a human cell by cutting its DNA at

specific sites by using an enzyme called ................................. endonuclease. A plasmid


is obtained from a bacterium and the same endonuclease enzyme is used to cut the
plasmid open. This leaves sticky ends. The gene for insulin is put into the plasmid

using an enzyme called ................................. . The altered plasmid is then used as a

................................. because it is used to transfer the recombinant .................................

back into the bacterium. The genetically modified bacterium is then grown in a

container called a ................................. Large quantities of human insulin can then be


obtained.

(Total 5 marks)

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6. A farmer had a field of maize.
(a) He found weeds growing amongst the maize plants.
(i) Explain how the weeds could reduce the yield of maize.

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................... (2)

(ii) Describe one way in which the farmer could get rid of the weeds.

...............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................... (1)

(b) The farmer also found insects feeding on the leaves of the maize plants.
(i) Explain how the insects could reduce the yield of maize.

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................... (2)

(ii) Name two ways in which the farmer could get rid of the insects feeding on the
maize.

1 .............................................................................................................................

2 ............................................................................................................................. (2)

(Total 7 marks)

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10. The photograph shows a fish farm. One third of the fish we eat is produced by fish
farms.

(a) Suggest three advantages of farming fish rather than catching fish from the wild.

1 ...................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

2 ...................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

3 ...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... (3)

(b) Fish farming can also have disadvantages.


Suggest how each of the following may affect the local environment and its organisms.
(i) release of organic waste.

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................... (3)

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(ii) escape of farmed fish.

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................... (3)

(Total 9 marks)

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11. The antibiotic penicillin can be made in an industrial fermenter called a bioreactor.
Penicillin is produced by a fungus which is grown in large quantities in a bioreactor.
A diagram of a bioreactor is shown below.

(a) Describe the function of the paddles in the bioreactor.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... (2)

(b) Air is pumped into the bioreactor. Explain how this helps the growth of the fungus.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... (2)

(c) Explain how the temperature is kept constant in the bioreactor.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

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......................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... (2)

(d) Explain why it is important that the pH in the bioreactor remains constant.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... (2)

(Total 8 marks)

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